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  • 1. Crawford, J.
    et al.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Simulation of the redox buffer depletion rate in landfills of combustion residue waste materials2001In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 128, no 04-mar, p. 223-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations have been made of the redox buffer depletion rate in landfills of combustion residue wastes. The model is based upon a one-dimensional mass balance where oxygen transport results from a combination of advective and diffusive processes. A simple, generalised representation of redox buffering properties is used where dissolved oxygen reacts in accordance with a first order rate law. Using certain simplifying assumptions, it is possible to obtain an analytical solution for the time required for complete depletion of the redox buffering capacity of landfilled solid wastes. The results indicate the overwhelming importance that the effective diffusivity of oxygen in the landfill has upon the rate of redox buffer depletion. The results also show under which conditions transport effects may be expected to dominate the leaching processes and determine an upper limit for the depletion rate.

  • 2.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Initial Effects of a New Highway Section on Soil and Groundwater2012In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 223, no 8, p. 5413-5432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of 16 different contaminants originating from the E18 Highway (17,510 annual average daily traffic) were studied over the initial months of the highway's operational life. Investigative methods used included electrical resistivity surveying, water chemistry analyses, soil analyses, distribution modeling, and transportation modeling of contaminants. The study conclusively showed a year-round infiltration due to melting of the snowpack from road salt, and a strong preferential, anthropogenic pathway due to increased hydraulic conductivities of road construction materials relative to in situ soils. The resistivity surveys produced values well below the expected values for the highway materials, indicating increased ionic content within the unsaturated zone. Time lapse resistivity modeling showed a clear downwards spreading of contamination from the roadway to subsurface distances greater than 5 m. Elevated concentrations of nearly every studied contaminant relative to baseline values were observed, with many metal concentrations within the snow pack averaging values in excess of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's groundwater limitations. Distribution modeling demonstrated a potential offset of peak values from the road surface due to plowing and splash transport processes, and indicated different distribution behavior during winter months than during summer months. One-dimensional transport modeling demonstrated the importance of adsorption and other retentive factors to the migration of contaminants to groundwater and provided an estimate for potential long-term contaminant concentrations.

  • 3. Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    Ammonia removal from oil refinery effluent in vertical upflow macrophyte column systems2002In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 135, no 1-4, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed vertical macrophyte systems, for nitrogen removal from oil refinery wastewater, were investigated. Detailed studies were carried out in laboratory columns (diameter, 0.06 m; depth, 0.5 m; operating volume, 0.6 L) planted with common reed, Phragmites australis. Through a vertical flow format, collected oil refinery wastewater was supplied directly to the columns. Wastewater quality varied through the experimental period with initial ammonia concentrations ranging from 3 to 20 mg N L-1. Effective ammonia removal was obtained for the planted columns with a hydraulic detention time of 5 hr. Removal efficiencies above 90% was obtained for high (above 6 mg N L-1) ammonia inflow concentrations. A satisfactory ammonia removal was obtained at shorter detention times for the low initial concentrations. Longer detention times also provided organic nitrogen removal. Recirculation of the flow, which provides the same total detention time but a higher hydraulic loading, provides the possibility to adjust the flow rate and the inflow ammonia concentration with detention time to achieve a target outflow concentration.

  • 4. Fernández, Isaac
    et al.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Trela, Jozef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Water, Sewage and Waste technology.
    Méndez, Rámon
    Evaluation of Deammonification Process by Response Surface Models2011In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 215, no 1-4, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the operational variables on the Anammox process has been generally researched considering each variable separately. However, the optimization of the process also requires the identification of the more significant variables and their possible interactions. Response surface models were successfully applied to evaluate the performance of the Anammox process in a deammonification system (i.e., one-stage biofilm Anammox process) taking into account the combined effects caused by two sets of three variables. Specific Anammox activity was measured by a manometric method and used as the response variable. The obtained models pointed out that the significant variables were the temperature, the value of pH, and the ratio between the unionized species of the substrates (free ammonia and free nitrous acid (FA/FNA)). There were interactions among them caused by chemical equilibriums. Total nitrogen concentration and ammonium concentration were found to be not significant in the tested range. According to the models, the optimum values of temperature, pH, and free ammonia to free nitrous acid ratio within the test ranges were, respectively, 30A degrees C, 7.0, and 0.3. Further research at higher temperatures and lower values of pH and FA/FNA ratios would be necessary in order to find the absolute optimum conditions for the process. The obtained model can be also useful in order to develop control strategies that take into account the significant variables and their optimum ranges. A strategy to control deammonification reactors has been proposed, according to the results of the modeling.

