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  • 1.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Mandell, Svante
    Braun Thörn, Helena
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Gomér, Ylva
    The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, s. 206-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how parking norms affect the size of the housing stock. Our analysis is based on a model of the rental, asset- and construction markets, the results are quality-assured by interviews with market actors. Prices and profits are affected when constructors are forced, through parking norms, to build more parking spaces than the customers demand. Parking norms reduce the housing stock by 1.2% and increase rents by 2.4% (SEK 300) in our example suburb. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, s. 94-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 3.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Habibi, Shiva
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Sundbergh, P.
    Evaluation of the Swedish car fleet model using recent applications2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, s. 30-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of the car fleet with respect to age, fuel consumption and fuel types plays an important role on environmental effects, oil dependency and energy consumption. In Sweden, a number of different policies have been implemented to support CO2 emission reductions. In order to evaluate effects of different policies, a model for the evolution of the Swedish car fleet was developed in 2006. The model has been used in a number of projects since then, and it is now possible to compare forecasts with actual outcomes. Such evidence is relatively rare, and we think it may be useful to share our experience in this respect.We give a brief overview of the Swedish car fleet model system. Then we describe policies that have been implemented in recent years and the evolution of the Swedish car fleet. We then focus on two projects which enable comparison with actual outcomes, and analyse the differences between forecasts and outcomes. We find that the model has weaknesses in catching car buyers' preferences of new technology. When this is not challenged too much, the model can forecast reasonably well on an aggregate level. We also find that the model is quite sensitive to assumptions on future supply. This is not so much related to the model, but to its use. Depending on the use of the forecasts - be it car sales, emissions or fuel demand - it may be necessary to use different supply scenarios to get an idea of the robustness of the forecast result.

  • 4.
    Borjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Satisfaction with crowding and other attributes in public transport2019Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, s. 213-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse customer satisfaction surveys conducted among public transport passengers over 15 years in Stockholm. We analyze satisfaction and importance of many attributes and their temporal trends, focusing on attributes that stand out from the rest in some way, which is primarily crowding. Crowding is the attribute with the lowest satisfaction and the only attribute for which satisfaction declines over time. However, in spite of the low satisfaction, crowding is still less important for the total satisfaction than the cognitive attributes reliability and frequency (the most important attributes). Only when crowding levels reach high levels, like that of the most crowded bus services in central Stockholm, does crowding become as important as the cognitive attributes. Also the attribute reliability stands out it is the most important attribute. For the attributes reliability and crowding, data allow us to compare satisfaction and importance with performance. We find that that satisfaction and importance are influenced by the performance level for both attributes.

  • 5.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport2012Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 22, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport. Valuations that can be applied for evaluating policies to improve perceived security are obtained. Consistent results are achieved, indicating that the method is promising for incorporating aspects in the physical environment in the welfare analysis. The results indicate a systematic variation in value of walk time in different physical environments and it is more dependent of the physical environment for women than for men. This paper thereby contributes to the literature by showing that results by social sciences can be verified using methods and theories traditionally used in transport and welfare analysis and may therefore be incorporated in standard CBA. A contribution of this study is the insight that the perception of insecurity involved in accessing the public transport system is a welfare loss that can be quantified.

  • 6.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, s. 263-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 7.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis and Strategy, Sweden.
    The Stockholm congestion charges-5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 20, nr SI, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesising recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 8.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Regularity-driven bus operation: Principles, implementation and business models2014Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, s. 223-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is a key determinant of public transport performance. In the context of high-frequency urban lines, irregular service results with long waiting times, bunched vehicles, long delays, uneven passenger loads, poor capacity utilization and higher operational costs. Field experiments were conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, in order to test the feasibility and implications of a regularity-driven operation scheme designed to mitigate bus bunching and facilitated by a real-time control strategy. This paper investigates alternative service indicators and business models that could best support the long-term implementation of operation geared towards better regularity performance. A paradigm shift towards regularity-based service evidently requires the consideration of a series of measures along the service chain as it involves a paradigm shift in production planning, operations, control center and performance monitoring.

