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  • 1.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Maskin- och processteknologi.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, s. 20-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 2. Ammenberg, J.
    et al.
    Anderberg, S.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.).
    Biogas in the transport sector—actor and policy analysis focusing on the demand side in the Stockholm region2018Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 129, s. 70-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has ambitions to phase out fossil fuels and significantly increase the share of biofuels it uses. This article focuses on Stockholm County and biogas, with the aim to increase the knowledge about regional preconditions. Biogas-related actors have been interviewed, focusing on the demand side. Biogas solutions play an essential role, especially regarding bus transports and taxis. Long-term development has created well-functioning socio-technical systems involving collaboration. However, uncertainties about demand and policy cause hesitation and signs of stagnating development. Public organizations are key actors regarding renewables. For example, Stockholm Public Transport procures biogas matching the production at municipal wastewater treatment plants, the state-owned company Swedavia steers via a queuing system for taxis, and the municipalities have shifted to “environmental cars”. There is a large interest in electric vehicles, which is expected to increase significantly, partially due to suggested national policy support. The future role of biogas will be affected by how such an expansion comes about. There might be a risk of electricity replacing biogas, making it more challenging to reach a fossil-free vehicle fleet. Policy issues strongly influence the development. The environmental car definition is of importance, but its limited focus fails to account for several different types of relevant effects. The dynamic policy landscape with uncertainties about decision makers’ views on biogas seems to be one important reason behind the decreased pace of development. A national, long-term strategy is missing. Both the European Union and Sweden have high ambitions regarding a bio-based and circular economy, which should favor biogas solutions.

  • 3. André, Hampus
    et al.
    Ljunggren, M.
    Towards comprehensive assessment of mineral resource availability?: Complementary roles of life cycle, life cycle sustainability and criticality assessments2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 167, artikkel-id 105396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Nilsson, Louisa
    bMid Sweden University, Campus Kunskapens väg 8, 831 25 Östersund, Sweden, Akademigatan 1.
    Are second-hand shell jackets better than users think? A comparison of perceived, assessed and measured functionality throughout lifespans2024Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 204, s. 107470-, artikkel-id 107470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the case of outdoor shell jackets, this research studies obsolescence and potential lifespan extension by re-examining how product functionality, objectively and subjectively, develops over the course of product lifespans. In particular, the study focuses on second-hand stores for outdoor products. Functionality is indicated by user perceptions, visual assessments, laboratory measurements and price data, collected at first use, second-hand resale and end-of-life. Perceived functionality and price decline more rapidly (5–6 % per year) than assessed and measured functionality (around 3 % per year). This could be explained by properties related to appearance, which are not assessed nor measured but influence user perceptions and price. Discontentment regarding such properties appears more relevant for obsolescence than inadequate performance, suggesting the potential for design for attachment and timeless design. The relative stability of measured functionality over time suggests that a barrier for second-hand sales, concern about performance, could be ameliorated by a potential functionality-label.

  • 5.
    Arekrans, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling. Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Science, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., México, 64849.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Barriers to access-based consumption in the circular transition: A systematic review2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 184, artikkel-id 106364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers to access-based consumption (ABC) have been extensively studied in different strands of literature. However, cumulative knowledge is not organized to date, and a comprehensive overview of barriers identified by empirical studies in diverse strands is lacking. Such a picture is essential for laying the ground for further change-oriented research and actual changes in practice. This article reports on the results of a systematic review on barriers to transitioning from ownership- to access-based consumption. The review focuses on the literature strands product-service systems, circular economy, sharing economy, and collaborative consumption. Through open and axial coding of 289 barriers reported in 45 empirical studies, we found 17 themes of barriers concerning consumers, business, and society. The analysis of the barriers reveals four significant insights important for the research and practitioner community:

    1. the overall experience of ABC and trust mechanisms need to be better understood;
    2. organizational aspects in traditional business need a system change;
    3. regulation plays a fundamental role in making ABC work for business, society, and sustainability; and
    4. sharing risks and experimentation for new learnings are necessary.

    These four major insights suggest that consumers need business and government to offer enabling conditions for ABC – spanning from raising awareness and understanding to improving user experience. Furthermore, businesses need governments to create the necessary structures to support ABC offerings – from decreasing risks to increasing incentives. How and which mechanisms can further facilitate circular behaviors is a salient topic for future investigations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    arekrans-et-al-2022-ABC-barriers
  • 6. Bailey, G.
    et al.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Schrijvers, D.
    Schulze, R.
    Sylvestre, A. M.
    Sprecher, B.
    Vahidi, E.
    Dewulf, W.
    Van Acker, K.
    Review and new life cycle assessment for rare earth production from bastnäsite, ion adsorption clays and lateritic monazite2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155, artikkel-id 104675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are one of the most important–albeit critical–commodities for our green technologies. However, there is a general perception that REEs are produced using mining and processing techniques that are unsustainable. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the most widely accepted methodology to evaluate the environmental impacts of rare earth oxide (REO) production. This article aims to provide a synthesis of the currently existing LCA studies on REEs using two strategies. Firstly, an overview of published LCA results of REO production. Secondly, a detailed LCA using the best available life cycle inventories (LCIs) in order to: i). evaluate the state-of-the-art LCI for this sector ii). Understand better the impacts related to each of the three main production routes and iii). Contribute to the development of a preliminary benchmark for the sector. The analysis of the published LCA results reveal that the three main methodological issues with published LCAs are data gaps, allocation, and waste management. The dominating contributor to the global warming potential of the production of REOs in all two of the three routes is chemical extraction and separation.

  • 7.
    Berlin, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Supply network collaborations in a circular economy: A case study of Swedish steel recycling2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 179, s. 106112-106112, artikkel-id 106112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply network collaboration has been recognised as a vital enabler in the transition to a circular economy. Even so, the existing literature has directed limited attention to the nature of these relationships and the motivation behind them. Hence, there is a need to understand the actual activities of actors engaged in collaboration to address this knowledge gap. The steel industry presents an interesting example. Given that more than one-third of the world's steel production originates from scrap, its supply is essential to the survival of the steel industry. Based on an explorative case study, this paper investigates collaboration of steel producers, a procurement intermediary and scrap dealers to facilitate steel recycling. These actors deal with the practical challenge of variation in the quantity and quality of steel scrap by engaging in various types of collaboration. This paper seeks to analyse the nature of these collaborations and answer the question of why actors engage in supply network collaboration. The paper identifies a complex web of relationships and outlines differing motives for and against collaboration, with specific focus on three types. While quality control is the main motive in dyadic vertical collaboration between a buyer and a supplier, efficiency is the main motive for both horizontal collaboration between buyers and lateral collaboration amongst all actors in the supply network. Thus, this paper adds to the conventional wisdom of sequential, dyadic, linear and vertical relationships, providing a deeper understanding of the types of supply network collaboration from the underexplored context of steel recycling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Recycling revisited - life cycle comparisons of global warming impact and total energy use of waste management strategies2005Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 309-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10-15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there are generally applicable conclusions to be drawn when certain key factors are considered. Four key factors with a significant influence on the ranking between recycling, incineration, and landfilling were identified. Producing materials from recycled resources is often, but not always, less energy intensive and causes less global warming impact than from virgin resources. For non-renewable materials the savings are of such a magnitude, that apparently the only really crucial factor is what material is replaced. For paper products, however, the savings of recycling are much smaller. The ranking between recycling and incineration of paper is sensitive to for instance paper quality, energy source avoided by incineration, and energy source at the mill.

