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  • 1.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Is it time to use activity-based urban transport models? A discussion of planning needs and modelling possibilities2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 767-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some decades now, transport researchers have put considerable efforts into developing what is called activity-based approaches for modelling urban travel demand. The basic idea is that travel demand is derived from people's desires to take part in different activities. In particular, the interrelationships among different activities with respect to temporal and spatial constraints are in focus. It means that such models treat the activities and the travelling of the households with respect to where and when the activities can be carried out and how they may be scheduled, given characteristics of the households and potential opportunities, the transport networks and various institutional constraints. We discuss what demands we see on future travel demand models, with a focus on urban analysis. This discussion is somewhat biased towards what role activity-based models could play in meeting these demands. We then review in some detail three prominent and distinctly different representatives of operational activity-based models to give an indication of what new modelling possibilities they offer. Theoretical appeal, empirical validity, usefulness for planning, need for data and easiness of implementation are discussed. In the final section we draw some conclusions about the prospects of these models and of their descendants.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Ejermo, Olof
    How does Accessibility to Knowledge Sources Affect the Innovativeness of Corporations?: Evidence from Sweden2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 741-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the innovative performance of 130 Swedish corporations during 1993-1994. The number of patents per corporation is explained as a function of the accessibility to internal and external knowledge sources of each corporation. A coherent way of handling accessibility measures, within and between corporations located across regions, is introduced. We examine the relative importance of intra- and interregional knowledge sources from 1) the own corporation, 2) other corporations, and 3) universities. The results show that there is a positive relationship between the innovativeness of a corporation and its accessibility to university researchers within regions where own research groups are located. Good accessibility among the corporation's research units does not have any significant effects on the likelihood of generation of patents. Instead the size of the R&D staff of the corporation seems to be the most important internal factor. There is no indication that intraregional accessibility to other corporations' research is important for a corporation's innovativeness. However, there is some indication of reduced likelihood for own corporate patenting when other corporate R&D is located in nearby regions. This may reflect a negative effect from competition for R&D labor.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Grasjo, Urban
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-formed spatial model should most likely not produce spatial autocorrelation at all. From this perspective spatial autocorrelation is not (pure) statistical nuisance but a sign of that a model lacks a representation of an important economic phenomenon. In a Knowledge Production Function (KPF) context, this paper shows that a representation of space reflecting the potential of physical interaction between localities by means of accessibility variables on the "right-hand-side"aEuro"a simple alternative to spatial lag and spatial error which can be estimated by OLS-captures substantive spatial dependence. Results are verified with Monte Carlo simulations based on Anselin's (Int Reg Sci Rev 26(2):153-166, 2003) taxonomy of modelled and unmodelled effects. The analysis demonstrates that an accessibility representation of explanatory variables depict the network nature of spatial interaction, such that spatial dependence is actually modelled.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Agglomeration and productivity: evidence from firm-level data2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 601-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do agglomerations stimulate productivity? An extensive literature on agglomeration economies, or urban increasing returns, has analyzed this question with aggregated spatial data. This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and productivity at the firm level using static and dynamic models. It makes use of a rich dataset comprising register information on all manufacturing firms in Sweden with 10 or more employees over the period 1997-2004. Three things emerge. First, firms located in larger regions are more productive when controlling for size, human capital, physical capital, ownership structure, import: and export, industry classification, and time trend. Second, results from dynamic panel estimations suggests a learning effect in that agglomeration enhances firms' productivity. Third, the role of agglomeration phenomena does not seem to have a clear coupling to firm size.