  • 9.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, s. 55-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity in high-demand areas. Even though parking policies are often a topic of public debate, there is lack of systematic empirical analysis of various parking measures. This paper proposes a survey methodology to empirically measure the impacts of on-street parking policies based on automated parking transaction data. Parking performance is computed based on data available from ticket vending machines calibrated using floating car films. The survey method allows comparing parking occupancy including its temporal variations, allowing the analysis of the accumulated utilization pattern. Average and maximum parking occupancy levels, throughput, parking duration and total fare collection are compared prior and following the introduction of a new parking scheme for visitors to Stockholm inner-city, Sweden. The results indicate that the policy fulfilled its objective to increase the ease of finding a vacant parking place in the central areas and even resulted with underutilized parking spaces.

  • 10.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Is congestion pricing fair?: Consumer and citizen perspectives on equity effects2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 52, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses and analyses whether congestion charges can be considered to be “fair” in different senses of the word. Two different perspectives are distinguished: the consumer perspective and the citizen perspective. The consumer perspective is the traditional one in equity analyses, and includes changes in travel costs, travel times and so on. Using data from four European cities, I show that high-income groups pay more than low-income groups, but low-income groups pay a larger share of their income. I argue that which of these distributional measures is most appropriate depends on the purpose(s) of the charging system. The citizen perspective is about individuals’ views of social issues such as equity, procedural fairness and environmental issues. I argue that an individual can be viewed as a “winner” from a citizen perspective if a reform (such as congestion pricing) is aligned with her views of what is socially desirable. Using the same data set, I analyse to what extent different income groups “win” or “lose” from a citizen perspective – i.e., to what extent congestion pricing is aligned with the societal preferences of high- and low-income groups. It turns out that these differences are small, but overall, middle-income groups “win” the most in this sense.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Lessons from the Stockholm Congestion Charging Trial2009Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 395-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm congestion charging trial in 2006 resulted in large effects on traffic volumes and congestion. During the trial, public opinion gradually changed from a large majority opposed to the charges to a small majority in favour of them, and a referendum resulted in the charges being reintroduced in 2007. This paper summarises effects on traffic, travel times, travel patterns etc., and discusses what lessons can be learnt from the trial and the development after the reintroduction of the charges.

  • 12.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2014Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, s. 118-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits captured in an appraisal of a railway investment are determined by what timetables the analyst assumes in the scenarios with and without the investment Without an explicit, objective and verifiable principle for which timetables to assume, the appraisal outcome is virtually arbitrary. This means that appraisals of railway investments cannot be compared to each other, and opens the door for strategic behaviour by stakeholders conducting seemingly objective cost-benefit analysis. We explain and illustrate the nature and extent of the problem, discuss possible timetable construction principles, and show that current practice is likely to exaggerate appraisal benefits.

  • 13.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jonsson, Lina
    The unexpected “yes!”: Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm2011Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 636-647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several authors have argued that acceptability for road pricing is likely to increase with familiarity. The experiences in Stockholm, where a trial period with congestion charges changed the public opinion from negative to positive, support this hypothesis. Analysing acceptability and attitudes in Stockholm allows us to study a situation where the population is in fact familiar with congestion charges, and explore what the decisive factors for acceptability are in such a situation. By analysing a survey collected after the referendum and the subsequent reintroduction of the charges, we analyse the prerequisites to achieve acceptability given that the public is familiar with congestion charges.As expected, low car dependence and good transit supply are associated with high acceptability. But the two most important factors turn out to be beliefs about the charges' effectiveness, and general environmental attitudes. The importance of beliefs and perceptions of the effects of the charges underscores the importance of both careful system design and careful evaluation and results communication. The strong connection between environmental concerns and positive attitudes to congestion charges underscores the importance of considering and "marketing" the charges' environmental effects. In Stockholm, the politicians' decision to "re-label" the congestion charges to "environmental charges" and emphasising their positive effects on air quality may very well have had a positive impact on acceptability.

  • 14.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Proost, Stefaan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Is sustainable transport policy sustainable?2015Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, s. 92-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a specific part of sustainable transport policy, namely policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. We explain how assessments of such policies will overestimate their effectiveness if market responses are not taken into account. The substantial difference between market price and extraction cost of oil means that consumption reductions will be watered down by price responses causing increased consumption in other places (spatial leakage) and in the future (intertemporal leakage). The difference between market price and extraction cost also has negative implications for the viability of alternative technologies. Leakage effects become larger when consumption reductions are only undertaken by a subset of countries: we review some theoretical evidence why strong binding international climate agreements are so difficult to reach and to enforce. All this may require rethinking climate policies for the transport sector: What policies remain cost effective for reducing greenhouse gas emissions?

