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  • 1. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Hobbs, Benjamin F.
    Blyth, Will
    MacGill, Iain
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Interactions between energy security and climate change: A focus on developing countries2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 6, 3750-3756 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We briefly consider the tensions between climate change and energy security policy imperatives, and highlight some concepts that may bring additional clarity to decision-making at the nexus of the two areas. We focus on developing countries and use the case of the Medupi supercritical coal plant in South Africa. The justification for the plant's construction stemmed from an Integrated Resource Planning process informed by South Africa's national utility. Often, as in the case of South Africa, there are tensions not easily captured in quantitative algorithms between, inter alia, a lack of access to electricity by millions of people (and associated welfare losses) and greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation. It is difficult to identify any formal processes that have prioritised climate change considerations over those of energy access. Thus, it becomes imperative to have a clear understanding of the consequences of this reality when considering power system expansion. We find that the processes often employed do not provide an entirely satisfactory precedent for future planning analyses, and the justifications do not adequately reflect the complexity of the decision space. Finally, we highlight some options by which these tools might be enhanced in areas including explicit and formal consideration of risk.

  • 2. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rice, Andrew
    Rotich, Juliana
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    DeCarolis, Joseph
    Macmillan, Stuart
    Brooks, Cameron
    Bauer, Florian
    Liebreich, Michael
    Open source software and crowdsourcing for energy analysis2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 49, 149-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informed energy decision making requires effective software, high-quality input data, and a suitably trained user community. Developing these resources can be expensive and time consuming. Even when data and tools are intended for public re-use they often come with technical, legal, economic and social barriers that make them difficult to adopt, adapt and combine for use in new contexts. We focus on the promise of open, publically accessible software and data as well as crowdsourcing techniques to develop robust energy analysis tools that can deliver crucial, policy-relevant insight, particularly in developing countries, where planning resources are highly constrained-and the need to adapt these resources and methods to the local context is high. We survey existing research, which argues that these techniques can produce high-quality results, and also explore the potential role that linked, open data can play in both supporting the modelling process and in enhancing public engagement with energy issues.

  • 3. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, 7896-7906 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 4. Cagno, E.
    et al.
    Ramirez-Portilla, Andres
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Trianni, A.
    Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 83, 240-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers.

  • 5. Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Linden, Anna-Lisa
    Energy efficiency in residences - Challenges for women and men in the North2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 4, 2163-2172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Northern country such as Sweden, energy use in the home may be reduced by 20% through changes in behaviour. However, little is known about how households respond to policy instruments encouraging such change or to what degree this in turn may affect the workload of women and men in such communities. The current study presents findings from interviews with 30 households in Sweden that participated in intervention measures aimed at reducing energy use in the home and explores how the sexes divided the new household chores and their opinions regarding these. The empirical findings are analysed against a theoretical framework of behavioural change. Results from the interviews indicate that lower indoor temperature and fewer hot baths had a greater impact on women than on men. When electricity charges varied, the workload of women increased as they washed clothes and dishes at night and at weekends when electricity was cheaper. Women also refrained from using clothes' driers resulting in more time spent completing this chore. Based on these results we argue that a gender perspective in future intervention programmes in Northern communities may be useful as residential energy conservation in its present form affects the timing and types of household chores with resulting increased workload for women. How energy policy should change requires further analysis.

  • 6.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rational climate mitigation goals2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 56, 285-292 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the UNFCCC is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In policy practice, this goal is mainly operationalized through three types of mitigation targets: emission, atmospheric concentration and temperature targets. The typical function of climate mitigation goals is to regulate action towards goal achievement. This is done in several ways. Mitigation goals help the structuring of the greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement action, over time and between agents; they constitute a standard against which GHG abatement can be assessed and evaluated; they motivate climate conscious behavior; and discourage defection from cooperative abatement regimes. Although the three targets clearly relate to one another, there could be differences in how well they fulfill these functions. In this article, the effectiveness of emission, concentration and temperature targets in guiding and motivating action towards the UNFCCC's overall aim is analyzed using a framework for rational goal evaluation developed by Edvardsson and Hansson (2005) as an analytical tool. It is argued that to regulate action effectively, mitigation goals should ideally satisfy four criteria: precision, evaluability, attainability and motivity. Only then can the target fulfill its typical function, i.e., to guide' and motivate action in a way that facilitates goal achievement.