  • 9. Bockin, Daniel
    et al.
    Willskytt, Siri
    André, Hampus
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    How product characteristics can guide measures for resource efficiency - A synthesis of assessment studies2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 154, artikkel-id 104582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Catulli, Maurizio
    et al.
    Univ Hertfordshire, Business Sch, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Reed, Nick
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Tzilivakis, John
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Green, Andrew
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Life & Med Sci, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    A socio-technical experiment with a resource efficient product service system2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 166, artikkel-id 105364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a socio-technical experiment relating to a sustainable innovation project conducted in a protected niche or "living lab" and evaluates the ability of the experiment to generate learning and strategic direction. The study focused on a Product Service System (PSS) for renting infant mobility products to consumers. A PSS is a resource efficient system of products and services supported by networks and infrastructure. In the experiment, refurbished products were rented to 1044 families, with some products being reutilized three times. Learnings were generated through five stages: combining competences and resources, steering and facilitating change, engaging users at early stages, offering users opportunities to modify practices through trial and capturing and mediating mutual learning through knowledge co-creation. The observed environmental benefits included reduction of particulate plastic matter released into the environment and transportation of materials. Considerable barriers to the implementation of the PSS in the open market were identified, including attrition through loss or damage, product liability and consumer distrust in sharing products due to fear of contagion.

  • 11.
    Compañero, Reinol Josef
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Samuelsson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    A value of information approach to recycling2024Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 209, artikkel-id 107758Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainties with respect to the chemical composition of scrap limit its suitability as an input to recycling. This study offers an alternative approach in dealing with this concern and explores the hypothetical case where this uncertainty is nonexistent. The effect of fully knowing the scrap composition is simulated using an optimization software adopted to scrap-based, stainless-steel production. Through the systematic implementation of this information-driven model in the studied cases, the results suggest that with access to perfect information, recycling incentives can be realized. Essentially, the steel scraps’ consumption increased since it was possible to select and combine scrap quantities with varying composition profiles to achieve the targeted product compositions. This also meant that elements already in the scrap were allocated in a manner that was less dependent on pure alloy additions. Being able to demonstrate the value of information on scrap composition could rationalize upgrades on current scrap management systems.

  • 12. Dalemo, M.
    et al.
    Sonesson, U.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap.
    Mingarini, K.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap.
    Frostell, Björn M
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Miljöskydd och arbetsvetenskap.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Thyselius, L.
    ORWARE – A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 17-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 13. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, s. 363-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 14.
    Dervishaj, Arlind
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Hållbara byggnader.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Hållbara byggnader.
    From LCA to circular design: A comparative study of digital tools for the built environment2024Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 200, s. 1-19, artikkel-id 107291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews digital tools for supporting the Circular Economy (CE) in the built environment. The study provides a bibliometric analysis and focuses on computer-aided design (CAD), building information modeling (BIM), and computational plugins that can be used by practitioners. While Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the primary methodology for evaluating buildings' environmental performance, the study identifies tools beyond LCA, including computational methods and circularity indicators, that can support the evaluation of circular design strategies. Our review highlights limitations in tools’ functionalities, including a lack of representative data for LCA and underdeveloped circularity indicators. The paper calls for further development of these tools in terms of interoperability aspects, integration of more sources of data for LCA and circularity, and possibilities for a comprehensive evaluation of design choices. Computational plugins offer greater flexibility, while BIM-LCA integrations have the potential to replace dedicated LCA software and spreadsheets. Additionally, the study identifies opportunities for novel digital methods, such as algorithms for circular design with various types of reused building elements, and sharing of digital twins and material passports. This research can inform future studies and support architects and engineers in their efforts to create a sustainable built environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Granath, J.
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Carlsson, M.
    Department of Economy, Swed. Univ. for Agric. Sci. (SLU), Uppsala.
    Baky, A.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    Thyselius, L.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management2002Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 287-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

  • 16.
    Gauffin, Alicia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Andersson, Nils Å. I.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Storm, Per
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Time-varying losses in material flows of steel using dynamic material flow models2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 116, s. 70-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for annual evaluation of recycling rates in material flows was established to enable a consistent analysis of resource utilizations. The algorithm to calculate the time-varying losses was derived based on a sound statistical approach that would be viable for both historical data and future predictions. This method eliminates the need for adjustable parameters and is solely based on input data of the material consumption and scrap collection. This article describes the model methodology and the calculation procedures to classify the societal scrap reserve from the amounts of losses, based on statistics. These statistical models contribute to establish a standardized method to obtain consistent results. Based on the method the lifetime of steel data was for the first time calculated on an annual basis for the steel usage as well as for the end of life scrap amount. This was done for the Swedish steel consumption and the global steel consumption between 1900 and 2013 as well as for future predictions between 2013 and 2060. The lifetime of steel was calculated to be higher in an industrialized country such as Sweden compared to the global average value. More specifically, the service lifetimes of EOL steel in Sweden and in the World were calculated to be 35 and 28 years in 2012, respectively. This novel approach of using system specific data on the lifetime of steel on an annual basis enables a possibility to evaluate recycling trends and potentials to increase the recycling rate.