  • 5.
    Ghebremichael, Kebreab
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Hultman, Bengt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Alum sludge dewatering using Moringa oleifera as a conditioner2004In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 158, no 1, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An active component of Moringa oleifera ( MO) has been used in comparison with synthetic polymers and alum for the conditioning of chemical sludge from a drinking water treatment plant. The comparison was based on dewatering characteristics of the conditioned sludge determined by capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), sand column drainage and shear strength tests. The results indicated that MO showed comparable conditioning effect as alum. Polyelectrolytes were more effective than MO and alum. Sludge conditioned with MO and alum, as in dual chemical conditioning, showed better results than MO alone. According to CST, SRF and sand drainage results, optimum doses for MO, alum and polyelectrolytes were 125, 63, and 1.8 kg/t, respectively. Comparison of the two polyelectrolytes showed that the cationic polyelectrolyte was more effective. For sand drainage tests both polyelectrolytes improved the drainage rate by 2 orders of magnitude. MO and alum improved the drainage rate by about 4.2 times. On the other hand, the improvements in cake solids concentration were similar for all the chemical conditioners. Flocs from MO and alum were relatively stronger compared to those of the polyelectrolytes. From the results of the study it could be concluded that MO alone or in combination could be effectively used and replace alum for dewatering of chemical sludge.

  • 6.
    Hallberg, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundbom, T
    Vägverket.
    Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, no 1-4, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of differentiation of pollutants in urban runoff between dissolved and particulate matter is of great concern for a successful design of a water treatment process. Seasonal variations in pollutant load are of equal importance. Ten metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, was studied in the runoff from a major urban highway during a winter season and its following summer. Studded tyres and winter salting were expected to have an impact on the runoff water quality. The dissolved part of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni was significantly higher in winter in comparison with summer (p < 0.01). For Fe, however, the dissolved part was lower during winter. No significant difference was found for Cu, Pb and Zn between the two seasons. The mass concentration (mg kg(-1)) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, which showed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The concentration of selected metals vs. total suspended solids (TSS) showed a linear relationship (r(2)> 0.95) during winter runoff events except for Cd. A good correlation (r (2)> 0.90) was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. It is suggested that the metal pollutant load during winter could be assessed indirectly by measurement of TSS.

  • 7.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Biotechnology.
    Kansiime, Frank
    Makerere University.
    Functional assessment of horizontal surface flow constructed wetlands receiving pre-treated domestic wastewater in Uganda.In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kyambadde, Joseph
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Kansiime, Frank
    Dalhammar, Gunnel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in substrate-free pilot constructed wetlands with horizontal surface flow in Uganda2005In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 165, no 1-4, p. 37-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In constructed wetlands (CWs) with horizontal sub-surface flow, nutrient removal, especially phosphorus, is limited because the root biomass fills the pore spaces of the substrate (usually gravel), directing wastewater flow to deeper wetland media; plants are not regularly harvested; the litter formed by decomposing vegetation remains on the surface of the substrate and thus does not interact with the wastewater; and the substrate media often used provide only limited adsorption. Effective nutrient removal including rootzone oxidation, adsorption and plant uptake therefore requires sufficient interaction of wastewater with the treatment media. We assessed the feasibility of biological nutrient removal from wastewater using substrate-free CWs with horizontal flow, planted with two tropical macrophytes namely, Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. The objectives were to evaluate the system treatment efficiency under semi-natural conditions, and to assess microbial and plant biomass contributions to nutrient removal in the CWs. Results showed high removal efficiencies for biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphorus (P) fractions in papyrus-based CWs (68.6-86.5%) compared to Miscanthidium (46.7-61.1%) and unplanted controls (31.6-54.3%). Ammonium oxidizing bacteria in CW root-mats (108-109 cells/gram dry weight) and residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the water phase indicated active system nitrification. Papyrus showed higher biomass production and nutrient uptake, contributing 28.5% and 11.2%, respectively, of the total N and P removed by the system compared to 15% N and 9.3% P removed by Miscanthidium plants. Compared to literature values, nitrification, plant uptake and the overall system treatment efficiency were high, indicating a high potential of this system for biological nutrient removal from wastewaters in the tropics.