  • 7.
    Eid, Cherrelle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 75, 244-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering.

  • 8.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hoglund, Jonas
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 73, 416-426 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection.

  • 9. Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 2, 1346-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels.

  • 10.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Winds of time: Lessons from Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago, 1990-20012013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, 124-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the success or failure of different wind power projects, it is essential to take into account how they were historically situated. This study focuses on attempts to develop wind power in an archipelago setting, at Utö in Sweden. It has been argued that the development of Swedish wind power slowed during the 1990s; by revisiting the early days of wind power, looking at resistance and support, and connecting success factors, this can be further investigated.

    Whereas earlier research pointed out institutional conditions and site-specific conditions as crucial for successful wind power development and acceptance, the picture can be made more complete by discussing how wind power projects are affected by time-specific historical conditions. In the case of Utö, these can partly be associated with a newly launched political support program that gave the project political legitimacy and added a “pioneering spirit” to the endeavor. Conversely, when wind power is not seen as “pioneering” or “experimental” any more, but as a mere industrial activity, other incentives may need to be offered to municipalities.

  • 11. Fuso Nerini, Francesco
    et al.
    Andreoni, Antonio
    Bauner, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Powering production: The case of the sisal fibre production in the Tanga region, Tanzania2016In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 98, 544-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy plays a crucial role in economic development. The article presents a framework for the analysis of alternative energy technology mixes in agricultural production and applies it in the context of sisal production in the Tanga region, Tanzania. Through scenario analysis, the paper presents both case-specific and generalizable insights. Case-specific insights show the key role that modern uses of energy and modern agricultural technologies could play in increasing productivity and revenues, in minimizing environmental degradation, and in promoting local development. Generalizable insights demonstrate the value of using sector-specific micro-structural frameworks and scenario analysis for assessing different technologies mixes in the energy and agriculture planning process.

  • 12. Gonzalez, A. D.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Crivelli, E. S.
    Gortari, S.
    Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 4, 2141-2150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m(2) per year.. while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m(2) per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable.)

  • 13. Grandclement, Catherine
    et al.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Guy, Simon
    Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 84, 213-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings.

  • 14.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Peter
    Tekniska högskolan vid Linköpings universitet.
    Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 13, 1508-1519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating networks can technically enable energy-related co-operations between energy-intensive industries and municipal energy companies. The most common form of co-operation is to utilise industrial waste heat as the primary energy source in district heating networks. However, another type of co-operation is to jointly own a plant that produces both process steam for the industry and hot water for district heating. In this article, eight Swedish energy co-operations are studied and the main focus is on the process leading to co-operations of this kind. Different aspects of factors that facilitate or obstruct the start up and continuous daily operation of a co-operation are discussed. The main conclusion is that while the primary reasons for the foundation of such co-operations are favourable techno-economic factors, this is not enough for a co-operation to emerge. This study highlights the importance of people with a real ambition to co-operate in both parties in the co-operations.

  • 15.
    Gullberg, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Elec. Supply Company Ltd..
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Village electrification technologies: an evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case study2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 10, 1287-1298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example.

    In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact.

    The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO, emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service.

  • 16. Guy, Simon
    et al.
    Lewis, Alan
    Karvonen, Andrew
    Conditioning demand: Older people, thermal comfort and low-carbon housing2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 84, 191-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, 6251-6260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  • 18.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The last mile in the Brazilian Amazon - A potential pathway for universal electricity access2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 82, 23-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos - LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in the last decade. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. Yet, there are still important challenges to provide the service to inhabitants of remote areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We identify these challenges within institutional, technology, and funding structures operating within LPT. In line with these challenges, we propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas of the region. The proposed pathway is based on three key leverage points: (i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; (ii) the implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and (iii) optimized subsidies. It has the potential to allow (i) a better dimensioning of off-grid solutions considering local resources and realities, (ii) the creation of adapted institutions capable of implementing and operating the required systems and, (iii) an effective operation of off-grid solutions.

