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  • 1.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 2. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Recycling revisited - life cycle comparisons of global warming impact and total energy use of waste management strategies2005In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10-15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there are generally applicable conclusions to be drawn when certain key factors are considered. Four key factors with a significant influence on the ranking between recycling, incineration, and landfilling were identified. Producing materials from recycled resources is often, but not always, less energy intensive and causes less global warming impact than from virgin resources. For non-renewable materials the savings are of such a magnitude, that apparently the only really crucial factor is what material is replaced. For paper products, however, the savings of recycling are much smaller. The ranking between recycling and incineration of paper is sensitive to for instance paper quality, energy source avoided by incineration, and energy source at the mill.

  • 4. Dalemo, M.
    et al.
    Sonesson, U.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Mingarini, K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Frostell, Björn M
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Thyselius, L.
    ORWARE – A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 5. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, p. 363-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Granath, J.
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Carlsson, M.
    Department of Economy, Swed. Univ. for Agric. Sci. (SLU), Uppsala.
    Baky, A.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    Thyselius, L.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 287-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

  • 7.
    Gauffin, Alicia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Storm, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Time-varying losses in material flows of steel using dynamic material flow models2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 116, p. 70-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for annual evaluation of recycling rates in material flows was established to enable a consistent analysis of resource utilizations. The algorithm to calculate the time-varying losses was derived based on a sound statistical approach that would be viable for both historical data and future predictions. This method eliminates the need for adjustable parameters and is solely based on input data of the material consumption and scrap collection. This article describes the model methodology and the calculation procedures to classify the societal scrap reserve from the amounts of losses, based on statistics. These statistical models contribute to establish a standardized method to obtain consistent results. Based on the method the lifetime of steel data was for the first time calculated on an annual basis for the steel usage as well as for the end of life scrap amount. This was done for the Swedish steel consumption and the global steel consumption between 1900 and 2013 as well as for future predictions between 2013 and 2060. The lifetime of steel was calculated to be higher in an industrialized country such as Sweden compared to the global average value. More specifically, the service lifetimes of EOL steel in Sweden and in the World were calculated to be 35 and 28 years in 2012, respectively. This novel approach of using system specific data on the lifetime of steel on an annual basis enables a possibility to evaluate recycling trends and potentials to increase the recycling rate.

  • 8. Imran, M.
    et al.
    Haydar, S.
    Kim, J.
    Awan, Muhammad Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bhatti, A. A.
    E-waste flows, resource recovery and improvement of legal framework in Pakistan2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, p. 131-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic waste (E-waste) is becoming most rapidly expanding solid waste stream of the world. Pakistan receives thousands of tons of E-waste from developed countries like the USA and Europe. At present, quantification of E-waste imported to Pakistan and materials recovered from such waste is not well defined. Therefore, the objectives of this research include estimation of E-waste flow and assessment of potential quantities of recyclable metallic and non-metallic components. As a result, it was found that, on average, 95,415 tons of E-waste is imported into Pakistan annually. It contains a variety of metals such as gold, silver, copper and non-metals like plastics and glass as well as hazardous materials. It was also found out that all the recycling activity takes place in informal sectors without any consideration to environmental pollution and safety of workers. Improvements in the existing legal framework regarding import and recycling of E-waste have been proposed. These proposals include take back, prohibition of illegal import and good environmental management.

  • 9.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residueIn: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-10 15:01
  • 10.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hertel, Tobias
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Mat Engn, Kasteelpk Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Goronovski, Andrei
    Univ Tartu, Inst Phys, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Tkaczyk, Alan H.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Phys, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Pontikes, Yiannis
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Mat Engn, Kasteelpk Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residue2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 138, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

  • 11. Komakech, A. J.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Vinnerås, B.
    Life cycle assessment of biodegradable waste treatment systems for sub-Saharan African cities2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 99, p. 100-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the waste collected in sub-Saharan African cities is biodegradable but it is usually dumped in landfills, creating environmental and health challenges for residents. However, there are biodegradable waste treatment methods that could mitigate these challenges. This study analysed anaerobic digestion, composting, vermicomposting and fly larvae waste treatments using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed were energy use, global warming and eutrophication potential. The results showed that anaerobic digestion performed best in all impact categories assessed. However, management of the anaerobic digestion process is critical and methane losses must be kept very small, as otherwise they will cause global warming.