  • 9. Linde, Mats
    et al.
    Oborn, Ingrid
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Effects of changed soil conditions on the mobility of trace metals in moderately contaminated urban soils2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 183, no 04-jan, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the soil chemical environment can be expected to increase the leaching of trace metals bound in soils. In this study the mobility of trace metals was monitored in a column experiment for two contaminated urban soils. Four different treatments were used (i.e. rain, acid rain, salt and bark). Leachates were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and for seven trace metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)). The salt treatment produced the lowest pH values (between 5 and 6) in the effluent whereas the DOC concentration was largest in the bark treatment (40-140 mg L-1) and smallest in the salt and acid treatments (7-40 mg L-1). Cadmium, Ni and Zn were mainly mobilised in the salt treatment, whereas the bark treatments produced the highest concentrations of Cu and Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, and Hg were strongly correlated with DOC (r(2) = 0.90, 0.91 and 0.96, respectively). A multi-surface geochemical model (SHM-DLM) produced values for metal dissolution that were usually of the correct magnitude. For Pb, however, the model was not successful indicating that the retention of this metal was stronger than assumed in the model. For all metals, the SHM-DLM model predicted that soil organic matter was the most important sorbent, although for Pb and Cr(III) ferrihydrite was also important and accounted for between 15 and 50% of the binding. The results confirm the central role of DOC for the mobilization of Cu, Cr, Hg and Pb in contaminated soils.

  • 10.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Janhall, Sara
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Borås, Sweden..
    Jarlskog, Ida
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linköping, Sweden..
    Wet Dust Sampler-a Sampling Method for Road Dust Quantification and Analyses2019In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, no 8, article id 180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern countries, the climate, and consequently the use of studded tyres and winter traction sanding, causes accumulation of road dust over winter and spring, resulting in high PM10 concentrations during springtime dusting events. To quantify the dust at the road surface, a method-the wet dust sampler (WDS)-was developed allowing repeatable sampling also under wet and snowy conditions. The principle of operation is flushing high-pressurised water over a defined surface area and transferring the dust laden water into a container for further analyses. The WDS has been used for some time and is presented in detail to the international scientific community as reported by Jonsson et al. (2008) and Gustafsson et al. (2019), and in this paper, the latest version is presented together with an evaluation of its performance. To evaluate the WDS, the ejected water amount was measured, as well as water losses in different parts of the sampling system, together with indicative dust measurement using turbidity as a proxy for dust concentration. The results show that the WDS, when accounting for all losses, have a predictable and repeatable water performance, with no impact on performance based on the variety of asphalt surface types included in this study, given undamaged surfaces. The largest loss was found to be water retained on the surface, and the dust measurements imply that this might not have as large impact on the sampled dust as could be expected. A theoretical particle mass balance shows small particle losses, while field measurements show higher losses. Several tests are suggested to validate and improve on the mass balances. Finally, the WDS is found to perform well and is able to contribute to further knowledge regarding road dust implications for air pollution.