  • 19. Hansson, Anders
    et al.
    Bryngelsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Expert opinions on carbon dioxide capture and storage: a framing of uncertainties and possibilities2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 6, 2273-2282 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the development of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS)-e.g., when it comes to costs, life-cycle effects, storage capacity and permanence. In spite of these uncertainties and barriers, the CCS research community is generally very optimistic regarding CCS' development. The discrepancy between the uncertainties and the optimism is the point of departure in this study, which is based on interviews with 24 CCS experts. The aim is to analyse experts' framings of CCS with focus on two key aspects: (i) the function and potential of CCS and (ii) uncertainties. The optimism among the CCS experts is tentatively explained. The interpretative flexibility of CCS is claimed to be an essential explanation for the optimism. CCS is promoted from a wide variety of perspectives, e.g., solidarity and peace, bridge to a sustainable energy system, sustaining the modern lifestyle and compatibility with the fossil fuel lock-in. Awareness of the uncertainties and potential over-optimism is warranted within policy and decision making as they often rely on scientific forecasts and experts' judgements.

  • 20.
    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad R.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Biggar, Darryl R.
    Hosseinzadeh, Nasser
    The TC-PSI indicator for forecasting the potential for market power in wholesale electricity markets2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 10, 5988-5998 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wholesale electricity market regulators have long sought a simple, reliable, transparent indicator of the likely impact of wholesale market developments on the exercise of market power. Conventional indicators, such as the Pivotal Supplier Indicator (PSI) and the Residual Supply Index (RSI) cannot be extended to apply to meshed transmission networks, especially when generating companies hold a portfolio of generating units at different locations on the network. This paper proposes a generalisation of these standard measures termed the "Transmission-Constrained Pivotal Supplier Indicator (IC-PSI)". The TC-PSI of a generating company is defined as the maximum must-run generation for any subset of generating plant while allowing for strategic operation of other plant in the portfolio. We illustrate the use of the TC-PSI using a five-node model of the Australian NEM.

  • 21.
    Howells, Mark I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Jonsson, Sandra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Käck, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Lloyd, Philip
    Bennett, Kevin
    Leiman, Tony
    Conradie, Beatrice
    Calabashes for kilowatt-hours: Rural energy and market failure2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, 2729-2738 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how management and information failures can retard transitions from the traditional use of biomass fuel by low income rural consumers and micro-producers. In general, societies move away from traditional biomass use as economic development takes place. If one accepts the doctrine of revealed preference (built on the initial work of Samuelson, 1938), then these trends imply that such transitions provide net gains in utility. This paper shows how various "failures" entrench existing fuel use patterns-hindering the transition to new fuel use patterns. In order to qualitatively discuss how these transitions may take place, an indicative neo-classical description of consumer and producer behavior is used. Three types fuel-transition "driver" are identified. The effect of information and management failures on these drivers, and thus the energy transition, is discussed. Reference is made to a specific case study in which a partial transition from biomass occurred in response to an intervention to address an environmental management failure (the deforesting of a carbon sink.) It is concluded that interventions to encourage transitions to cleaner sustainable fuel use may need to recognize and address management and information failures in a systematic manner.

  • 22.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Holger
    Strachan, Neil
    Heaps, Charles
    Huntington, Hillard
    Kypreos, Socrates
    Hughes, Alison
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    DeCarolis, Joe
    Bazillian, Morgan
    Roehrl, Alexander
    OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System An introduction to its ethos, structure and development2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 10, 5850-5870 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model.

  • 23.
    Högselius, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: An international comparison2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 1, 254-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the world's nuclear power countries differ from each other with respect to their spent nuclear fuel (SNF) policies. The emergence and evolution of three principal SNF approaches are analyzed: direct disposal, reprocessing and SNF export. Five broad explanatory factors are identified and discussed in relation to the observed differences in policy outcomes: military ambitions and non-proliferation, technological culture, political culture and civil society, geological conditions, and energy policy. SNF policy outcomes can generally be seen to result from a complex interaction between these broad factors, but it is also possible to discern a number of important patterns. To the extent that the five factors may undergo far-reaching changes in the future, the historical experience of how they have shaped SNF policies also give a hint of possible future directions in SNF policymaking around the world.