  • 17. Gong, Haiqing
    et al.
    Wu, Jiechen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Feng, Gu
    Jiao, Xiaoqiang
    Phosphorus supply chain for sustainable food production will have mitigated environmental pressure with region-specific phosphorus management2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 188, s. 106686-106686, artikkel-id 106686Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Aschebergsgatan 44, S-41133 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Aschebergsgatan 44, S-41133 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Plepys, Andrius
    Lund Univ, Int Inst Ind Environm Econ IIIEE, POB 196, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH.
    Sharing is daring, but is it sustainable?: An assessment of sharing cars, electric tools and offices in Sweden2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 170, s. 105583-, artikkel-id 105583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing economy has emerged as a potential way to reduce the environmental impact and costs of using products, whilst increasing their accessibility. However, there is a paucity of literature on its sustainability implications. To help fill this void we provide a first indicative assessment of the potential sustainability implications for the sharing of three product groups in Sweden, namely cars, small electrical tools and offices. A quantitative assessment of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, resource use and waste based on case studies, is used as a basis to develop scenarios of upscaling sharing at national level. This is combined with a qualitative scoring framework to assess the socio-economic impacts. Office sharing was found to have a significant potential to reduce GHG emissions by 164-243 KtCO(2)e/yr. Car sharing has a larger potential but has a wide range of uncertainty with potential reductions of 0.5-3.7 MtCO(2)e (if 80% of cars in Sweden were sharing cars), depending on how many owned cars are replaced by a shared vehicle. However, 80% ownership of battery electric vehicles offer a greater potential benefit with a saving of up to 8.2 MtCO(2)e. In terms of the reduction in material use, there are potential savings of 232,000 t/yr and 24.4-34.4Mt/yr for cars and offices, respectively. However, the tool sharing case does not demonstrate such large potential for national reductions. The qualitative analysis on socioeconomic implications showed largely positive results across the indicators. However, further research is needed to assess the impacts on jobs and the local economy for the shared product groups, and to more fully understand how shared offices effect health and well-being of users. Finally, to avoid potential rebound effects additional support is needed to promote electric cars to avoid fleets of fossil fuel cars with high emissions, a flexible stock of desks without large empty office spaces, and proximity of tool sharing to minimise transport.

  • 19. Imran, M.
    et al.
    Haydar, S.
    Kim, J.
    Awan, Muhammad Rizwan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik.
    Bhatti, A. A.
    E-waste flows, resource recovery and improvement of legal framework in Pakistan2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, s. 131-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic waste (E-waste) is becoming most rapidly expanding solid waste stream of the world. Pakistan receives thousands of tons of E-waste from developed countries like the USA and Europe. At present, quantification of E-waste imported to Pakistan and materials recovered from such waste is not well defined. Therefore, the objectives of this research include estimation of E-waste flow and assessment of potential quantities of recyclable metallic and non-metallic components. As a result, it was found that, on average, 95,415 tons of E-waste is imported into Pakistan annually. It contains a variety of metals such as gold, silver, copper and non-metals like plastics and glass as well as hazardous materials. It was also found out that all the recycling activity takes place in informal sectors without any consideration to environmental pollution and safety of workers. Improvements in the existing legal framework regarding import and recycling of E-waste have been proposed. These proposals include take back, prohibition of illegal import and good environmental management.

  • 20.
    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Garcia-Lopez, Cristina
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Dept Proc & Recycling IAR, D-52060 Aachen, Germany.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Pretz, Thomas
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Dept Proc & Recycling IAR, D-52060 Aachen, Germany.
    Raulf, Karoline
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Dept Proc & Recycling IAR, D-52060 Aachen, Germany.
    Characterisation of excavated landfill waste fractions to evaluate the energy recovery potential using Py-GC/MS and ICP techniques2021Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 168, artikkel-id 105446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuelled by further planet degradation concerns, the circular economy concept spreads worldwide, incorporating the need for the closing of material loops. This can be done not only by waste prevention and recycling but also by excavating old landfill sites. In line with this need, the Enhanced Landfill Mining concept was developed, which covers mining of old landfills combined with material and energy recovery from the excavated material. Site-specific investigations of excavated material are required because the way of excavated material utilisation has to be individually tailored to the material features. In this article, the valorisation options for the excavated waste from the old part of the landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert (Belgium) are preliminarily assessed. Seven separated waste fractions were analysed regarding their thermal decomposition pattern (TGA), pyrolysis potential (Py-GC/MS), and elemental composition (ICP-OES). Most of the analysed fractions are characterised by a highly heterogeneous composition, which excludes their primary or secondary recycling. The fractions are also characterised by high calorific value, which indicates the potential for thermochemical utilisation (i.e., pyrolysis). The presence of a significant amount of heavy metals (especially Hg and Pb) and chlorine may, however, pose a considerable risk of the contamination of pyrolysis products. It may require costly washing of the feedstock prior to the utilisation or cleaning of the process products prior to their use. Therefore, in order to limit additional costs, collective pyrolysis of all fractions seems to be a feasible way of their utilisation.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Christer, Forsgren
    STENA .
    Is this the end of end-of-waste?: Uncovering the space between waste and products2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155, artikkel-id 104656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    End-of-waste has been promoted as a potential game changer in the circular economy. But the implementation of end-of-waste has largely failed in the European Union, as it has proven difficult to agree on joint criteria. The issue has therefore been decentralized, typically all the way to local authorities, which lacks capacity to determine when waste shall cease to be waste. For the few waste types that have been given product status, the positive effects are uncertain since end-of-waste only includes waste that is already circulated. Therefore, we should shift our interest towards the unknown space between waste and products. The interpretation of this space is open for discussion, but can be opened up by policy instruments such as standards, certificate and agreements, which makes the classification of the material redundant.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Johansson o Forsgren 2020
  • 22.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Joakim, Johansson
    Environmental Technology and Management, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Contested circularity: Analyzing the perceptions towards the use of waste incineration bottom ash in Sweden2024Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 204, artikkel-id 107475Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the perceptions of three Swedish stakeholders towards the contested use of waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates outside landfills: waste producers, users and authorities. The interview study shows that the stakeholders lack incentives to circulate bottom ash. Waste producers have a functional outlet for bottom ash by using it as landfill cover. Since the transition from gravel to crushed rock, the availability of natural aggregates is enormous in Sweden at low environmental and economic costs. This causes the potential users of bottom ash to prioritize conventional aggregates. In cases where waste-based aggregates are nevertheless used, they are taken from project-internal sources. Hence, there are few incentives for the authorities to change the currently unfavorable regulations for using bottom ash as aggregates. With unclear environmental benefits and contested interests, the rationale for circulating bottom ash appears to be driven by morality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residueInngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Hertel, Tobias
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Mat Engn, Kasteelpk Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Goronovski, Andrei
    Univ Tartu, Inst Phys, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Tkaczyk, Alan H.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Phys, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Pontikes, Yiannis
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Mat Engn, Kasteelpk Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residue2018Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 138, s. 87-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

  • 25.
    Karan, Shivesh Kishore
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Osslund, Fabian
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Azzi, Elias Sebastian
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Karltun, Erik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Soil & Environm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A spatial framework for prioritizing biochar application to arable land: A case study for Sweden2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 189, s. 106769-, artikkel-id 106769Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The biochar-agriculture nexus can potentially generate several benefits ranging from soil carbon sequestration to the reduction in nutrient leaching from arable soils. However, leveraging these benefits requires spatially-explicit information on suitable locations for biochar application. This study provides a flexible multicriteria framework that delivers spatial indications on biochar prioritization through a biochar use indication map (BUIM). The framework was exemplified as a case study for Swedish arable land through three different prioritization nar-ratives. The BUIM for all the narratives revealed that a significant fraction of the Swedish arable land could potentially benefit from biochar application. Furthermore, arable land that scored high for a given narrative did not necessarily score high in the others, thus indicating that biochar application schemes can be adjusted to various objectives and local needs. The framework presented here aims to promote the exploration of different avenues for deploying biochar in the agricultural sector.