  • 5. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does spatial employment density spur inter-firm job switching?2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 245-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-firm job switching of workers is a much cited but seldom measured source of the productivity advantages of spatial employment density. It has been advanced as a conduit for localized knowledge flows as well as labor market matching efficiency. Using a matched employer-employee dataset for Sweden, we estimate the influence spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job switching of private sector workers. Our estimates suggest that a doubling of employment density per square kilometer increases the probability that a random worker switches employer by 0.2 % points. The same effect is substantially higher for more skilled workers. While the effect of a doubling of density is limited, the actual differences in density across the regions in our data amount to a factor over 40, rendering differences in density an important explanation for regional variations in rates of inter-firm job switching.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Roland
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The efficiency of Swedish regional policy2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 811-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I evaluate the efficiency of Swedish regional policy. I analyze the government's regional policy goals and means as presented in Government Bills 1997/1998:62 and 2001/2002:4. In the light of the literature on where growth occurs as well as the results of the regional policy so far, the realism of the government's goal of "sustainable economic growth in the whole country" could be questioned. Subsidies to companies in problematic regions have uncertain or even negative effects. The government could therefore eliminate these subsidies and replace them with venture capital loans. It could also stop its subsidies to municipal housing companies for shutting down apartments. The positive effects of the government's tax and subsidy system for the municipalities, motivated by its distribution goal, come at the price of negative effects on incentives for a high national rate of growth. The government could replace this system with extended general subsidies. Investments in transportation projects that do not show a net benefit, such as the large Bothnia Railway in northern Sweden should be reconsidered. However, I find significant and systematic evidence that the government's investments in regional colleges, particularly in research, have been successful.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, B.
    Financing roads and railways with decentralized real estate taxes: The case of Sweden2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 839-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and railways in Sweden are mainly financed with national government taxes. However, the regional distribution of benefits differs widely from that of tax payments. As a consequence, overspending is likely to occur. A condition for efficiency is that the collective of users should pay for such projects. Therefore, we propose a new regional order for financing projects: government expenditures for transportation projects should be transferred to regions as well as the real estate tax to finance them. We present estimates of the size of such expenditures and of the income from real estate taxes following decentralization to regions.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Åke E.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, JIBS, Box 1026, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping Univ, JIBS, Box 1026, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Inside and outside the black box: organization of interdependencies2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 501-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production theory has remained substantially unchanged since the publication of the theory of production by Frisch (Theory of production, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1928; Nord 613 Tidskr Tek Okon 1:12-27, 1935). The theory is based on the idea of a firm deciding on the possible input and output combinations of a single unit of production. His theory was substantially copied in contributions by Carlson (A study on the pure theory of production, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1939) and Schneider (Einfuhrung in die Wirtschaftstheorie. 4 Bande, Mohr, Tubingen, 1947), and later by practically all textbooks in microeconomics. The idea is to model the firm as a black box in which a finite number of externally purchased inputs are transformed into a finite number of outputs to be sold in the market(s). Most of the time, the prices are externally determined. Often, the production process is summarized by some simplified production function as, for example, in the form of a CES function. Another and conceptually richer approach is the formulation of an activity analysis model. In the latter case, simple internal interdependencies can be included. In this paper, we indicate how internal interdependencies can also be modeled within a special CES framework. In recent decades, there has been a remarkable growth in the number of production units of firms such as IKEA, Walmart and Apple to name a few such global networking firms. Most of the analysis of these network firms has been modeled by logistics and other operations-research analysts (Simchi-Levi et al. 2008) and to a limited extent by researchers in business administration schools. Very little has been done in economics. We propose a modeling approach consistent with the microeconomic theory.

  • 9. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Interregional allocation models of infrastructure investments1989In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 23, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue "The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship" in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 11.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Forecasting demand for high-speed rail2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. Caragliu, Andrea
    et al.
    Del Bo, Chiara F.
    Kourtit, Karima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    The winner takes it all: forward-looking cities and urban innovation2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 617-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a new perspective on urban innovation and enters the debate on the contribution of non-material growth-enhancing factors to the socio-economic performance of cities. Because of the often widespread availability of "hard" production factors, most cities increasingly compete for attracting non-material production factors whose role, in light of the more widespread diffusion of physical production factors, may ultimately determine their long-run economic success. Against this background, our paper focuses on a relatively neglected non-material factor, viz. urban risk attitude. In fact, cities offer the competitive and challenging environment where individual characteristics of actors may enjoy their highest returns; risk-loving and innovative individuals may sort in large urban agglomerations. The paper tests whether cities attracting such individuals and, thus, enjoying a more positive and open attitude towards risk, tend to innovate more. The empirical analysis of the paper is based on the most recent (2008/2009) wave of the European Values Study. Micro- data on about 80,000 individuals located in different EU urban areas are used to calculate city-specific attitudes towards risk that go beyond individual characteristics. This city-level risk attitude variable is then used within a knowledge production function approach, as an explanatory variable for urban innovation (patent applications to the European Patent Office) along with more traditional knowledge determinants (human capital and R&D expenditures). Our empirical results show that cities with a more open and positive attitude towards risk ceteris paribus also tend to be more innovative. In addition, we find that, unlike traditional knowledge production factors, this factor faces no decreasing returns. While further research might be beneficial in order to more precisely pinpoint the extent of such effects, our findings appear to be robust and suggest a positive role for the urban attitude towards risky endeavours in explaining urban innovation.