  • 24.
    Högselius, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), History of Science and Technology.
    The politics of electricity deregulation in Sweden: the art of acting on multiple arenas2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 5, 2245-2254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the deregulation of the Swedish electricity industry as a political process. Discussions about deregulation started in the late 1980s. A first step in the process was the corporatization of the Swedish state-owned utility Vattenfall in 1992. The deregulatory process culminated with the new Electricity Law, which entered into force in 1996. We investigate in historical depth how a diverse range of actors contributed to shaping both the new institutional environment and the political discourse. The article scrutinizes not only the formal political decision-making process and the activities of a variety of ministries, boards and agencies, but also the processes by which energy companies and other relevant industrial actors influenced the outcome of the regulatory reforms. We explicitly focus on activities taking place on both political and business arenas, showing that major stakeholders acted on several arenas simultaneously to influence the deregulatory process and that the large power companies were most skilful in doing so. We also show that activities on the political and business arenas mutually reinforced each other in shaping the new regulatory framework.

  • 25.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Indicators for assessment of rural electrification: an approach for the comparison of apples and pears2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, 2665-2673 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

    An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility.

    This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies.

    It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk.

  • 26.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    And then they lived sustainably ever after?: Assessment of rural electrification cases by means of indicators2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, 2674-2684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the current low level of access to electricity in developing countries is important for economic development and poverty eradication. Encouraging the involvement of new actors for implementation of rural electrification projects is a relatively new policy. At the same time, it is required that the projects contribute to sustainable development. It is therefore of interest to investigate whether, for instance, private sector involvement can contribute more to some aspects of sustainability than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. It seems that so far no studies have addressed this issue.

    This paper presents findings from field trips to seven rural electrification areas in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these studies can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators.

    The field studies generated valuable experiences regarding collection of data for evaluation of the indicators and illustrate some difficulties associated with comparing the different aspects of sustainability.

    The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

  • 27.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Gullberg, Monica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Katyega, Maneno
    Tanzania Electric Supply Co. Ltd..
    Chambala, William
    Urambo Elec. Consumers Cooperative.
    Electrification co-operatives bring new light to rural Tanzania2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 10, 1299-1307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possibility to accelerate the progress of rural electrification in developing Countries could be to form independent electrification co-operatives that are allowed to generate and distribute electric power and set their own tariffs. This approach has been successfully tried in the village Urambo, located about 80 km west of Tabora in Tanzania. The co-operative was formed in 1993 and started regular operation in 1994 with 67 consumers. The co-operative received initial financial support for rehabilitation of a diesel power plant and some other investments. The national utility TANESCO has provided technical support and training for operators and an accountant. Despite a tariff more than 15 times higher than in the nearby town Tabora that is served by TANESCO, the number of consumers in Urambo has been growing and reached 241 in October 2002. About 70% of the Supplied electricity in 2002 was used by households, 15% in businesses, 12% in institutions and public buildings and approximately 3% for street lighting. The reliability of the supply has improved from 80% in 1994, to 97% during 2002. The experiences must be considered as very promising. Several more electrification co-operatives have been formed in Tanzania and are looking for financing for the necessary initial investments.

  • 28. Kangas, H. -L
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Kivimaa, P.
    Technical skills, disinterest and non-functional regulation: Barriers to building energy efficiency in Finland viewed by energy service companies2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 114, 63-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in the building stock is a substantial contributor to climate change. Integrated energy service companies (IESCs) have a potentially important role in improving energy efficiency. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the energy efficiency barriers in the Finnish building sector based on data from interviews with twelve IESCs. Taking a novel supply side perspective, we place IESCs at the centre of the emerging energy services business ecosystem to identify the barriers and hindering factors (real world illustrations of barriers). From this perspective, we also examine cause-effect relationships between the hindering factors and the actors. Hindering factors, reported by IESCs, were categorised under a revised barrier taxonomy consisting of economic market failures and economic market, behavioural, organisational and institutional barriers. The most salient hindering factors—lack of technical skills, disinterest in energy efficiency improvements and non-functional regulation—were analysed with respect to ecosystem actors causing and affected by these factors. Public actors have a key role in overcoming these barriers, for instance, by creating new possibilities for entrants to take part in decision-making, increasing the functionality and practicality of policies and by providing up-to date energy efficiency information.