  • 12.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Aoustin, Emmanuelle
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Plastic waste management in the context of a European recycling society: Comparing results and uncertainties in a life cycle perspective2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 246-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been undertaken within the last 15 years comparing end-of-life treatment options for post-consumer plastic waste, including techniques such as: mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling, incineration with energy recovery and landfilling. These have attempted to support decisions in the formulation of waste management strategies and policies. In light of the introduction of life cycle thinking into European waste policies, specifically in relation to the waste hierarchy, a literature review of publically available LCA studies evaluating alternative end-of-life treatment options for plastic waste has been conducted. This has been done in order to: establish if a consensus exists as to the environmentally preferable treatment option for plastic waste; identify the methodological considerations and assumptions that have led to these conclusions; and determine the legitimacy of applying the waste hierarchy to the plastic waste stream. The majority of the LCA studies concluded that, when single polymer plastic waste fractions with little organic contamination are recycled and replace virgin plastic at a ratio of close to 1:1, recycling is generally the environmentally preferred treatment option when compared to municipal solid waste incineration. It has been found that assumptions relating to the virgin material substitution ratio and level of organic contamination can have a significant influence upon the results of these studies. Although a limited number of studies addressed feedstock recycling, feedstock recycling and the use of plastic waste as a solid recovered fuel in cement kilns were preferred to municipal solid waste incineration. Landfilling of plastic waste compared to municipal solid waste incineration proved to be the least preferred option for all impact categories except for global warming potential. Due to the uncertainty surrounding some assumptions in the studies, it cannot be said with confidence that the waste hierarchy should be applied to plastic waste management as a general rule.

  • 13. Mukherjee, A. B.
    et al.
    Zevenhoven, R.
    Brodersen, J.
    Hylander, L. D.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mercury in waste in the European Union: sources, disposal methods and risks2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 155-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent decades, there has been widespread concern regarding the toxic impact of mercury (Hg) in the ecosystem due to its mobility, volatility and potential for bioaccumulation. Hg in fish and the aquatic environment is also a great problem in the Nordic region of the EU1 (European Union). Ho is classified as a dangerous chemical in the countries of the EU. Hg in the regulation of waste is regarded as a dangerous substance which, when contained in waste, is one of the properties, leading to a classification of waste as hazardous. Estimation of the quantity of Hg in waste within the EU countries is an important task although still incomplete. In this present study, Hg in waste in the EU has been estimated at around 990 metric tonnes (t) (including coal combustion products, landfills, chlor-alkali waste and incinerator slag) for the year 1995, and it is suggested that if complete information was available for the 15 member states, the amount would be 2-4 times larger. During the 1990s there were 45 Hg cell chlorine facilities in the EU and the amount of Hg in chlorine (Cl-2) was calculated at 95.2 t based on 14-17 g Hg t(-1) of Cl, capacity. The waste from coal-fired power plants in the EU member states contained about 16.5 t of Ha, which was transferred to products for road construction, and other industrial uses or stored in landfills. This Hg can then be exchanged between the atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial compartments. Hg is occasionally recovered from waste, but this is often discouraged for economic reasons. Recovery units are found, for example, in Germany, France, Austria, and Sweden. The total amount of secondary Hg recovered from waste is not known. Metallic Hg and Hg-bearing waste are exported and imported from the EU member states, except for export from Sweden, which is banned by national legislation. The use of Hg in lamps and batteries is declining, and the Nordic countries, Germany and Austria have stringent regulations on the use of amalgam and Hg thermometers. It is found that 18% of municipal solid waste generated in the EU is burnt in incinerators, in order to decrease the volume. 88 t of Hg enter into the landfills of the EU through waste and residues from waste incineration. Prevention of the generation of hazardous waste containing Hg is one of the most challenging tasks for the EU, with regard to sustainable waste management.