  • 11.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Estimating the fate of de-icing salt in a roadside environment by combining modelling and field observations2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 195, no 1-4, p. 215-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the environmental effects of de-icing salt requires knowledge of the pathways taken by salt from on-road application through spread to the surroundings to deposition and fate in the roadside environment. This study described differences in chloride deposition and distribution in soil with increasing distance from the road by means of field observations and modelling. The dynamic modelling approach successfully represented the spread of de-icing salt from road to surroundings, deposition in the roadside environment and the subsequent infiltration into roadside soil. The general decrease in soil chloride content with distance from the road was described by differences in salt deposition, soil physical properties, vegetation properties and snow characteristics. The uncertainty in model predictions was highest in areas close to the road due to a complex combination of high salt deposition, snow-ploughed masses and road runoff. The exponential decline in salt deposition with distance from the road could not be justified close to the road. Different types of field investigations were applied in a calibration procedure to establish reasonable ranges for the most influential model parameters. Measured electrical resistivity reflected well the changes in simulated chloride content in soil during winter and spring when chloride concentrations were high. However, during summer or periods with low chloride concentrations the measured resistivity was substantially lower than simulated values, as it reflected the total contamination level in soil.

  • 12.
    Lundmark, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chloride deposition and distribution in soils along a deiced highway: assessment using different methods of measurement2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 182, no 1-4, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison was made of the ability of three different methods to describe the deposition and distribution of chloride from deicing salt in the roadside environment along a highway: direct sampling of airborne deposition (including snow ploughing) in containers; soil sampling and analysis of chloride content in the topsoil; and direct current resistivity measurements. Each method showed a distribution with significant decreasing values with increasing distance from the road. Two transport mechanisms, splash and spray, were identified when describing the airborne deposition. A mathematical model that includes these two transport mechanisms was adopted, and the total amount of airborne deposition on the ground 0-100 m from the road was estimated to approximately 45% of the salt applied on the road. The main part of the chloride spread by air and ploughing ended up within 10 m from the road. The soil sampling and resistivity measurements also showed the highest impact within this distance. The variation in chloride content in the soils reflected a poorer drainage ability of fine-grained soils compared to more coarse-grained soils. The resistivity measurements represented an integrated value of the differences in geology, water content and salinity. The increase in resistivity with distance from road in the topsoil was interpreted to reflect the distribution of chloride from deicing salt.

  • 13.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bergstedt, E.
    The impact of road de-icing salts (NaCl) on colloid dispersion and base cation pools in roadside soils2001In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 127, no 04-jan, p. 281-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of safe-driving conditions in snow and ice-affected areas in the wintertime includes the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing salts. In this study, the impact of NaCl on soil-colloid mobilisation and exchangeable base-cation leaching has been evaluated. The chemistry of groundwater samples below an infiltration trench for highway runoff and leachate from column studies suggested that soil-colloid mobilisation had occurred, as the exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration and the electrical conductivity (EC) in the groundwater/column leachate reached the threshold values for colloid dispersion. Generally, samples with no dispersion problems had high Na and calcium (Ca) concentrations, suggesting that the initial effect of the de-icing salt was to stabilise the colloids. In the column study there was a good agreement between the degree of colloid dipersion problems and lead (Pb) concentration when the pH value was above 7.0. Significant negative correlations between Na/CEC (cation exchange capacity) and Ca/CEC in roadside soils from three sites indicated that Na preferentially displaces Ca from the exchange sites. However, the groundwater data indicated that Na ions also displace potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). A positive effect of NaCl seen at one site was an increase in the K concentration, which is highly likely an effect of Na ions displacing fixed K between the layers of 2:1 type clay minerals. In soils lacking these types of clay minerals, severe K shortage may result from a high plant demand combined with the low K concentration in the readily available fractions in the original soil and a high susceptibility to leaching. The most significant impact on soil exchange processes was found to occur within 6 m from the road.

  • 14.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Corrosion-induced release and environmental interaction of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel2006In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 170, no 1-4, p. 17-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-disciplinary research project has been implemented because of increased awareness of the potential environmental effects caused by dispersion of metals from external applications into the environment. The work comprises a 4-year (1998-2002) field exposure of grades 304 and 316 stainless steels, and a laboratory percolation study simulating 20-25 years of chromium and nickel containing runoff water interactions with soil. Total metal annual release rates varied between 0.2 and 0.7 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Cr, between 0.1 and 0.8 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Ni and between 10 and 200 mg m(-2) yr(-1) for Fe. Most Cr and Ni is present in an ionic form as a result of the limited presence of organic matter at the immediate release situation. Metal ion concentrations in the runoff water are far below reported ecotoxic concentrations. Studies of the environmental interaction between runoff water from stainless steel and soil show the majority of released Cr and Ni to be retained and their concentrations in percolation water to be very low (0.5-1 mu g L-1 and 1-5.5 mu g L-1 for Cr and Ni, respectively). Speciation calculations showed Cr to be primarily complexed to dissolved organic carbon while Ni also was present in an ionic form in the solution phase. Soil extractions showed Cr and Ni to be very strongly retained within the soil.