  • 26.
    Kasmi, Nejib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Bäckström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Open-loop recycling of post-consumer PET to closed-loop chemically recyclable high-performance polyimines2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 193, artikkel-id 106974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intriguing high-performance polyimines (PI) were designed from diamines recovered by open-loop recycling of postconsumer PET bottles by microwave-assisted aminolysis. These new PIs had excellent thermal properties (Tm = 226–286 °C, Tg = 88–148 °C, heat resistance up to 327 °C) and super-high toughness and strength with Young's modulus of 4.02–4.93 GPa and tensile strength of 237–467 MPa, both significantly higher compared with common engineering plastics. The synthesized PIs also demonstrated recyclability “on demand” to original building blocks via mild and ultrafast acetic acid catalysed hydrolysis (70 °C for 10 min). Furthermore, the recovered monomer mixture was directly repolymerizable providing attractive closed-loop polymer-to-polymer recyclability under extremely mild conditions. These high performance thermoplastics, with easily tunable properties by selection of diamine used for aminolysis, in combination with closed-loop chemical recyclability have great promise as next-generation circular materials, designed from recycled plastics waste, for a wide property and application range.

  • 27. Komakech, A. J.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, H.
    Vinnerås, B.
    Life cycle assessment of biodegradable waste treatment systems for sub-Saharan African cities2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 99, s. 100-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the waste collected in sub-Saharan African cities is biodegradable but it is usually dumped in landfills, creating environmental and health challenges for residents. However, there are biodegradable waste treatment methods that could mitigate these challenges. This study analysed anaerobic digestion, composting, vermicomposting and fly larvae waste treatments using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories assessed were energy use, global warming and eutrophication potential. The results showed that anaerobic digestion performed best in all impact categories assessed. However, management of the anaerobic digestion process is critical and methane losses must be kept very small, as otherwise they will cause global warming.

  • 28.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Aoustin, Emmanuelle
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Plastic waste management in the context of a European recycling society: Comparing results and uncertainties in a life cycle perspective2010Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 246-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been undertaken within the last 15 years comparing end-of-life treatment options for post-consumer plastic waste, including techniques such as: mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling, incineration with energy recovery and landfilling. These have attempted to support decisions in the formulation of waste management strategies and policies. In light of the introduction of life cycle thinking into European waste policies, specifically in relation to the waste hierarchy, a literature review of publically available LCA studies evaluating alternative end-of-life treatment options for plastic waste has been conducted. This has been done in order to: establish if a consensus exists as to the environmentally preferable treatment option for plastic waste; identify the methodological considerations and assumptions that have led to these conclusions; and determine the legitimacy of applying the waste hierarchy to the plastic waste stream. The majority of the LCA studies concluded that, when single polymer plastic waste fractions with little organic contamination are recycled and replace virgin plastic at a ratio of close to 1:1, recycling is generally the environmentally preferred treatment option when compared to municipal solid waste incineration. It has been found that assumptions relating to the virgin material substitution ratio and level of organic contamination can have a significant influence upon the results of these studies. Although a limited number of studies addressed feedstock recycling, feedstock recycling and the use of plastic waste as a solid recovered fuel in cement kilns were preferred to municipal solid waste incineration. Landfilling of plastic waste compared to municipal solid waste incineration proved to be the least preferred option for all impact categories except for global warming potential. Due to the uncertainty surrounding some assumptions in the studies, it cannot be said with confidence that the waste hierarchy should be applied to plastic waste management as a general rule.

  • 29.
    Ma, Chunyan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Gamarra, Jorge D.
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Svärd, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Antisolvent crystallization from deep eutectic solvent leachates of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 for recycling and direct synthesis of battery cathodes2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 198, artikkel-id 107210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are a new class of environmentally friendly, safe, and inexpensive solvents with a remarkable ability to dissolve metal oxides, proposed as green alternatives to traditional acid leaching in the recycling of lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode materials. In this work, a closed-loop process is targeted, where LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) is leached by a DES (choline chloride and L-(+)-tartaric acid), and the metals are recovered by antisolvent crystallization. Five organic antisolvents have been evaluated, amongst which ethanol provides the highest metal recovery efficiency. The suitability of the solid precipitates as precursors for the sol-gel synthesis of new NMC, and the resulting cycling performance as battery cathodes, have been tested. The effect on the process of impurities Al and Cu from current collectors has been investigated. The impurities partially precipitate with the targeted metals, but the product impurity content can be significantly reduced through the selection of antisolvent, antisolvent-to-leachate ratio, crystallization residence time, and the rate of supersaturation generation in semi-batch mode. The resulting solids can be suitable for direct cathode resynthesis without the addition of a chelating agent, but impurities from current collectors decrease cycling performance. The results highlight the potential of combining DES leaching and antisolvent crystallization as a sustainable and efficient LIB cathode recycling method.

  • 30.
    Ma, Chunyan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Svärd, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Resursåtervinning.
    Recycling cathode material LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 by leaching with a deep eutectic solvent and metal recovery with antisolvent crystallization2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 186, artikkel-id 106579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been proposed as green alternatives for recycling lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode materials. In the present work, a sustainable DES based on choline chloride and L-(+)-tartaric acid has been systematically investigated for leaching of a LIB cathode material (LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2) for the first time. Moreover, in a novel approach, antisolvent crystallization has been applied to recover metals from the DES leachate. The L-(+)-tartaric acid-based DES shows a good leaching capacity and a high leaching rate at 70 °C. Furthermore, antisolvent crystallization is shown to enable a high metal recovery efficiency of cobalt, nickel and manganese (>98.5%). The precipitate from antisolvent crystallization can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of new cathode material, while the remaining DES and antisolvent can be recovered for reuse in the process. This work presents a green, effective and closed-loop metal recovery strategy for recycling LIB cathode materials using a sustainable DES.