  • 14. Mukherjee, Arun B.
    et al.
    Zevenhoven, Ron
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sajwand, Kenneth S.
    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke
    Mercury flow via coal and coal utilization by-products: A global perspective2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 571-591Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) has been known to society and used since ancient times. The metal has drawn considerable attention and concern due to its toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation and long range transport in the atmosphere after emission from coal-fired utilities as well various other high temperature processes. Coal is an important fuel for the production of heat and electricity and in recent years annual hard coal production has approached a level of around 5000 million metric tonnes (Mt, t = 1000 kg). Global Hg flows via coal and coal utilization by-products (CUBs) are presented in this paper, which are important in light of the regulations to limit the global emissions of Hg and its cycling as well as its circulation via coal and the CUBs. There are no detailed statistics on the global production and consumption of coal fly ash (FA) and in this study, we have estimated the total global FA production for the year 2003 based on ash content in coals and typical flue gas control technology for pulverized coal combustion. The mode of occurrence and concentration of Hg in coal and coal FA for different countries have been evaluated and presented in this study. The total Hg amount in coals processed worldwide was found to be 1534 t in 2003 based on a global average concentration of 0.3 mg/kg in coal. In addition, "hidden" flows of Hg through export and import of coal assessed during this study, add up to about 149 t. In this study, the economic uses of the FA in different sectors such as cement industry, agriculture, land reclamation, filers for asphalt, plastic and many others have been discussed in details. However, there is not much information on uses of coal FA in the developing countries. In the final part of the paper, a short survey has been focused on a few coal producing countries including Australia, China, EU-states, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, South Africa and South American countries, addressing the status of coal and coal FA use and the fate of the Hg that is mobilized.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Stoll, Pia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, costs, and carbon emissions2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grid projects, with demand side management as an integral part, has led to an increased interest of households’ willingness to react to different types of demand response programs. This paper presents a pilot study assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, and its effects on electricity costs and carbon (CO2eq) emissions. We analyze changes in electricity consumption based on a test group and a reference group of 12 households, respectively. To allow for analysis on load shift impact on CO2eq emissions, hourly dynamic CO2eq intensity of the Swedish electricity grid mix is calculated, using electricity generation data, trading data, and fuel-type specific emission factors. The results suggest that, on average, the test households shifted roughly 5% of their total daily electricity consumption from peak hours (of high electricity price) to off-peak hours (of low electricity price) as an effect of real-time price visualization. However, due to the mechanisms of the Swedish electricity market, with a negative relation between spot price and CO2eq intensity, the load shift led to a split effect; electricity costs modestly decreased while CO2eq emissions increased. In addition, any indication of the contribution of real-time spot price visualization to a reduction in overall household electricity consumption level could not be found, as the relative difference in consumption level between the test households and the reference households remained constant during both the baseline period and the test period. 

  • 16.
    Nourozi, Behrouz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ploskic, Adnan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Maximizing thermal performance of building ventilation using geothermal and wastewater heat2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 143, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient use of waste heat recovery and geothermal heat can play an important role in lowering the overall energy use of buildings. This study evaluated the potential of geothermal energy and heat recovery from residential wastewater to reduce the energy need of building-ventilation in cold climates. The performance of the mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) system in a multi-family building located in central Sweden was studied. The focus of the investigation was on reduction of frosting in the air handling unit during the coldest months. Three configurations of one air preheating system fed by two renewable heat sources, wastewater and geothermal energy, were studied. It was found that compared to building without an air preheating system, the suggested air preheating systems reduced the defrosting time to 25%. By controlling and maintaining the preheated air temperature to slightly above the defrosting start, air heat recovery efficiency of MVHR above 80% was achieved for 90% of the studied time during heating season when frosting occurs. The energy need for the circulation pumps in the suggested air preheating systems was 5% of the recovered thermal energy from wastewater. The simulation results suggested that the air preheating system using wastewater heat recovery with a temperature-stratified storage tank was the most efficient one among the studied systems.

  • 17.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Kärrman, Erik
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Environmental systems analysis of the use of bottom ash from incineration of municipal waste for road construction2006In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom ash, originating from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), is a potential road construction material. The aim of this study was to describe what differences in resource use and emissions that can be expected if crushed rock in the sub-base of a road in the Stockholm region in Sweden were to be substituted by MSWI bottom ash, taking into account the whole life cycle of the road and including alternative disposal of the bottom ash. An environmental systems analysis approach based on a life cycle perspective was outlined and used in a case study. It was found that the studied alternatives would cause different types of potential environmental impact; whereas, crushed rock in the road's sub-base would lead to larger use of resources, the alternative with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base leads to a larger contaminant leaching. The results are sensitive to the transport distance for the road material and to conditions affecting the leaching from the road. The differences between energy uses in the two alternatives derive mainly from production of crushed rock and from landfilling of MSWI bottom ash, whereas, the metal emissions occur in the use stage of the road's life cycle.

