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  • 1.
    Caesar, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law. Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Div Real Estate Planning & Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Div Real Estate Sci, Lund, Sweden..
    Municipal land allocations: a key for understanding tenure and social mix patterns in Stockholm2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1663-1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A socially mixed population is a political ambition in Stockholm. By providing a mix of tenure alternatives throughout all neighbourhoods this objective could, at least partially, be fulfilled. Since current tenure proportions display a weak balance in many neighbourhoods it could be assumed that governing politicians - by primarily utilizing Stockholm's vast landownership and municipal housing developers - attempt to bridge observed gaps. Distribution of new rental and ownership apartments in municipal land allocations should acknowledge the existing tenure composition in a neighbourhood. Methodically this article focuses on all (nearly 50,000) apartments channelled through Stockholm's land allocation system between 2002 and 2012. After classification of all apartments based on tenure, location, year and developer (private or municipal) the information is merged with yearly housing stock characteristics for 128 neighbourhoods. The outcome is a unique data set allowing for statistical assessment of whether Stockholm's tenure (and in extension social) mix ambition is reflected in practice. The present article aims to highlight the crucial importance of landownership in Swedish municipalities with an aspiration to achieve or maintain a balanced tenure mix. While the findings indicate Stockholm is complying fairly well with its ambition, the results do reveal some contradicting signs.

  • 2.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy.
    Rational Goals for the Urban Environment: A Swedish Example2009In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 1007-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the government's aim to create sustainable urban environments is expressed through the environmental quality objective A good built environment. The objective embraces seven sub-goals and is designed to guide central, regional and local authorities' planning towards urban sustainability. However, for objectives concerning the urban environment, such as the Swedish objective A good built environment, to form a solid basis for decision-making, two types of rationality (functionality) conditions ought to be met. First, the objectives should guide and motivate those who are responsible for their implementation. This is applicable when the goals satisfy the criteria of precision, evaluability, approachability and motivity. Second, when the goals are parts of larger goal systems, the goal systems should be coherent. Using the objective A good built environment as an empirical basis, this article gives a few examples of how environmental goals can fail to guide and motivate action towards improved urban sustainability.

  • 3. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Determinants of net migration to rural areas, and the impacts of migration on rural labor markets and self-employment in rural Sweden2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 693-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across most of Europe, the countryside seems to show a polarized development in which large districts are depopulating, while certain areas, mainly around big- and mid-sized cities, are increasing in population. The latter development is often described in concepts of “rural gentrification” and “rurbanization”, symbolizing a transformation of rural communities to communities with urban values and lifestyles. Most studies of the effects of these processes have focused on social and cultural consequences, as e.g. the displacements of lower-income households with higher-income residents and of rural culture and values with urban ones. This paper examines the phenomenon from another perspective, namely the effects of the “rurbanization” processes on countryside’s labour markets and economic life. This paper aims at analysing the determinants of net migration to rural areas in general and to different types of regions, and the impacts of inmigration on rural labour markets, self-employment and other socio-economic conditions in Sweden for the period of 2003–2005. We find that net migration into rural areas increases with the size of adjacent local and regional centres, whereas net migration decreases with the average commuting distance of workers in the rural areas. When comparing in-migrants to rural areas with rural area stayers, our results indicate that the former has lower incomes, a lower employment ratio and a lower degree of entrepreneurial activities. These differences could—at least partly—be explained by the fact that rural area stayers were on average 6 years older than rural area inmigrants, i.e. the two groups were in different stages of their life cycles.

  • 4.
    Grassini, Laura
    et al.
    Polytech Univ Bari, Dept Civil Environm Land Bldg Engn & Chem, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy..
    Monno, Valeria
    Polytech Univ Bari, Dept Civil Environm Land Bldg Engn & Chem, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy..
    Khakee, Abdul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Evaluating strategic metropolitan planning in Bari and Taranto2018In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1682-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the Italian Government's decision to fund strategic planning in order to promote a sustainable and competitive development in city-regions in southern Italy, the regional governments were asked to steer proactively strategic planning initiatives within their respective territory. In the cases of Bari and Taranto, it was the first time that 31 municipalities constituting Metropolitan Bari and 28 municipalities constituting sub-region Taranto attempted to think collectively in order to prepare the strategic plan. This paper evaluates strategic planning in Bari and Taranto sub-regions and discusses lessons learnt for future efforts in strategic planning. We examine why were the strategic plans made and how was the planning process organized and what, if any, impact these attempts had on development strategies and governance models at the urban-regional level.