  • 31.
    Martin, Michael Alan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Life Cycle Management, Sustainable Society, Vallhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden, Vallhallavägen 81.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    Svegro AB, Torslundavägen 20, 179 96 Svartsjö, Sweden, Torslundavägen 20.
    Carotti, Laura
    University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy, viale Fanin 44.
    Orrestig, Kristin
    Svegro AB, Torslundavägen 20, 179 96 Svartsjö, Sweden, Torslundavägen 20.
    Orsini, Francesco
    University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy, viale Fanin 44.
    Environmental assessment of greenhouse herb production: A case of longitudinal improvement options in Sweden2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 193, artikkel-id 106948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The greenhouse sector has seen many advances to improve its resource demands, though little is known of the environmental impacts. This study aims to assess the environmental performance of a horticultural greenhouse in Sweden producing herbs. Life cycle assessment is employed to analyze different scenarios. These include previous measures, such as switching to organic fertilizers, a pellet burner, and reducing the packaging weight. Future scenarios are assessed, including increasing biofueled logistics, switching to LEDs, densifying production, and including recyclable packaging. The results suggest that GHG emissions were reduced by 32% per kg edible portion through past scenarios in current scenario. Additionally, densifying production and switching to LED lighting can lead to an additional 14% and 10% reduction in GHG emissions compared to the current system respectively, while also reducing other environmental impact categories. These results provide insights into the implications of environmental and resource improvement measures taken at greenhouses.

  • 32. Mathai, M. V.
    et al.
    Isenhour, C.
    Stevis, D.
    Vergragt, P.
    Bengtsson, M.
    Lorek, S.
    Mortensen, L. F.
    Coscieme, L.
    Scott, D.
    Waheed, A.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    The Political Economy of (Un)Sustainable Production and Consumption: A Multidisciplinary Synthesis for Research and Action2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, artikkel-id 105265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite widespread recognition of the need to transition toward more sustainable production and consumption and numerous initiatives to that end, global resource extraction and corresponding socio-ecological degradation continue to grow. Understanding the causes of this persistent failure is a necessary step towards more effective action. This article contributes to that understanding by synthesizing theory and evidence that links unsustainable production-consumption systems to power and inequality. While sustainable consumption and production research and action mostly focuses on technological or behavioral change, the socio-ecological inequalities driving production-consumption systems built into the organization of our global political economy, remain largely overlooked. In response, we propose a structural political economy orientation that seeks explicitly to reduce these inequalities and advance environmental justice and, thus, create the conditions for sustainable production-consumption systems. We then propose three important arenas of research and action towards sustainable production-consumption systems: justice, governance, and co-production of knowledge and action. These arenas, collectively and individually, can serve as entry points to study and act on the dynamics of (un)sustainable production-consumption systems. This can be done at the micro level, with respect to specific commodity chains or systems of provisioning, or at meso and macro levels with respect to national and global production networks. Our proposed orientation helps distinguish research and practice proposals into those emphasizing management and compensation resulting often in persistence of unsustainability, from those proffering structural changes in unsustainable production-consumption systems. We invite critique and collaboration to develop this research and action agenda further.

  • 33. Mukherjee, A. B.
    et al.
    Zevenhoven, R.
    Brodersen, J.
    Hylander, L. D.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mercury in waste in the European Union: sources, disposal methods and risks2004Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 155-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent decades, there has been widespread concern regarding the toxic impact of mercury (Hg) in the ecosystem due to its mobility, volatility and potential for bioaccumulation. Hg in fish and the aquatic environment is also a great problem in the Nordic region of the EU1 (European Union). Ho is classified as a dangerous chemical in the countries of the EU. Hg in the regulation of waste is regarded as a dangerous substance which, when contained in waste, is one of the properties, leading to a classification of waste as hazardous. Estimation of the quantity of Hg in waste within the EU countries is an important task although still incomplete. In this present study, Hg in waste in the EU has been estimated at around 990 metric tonnes (t) (including coal combustion products, landfills, chlor-alkali waste and incinerator slag) for the year 1995, and it is suggested that if complete information was available for the 15 member states, the amount would be 2-4 times larger. During the 1990s there were 45 Hg cell chlorine facilities in the EU and the amount of Hg in chlorine (Cl-2) was calculated at 95.2 t based on 14-17 g Hg t(-1) of Cl, capacity. The waste from coal-fired power plants in the EU member states contained about 16.5 t of Ha, which was transferred to products for road construction, and other industrial uses or stored in landfills. This Hg can then be exchanged between the atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial compartments. Hg is occasionally recovered from waste, but this is often discouraged for economic reasons. Recovery units are found, for example, in Germany, France, Austria, and Sweden. The total amount of secondary Hg recovered from waste is not known. Metallic Hg and Hg-bearing waste are exported and imported from the EU member states, except for export from Sweden, which is banned by national legislation. The use of Hg in lamps and batteries is declining, and the Nordic countries, Germany and Austria have stringent regulations on the use of amalgam and Hg thermometers. It is found that 18% of municipal solid waste generated in the EU is burnt in incinerators, in order to decrease the volume. 88 t of Hg enter into the landfills of the EU through waste and residues from waste incineration. Prevention of the generation of hazardous waste containing Hg is one of the most challenging tasks for the EU, with regard to sustainable waste management.