  • 29. Kennedy, Christopher
    et al.
    Steinberger, Julia
    Gasson, Barrie
    Hansen, Yvonne
    Hillman, Timothy
    Havranek, Miroslav
    Pataki, Diane
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    Dhurakij Pundit Univ, Dept Energy Management, Bangkok 10210, Thailand.
    Ramaswami, Anu
    Villalba Mendez, Gara
    Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 9, 4828-4837 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  • 30.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, Brazil.
    Seabra, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, and Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Accounting greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 47, 384-397 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses four European and American regulatory schemes designed for accounting lifecycle GHG emissions in relation to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol. The objective is to critically examine the methodologies and associated parameters used in existing regulatory schemes for calculating GHG emissions, and to explore methodological convergences. The issues related to direct lifecycle and indirect land use change emissions have been addressed. It is found that there are commonalities between the European Renewable Energy Directive (EU-RED) and the UK's Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (UK-RTFO), but the US-EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard (US-EPA) and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard of the California Air Resources Board (CA-CARB) vary greatly not only among themselves, but also in relation to the European regulations. Agricultural practices (especially soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics), co-product credits from surplus electricity and uncertainties around economic modeling approaches for indirect land use change are the major areas where methodological divergences exist. Incorporation of domestic agricultural practices, sugarcane mills operations, and realistic modeling of indirect impacts of land use change using regional models could provide more coherence in estimations of GHG emissions. Furthermore, the Brazilian trend of novelty in all phases of sugarcane bioenergy systems should be considered when projecting GHG emissions.

  • 31. Kimming, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, A.
    Hansson, P. -A
    Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural district heating systems: Climate impact and production costs2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 78, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes.

  • 32.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Aviation and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme-Lessons learned from previous emissions trading schemes2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 49, 770-773 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing an emissions trading scheme requires in-depth knowledge regarding several aspects. This paper attempts to clarify some important design points of the forthcoming emissions trading scheme for aviation under the EU ETS. Five general key points of system design are acknowledged and comparisons are made to previous and current emission trading schemes. While it is not meant to be exhaustive it helps to create an understanding of what design elements should be handled with caution. Discussion is provided in regard to the recent implementation of aviation in the EU ETS. Above all, it is argued that initial allocations of emission permits and the trade barrier between the aviation sector and EU ETS need to be carefully examined.

  • 33.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, 1276-1287 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate targets for cities abound. However, what these targets really imply is dependent on a number of decisions regarding system boundaries and methods of calculation. In order to understand and compare cities' climate targets, there is a need for a generic and comprehensive framework of key methodological considerations. This paper identifies eight key methodological considerations for the different choices that can be made when setting targets for GHG emissions in a city and arranges them in four categories: temporal scope of target, object for target setting, unit of target, and range of target. To explore how target setting is carried out in practice, the climate targets of eight European cities were analysed. The results showed that these targets cover only a limited part of what could be included. Moreover, the cities showed quite limited awareness of what is, or could be, include in the targets. This makes comparison and benchmarking between cities difficult.

  • 34.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Dieselization in Sweden2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 54, 42-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the market share of diesel cars grew from below 10 per cent in 2005 to 62 per cent in 2011 despite a closing gap between pump prices on diesel oil and gasoline, and diesel cars being less favored than ethanol and biogas cars in terms of tax cuts and other subsidies offered to "environment cars". The most important factor behind the dieselization was probably the market entrance of a number of low-consuming models. Towards the end of the period a growing number of diesel models were able to meet the 120 g CO2 threshold applicable to "environment cars" that cannot use ethanol or biogas. This helped such models increase their share of the diesel car market from zero to 41 per cent. Dieselization appears to have had only a minor effect on annual distances driven. The higher average annual mileage of diesel cars is probably to a large extent a result of a self-selection bias. However, the Swedish diesel car fleet is young, and the direct rebound effect stemming from a lower variable driving cost may show up more clearly as the fleet gets older based on the assumption that second owners are more fuel price sensitive than first owners.

