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  • 1.
    Adam, Achamyeleh Gashu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law. Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia .
    Informal settlements in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: An institutional analysis2014In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 43, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peri-urban land which has been used predominantly for agricultural purposes and held by local farmers is a target area for informal settlements in Ethiopia. An increasing number of people try to solve their housing needs by getting a plot of land informally in the transitional peri-urban areas. The purpose of this study is to explore the principal actors involved in the informal conversion of peri-urban agricultural land into urban built-up property. This study is also aimed at demonstrating the role of non-state institutions in facilitating informal acquisition and development of peri-urban plots. Both questionnaire and document analysis were the main sources of data for this study. The result of this study indicated that traditional social institutions played a significant role in processing peri-urban informal settlements and stabilizing land related conflicts by social sanction measures. The study has also found out that the process of acquiring a plot of land from peri-urban areas passes through its own stages which mainly start with identifying a plot for sale and ends with the confirmation of traditional letter of agreement signed by transacting parties without legal ground to do so.

  • 2. Borsekova, K.
    et al.
    Kourtit, Karima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, P.
    Smart development, spatial sustainability and environmental quality2017In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 68, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Karpouzoglou, Timon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Zimmer, Anna
    Ways of knowing the wastewaterscape: Urban political ecology and the politics of wastewater in Delhi, India2016In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Habitat International, Vol. 54, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of waterscape has been proposed by urban political ecology (UPE) scholars as a conceptual lens for understanding urban hydro-social flows. So far, however, there has been little attention by UPE scholars to the importance of wastewater in urban waterscapes. This study demonstrates how wastewater is embedded in an arena of social relations of power, defined in this article as the wastewaterscape. Drawing on research conducted in Delhi, the aim of the study is to examine re-occurring problems of wastewater disposal and mismanagement through the lens of knowledge; and the different ways of knowing about wastewater which exist amongst inhabitants of an informal settlement, scientific experts and municipal workers in Delhi. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that the systemic exposure of poorer urban citizens to untreated wastewater cannot be attributed to the shortcomings of service delivery alone, but is more fundamentally associated with how legitimacy is awarded to competing systems of knowledge about wastewater in the urban sphere.

  • 4.
    Kourtit, Karima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Suzuki, Soushi
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Tracing high-sustainability performers among world cities - design and application of a multi-temporal data envelopment analysis2017In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 68, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability performance is nowadays a major challenge for many cities in the world. Sustainable development refers to the achievement of both ecological and socio-economic objectives over a relevant time period. The present study aims to trace the relative sustainability status of 39 world cities included in the so-called Global City Power Index (GPCI) of the Mori Memorial Foundation in Japan. This is a unique large-scale and detailed multi-temporal data base containing approx. 80 systematically collected urban indicators for the cities concerned. This paper presents and applies a novel and advanced assessment methodology for sustainable and efficient performance strategies of these 39 global cities, by means of an extended and multi-temporal version of a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Using this novel approach, our study seeks to arrive at an unambiguous ranking of the highest performers among 'urban sustainability champions', during the time period 2012-2015. Based on the DEA efficiency assessment by regarding the urban input-output ratio as a performance indicator, we examine here one input indicator (Total Employees) and four sustainability output indicators (CO2 Emissions, Nominal GDP, Level of Satisfaction of Employees with their Lives, and Percentage of Renewable Energy Used). Our empirical results provide a global sustainability ranking of the cities concerned. We also show that many European cities have a relatively high performance score on the human and urban environment. We present next more detailed information on a selection of a few interesting cities. Our approach appears to be able to address realistic and transparant priorities and complex policy choices aiming at an improvement of relatively inefficient world cities.

  • 5.
    Larsen, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Climate change scenarios and citizen-participation: Mitigation and adaptation perspectives in constructing sustainable futures2009In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 260-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses adaptation and mitigation strategies as outlined in climate change scenarios. The adaptive perspective is closely connected to the concept of resilience understood as different views on nature's capacity to absorb shocks, renewal and re-organization. In constructing normative scenarios images of the future are generated illustrating potential ways of living, travelling and consuming products and services where certain goals such as a reduced climate impact are fulfilled. This paper argues that tension arising from climate strategies relying on either adaptation or mitigation strategies, or combining the two strategies, warrant further examination. In this paper the inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation are discussed by examining processes of citizen-participation in constructing scenarios and applying the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. We discuss this using the concept of deliberative planning processes as a means to achieve legitimate, effective and sustainable futures. As a part of this approach, we argue that methods for citizen-participation applied in exploring different science and technology options also provide useful insight for this type of planning processes. The theoretical arguments are combined with examples from environmental scenario construction in practice. The paper brings attention to tensions between sustainability content values, such as reduced climate impact, and more process-oriented values such as legitimacy, learning and participatory scenario construction. Moreover, the concept of open innovation processes is introduced to the context of participatory scenario construction comparing shared ground in terms of user-involvement in search of novel solutions and also increasing robustness of action plans implemented to reduce climate change.