  • 15.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Evaluating the impacts and benefits of public transport design and operational measures2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and operational measures are designed and implemented to improve public transport performance and level-of-service. In the case of urban bus systems, priority, operational and control measures are aimed to elevate bus services to buses with high level of service (BHLS). Even though there is an explosive growth in design and operational measures implementation and growing research interest in investigating their impact on performance indicators, there is lack of a systematic evaluation of their benefits. We present an evaluation framework and a detail sequence of steps for quantifying the impacts of public transport design and operational measures. The effects of service performance on travel times and costs are assessed by accounting for relations between reliability and waiting times, crowding and perceived travel times, and vehicle scheduling and operational costs. The evaluation integrates the implications of reliability on generalized passenger travel costs and operational costs. We deploy the proposed evaluation framework to a field experiment in Stockholm where a series of measures were implemented on the busiest bus line. The results suggest that the total passenger and operator benefits amount to 36.8 million Swedish crowns on an annual basis. The overall assessment of the impacts of design and operational measures enables the comparison of different implementations, assess their effectiveness, prioritize alternative measures and provide a sound basis for motivating investments.

  • 16.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    The Reliability Benefits of Congestion Pricing2011Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Revisiting the cost of the Stockholm congestion charging system2011Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 836-847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2006, a system for congestion charging was introduced in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The charging scheme was run in the form of a full-scale trial for seven months, after which it was deactivated, awaiting its evaluation and an advisory public referendum. Several parties, including representatives of the scientific community as well as media and special interest groups, have analysed and evaluated the system. A recurring theme in several of these analyses is that the cost to build and operate the system was excessive, compared to costs for other road charging installations.

    This study revisits some of the key project participants and archive data, to provide a deeper understanding of what were the major cost drivers and whether lower cost can be achieved in future installations. The approach taken is to emphasise understanding of the particular circumstances rather than comparing aggregates with other seemingly similar systems. The main conclusions include the identification of a rational actor paying an insurance against unacceptable risk, the importance of the election cycle, and the interplay between risk, acceptance, performance, and cost. A conceptual model for this interaction is suggested.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Antonson, H.
    Eriksson, L.
    Layering and parallel policy making – Complementary concepts for understanding implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility2017Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 53, s. 50-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on implementation challenges related to the integration of sustainable mobility in strategic local/regional land use and transport planning. The work was based on a case study of Stockholm, Sweden, focusing on four current plans and strategies of key importance for sustainable mobility. We identify and discuss implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility using a theoretical framework from the policy integration literature, with a focus on the dimensions of “layering”, “drift” and “exhaustion” (Rayner & Howlett 2009). The empirical analysis led us to identify a complementary dimension which we call ‘Parallel policy making’. The parallel policy making reflects a fundamental lack of integration of sustainable mobility in policies and plans of strategic importance, which hinders effective policy integration. Altogether, we conclude that a better insight into the practice of parallel policy making is crucial for development of more effective implementation strategies for sustainable mobility in Stockholm and elsewhere.

  • 19. Joewono, Tri B.
    et al.
    Tarigan, Ari K. M.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Road-based public transportation in urban areas of Indonesia: What policies do users expect to improve the service quality?2016Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, s. 114-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationship between road-based public transport users' preferences and expectations of particular levels of support and their support of a set of improvement policy scenarios in Indonesia. A series of structural equation modelling estimations was carried out, using empirical surveys among road-based public transportation users in three major urban areas: Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The results show that negative experience, service importance and dissatisfaction are factors that significantly correlate with the user preferences in accepting improvement policies along with fare adjustment. The users' travel behaviours and their socio-demographic characteristics were also found to be significant in influencing the degree of such support. However, the results also show discrepancies in the influence of key determinants across the three studied cities, which indicates a need for locally designed approaches. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. WSP, Sweden.
    Fernström, Astrid
    A function-oriented approach to transport planning in Sweden: Limits and possibilities from a policy perspective2018Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 63, s. 30-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on sustainability and transport has paid increasing attention to how the purpose of the transport system is framed, often arguing that there is a need to shift the focus of transport planning and policy from the physical infrastructure to mobility and accessibility. Sweden's national transport policy also has elements of this shift, most noticeable in the so-called four step principle, where the possibility to affect the need for transport and choice of transport mode (step 1) and the possibility to use existing infrastructure more efficiently (step 2) should be considered before large reconstructions (step 3) or new infrastructure (step 4) is chosen as the solution to transport related problems. The aim of this article is to study whether the practical implications of Swedish national transport policy are consistent with the ambitions expressed in the four step principle, with particular focus on the Swedish Transport Administration's (STA) mandate to finance different measures. Based on an analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews the main finding of the analysis is that many step 1 and 2 measures do not fall within the financial mandate of the STA. The implementation of the four step principle therefore depends on the commitment among other actors than the STA to implement step 1 and 2 measures. Furthermore, it is concluded that the limits to the STA mandate has consequences for the ability of the STA to engage in collaboration with the actors on which it depends, and that strengthening the STA's mandate to finance a desired function rather than physical infrastructure is likely to increase commitment among other stakeholders to work with these measures. Such a step would imply a different regulatory framework than the current, more in line with ”the sustainable mobility paradigm” (Banister 2008) and could contribute to a good accessibility to different amenities at the same time as negative environmental impacts are reduced.