  • 35. Labordena, M.
    et al.
    Patt, A.
    Bazilian, M.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Lilliestam, J.
    Impact of political and economical barriers for concentrating solar power in Sub-Saharan Africa2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 102, 52-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) needs additional affordable and reliable electricity to fuel its social and economic development. Ideally, all of this new supply is carbon-neutral. The potentials for renewables in SSA suffice for any conceivable demand, but the wind power and photovoltaic resources are intermittent and difficult to integrate in the weak electricity grids. Here, we investigate the potential for supplying SSA demand centers with dispatchable electricity from concentrating solar power (CSP) stations equipped with thermal storage. We show that, given anticipated cost reductions from technological improvements, power from CSP could be competitive with coal power in Southern Africa by 2025; but in most SSA countries, power from CSP may not be competitive. We also show that variations in risk across countries influences the cost of power from CSP more than variations in solar resources. If policies to de-risk CSP investment to financing cost levels found in industrialized countries were successfully implemented, power from CSP could become cheaper than coal power by 2025 in all SSA countries. Policies to increase institutional capacity and cooperation among SSA countries could reduce costs further. With dedicated policy measures, therefore, CSP could become an economically attractive electricity option for all SSA countries.

  • 36.
    Langbroek, Joram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption2016In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 94, 94-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    When do you charge your electric vehicle?: A stated adaptation approach2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, 565-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) is likely to contribute to a more sustainable transport system. However, charging EVs will increase the load on the electricity network. The maximum load may be minimized by coordinating the timing of charging activities, in order to spread electricity demand more equally over the course of a day. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effects of two different temporal price differentiation strategies on stated charging time are investigated, including socio-demographic, behavioural and socio-psychological variables. In a situation without charging time coordination, a peak in charging events is likely to occur during the early evening. Temporal price differentiation has a significant influence on charging time and in particular the level of price differentiation matters. The likelihood to change charging time differs and different alternative time slots are chosen when comparing high to low levels of price differentiation. People that have more knowledge about EVs have a higher chance to change their charging time, whereas people that have the tendency to plan their trips long time beforehand are less likely to adjust their charging time in the scenarios with temporal price differentiation.

  • 38.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Pricing principles and incentives for energy efficiency investments in multi-family rental housing: The case of Sweden2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 49, 528-530 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the energy efficiency of the existing housing stock is a high priority in Sweden. The focus of this viewpoint is on how incentives for improving energy efficiency are affected by pricing principles in two specific areas: housing rents and district heating fees. Many countries have regulations that affect how housing rent is determined. It has been shown that cost-based rents reduce incentives for energy efficiency. The same may occur if rent is related to qualities of the apartment, if these qualities do not include the indoor climate. There have been concerns that district heating companies might respond to lower sales by increasing prices, thus reducing any incentive to reduce energy consumption. It is argued that this will not happen if fixed and variable fees correctly reflect the cost structure. Empirical studies show that it is common to have a variable fee that is higher than the marginal cost, partly because of monopoly elements in the market. This type of pricing will actually strengthen the incentives for energy efficiency investments compared to theoretically correct pricing principles.

  • 39. Linden, A. L.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Voluntary agreements - a measure for energy-efficiency in industry? Lessons from a Swedish programme2002In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 30, no 10, 897-905 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voluntary agreements represent a policy instrument for applying new knowledge, routines or technology to specified issues. The traditional role of an authority when using information, and taking economic, or administrative measures is that of an initiator and controller. Voluntary agreements, on the other hand, represent a communication process between an authority and a partner where relations of dependency and mutuality are more important in advancing the programme. This article analyses and discusses the motivational aspects of voluntary agreements, the role of the contract, advising, information, education, time planning and the importance of reporting and evaluation in energy-efficiency programmes. Besides sociological and communication theories, the discussion is based on the outcome of an evaluation of a Swedish energy-efficiency programme. Among the conclusions are that communication processes have to be planned and implemented in time sequences and steps of measures, which was partially neglected in the Swedish programme. Also, agreements between partners have to be defined in ways valid for all partners. In the Swedish programme, quantitative goals, at least measured in kWh, were impossible to achieve for some industries. On the other hand, most industries reported progress in side effects of energy efficiency as for example transportation policy for products, recirculation of waste material, lighting policy and behaviour, qualifications for ISO labelling. Information in combination with voluntary agreements can be efficient for industrial energy conservation. The education and auditing that was part of the Swedish programme were highly appreciated and added to the achievements.