  • 13.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Road pricing with limited information and heterogeneous users: A successful case2001In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 595-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since strictly optimal (first-best) road pricing policies require information that we will probably never have, it is important to investigate what can be done under more restrictive assumptions as to what information is available. One such case is examined in this paper, where the main restrictive assumptions are that all users have the same choice set and that all alternatives have the same monetary cost. Individuals have utility functions with constant marginal utilities of time and money, but these marginal utilities vary across individuals, and are assumed to be unobservable. We show that for this model, any toll reform that reduces aggregate travel time and redistributes the toll revenues equally to all users makes everyone better off. This holds regardless of the distribution of marginal utilities of time and money, and for any road network.

  • 14. Eliasson, K.
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Attributes influencing self-employment propensity in urban and rural Sweden2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 479-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies aiming at promoting entrepreneurship are in general formed on national levels, without any consideration of differences between urban and rural areas. Usually, cities are provided with better and more modern infrastructure; cities have better supply of physical, financial and human capital, and connected services, and cities have a more modern industrial structure in the sense that their shares of growing industry are higher. Thus, it is possible that policies for entrepreneurship, which in general are designed for urban areas, might be less effective when they are implemented in rural areas. A first step to test the validity of this hypothesis could be to investigate the differences between cities and countryside regarding self-employment propensity and factors affecting the choice to become self-employed. Based on an exceptionally rich data set containing very detailed socio-economic and geographical information on all residents in Sweden, this paper examines: (a) the scope and structure of self-employment propensity in urban and rural areas, respectively, in Sweden, divided into full-time and part-time self-employment, and (b) the importance of a number of attributes that may have an impact on individuals' propensity to start an enterprise in the two area types. Variables being tested are connected to demography and education, labor market status, plant characteristics, self-employment experience, financial resources, family links and regional attributes. The main results indicate that self-employment entry is influenced by the same factors in the same way in urban and rural areas. However, countryside's industrial structure has a smaller share of growing industries. The fact that countryside's startups follow the existing industrial structure means that this "modernity gap" between densely built up areas and countryside remains. From a policy perspective, this must be seen as a serious problem for countryside's growth potential. This gives an argument for designing a special entrepreneurship policy for the countryside in order to increase its share of growing trades and thereby modernize its industrial structure.

  • 15.
    Ho, Cynthia Sin Tian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The Effect of Bank Branch Closure on New Firm Formation: The Swedish CaseIn: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effect of local bank branch closures on new firm formation in Sweden is analysed using a panel database that captures the ge- ographical locations of all Swedish bank branches from 2000 to 2013. Previous research has shown that the farther a firm is located away from the bank, the higher the monitoring costs will be for the banks. Furthermore, an increase in distance will also result in an increase in information asymmetry because of the banks’ eroded ability to collect and analyse soft information. Due to high risks associated with the lack of information and uncertainty, banks might not be as willing to extend credits to a distant firm compared to a nearer firm. Using spatial econometric analysis at a municipal level, it is shown that bank proximity to firms, firm density, establishment size and human capital are vital for new firm formation in Sweden, after accounting for possible reverse causality. From the random effects spatial panel model, the increase in distance to the banks due to bank branch clo- sure is shown to negatively affect new firm formation. Furthermore, the presence of neighbourhood spillover effects is evidenced through Moran’s I statistics, which means that the omission of spatial effects in the analysis would have resulted in biased estimates.