  • 34. Mukherjee, Arun B.
    et al.
    Zevenhoven, Ron
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Sajwand, Kenneth S.
    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke
    Mercury flow via coal and coal utilization by-products: A global perspective2008Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 571-591Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) has been known to society and used since ancient times. The metal has drawn considerable attention and concern due to its toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation and long range transport in the atmosphere after emission from coal-fired utilities as well various other high temperature processes. Coal is an important fuel for the production of heat and electricity and in recent years annual hard coal production has approached a level of around 5000 million metric tonnes (Mt, t = 1000 kg). Global Hg flows via coal and coal utilization by-products (CUBs) are presented in this paper, which are important in light of the regulations to limit the global emissions of Hg and its cycling as well as its circulation via coal and the CUBs. There are no detailed statistics on the global production and consumption of coal fly ash (FA) and in this study, we have estimated the total global FA production for the year 2003 based on ash content in coals and typical flue gas control technology for pulverized coal combustion. The mode of occurrence and concentration of Hg in coal and coal FA for different countries have been evaluated and presented in this study. The total Hg amount in coals processed worldwide was found to be 1534 t in 2003 based on a global average concentration of 0.3 mg/kg in coal. In addition, "hidden" flows of Hg through export and import of coal assessed during this study, add up to about 149 t. In this study, the economic uses of the FA in different sectors such as cement industry, agriculture, land reclamation, filers for asphalt, plastic and many others have been discussed in details. However, there is not much information on uses of coal FA in the developing countries. In the final part of the paper, a short survey has been focused on a few coal producing countries including Australia, China, EU-states, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, South Africa and South American countries, addressing the status of coal and coal FA use and the fate of the Hg that is mobilized.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Resurser, energi och infrastruktur.
    Stoll, Pia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, costs, and carbon emissions2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, s. 152-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grid projects, with demand side management as an integral part, has led to an increased interest of households’ willingness to react to different types of demand response programs. This paper presents a pilot study assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, and its effects on electricity costs and carbon (CO2eq) emissions. We analyze changes in electricity consumption based on a test group and a reference group of 12 households, respectively. To allow for analysis on load shift impact on CO2eq emissions, hourly dynamic CO2eq intensity of the Swedish electricity grid mix is calculated, using electricity generation data, trading data, and fuel-type specific emission factors. The results suggest that, on average, the test households shifted roughly 5% of their total daily electricity consumption from peak hours (of high electricity price) to off-peak hours (of low electricity price) as an effect of real-time price visualization. However, due to the mechanisms of the Swedish electricity market, with a negative relation between spot price and CO2eq intensity, the load shift led to a split effect; electricity costs modestly decreased while CO2eq emissions increased. In addition, any indication of the contribution of real-time spot price visualization to a reduction in overall household electricity consumption level could not be found, as the relative difference in consumption level between the test households and the reference households remained constant during both the baseline period and the test period. 

  • 36.
    Nourozi, Behrouz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Ploskic, Adnan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Maximizing thermal performance of building ventilation using geothermal and wastewater heat2019Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 143, s. 90-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient use of waste heat recovery and geothermal heat can play an important role in lowering the overall energy use of buildings. This study evaluated the potential of geothermal energy and heat recovery from residential wastewater to reduce the energy need of building-ventilation in cold climates. The performance of the mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) system in a multi-family building located in central Sweden was studied. The focus of the investigation was on reduction of frosting in the air handling unit during the coldest months. Three configurations of one air preheating system fed by two renewable heat sources, wastewater and geothermal energy, were studied. It was found that compared to building without an air preheating system, the suggested air preheating systems reduced the defrosting time to 25%. By controlling and maintaining the preheated air temperature to slightly above the defrosting start, air heat recovery efficiency of MVHR above 80% was achieved for 90% of the studied time during heating season when frosting occurs. The energy need for the circulation pumps in the suggested air preheating systems was 5% of the recovered thermal energy from wastewater. The simulation results suggested that the air preheating system using wastewater heat recovery with a temperature-stratified storage tank was the most efficient one among the studied systems.

  • 37.
    Novaes, Renan M. L.
    et al.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Microbiol Ambiental, Farma Bioquim, Rodovia SP 340,Km 127 5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Amaral, Diego R.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Microbiol Ambiental, Farma Bioquim, Rodovia SP 340,Km 127 5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Morandi, Marcelo A. B.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Microbiol Ambiental, Farma Bioquim, Rodovia SP 340,Km 127 5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Folegatti-Matsuura, Marilia I. S.
    Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Microbiol Ambiental, Farma Bioquim, Rodovia SP 340,Km 127 5, BR-13918110 Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil..
    Brandão, Miguel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Comment on "The importance of GHG emissions from land use change for biofuels in Brazil: An assessment for current and 2030 scenarios"2024Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 201, s. 107207-, artikkel-id 107207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Nurdiawati, Anissa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Hållbar produktionsutveckling (ML), Avancerad underhållsteknik och produktionslogistik.
    Creating a circular EV battery value chain: End-of-life strategies and future perspective2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 185, s. 106484-106484, artikkel-id 106484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) will be vital to decarbonise the transport sector and achieve climate change targets. However, this transition is leading to an increased demand for key battery materials and associated resource challenges and supply-chain risks. On the other hand, discarded EV batteries create business opportunities for second life and recycling. This study presents scenario-driven material flow analysis (MFA) to estimate the future volume of EV battery wastes to be potentially generated in Sweden and future demand for key battery materials, considering potential EV fleet, battery chemistry developments, and end-of-life strategies of EV batteries. Further, we combine MFA with a socio-technical approach to explore how different socio-technical developments will affect both EV battery flows and the underlying systems in the future. Recycling has the potential to reduce primary demand by 25–64% during 2040–2050 based on projected demand, meaning that waste streams could cover a considerable part of the future raw material demands. Second-use of EV batteries can promote circularity yet postpones recycling potentials. From a transition perspective, promoting recycling, second-life use of EV batteries and advanced battery technologies entail system disruption and transformational changes in technology, markets, business models, policy, and infrastructure and user practices. Demand for high-capacity batteries for grid decarbonisation and aviation applications may contribute to the emergence of niche battery technologies. Each scenario highlights the need for effective policy frameworks to foster a circular EV battery value chain.

  • 39.
    Olsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Kärrman, Erik
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Environmental systems analysis of the use of bottom ash from incineration of municipal waste for road construction2006Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom ash, originating from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), is a potential road construction material. The aim of this study was to describe what differences in resource use and emissions that can be expected if crushed rock in the sub-base of a road in the Stockholm region in Sweden were to be substituted by MSWI bottom ash, taking into account the whole life cycle of the road and including alternative disposal of the bottom ash. An environmental systems analysis approach based on a life cycle perspective was outlined and used in a case study. It was found that the studied alternatives would cause different types of potential environmental impact; whereas, crushed rock in the road's sub-base would lead to larger use of resources, the alternative with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base leads to a larger contaminant leaching. The results are sensitive to the transport distance for the road material and to conditions affecting the leaching from the road. The differences between energy uses in the two alternatives derive mainly from production of crushed rock and from landfilling of MSWI bottom ash, whereas, the metal emissions occur in the use stage of the road's life cycle.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40. Owusu, V.
    et al.
    Adjei-Addo, E.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Do economic incentives affect attitudes to solid waste source separation?: Evidence from Ghana2013Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 78, s. 115-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the willingness of urban households in Ghana to accept economic incentives to participate in solid waste source separation. Low income households were less inclined to accept cash incentives than middle or high income households indicating that other factors than purely costs for waste management are important for households to participate in source-separation of waste. Perceptions on health and sorting and the availability of open space in the households were important for the willingness to accept incentives for source separation. The empirical findings indicate that household-level solid waste separation is positively influenced by gender (female) and sorting or health-related perceptions on source separation. About 80% of the households are willing to accept cash incentive of GH¢1.6374 (US$1.6347) per month to participate in source separation, and the mean cash incentive per month is GH¢1.2186 (US$1.2166). Fruitful solid waste management policy recommendations based on the empirical magnitudes and directions are made.