  • 5.
    Högström, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University.
    Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions: exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners' experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives.

  • 6.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Winners, Losers and Optimal Re-location of a Mining Town: An Approach Using Alonso Bid-Rent Functions2015In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 2483-2496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kiruna, a mining town in the northern part of Sweden, is currently facing a serious planning problem. Rich quantities of iron ore underneath the town centre have led to a decision to re-locate the city and its residents. However, this does not affect all residents as some live just outside the risk zone. Thus, a re-distribution of wealth will occur when the distance to the town centre changes. This paper addresses two issues; first, is the re-location efficient in terms of this wealth re-distribution, that is, are the gains in property values larger than the losses from moving the city to the new location? and second, does the new location of Kiruna yield an efficient outcome, or could planners have chosen another location that would result in larger gains and smaller losses? Using a measure derived from Alonso bid-rent functions which is estimated with the spatial Durbin model, both these questions are assessed and the results indicate that moving the city centre does lead to gains that outweigh the losses, however, the proposed location of Kiruna does not yield an optimal result from this perspective.

  • 7. Mantysalo, Raine
    et al.
    Saglie, Inger-Lise
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Between Input Legitimacy and Output Efficiency: Defensive Routines and Agonistic Reflectivity in Nordic Land-Use Planning2011In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 2109-2126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes tensions generated in land-use planning practices in Norway, Finland and Sweden, due to the shift towards New Public Management in actual governance practices, while the ideals of deliberative democracy in planning discourses and legislation have been retained. These tensions are studied empirically by making comparative observations of planning systems and practices in each country. The theoretical approach is developed by combining democracy and legitimacy theories with double bind theory and organizational learning theory. Based on this theoretical work, the article offers insights for reflectivity on the tensions. The Nordic ideal of deliberative democracy, expressed in the primary aims of our planning laws, may prohibit open acknowledgement of the uneasiness which follows from the fact that liberal democratic values (rights of landownership, free enterprise, etc.) are also secured. Thereby planners act and speak in terms of mixed messages, potentially habituated into defensive routines that may prohibit metacommunication on the basic tensions. The idea of agonistic reflectivity is offered as an approach to planning, which would acknowledge the tension between input legitimacy and output efficiency as a legitimate condition in itself, requiring ongoing political debate where the tension has to be continually discussed without actually ever being resolved.

  • 8.
    Svensson, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Klofsten, M.
    Etzkowitz, H.
    An Entrepreneurial University Strategy for Renewing a Declining Industrial City: Norrköping Way2012In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 505-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norrkoping, a small urban area formerly dependent upon old labour-intensive industries, has developed a knowledge-based renewal strategy inspired by ideas emanating from its superseded local economy. Using a longitudinal case study, this paper explicates the dynamics of change among a triple helix of university, industry and government actors that involved building consensus within the city and with its neighbouring city of Linkoping. The keys to success have been cross-institutional entrepreneurship, aggregating regional and national resources to realize a unique, locally generated strategy rather than adopting the usual list of hot high-tech topics such as information technology, biotechnology or alternative energy, and striking a balance between intra-regional competition and collaboration in order to achieve common objectives and avoid any stasis arising from hyper-competitiveness. This paper utilizes a triple-helix "spaces" framework and makes comparisons with other relevant cases to develop a theoretical model of regional renewal through the hybridization of old and new industrial and knowledge elements.

  • 9.
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sustainability transformations in the balance: exploring Swedish initiatives challenging the corporate food regime2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores to what extent organic initiatives that go beyond mainstream organic (so-called Organic 3.0) can challenge the corporate food regime and how they can push the food system towards sustainability transformations. We depart from the assumption that individual initiatives may differ in their potential to influence the corporate food regime and that this potential can be assessed by examining traits linked to reformist, progressive or radical food regime/food movement trends that they may possess. Rather than establishing a dichotomy between niche and food regime or categorising Organic 3.0 initiatives within one of these trends, we explore the nuances in niche-regime relationships within the food system from a multi-level perspective, using the cases of two Organic 3.0 initiatives in Sweden. The results show that relations between these initiatives and the food regime share key characteristics, but also differ in important respects. While a reformist strategy facilitates niche growth, progressive and radical approaches are more likely to challenge the regime. The choice of approach in both cases involves trade-offs between growth and organic values. We conclude that one of the primary roles of Organic 3.0 initiatives may be to illustrate the viability of alternative models.