  • 21. Kristoffersson, I.
    et al.
    Daly, A.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Modelling the attraction of travel to shopping destinations in large-scale modelling2018Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 68, s. 52-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of major shopping centres continues even though online shopping is increasing. This has implications for mode and destination choice for shopping travel and therefore also for sustainability, which need to be considered in planning policy. In this paper, we estimate models for shopping travel using an unusually rich data set of shopping attractions. We find that shopping travel is best represented in three separate models: consumables in short and long activity segments and durables. In all of these models, we show that representing nearby attractions outside the destination zone adds to the measured attraction. For long activity consumables and for durables, the addition of secondary attractions within 2 km of the main destination gives the best models. For short activity consumables, both 2 km and 5 km add to the model, but 5 km is slightly better. Furthermore, we find significant within-zone correlation in the consumables models but are unable to find significant between-zone correlation, indicating that zone boundaries have some behavioural meaning for shopping travellers, but larger areas are not viewed in this way. Shopping attractions with a specifically Swedish impact, Systembolaget (official alcohol outlet in Sweden) and IKEA, proved to be important in all the models. These attractors work better as part of the size than as part of the utility, indicating that they appear to be separate attractors of trips, rather than as adding to the utility of other attractors. The models are also applied in two policy scenario analyses in which the impacts of new IKEA establishments and availability of Systembolaget in all zones on destination and mode choice are assessed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 22. Kristoffersson, I.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges2017Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 60, s. 99-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trade-off between equity and efficiency in the design of the Stockholm congestion charging systems. Comparing different designs for Stockholm, the paper shows that the most efficient system is the least equitable. Indeed, we show that moving towards a more efficient system design favours high-income-users most. The reason is the uneven distribution of workplaces and residential areas, combined with richer socio-economic groups living in areas with more workplaces. Hence, the conflict between efficiency and equity of this policy arises from the spatial mismatch of residential areas and locations of employment, and the spatial separation between low-income and high-income groups that characterise most cities. This paper shows that these spatial patterns have a large effect on the distribution effects of the congestion charges and that the system design can have a major impact on equity.

  • 23.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Impacts of time-varying cordon pricing: Validation and application of mesoscopic model for Stockholm2013Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 28, nr SI, s. 51-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a simulation model to compare traffic and welfare effects of changes to the charging schedule currently in use in Stockholm. In particular, a step toll is compared to its flat counterpart at two charging levels. The increments between steps are also increased in a peaked step toll scenario. Furthermore, results from simulation of the current toll ring are compared to real-world measurements in a first attempt to validate model predictions regarding impacts of a time-varying congestion charging scheme. In the model, car users have the possibility to respond to congestion charging by changing departure time, route or switch to public transport and travel times are calculated using mesoscopic traffic simulation. Validation shows that departure time choice adjustments because of congestion charging are overestimated by the model that is based on stated preference data. This warrants further research on discrepancies between stated and revealed adjustments to congestion charging. The current step toll reaches the highest social benefit estimate in model predictions, but differences in traffic effects between the current step toll and its flat counterpart are rather small. Furthermore, results show that demand changes occur in the model to a considerably greater extent for trips with low value of time. The differences in welfare effects is for that reason large for different trip purposes, indicating the importance of accounting for heterogeneous trips when modelling effects of congestion charges.