  • 40. Linden, A. L.
    et al.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Eriksson, B.
    Efficient and inefficient aspects of residential energy behaviour: What are the policy instruments for change?2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 14, 1918-1927 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical part of this study is based on a survey of 600 Swedish households and a number of interviews where questions about residential energy behaviour and possible policy instruments for change were raised. The study provides insight into current behavioural patterns and gives a bottom-up perspective on the realistic perspective potentials for change and ways to achieve them. Residential energy use accounts for a fifth of the total in Northern nations and patterns of behaviour may influence levels of energy use to the same extent as choice of appliances. The study revealed those behavioural patterns that are efficient and those that need to be improved for energy conservation. Several policy instruments for change were identified in the study and they include combinations of information, economic measures, administrative measures and more user friendly technology as well as equipment with sufficient esthetic quality. Policy instruments that have fostered energy efficient behaviour in Sweden include the massive information campaigns during the oil crises in the 1970s as well as energy labelling of appliances. Still, many households are energy-unaware and several energy efficient behaviours are motivated not by energy conservation concern but of a perceived lack of time. This shows that it is important to have a broad perspective in energy conservation, to evaluate trends and to use policy instruments timely to support or discourage them.

  • 41.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Sandberg, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Forest-derived methane in the Swedish transport sector: A closing window?2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, 440-450 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived methane could complement biogas from anaerobic digestion as a transport fuel. The conditions for a systemic transition have been analyzed in this article. The analysis contains three blocks: the vehicle gas development, the policy framework, and commercial projects to produce methane from forest biomass. The results reveal that several conditions for a systemic transition are in place. There is established infrastructure for feedstock supply and biofuels distribution. Infrastructure development is an important albeit not determining factor. Private and public actors have advanced plans for commercial scale plants, technological know-how, and experience from a demonstration plant. However, a major barrier for a systemic transition is the low predictability of Swedish policy instruments. The Swedish government is not free to design policy instruments but must consider compatibility with the EU framework and has changed the energy tax on biofuels several times to avoid overcompensation according to the EU regulation. This has contributed to the low predictability. The interviewees have suggested several concrete policy instruments. However, they have also emphasized that the exact design of the policy instruments is less important than the predictability of the support. 

  • 42.
    Mandell, Svante
    VTI-Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Policies towards a more efficient car fleet2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, 5184-5191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO(2) emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  • 43. Moellersten, Kenneth
    et al.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    All CO2 is equal in the atmosphere - A comment on CDM GHG accounting standards for methane recovery and oxidation projects2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 7, 3675-3680 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting with respect to two categories of methane recovery and oxidation activities (coal bed or coal mine methane recovery and landfill gas (LFG) recovery) within the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is analysed. It is found that baseline methodologies approved by the CDM Executive Board apply systematically inconsistent assumptions concerning the global warming impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the oxidation of methane. One important implication of the results is that applying the baseline methodologies approved for project activities involving LFG recovery will lead to overestimation of the net GHG abatement effect of such CDM project activities.

  • 44.
    Mohseni, Farzad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Görling, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    The competitiveness of synthetic natural gas as a propellant in the Swedish fuel market2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 52, 810-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The road transport sector today is almost exclusively dependent on fossil fuels. Consequently, it will need to face a radical change if it aims to switch from a fossil-based system to a renewable-based system. Even though there are many promising technologies under development, they must also be economically viable to be implemented. This paper studies the economic feasibility of synthesizing natural gas through methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water electrolysis. It is shown that the main influences for profitability are electricity prices, synthetic natural gas (SNG) selling prices and that the by-products from the process are sold. The base scenario generates a 16% annual return on investment assuming that SNG can be sold at the same price as petrol. A general number based on set conditions was that the SNG must be sold at a price about 2.6 times higher per kWh than when bought in form of electricity. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the running costs weigh more heavily than the yearly investment cost and off-peak production can therefore still be economically profitable with only a moderate reduction of electricity price. The calculations and prices are based on Swedish prerequisites but are applicable to other countries and regions.