  • 18. Owusu, V.
    et al.
    Adjei-Addo, E.
    Sundberg, C.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Do economic incentives affect attitudes to solid waste source separation?: Evidence from Ghana2013In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 78, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the willingness of urban households in Ghana to accept economic incentives to participate in solid waste source separation. Low income households were less inclined to accept cash incentives than middle or high income households indicating that other factors than purely costs for waste management are important for households to participate in source-separation of waste. Perceptions on health and sorting and the availability of open space in the households were important for the willingness to accept incentives for source separation. The empirical findings indicate that household-level solid waste separation is positively influenced by gender (female) and sorting or health-related perceptions on source separation. About 80% of the households are willing to accept cash incentive of GH¢1.6374 (US$1.6347) per month to participate in source separation, and the mean cash incentive per month is GH¢1.2186 (US$1.2166). Fruitful solid waste management policy recommendations based on the empirical magnitudes and directions are made.

  • 19. Rex, E.
    et al.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Røyne, F.
    Veide, Andres
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Ulmanen, J.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, p. 86-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

  • 20.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: A system dynamics modeling approach2016In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few decades, e-waste has emerged as one of the fastest growing and increasingly complex waste flows world-wide. Within e-waste, the life cycle of the mobile phone product system is particularly important because of: (1) the increasing quantities of mobile phones in this waste flow; and (2) the sustainability challenges associated with the emerging economies of reuse, refurbishment, and export of used mobile phones. This study examined the possibilities of closing the material flow loop in the global mobile phone product system (GMPPS) while addressing the broad sustainability challenges linked to recovery of materials. This was done using an adapted system dynamics modeling approach to investigate the dominant paths and drivers for closing the metal flow loop through the concept of eco-cycle. Two indicators were chosen to define the closed loop system: loop leakage and loop efficiency. Sensitivity analysis of selected parameters was used to identify potential drivers for closing the metal flow loop. The modeling work indicated leverage for management strategies aimed at closing the loop in: (i) collection systems for used phones, (ii) mobile phone use time, and (ii) informal recycling in developing countries. By analyzing the dominant parameters, an eco-cycle scenario that could promote a closed loop system by decreasing pressures on virgin materials was formulated. Improved policy support and product service systems could synchronize growth between upstream producers and end-of-life organizations and help achieve circular production and consumption in the GMPPS. 

  • 21. Sonesson, U.
    et al.
    Björklund, Anna
    Carlsson, M.
    Dalemo, M.
    Environmental and economic analysis of management systems for biodegradable waste2000In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 28, no 02-jan, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of waste residuals. To analyse whether such proposed systems indicate improvements for the environment and its sustainability, systems analysis is a useful method The changes in environmental impact and resource use is not only a result of changes in waste treatment methods, but also largely a result of changes in surrounding systems (energy and agriculture) caused by changes in waste management practices. In order to perform a systems analysis, a substance-flow simulation model, the organic waste research model (ORWARE), has been used. The results are evaluated by using methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA). An economic analysis was also performed on three of the studied scenarios. The management system for solid organic waste and sewage in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden, was studied. Three scenarios for different treatments of solid waste were analysed: incineration with heat recovery, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These three scenarios included conventional sewage treatment. A fourth scenario reviewed was anaerobic digestion of solid waste, using urine-separating toilets and separate handling of the urine fraction. The results are only valid for the case study and under the assumptions made. In this case study anaerobic digestion result in the lowest environmental impact of all the solid waste management systems, but is costly. Economically, incineration with heat recovery is the cheapest way to treat solid waste. Composting gives environmental advantages compared to incineration methods, without significantly increased costs. Urine separation, which may be implemented together with any solid waste treatment, has great advantages, particularly in its low impact on the environment. However, there is a large increase in acidification.

  • 22. Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Mingarini, Karin
    Björklund, Anna
    ORWARE - A simulation model for organic waste handling systems. Part 2: Case study and simulation results1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Umair, Shakila
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Social impact assessment of informal recycling of electronic ICT waste in Pakistan using UNEP SETAC guidelines2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 95, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New and improved Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being produced every day. With every new product on the market, an older product becomes obsolete. These obsolete products are being added to the world's fastest growing waste stream, ICT electronic waste (e-waste). This is formally recycled in developed countries, stockpiled, landfilled or shipped to developing countries, such as Pakistan, here it is recycled informally through crude processes (e.g. manual dismantling, burning, dumping and dipping in acids to extract gold and other precious metals). This study assessed the social impacts of informal e-waste recycling in Pakistan using data obtained in a detailed on-site inventory of the processes directly involved in informal e-waste recycling. The inventory and assessment were conducted according to United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) guidelines on Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA). The results presented in this paper fill an important data gap and can be integrated with data on other stages of ICT product lifecycle to produce a full SLCA of such products.