  • 15.
    Olofsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Rasul, Hedi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lundmark, Annika
    Spread of Water-Borne Pollutants at Traffic Accidents on Roads2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 9, article id 323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill. The infiltration and flow paths of water-borne substances were described during simulated discharge of pollutants on different road types. Full-scale tracer tests using sodium chloride were carried out at nine different road locations in Sweden. Analysis of grain size distribution and infiltrometer tests were carried out at the road shoulder and verges. The pathways and travel times were traced using resistivity measurements and 3D inverse modeling. The resistivity measurements were compared to analytical flow calculations and 1D and 2D dynamic modeling. All measurement sites were highly heterogeneous, which caused preferential flow. Vertical flow velocities of 1.4-8.6 x 10(-4) m/s were measured. The results of the analytical calculations and flow modeling were of the same order of magnitude. The measurements showed that almost all infiltration goes directly into the road embankment, hence the composition and structure of the built-up road must be considered. The non-destructive resistivity measurements and 3D modeling provided useful information for clarifying the infiltration and flow pattern of water-borne compounds from road runoff.

  • 16.
    Rasul, Hedi
    et al.
    Koya University.
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Detecting seasonal flow pathways in road structures using tracer tests and ERTIn: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and traffic can be a source of water-bound pollutants, which can percolate through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. Deicing salt is widely used on roads in northern Europe during winter and is usually applied at a time when the temperature is below zero and the soil is partly frozen. Understanding the mechanism by which water-bound pollutants such as deicing salt are transferred from roads to groundwater is highly important for groundwater protection, environmental sustainability and road maintenance. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used for tracing the infiltration of deicing salt in different seasons, including the frozen period, as a step towards identifying pollutant infiltration pathways. In this study, a tracer-ERT monitoring method and analytical process was developed and evaluated for use in investigating and demonstrating deicing salt infiltration pathways in road structures in different seasons and weather conditions. The method involves using dissolved sodium chloride as a tracer and monitoring its infiltration using a multi-electrode array system. The tracer tests were performed at the same location in different seasons over a one-year period.

    The results indicated high seasonal variation in percolation pattern and flow velocity, with large decreases in December (winter), most likely due to preferential flow paths within the road shoulder. These findings can be applied to other water-soluble pollutants that move from the road surface to groundwater.

  • 17.
    Rasul, Hedi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Koya Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Fac Engn, KOY45, Koya, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Detecting Seasonal Flow Pathways in Road Structures Using Tracer Tests and ERT2018In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 229, no 11, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and traffic can be a source of water-bound pollutants, which can percolate through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. Deicing salt is widely used on roads in northern Europe during winter and is usually applied at a time when the temperature is below zero and the soil is partly frozen. Understanding the mechanism by which water-bound pollutants such as deicing salt are transferred from roads to groundwater is highly important for groundwater protection, environmental sustainability and road maintenance. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used for tracing the infiltration of deicing salt in different seasons, including the frozen period, as a step towards identifying pollutant infiltration pathways. In this study, a tracer-ERT monitoring method and analytical process was developed and evaluated for use in investigating and demonstrating deicing salt infiltration pathways in road structures in different seasons and weather conditions. The method involves using dissolved sodium chloride as a tracer and monitoring its infiltration using a multi-electrode array system. The tracer tests were performed at the same location in different seasons over a 1-year period. The results indicated high seasonal variation in percolation pattern and flow velocity, with large decreases in December (winter), most likely due to preferential flow paths within the road shoulder. These findings can be applied to other water-soluble pollutants that move from the road surface to groundwater.