  • 24.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    The influence of weather characteristics variability on individual's travel mode choice in different seasons and regions in Sweden2015Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 41, s. 147-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of weather on the Swedish people's mode choice decision in different seasons and regions using a long term series of the Swedish National Transport Survey datasets (NTS) and weather data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The weather data includes mean of daily temperature, amount of rain precipitation and road surface condition. The daily mean temperature is normalised based on each region and season and classified into five categories as 'very cold', 'cold', 'normal', 'warm', and 'very warm'. This normalisation approach enables us to investigate the impact of individual's heterogeneity in perceiving regional and seasonal variability of temperature. The impacts of these weather indicators' variability on individual's mode choice is investigated with multinomial logit models. The results show that the impacts of weather differ in different seasons and different regions. Pedestrians' perception of variation of temperature differs between those in the northern Sweden and those in the central and southern Sweden. Such perception also differs in summer and in spring and autumn. Similarly, northern Sweden cyclists are more aware of temperature variation than cyclists in the central and southern Sweden in spring and autumn when temperature changes significantly. The influence of temperature variation on motorised modes also varies among seasons and regions. However, the trend is less straightforward than that on non-motorised modes. The findings highlight the importance to incorporate individual and regional unique anticipation and adaptations behaviours within our policy design and infrastructure management.

  • 25.
    Mandell, Svante
    Vti-Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carbon Emission Values in Cost Benefit Analyses2011Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 888-892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO(2) emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO(2). This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present and future policies. This paper argues that both approaches are necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects the latter should be the primary tool. A series of complications arise when applying this principle in practice. These are discussed in the paper. Even if the complications make the implementation of a shadow price approach difficult, we argue that the approach still is preferable to a social cost approach.

  • 26.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hjalmarsson, Linnea
    Tema T, Linköping University.
    Wikström, Martina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Bridging the implementation gap: Combining backcasting and policy analysis to study renewable energy in urban road transport2015Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 37, s. 72-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper combines backcasting and policy analysis to identify the opportunities for and barriers to the increased use of renewable energy and energy-effcient vehicles in an urban road transport system, namely, that of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2030. The combination of methods could bridge the implementation gap between scenario-based research and actual policy implementation and thus increase the chances of research being implemented in practise. In the case study, backcasting identifies a need for diverse fuels and vehicles and for immediate policy action. However, analysis of policy integration demonstrates that such action is unlikely given current policy structures. The fundamental lack of integration between energy and transport policy obstructs measures to increase the use of renewable fuels and more energy-effcient vehicles, which in turn obstructs the reduction of CO2 emissions from transport. The combination of backcasting and policy analysis is demonstrated to improve our under- standing of the prerequisites for transitioning to a system based on renewable energy, and could thus be useful in further research.

  • 27. Van Wee, B.
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    How to make CBA more suitable for evaluating cycling policies2015Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 44, s. 117-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that there is no reason to a priori reject the use of CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies. A CBA can be very helpful to ex ante evaluate the impacts of candidate cycling policies although the outcomes need to be carefully examined and could be misleading. This is firstly due to current practice and modelling tools which do not address cycling well, key issues being the poor inclusion of cycling in transport models even in countries with high bicycle levels, and the use of aggregate average risk data which do not reflect marginal risk changes in specific cases. In addition it is doubtful whether the value of travel time gains can be captured by the cyclist's willingness to pay. Secondly, some important effects are generally ignored, typically difficulties in quantifying and monetizing the potential impacts on the urban environment, social exclusion and the option value. We point out some research and modelling challenges essential for improving CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies.

  • 28. Zhao, Yong
    et al.
    Kockelman, Kara
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Welfare calculations in discrete choice settings: an exploratory analysis of error term correlation with finite populations2012Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 76-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A difference in logsum terms (also known as inclusive values) is becoming a standard practice for anticipating the welfare impacts of transport policy when choice alternatives are discrete and behavior is (assumed to be) random-utility maximizing. However, this calculation is only an approximation when the population under study is finite. This paper examines the effect of error term correlations in such welfare analyses with finite samples, recognizing that individual preferences and unobserved attributes influencing choice are unlikely to change much, if at all, across scenarios or across alternatives. Such measures appear reasonably robust to deviations in assumptions of correlation. Nevertheless, we identify cases when the synthetic population samples need to be quite large for the average logsum to be realized. Another finding in these results is the substantial variation that emerges across synthetic populations, suggesting that policies that appear welfare-improving (when evaluated with average welfare formulations) may well be welfare-reducing (or vice versa) for a wide variety of actual, finite populations.

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