  • 41. Rex, E.
    et al.
    Rosander, Erica
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Røyne, F.
    Veide, Andres
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
    Ulmanen, J.
    A systems perspective on chemical production from mixed food waste: The case of bio-succinate in Sweden2017Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 125, s. 86-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The option of producing the chemical succinic acid from bio-based resources is well in line with current political and industrial ambitions for a bio-based economy. A little explored but intriguing biomass feedstock opportunity is food waste. Mixed food waste is especially appealing as it represents less resource competition than more homogenous food waste fractions. The feasibility of producing succinic acid from mixed food waste depends on both technical and societal system structures. Therefore, to assess the production prospect, it is important to investigate all relevant system components. This study explores from such multiple perspectives the feasibility of chemical production as a viable added pathway for mixed food waste, using microbial production of succinic acid from municipal solid waste in Sweden as an example. The perspectives explored are: 1) feedstock feasibility, 2) societal drivers and barriers for technology progress, and 3) resource availability. Findings show that even though, from a technical feasibility and resource availability perspective, production seems possible, it lacks institutional support and actor commitment and alignment for development in Sweden. Findings also show that a holistic and interdisciplinary systems perspective contributes valuable insight when assessing prospects for bio-based chemicals.

  • 42.
    Ribeiro da Silva, Elias
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Department of Technology and Innovation. Alison 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg, Denmark.
    Lohmer, Jacob
    Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Business Management, esp. Logistics. Mommsenstr. 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany, esp. Logistics. Mommsenstr. 13.
    Rohla, Michelle
    University of Southern Denmark, Department of Technology and Innovation. Alison 2, DK-6400 Sønderborg, Denmark.
    Angelis, Jannis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Unleashing the circular economy in the electric vehicle battery supply chain: A case study on data sharing and blockchain potential2023Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 193, artikkel-id 106969Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles are perceived as a key technology to make mobility more sustainable, leading to a sharp rise in electric battery production and use. However, electric vehicle batteries are only a sustainable solution if they support decreasing the total impact of the supply chain, which makes circularity initiatives a key element in this transition. Currently, this is limited by the data sharing among actors in the supply chain on critical information needed to support a circular economy approach. In this study we explore how data sharing and information technology support the development of circularity in electric vehicle supply chains and examine the role of blockchain technology to address the circularity needs of battery tracking and capability sharing. To allow a comprehensive analysis, we conduct a case study in the electric vehicle battery supply chain, including companies from multiple tiers to capture all relevant perspectives. The results show that data sharing supports extended value chain activities, evolving from a linear to a circular supply chain perspective. It also indicates that blockchain technology supports removing existing barriers for a circular economy by facilitating transparency and traceability, especially for second-life applications beyond the dominant players in this industry.

  • 43.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: A system dynamics modeling approach2016Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, s. 65-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few decades, e-waste has emerged as one of the fastest growing and increasingly complex waste flows world-wide. Within e-waste, the life cycle of the mobile phone product system is particularly important because of: (1) the increasing quantities of mobile phones in this waste flow; and (2) the sustainability challenges associated with the emerging economies of reuse, refurbishment, and export of used mobile phones. This study examined the possibilities of closing the material flow loop in the global mobile phone product system (GMPPS) while addressing the broad sustainability challenges linked to recovery of materials. This was done using an adapted system dynamics modeling approach to investigate the dominant paths and drivers for closing the metal flow loop through the concept of eco-cycle. Two indicators were chosen to define the closed loop system: loop leakage and loop efficiency. Sensitivity analysis of selected parameters was used to identify potential drivers for closing the metal flow loop. The modeling work indicated leverage for management strategies aimed at closing the loop in: (i) collection systems for used phones, (ii) mobile phone use time, and (ii) informal recycling in developing countries. By analyzing the dominant parameters, an eco-cycle scenario that could promote a closed loop system by decreasing pressures on virgin materials was formulated. Improved policy support and product service systems could synchronize growth between upstream producers and end-of-life organizations and help achieve circular production and consumption in the GMPPS. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Strand, A.
    IVL Svenska Miljoinst, IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Kristineberg 566, S-45178 Fiskebackskil, Sweden..
    Soderqvist, T.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, SE-11123 Stockholm, Sweden.;Holmboe & Skarp AB, Norr Kallstavagen 9, SE-14896 Sorunda, Sweden..
    Stadmark, J.
    IVL Svenska Miljoinst, IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, POB 53021, S-40014 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Franzen, F.
    Tyrens AB, Peter Myndes Backe 16, SE-11846 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ingmansson, I.
    Tyrens AB, Peter Myndes Backe 16, SE-11846 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Quantifying nutrient recovery by element flow analysis: Harvest and use of seven marine biomasses to close N and P loops2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 106031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic consumption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has pushed their respective planetary boundaries beyond a safe operating space causing environmental problems, and simultaneously, the depletion of finite mineral P resources is of growing concern. Previous research has found that marine biomass such as kelp, reed and mussels have a high potential for taking up N and P, which could potentially contribute both to alleviating environmental problems and recirculating P from marine environments back to human consumption systems. This paper thus examines these nutrient flows and the extent to which marine biomass can contribute to close the loop. The study utilizes an element flow analysis (EFA) to establish the mapping of N and P flows and explore plausible scenarios of biomass utilisation by 2030 and 2050 for P loop closure in Sweden. The current uptake of P and N through the seven marine biomass cases (mariculture of mussels on both the Swedish east and west coasts, kelp and ascidians and the harvest of wild oysters, beach-cast and reed) contributes to 1.1% and 0.3% respectively of the full loop closure (relative to 2016 loading). Approximately 22% of the total P (and 23% N) uptake (in the biomasses) is currently being used in products, while the rest remains unused. The plausible future scenario for 2050 expects to contribute to around 10% P and 2.8% N loop closure (relative to 2016) if all nutrients in the uptake are used.