  • 18.
    Salmistraro, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Fernández, I.
    Dosta, J.
    Plaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Mata, J.
    Mainstream Deammonification: Preliminary Experience Employing Granular AOB-Enriched Biomass at Low DO Values2017In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, no 5, article id 178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deammonification process represents one of the most convenient pathways for nitrogen removal from wastewater. A great deal of scientific articles dwells on the treatment of sidestream fluxes, whereas applications to mainstream waters represent a novel field. Among the general challenges of deammonification, one of the most important is the effective selection of ammonia oxidizers (AOB) over nitrite oxidizers (NOB), but also the typical slow start-up periods. In addition to such issues, mainstream deammonification has to face water temperatures and alkalinity reserves lower than those of sidestream fluxes and higher content of organic matter. An attempt was made to tackle such challenges by employing a lab-scale plant; low dissolved oxygen (DO) values (average 0.78 mg/L) and granular AOB-enriched biomass were used in order to address exclusion of nitrite oxidizers. The granules also allowed better biomass retention. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was established initially at 24 h and later decreased to 12 h, as to possibly enhance the performance of the reactor. After 52 days of operation, Anammox biomass was also inoculated to the reactor. The results showed a maximum nitrogen removal efficiency of 54%. Moreover, little quantities of nitrates were observed throughout the experiment (<5 mg N/L twice, under the limit of quantification the rest of the sampling days), meaning that NOB out-selection techniques worked properly. Retention of biomass was also positively addressed and yielded a final SRT value of 15.6 days. Therefore, the proposed solution for mainstream deammonification was demonstrated to be promising and more research would be necessary to optimize it.

  • 19. Stjernman Forsberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Ledin, Stig
    Leaching of metals from oxidising sulphide mine tailings with and without sewage sludge application2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 194, no 1-4, p. 331-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 20-month column experiment investigated leaching of Al, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb during sulphide oxidation in mine tailings with and without sewage sludge (SS) amendment. Leachate pH decreased gradually in all columns during the experiment, irrespective of treatment, due to sulphide oxidation. As the degree of sulphide oxidation, and thus the pH trajectory, differed between replicates (n=3), running data for each column used are reported separately and the relationships between sulphide oxidation, metal leaching and treatment in each column compared. Mean pH in the columns correlated negatively with total amounts of leached SO4 (2-). In the beginning of the experiment the leachate concentrations of Al, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were higher in SS-treated columns due to high initial concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. As leaching proceeded, however, the amounts of Al, Cu, Mn and Ni leached from the columns were closely related to the degree of sulphide oxidation in each column, i.e. to its mean pH. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments regarding the total amounts of metals leached and thus addition of sewage sludge to the tailings appeared to play a minor role for metal leaching patterns. Peak concentrations of Al and Cu in the leachate from untreated tailings and of Zn in the leachate from both untreated and SS-treated tailings at pH 4 exceeded national background values for groundwater.

  • 20.
    Sundberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Karlsson, Per-Erik
    Göteborg University.
    Schenk, Linda
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Variation in ozone concentration in relation to local climate in south-west Sweden2006In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 5, no 1-4, p. 339-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wiséen, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Wester-Herber, Misse
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Dirty soil and clean consciences: Examining communication of contaminated soil2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, no 1-4, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification and remediation of contaminated sites in Europe is a continuous undertaking that includes different aspects. There are many variables to take into consideration such as the nature of the contaminants, the risks they pose, the location of the site and possible future usages. Also, possible negative effects on the local residents or the environment have to be considered. Within this context, it is necessary to establish a communication between different actors, such as industry, authorities and municipalities, as well as with the surrounding public. This can be done in a variety of ways, where some are more useful and constructive than others. In the present study, eight different construction companies and municipalities were interviewed in order to elicit their views on and experiences of risk communication. The results show that even though most actors were seriously committed to involve and respond to the local populations' concerns and fears, there is certainly room for improvement in many areas. Concluding remarks call for an increased exchange of experiences with all actors involved in risk research and to develop better official guidelines for communicating risks that are specific for contaminated soil.

1 - 21 of 21
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