  • 45.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Goldenberg, Romain
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Deal, Brian
    University of Illinois Urbana Champaign.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Integrating ecosystem services in the assessment of urban energy trajectories: A study of the Stockholm Region2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 100, 338-349 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban development trajectories are changing towards compact, energy-efficient cities and renewable energy sources, and this will strongly affect ecosystem services (ES) that cities are dependent on but tend to disregard. Such ES can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, around which competition over land resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of this can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions that are simultaneously the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical urban policy decisions, tools for integrated assessment of urban energy and transport options and ecosystem services need to be developed. For this purpose, a case study of the Stockholm region was conducted, analysing three scenarios for the future urbanisation of the region, integrating a transport energy perspective and an ES perspective. The results showed that a dense but polycentric development pattern gives more opportunities for sustainable urban development, while the dense monocentric scenario has apparent drawbacks from an ES perspective. The methodology is compatible with a model integration platform for urban policy support and will thus enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal of increasing their sustainability.

  • 46.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sustainability Aspects of Transport Bio-fuels from Black liquor gasification – a System Analysis2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Pacini, Henrique
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 11, 6936-6942 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline.

  • 48.
    Pandis Iverot, Sofie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The potential of the infrastructural system of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, Sweden2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 59, 716-726 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the integrated infrastructural system in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, also named the Hammarby Model, reduces the metabolic flows of the district, and to what extent the district is self-sufficient, in terms of generated energy. Furthermore, the paper aspires to help create a deeper understanding of the system in order to guide the implementation of similar models in other districts, creating more sustainable cities. The method has been to quantify the local mass and energy flows of the model, using the secondary energy generated within Hammarby Sjöstad as basis when creating the system boundaries of the calculations. The findings demonstrate that the Hammarby Model reduces the metabolic flows of Hammarby Sjöstad but that the district is far from self-sufficient in terms of secondary energy. The conclusions of the paper are that the development of integrated infrastructural systems is one way to help create more sustainable cities. However, in order to reduce metabolic flows even further, the efficiency of the system must be improved by integrating more renewable energy sources. At the same time less energy has to be used in the households.

  • 49. Rentschler, Jun
    et al.
    Kornejew, Martin
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Fossil fuel subsidy reforms and their impacts on firms2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 108, 617-623 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential adverse effects of fossil fuel subsidy reform are well documented for households, the literature has largely ignored the effect of subsidy reform on firms' competitiveness. This paper discusses how firms are affected by, and respond to, energy price increases caused by subsidy reforms. It highlights that cost increases (both direct and indirect) do not necessarily reflect competitiveness losses, since firms have various ways to mitigate and pass on price shocks. This paper presents and discusses direct and indirect transmission channels for price shocks, and firms' response measures: absorbing cost shocks into profits, inter-fuel substitution, increasing energy and material efficiency, and passing on price increases. It argues that further micro-econometric studies using enterprise surveys are essential for quantifying the role of these mechanisms, and for designing policy measures that ensure that competitiveness losses due to subsidy reforms are minimised.

  • 50.
    Scharff, Richard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Amelin, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Trading Behaviour on the Continuous Intraday Market Elbas2016In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 88, 544-557 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraday markets for electricity allow for trading of energy until shortly before the period of delivery. This offers market participants a possibility to reduce their expected imbalances and to offer own unused flexibility. Because this form of distributed balancing before the period of delivery can be profitable for market participants and beneficial for system operations, intraday trading is expected to gain more importance in future, especially with increasing shares of variable renewable energy sources in the generation mix.

    So far, intraday markets are still a research field with many open questions. This paper contributes by a first analysis of intraday trades on Elbas, one of the European intraday markets. The analysis gives a detailed picture on trading activity and price development and is intended to improve understanding of continuous intraday trading.

    Findings include that trading activity differs significantly between price zones, that most trades occur in the last hours before gate closure and that market participants have to handle substantial price variations during the trading period. The paper also investigates the imbalance settlement rules in the Nordic countries and studies which effects one- and two-price imbalance settlement systems have on the market participants' profitability of intraday trading.

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