  • 16.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Correction to: The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contains an error in Appendix A.

  • 17.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH.
    Hovsepyan, Vardan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    The income return to entrepreneurship: theoretical model and outcomes for Swedish regions2018In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment by means of Lazear's model of occupational choice. The paper has two major aims. The first is to develop a new theoretical framework for analyzing the income return to entrepreneurship by combining the Lazear model with the assumption that the skill profiles in a population are Frechet-distributed. The second is to demonstrate that the resulting theoretical derivations can be used for a new type of regional analysis of the income return to entrepreneurship and wage employment. The empirical analysis is based on data for individuals with a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. We compute their income return to self-employment and wage employment in three parts of Sweden: the Stockholm region, the combined Gothenburg and Malmo region, and the Rest of Sweden. The results show that the average return to self-employment is less than 5% in all regions and smaller in the Gothenburg and Malmo region than in the other two regions. The regional differences are explained by the differential supply curves and market values of entrepreneurial talent. The theoretical derivation of the income return to entrepreneurship is the main contribution of the paper. Another contribution is the derivation of regional supply curves for entrepreneurs.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Klaesson, Johan
    Agglomeration dynamics of business services2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 373-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important characteristic of the economic development in Europe and North America during the last few decades is a fast expansion of the business-service sector. The present paper aims at modeling the location dynamics of three categories of firms: (i) knowledge-intensive business-service firms, (ii) ordinary business-service firms and other firms, where the latter form the rest of the economy. In the theoretical framework, business-service firms have random-choice preferences and respond in a non-linear way to time distances in their contact efforts to customer firms. Business-service firms make their location decisions in response to local, intra-regional and extra-regional access to market demand. The econometric analysis makes use of information about time distances between zones in urban areas as well as between urban areas in the same agglomeration and between urban areas in different agglomerations. The empirical analysis shows how the number of jobs in the different sectors change in response to accessibility to purchasing power. The estimation results show that the change processes feature non-linear dependencies with varying spatial reach.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    R&D accessibility and regional export diversity2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 501-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the influences of accessibility to R&D on the export diversity in Swedish regions. A theoretical model with fixed R&D cost predicts that spatial knowledge spillovers generate external economies of scale in R&D activities. These external effects are presumed to increase regions' innovative capacity. Moreover, the model implies that the effects of R&D on regional export performance are reflected by the size of the export base rather than by the export volumes. The empirical analysis focuses on three different indicators of export diversity: the number of exported goods, the number of exporting firms and the number of export destinations. The hypothesis that regional accessibility to R&D facilities in the private business sector, on the one hand, and university research departments on the other hand, increases the export diversity in regions is tested in a spatial cross-regressive model. Since knowledge cannot be regarded as a spatially trapped resource the empirical analysis includes two measures of R&D accessibility: intra-regional and inter-regional. The empirical results indicate that the three indicators of regional export diversity are positively affected by the intra-regional accessibility to company R&D in commodity groups that have a relatively high R&D-intensity in production. Inter-regional accessibility to company R&D has significant positive impacts on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations also in less R&D-intensive industries. In the case of university R&D, the empirical results are weaker, in particular in the case of intra-regional accessibility. Yet, the inter-regional accessibility to university R&D has a significant positive impact on the number of export goods and the number of export destinations in the majority of commodity groups.

  • 20.
    Kourtit, Karima
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Mickiewicz University, Poland.
    Nijkamp, Peter
    Exploring the 'New Urban World'2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 591-596Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lööf, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Knowledge spillovers, productivity and patent2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine potential heterogeneity in the capacity to benefit from knowledge spillovers in metropolitan areas between foreign-owned and domestic multinational enterprises, and between small and large firms. The study is restricted to R&D firms in the manufacturing sector and utilizes an unbalanced sample of 1073 Swedish firms covering a 16-year period with close to 11,000 observations. We apply linear and nonlinear approaches to test the importance of knowledge spillovers on labour productivity and patent applications. The overall result shows that not all R&D firms benefit from knowledge spillovers as a result of their presence in an agglomeration area.