  • 24.
    Weiss, Philipp
    et al.
    Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eveborn, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kärrman, Erik
    Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Environmental systems analysis of four on-site wastewater treatment options2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1153-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four on-site wastewater treatment systems with an end-of-pipe approach were compared for their relative environmental impacts and use of natural resources with the help of an environmental systemsanalysis (ESA) approach. The treatment techniques compared were infiltration, chemical precipitation, and P removal using the reactive filter media Filtra P and Filtralite® P. The chemical precipitation system attained the most favourable results from an environmental and resource conservation perspective.The reactive filter alternatives showed very high capacity for reduction of eutrophying substances. Both Filtralite® P and Filtra P, however, produce large environmental impacts in energy use related areas. The infiltration system attained low impact scores in all impact categories save eutrophication potential. However, the alternative possessed no nutrient recycling potential and its actual phosphorus removal capacity is highly uncertain, which makes it difficult to perform reliable comparisons with other alternatives. The reactive filter systems should be advantageous especially in very eutrophication-sensitive areas, where excess emissions of eutrophying substances under no circumstances can be tolerated. However, to limit the negative environmental impact in other areas, a topic for future research must be to improve the general performance of the reactive filter systems so that their lifespan can be increased.

  • 25. Wu, Feng
    et al.
    Sun, Zhongxiao
    Wang, Fengting
    Zhang, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics. University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Identification of the critical transmission sectors and typology of industrial water use for supply-chain water pressure mitigation2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 131, p. 305-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial system produces pressure on water resources by directly consuming the water needed for industrial production and by indirectly consuming water through intermediate inputs. To date, identifying the critical transmission sectors for supply-chain water resources pressure mitigation has been under-examined. To fill this gap in knowledge, we use a betweenness-based method in combination with the standard input output table extended with water-resource sector accounts to identify the key transmission sectors using Zhangye City in the Heihe River Basin, China as an example. The results show that the sectors with low rankings of the production-based indicator do not consume large amounts of water resources to directly generate products, which demonstrates that these sectors have limited scope for reducing water-resource consumption. The results also indicate that those sectors having higher betweenness-based water use but lower consumption-based and production-based water use merit close attention because these sectors transmit relatively large amounts of water resources embodied in their intermediate inputs from water-intensive upstream industrial sectors. Consequently, improving production efficiency in these sectors has an indirect effect by lowering the consumption of upstream water resources. This study also shows that the betweenness-based indicator is able to provide additional information beyond that given by the usual metrics derived from the production and demand sides. Moreover, the typology of water use that we innovatively generate is able to inform corresponding and targeted sector-specific policies and strategies for mitigating water resources pressure.

  • 26.
    Ünal, Enes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Urbinati, A.
    Chiaroni, D.
    Manzini, R.
    Value Creation in Circular Business Models: The case of a US small medium enterprise in the building sector2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 146, p. 291-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A circular business model represents a holistic system of co-evolving managerial practices for collective value creation, delivery and capture, which provide solutions for sustainable development. Previous research on circular business models aimed to understand value creation mostly in terms of a single managerial practice or in a relatively isolated manner. In particular, little is known regarding the system of managerial practices that creates value. Accordingly, this study proposes a theoretical framework characterized by a set of managerial practices in connection with relevant internal and external contextual factors for creating value within a circular business model. The framework was used in a specific case of a small medium-sized enterprise (SME) operating in building sector, which can be considered a great example of circular economy put into practice. Therefore, the explorative nature of the case allows for deep probing that helps consolidating the framework. Among the main results, essential outcomes included configuring and adapting the company's business model to particular internal and external contextual factors; valorization of local waste by harmonizing managerial practices, and socio-cultural and socio-economic settings, as well as sustainable behaviours among the actors of supply chain. This study contributes to the field of circular business models research by adopting a broader, interdisciplinary approach toward the concept of value creation. Further, it provides managers with a roadmap for creating value by enhancing the degree of circularity within a given context. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

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