  • 6.
    Liu, Hongling
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Zhou, Guanghong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Analysis of sustainable urban development approaches in China2014In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 41, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China already has more numerous and larger cities than ever before. If the current trend holds, by 2025 it will have a predicted 1 billion of urban population and 8 megacities, each containing 10 million residents or more. China is facing enormous challenges when it comes to balancing rapid economic development with social development, sustainable use of resources and environmental protection in its fast-growing urban areas. Of the 10 most polluted cities in the world, 7 are in China. To meet these challenges, China has become a vast living laboratory for experiments on sustainable urban development. This paper reviews the use and development of city concepts and approaches regarding sustainable urban development in China. The large number of different concepts used appears to be partly due to institutional reasons and partly because they involve gradual changes in national policies. However, the data indicate that the concepts are generally becoming more comprehensive in relation to sustainable development, including social and heritage aspects. The most common barrier to the development of sustainable cities in China is still lack of clear visions, targets and indicators for sustainable development. More holistic approaches are needed for integrated urban planning, such as that used in Tangshan Bay Eco-city, a joint project between Sweden and China. This paper proposes the use of metabolic thinking and eco-cycle models derived from the discipline of Industrial Ecology to support urban planners in developing more sustainable and resource-efficient urban pathways. This will require closer cooperation between academics and practitioners and better monitoring of projects. Finally, it will be important to identify ways to scale up successful interventions in the urban area, rather than just moving from one innovative pilot project to the next.

  • 7. Mehta, Lyla
    et al.
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, Wageningen, 6700EW, Netherlands.
    Limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes: The case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India2015In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 48, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of the waterscape has been proposed to capture the interconnectedness of economic, political, cultural and social processes embedded in water. More recently recognised, yet still relatively under-theorised are waterscapes that are 'in-between' the city and the periphery. This article focuses on peri-urban Delhi, specifically the area around Ghaziabad. We show that peri-urban waterscapes do not fit into existing urban or rural planning models because these same models largely fail to recognise the peri-urban interface as a distinct form of territorial development. As a result a diverse range of mobilisations around water relevant to the peri-urban poor are systematically undermined while power asymmetries that shape access to water remain unrecognised. Peri-urban spaces thus continue to be planned as if in a transition towards urban modernity despite the complex social, political, technological and cultural realities these spaces represent. The failure to address current limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes has long term implications for the resilience, sustainability and transformative adaptation of both city and periphery.

  • 8.
    Shahraki, Abdul Aziz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ebrahimzadeh, I.
    Kashefidoost, D.
    Distributional planning of educational places in developing cities with case studies2016In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 51, p. 168-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates needs for revisions on educational land use policy in developing cities. It discusses the importance of educational spaces when they give services to many people and cover considerable areas of cities. It also states that present urban educational sites faced to problems such as lack of lands, disproportionate distribution in views of family needs, not consistent with other urban functions and lack of accessibility. The first aim is to analyze the distribution pattern of existing educational sites across a case study city and to examine an optimal model to redistribute the schools. The ultimate goal is to give a new map on the spatial distribution of educational sites in tune with new urban needs and development. This research uses an integrated spatial equity evaluation method, which is analytic and descriptive. It uses the Moran’s I index to classify and analyze the collected data. This research uses ArcGIS and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) soft wares as well. The contribution of this research to the problem is twofold. One is highlighting the problems of the existing non-optimal distribution of the schools throughout the city. In addition, this paper proves the need for changes in the land use policy and for allocating adequate and suitable lands to educational spaces aiming at optimal schools’ distribution in the developing cities.

  • 9.
    Zhou, Guanghong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wu, Jiechen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Evaluating low-carbon city initiatives from the DPSIR framework perspective2015In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 50, p. 289-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current low-carbon city initiatives were evaluated using the DPSIR (Drivingforces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) causal-effect framework for investigating interactions between environmental issues and human activities. For effective management towards achieving a low-carbon city, integrating the pressure-based, driver-oriented DPSIR approach could help decision makers examine whether greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction approaches deal with the root causes of GHG emissions and work to-wards low-carbon city development goals. The DPSIR framework was used on 36 global cities to analyse the socio-economic dynamics of GHG emissions and their pressures on the environment, the state of the environment, related climate change impacts and responses from society. The results indicated that numerous cities have awareness of low-car bon plans and that most of these plans are pressure-based and driver-oriented. Most city plans recognise energy, transportation and building as the main driving forces for GHG emissions, which cause environmental pressures, and highlight technical responses to reduce GHG emissions pressures from these root causes. Inaddition, most plans recognise institutional and cognitional responses to low-carbon city development, such as: policies and legislation; departmental planning and cooperation; measuring, monitoring and reporting performance; capital invest-ment; community education and outreach; and stakeholder involvement.

1 - 9 of 9
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