  • 22. Nyström, Kristina
    An industry disaggregated analysis of the determinants of regional entry and exit2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 877-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research by, among others, Armington and Acs (Reg Stud 36:33-45, 2002) show that regional determinants of new firm formation differ between industries. This paper reinvestigates the regional determinants of entry and exit considering these findings using panel data methods at three different levels of aggregation. Agglomeration, in terms of localisation economies, is unequivocally found to be positive for regional new firm formation, but does not necessarily prevent firms from exiting. The results also show that industry structure is a more important explanatory variable for differences between entry and exit rates across regions than regional factors.

  • 23.
    Stephan, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701). Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Locational conditions and firm performance: introduction to the special issue2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Sun, X.
    et al.
    Xiong, A.
    Li, H.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Li, Y.
    Does social capital influence small business entrepreneurship?: Differences between urban and rural China2019In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between social capital and small business entrepreneurship in China. Unlike previous studies that focus solely on rural or urban residents, this paper pays more attention to the differences between them. According to our study, social capital has both positive and negative impacts on small business entrepreneurship. Based on the data drawn from China General Social Survey, we find that the impact of social capital differs significantly between rural and urban areas. In rural China, residents who have higher social capital tend to have entrepreneurial behaviors, while higher social capital leads to lower intention of small business entrepreneurship in urban China. Individuals whose parents have the experiences of small business tend to have small business entrepreneurial activities; individuals who are better educated tend to find regular jobs instead of having their own small business. The results suggest that small business entrepreneurship in rural China might be “entrepreneurship by necessity.”.

  • 25.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Optimal fragmentation in monopolistically competitive industries2012In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 1-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade in intermediate goods necessitates the viewpoint that final goods are received through a sequential process of production. In this paper, we explore the role of vertical and horizontal complementarities in production and the effects of such complementarities on the level of fragmentation in production. We analyze the optimal level of fragmentation. Using a production chain point of view in a basic monopolistically competitive model allows us to derive analytical results regarding the level of fragmentation, both vertically and horizontally. As the economy grows, our model indicates an increasing level of roundaboutness in production. We also study forces for vertical specialization between countries by extending our framework into a two-country setting.

  • 26.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    A Brief History of Time, Space, and Growth: Waldo Tobler’s First Law of Geography Revisited2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 917-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current knowledge economy, the most important production factor, human knowledge, is much more mobile than the dominating production factors of previous periods. This means that theories of spatial development, formulated during the manufacturing-industrial era, might not be wholly applicable today. One of the basic assumptions of spatial theory is formulated in Waldo Tobler's first law of geography: "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This article discusses the validity of this law in today's knowledge economy. While several factors have made distance less important, a crucial factor for innovation and growth-tacit knowledge-is still highly dependent on face-to-face contacts. This suggests that Waldo Tobler's first law of geography plays an important role also in the knowledge economy.

  • 27.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    An Interaction-Cost Perspective on Networks and Territory1999In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, p. 93-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Comments on President Jack Osman’s Presentation2007In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 13-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The spatial distribution of inventor networks2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 645-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inventor networking has become both more feasible with improved telecommunication and more important as it usually produces research of higher quality. Despite overwhelming evidence on the benefits of collaboration, patent data from 1994 to 2001 in Sweden demonstrate that inventor networks are not very common. Moreover, the spatial distribution of inventor networks is not uniform. It appears that agglomeration measured both as employment density and as industry diversity, plays a role in explaining networking. Our results indicate that inventor networks are more likely to exist in densely populated areas with a diversified industry. Market size has a negative impact on networking in that we can observe that inventor networks are less common in large metropolitan areas, ceteris paribus. Hence, it supports the proposition that networking can act as a substitute to agglomeration. Our results also suggest that researchers in dense areas will not only collaborate more; they will also collaborate over longer distance.

1 - 29 of 29
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