  • 45. Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    et al.
    André, Hampus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of circular measures on scarce metals in complex products - Case studies of electrical and electronic equipment2019Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 151, artikkel-id 104464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular measures such as long-life designs, reuse, repair and recycling have been suggested for prolonging scarce metal life cycles and reducing the dependence on primary resources. This paper explores to what extent circular measures could mitigate metals scarcity when adopted to complex products. Based on three real cases, the effect of extending the use of laptops, smartphones and LED systems before recycling are assessed for between 7 and 15 scarce metals using material flow analysis. As expected, benefits can be gained from such extensions, but, importantly, differ substantially between metals since they occur in various components with various service lifetimes and functional recycling rates vary. Notably, risks of flipping the ranking in favor of short use before recycling are identified: if service lifetimes are short, designs are metal-intensive or if metal contents differ between products. Furthermore, regardless of measure, sizable and varying losses of each metal from functional use occur since all products are not collected for recycling and all metals are not functionally recycled. Thus, neither use extension measures nor recycling can alone nor in combination radically mitigate metals scarcity and criticality currently. Overall, it is a challenge to target the multitude of scarce and critical metals applied in complex products through circular measures. Careful analysis beyond simplified guidelines such as öR frameworks” are recommended. As the importance of scarce metals availability and the attention to the circular economy are expected to continue, these insights may be used for avoiding efforts with unclear or minor benefits or even drawbacks.

  • 46. Sonesson, U.
    et al.
    Björklund, Anna
    Carlsson, M.
    Dalemo, M.
    Environmental and economic analysis of management systems for biodegradable waste2000Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 28, nr 02-jan, s. 29-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of waste residuals. To analyse whether such proposed systems indicate improvements for the environment and its sustainability, systems analysis is a useful method The changes in environmental impact and resource use is not only a result of changes in waste treatment methods, but also largely a result of changes in surrounding systems (energy and agriculture) caused by changes in waste management practices. In order to perform a systems analysis, a substance-flow simulation model, the organic waste research model (ORWARE), has been used. The results are evaluated by using methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA). An economic analysis was also performed on three of the studied scenarios. The management system for solid organic waste and sewage in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden, was studied. Three scenarios for different treatments of solid waste were analysed: incineration with heat recovery, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These three scenarios included conventional sewage treatment. A fourth scenario reviewed was anaerobic digestion of solid waste, using urine-separating toilets and separate handling of the urine fraction. The results are only valid for the case study and under the assumptions made. In this case study anaerobic digestion result in the lowest environmental impact of all the solid waste management systems, but is costly. Economically, incineration with heat recovery is the cheapest way to treat solid waste. Composting gives environmental advantages compared to incineration methods, without significantly increased costs. Urine separation, which may be implemented together with any solid waste treatment, has great advantages, particularly in its low impact on the environment. However, there is a large increase in acidification.

  • 47. Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Mingarini, Karin
    Björklund, Anna
    ORWARE - A simulation model for organic waste handling systems. Part 2: Case study and simulation results1997Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 39-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Távora de Mello Soares, Camila
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Ostmark, Emma
    Stora Enso Innovat Ctr Biomat, POB 4158, SE-13104 Nacka, Sweden..
    Gallstedt, Mikael
    Stora Enso Innovat Ctr Biomat, POB 4158, SE-13104 Nacka, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Recycling of multi-material multilayer plastic packaging: Current trends and future scenarios2022Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 176, artikkel-id 105905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-material multilayer plastic packaging (MMPP) is widely applied in fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) combining functionalities of distinct materials. These packaging structures can enhance properties, such as resource-use efficiency and barrier performance leading to consequential benefits like a prolonged shelf-life. Nevertheless, they represent a challenge for existing recycling systems, confronting circular economy principles. This study aim was to foresight the future of recycling technologies for MMPP in the next five to ten years. Future scenarios were identified, including (1) high-performance material recycling, (2) recycling into hydrocarbons, (3) business as usual, and (4) downcycling. In-depth interviews and a feedback survey were methods used to validate the scenario matrix while defining experts' expectations towards the future. The analysis showed that distinct technologies will develop unevenly in different parts of the world. A mix of all scenarios is probable in the upcoming years, depending, essentially, on regulations and technology availability. Advanced high-performance material recycling encounters systemic bottlenecks, such as insufficient sorting technology for post-consumer waste. In contrast, chemical recycling (feedstock) is concentrating investments as a solution, requiring low input-characterization. Additionally, design for recycling trends might reduce multilayers' complexity. A gap between recycling targets and recycling technologies was identified, representing short-term opportunities for more sustainable materials, such as bio-based.

  • 49.
    Umair, Shakila
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Social impact assessment of informal recycling of electronic ICT waste in Pakistan using UNEP SETAC guidelines2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 95, s. 46-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New and improved Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being produced every day. With every new product on the market, an older product becomes obsolete. These obsolete products are being added to the world's fastest growing waste stream, ICT electronic waste (e-waste). This is formally recycled in developed countries, stockpiled, landfilled or shipped to developing countries, such as Pakistan, here it is recycled informally through crude processes (e.g. manual dismantling, burning, dumping and dipping in acids to extract gold and other precious metals). This study assessed the social impacts of informal e-waste recycling in Pakistan using data obtained in a detailed on-site inventory of the processes directly involved in informal e-waste recycling. The inventory and assessment were conducted according to United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) guidelines on Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA). The results presented in this paper fill an important data gap and can be integrated with data on other stages of ICT product lifecycle to produce a full SLCA of such products.

  • 50.
    Warmington-Lundström, Jon
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Integrerad produktutveckling.
    Reviewing circular economy rebound effects: The case of online peer-to-peer boat sharing2020Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 100028Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Renting instead of buying new products may be seen as the most efficient strategies of the circular economy. However, changes in the consumption inevitably liberates or binds scarce production or consumption factors such as raw materials, money and time which can potentially limit the potential to save resources. This phenomenon is known as environmental rebound effect and is currently under-researched in the context of resource sharing. This paper reviews the magnitude and tendency of environmental rebound effects of peer-to-peer boat sharing platform using a double-spending model (i.e. for lessors as well lessees). We found that environmental rebound effect was experienced by every lessee surveyed (n = 104) and in one-third of lessors (n = 29). 60 % of lessees experienced a rebound of over 20 %, losing one-fifth of the potential reductions in emissions through subsequent consumption behaviour enabled by the economic savings created by sharing resources. International air travel and increases in personal use of the boat were the biggest contributing factors towards environmental rebound effect. Users that increased consumption in these ways experienced a backfire effect in which their annual emissions actually increased. This backfire was experienced by 29 % of lessees with the worst scenario increasing emissions by a factor of over eight. We found statistically significant differences in the rebound of lessors and lessees. Greater awareness and non-economic mechanisms (such as symbolic rewards, information provision and nudging) tailored for lessors and lessees are needed to help prevent the likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of environmental rebound effects from sharing resources.

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