  • 10.
    Weingaertner, Carina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Barber, Austin
    Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham.
    Urban Regenerationand Socio-Economic Sustainability:A Role for Established Small Food Outlets2010In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 1653-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the challenges of urban regeneration and sustainability have been brought together in discourses concerning the re-shaping of inner-city districts of large cities.Currently, sustainable development in regeneration policies is mostly dominated by theenvironmental dimension and qualities of the built environment, with some focus on the moreeasily quantifiable aspects of social and economic dimensions. There is, however, limited discussion about integrating socio-economic aspects of sustainable regeneration in the literature.This paper presents a critical exploration of the role of the existing small business base infacilitating more sustainable urban re-development from a socio-economic standpoint. Indigenous food outlets in Birmingham’s Eastside district—a re-development initiative branded as exemplar of sustainable urban development—are used to illustrate the role of small businesses in the dayto-day life of districts undergoing regeneration. The paper reflects on challenges and benefits from retaining and supporting established businesses throughout the re-development process and concludes with some reflections on lessons learnt from the case study. It argues that planners,policy-makers and developers should accord greater attention to the role of established businesses to foster urban districts that strive towards integrating aspects of socio-economicsustainability.

  • 11.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Adam, Frane
    Social Capital and Economic Performance: A Meta-analysis of 65 Studies2010In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 893-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes 15 years of empirical research at various spatial levels on social capital and economic performance. On the firm level, results are unambiguous: there is strong evidence of the impact of social capital on firms' performance. However, the results become less clear for spatial units with a large number of anonymous actors. The contradictory results of studies on national and regional levels can be explained in part by insufficient measures of the main component parts of social capital: social networks and the norms and values distributed among them. To develop measures for values like creativity, entrepreneurship and tolerance, and to find better measures for social networks, are the main challenges to future research.

  • 12.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rutten, Roel
    Department of Organisation Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.
    Boekema, Frans
    Department of Human Geography, Nijmegen University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Social Capital, Distance, Borders and Levels of Space: Conclusions andFurther Issues2010In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 965-970Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Westlund, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rutten, Roel
    Boekema, Frans
    The Spatial Dimension of Social Capital2010In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social capital pertains to the social relations between humans, and since these social relations have a spatial dimension, so too does social capital. However, the spatial dimension of social capital has received little attention in the literature so far. Even in a glo-balizing world where electronic and virtual communication have the potential to defeat the need for geographical proximity, it is still relevant to consider the spatial dimension of social capital. After all, human beings exist most prominently in real rather than in virtual space. This special issue undertakes an inquiry into the spatial dimension of social capital from an explorative perspective. It aims to further theoretical and empirical understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. As editors we recognize that the debate on social capital is still ongoing in the literature and that it is fed from different, sometimes conflicting perspectives. Therefore, the spatial dimension of social capital can only be conceptualized in the light of these different perspectives, which necessitates an explorative approach. Nonetheless, the various contributions of this special issue allow several conclusions that are valuable to the ongoing discussion on social capital and its spatial dimension. In the first part of this introductory paper, we discuss social capital from a conceptual angle, as we distinguish between two key approaches (the "structuralist" and "interaction-ist" approaches). We then argue how these approaches may be helpful to the understanding of the spatial dimension of social capital. In the second part, we introduce the various contributions and explain how they contribute to the aim of this special issue.

  • 14.
    Witzell, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Physical planning in an era of marketization: conflicting governance perspectives in the Swedish Transport Administration2019In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1413-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning of transport infrastructure in Sweden has undergone successive legislative changes as well as neoliberal corporatization and marketization reforms in recent years, with a general aim to increase efficiency and effectiveness. This paper presents planning practitioners’ experiences of far-reaching marketization of physical planning practice in line with a strategy within the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to become a ‘Pure Purchaser’. The strategy implies that all practical planning work should be carried out by procured consultants. The paper follows a qualitative, explorative approach based on document studies and interviews with practitioners actively involved in carrying out physical planning of road and rail investments. The concept of ‘modes of governance’ is applied to highlight and analytically interpret differences in perspectives on efficient and effective governance as expressed in the planning legislation, and the STA marketization strategy, respectively. The empirical results make evident that the recent marketization reforms are generally perceived as strongly and negatively affecting the efficiency and effectiveness of planning practices while also circumscribing professional discretion. The study highlights the importance of specific organization and management perspectives as explanatory factors in studying efficiency and effectiveness of planning practices.

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