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  • 1.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns and challenges of urban nature conservation - a study of southern Sweden2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 2671-2685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current, dominating strategy of nature conservation within urban landscapes is to formally protect remaining patches of unexploited nature in nature reserves. However, integration of nature conservation frameworks into urban planning requires reconsideration of key issues, such as why, where, and how to protect nature in a purposeful way. As part of that process I statistically evaluate current nature conservation in 209 municipalities in southern Sweden by analysing the number, size, age, and land cover patterns of 1869 nature reserves in relation to the degree of urbanisation. The analyses reveal that in urban municipalities the nature reserves are fewer, but larger, and have a higher diversity of land covers. Having large nature reserves may be especially important in urban landscapes, since it is often highly fragmented. The land cover compositions show no differences between urban and rural nature reserves. However, urban nature reserves differ more from their surroundings compared with rural nature reserves, according to the identified changes in representation of land cover types with an increasing degree of urbanisation. The most urgent future challenge identified is to develop urban nature conservation strategies that are integrated into the urban context including other green areas and built-up areas, the land-use history, and the requirements for local ecosystem services across the landscape.

  • 2. Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    Haining, Robert
    Kahn, Tulio
    The geography of homicide in Sao Paulo, Brazil2007In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1632-1653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate geographical patterns of homicide in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The geography of crime in developing world cities has been an underresearched area in part because of the lack of good-quality, geocoded offence data. In the case of Sao Paulo the availability of a new digital police dataset has provided the opportunity to improve our understanding of its crime patterns. The authors report the testing of hypotheses about the spatial variation in homicide rates. This variation is explained by poverty, situational conditions determined by differences in land use, and processes that indicate links with the geography of drug markets and the availability of firearms.

  • 3. Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology (name changed 20120201).
    Weaving protective stories: connective practices to articulate holistic values in the Stockholm National Urban Park2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1460-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With rapid worldwide urbanization it is urgent that we understand processes leading to the protection of urban green areas and ecosystems. Although natural reserves are often seen as preserving 'higher valued' rather than 'lower valued' nature, it is more adequate to describe them as outcomes of selective social articulation processes. This is illustrated in the Stockholm National Urban Park. Despite strong exploitation pressure, a diverse urban movement of civil society organizations has managed to provide narratives able to explain and legitimize the need for protection-a 'protective story'. On the basis of qualitative data and building on theories of value articulation, social movements, and actor-networks, we show how activists, by interlacing artefacts and discourses from cultural history and conservation biology, managed to simultaneously link spatially separated green areas previously seen as disconnected, while also articulating the interrelatedness between the cultural and the natural history of the area. This connective practice constructed holistic values articulating a unified park, which heavily influenced the official framing of the park's values and which now help to explain the success of the movement. In contrast to historically top-down-led designation of natural reserves, we argue that the involvement of civil society in protecting nature (and culture) is on the rise. This nonetheless begs the question of who can participate in these value-creating processes, and we also strive to uncover constraining and facilitating factors for popular participation. Four such factors are suggested: (i) the number and type of artefacts linked to an area; (ii) the capabilities and numbers of activists involved; (iii) the access to social arenas; and (iv) the social network position of actors.

  • 4.
    Hult, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    The circulation of Swedish urban sustainability practices: to China and back2015In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 537-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the effects and underlying intentions of Swedish practices of exporting sustainable development models to Chinese ecocities. Under the 'bestpractice' banner, international architectural firms are often invited to masterplan ecocity developments. The 'sustainable city' has thus become an export commodity, supported by the Swedish government and seen as especially suited to the Chinese ecocity market. Two cases are examined, where Swedish architecture firms have been commissioned to masterplan Chinese ecocities: the Caofedian and Wuxi Eco-cities. In particular, I examine three kinds of 'effects': first, the planning discourse manifested in the planning documents; second, how these plans materialize on the ground; and, third, the effects of this exported planning practice on Swedish policy and practice at home. This paper advances our understanding of how transnational urban sustainability practices are constructed and circulated. It further adds to the field of planning mobilities by examining not only the discourse and diffusion of transnational master planning but also how the 'export' circulates and returns. I argue that the two intentional logics of exporting the Swedish 'sustainable city'-to shape a better world and to export clean-tech products-could both be seen as having failed in these two cases. Instead, the naming and branding of the ecocities seem to boost a certain repetitive problematic idea and practice of sustainable urban development. I argue that the Swedish exported practice strengthens and legitimizes a circulating narrative establishing a sustainable urban planning practice fostering a paradoxically generic image of upper-middle-class consumers as ecocity inhabitants in China as well as in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Hult, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rapoport, Elizabeth
    University College London.
    The travelling business of sustainable urbanism: international consultants as norm-setters2017In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 1779-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the international travels of ideas about sustainable urban planning and design through a focus on private sector architecture, planning and engineering consultants. These consultants, who we refer to as the Global Intelligence Corps (GIC), package up their expertise in urban sustainability as a marketable commodity, and apply it on projects around the world. In doing so the GIC shape norms about what constitutes ‘good’ sustainable urban planning, and contribute to the development of an internationalised travelling model of sustainable urbanism. This paper draws on a broad study of the industry (GIC) in sustainable urban planning and design, and two in-depth case studies of Swedish GIC firms working on Chinese Eco-city projects. Analysis of this material illustrates how the GIC’s work shapes a traveling model of sustainable urbanism, and how this in turn creates and reinforces particular norms in urban planning practice.

  • 6.
    Karvonen, Andrew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. Manchester Architecture Research Centre, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.
    Yocom, Ken
    Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Washington, 348 Gould Hall, Box 355734, Seattle, WA 98195, United States.
    The civics of urban nature: enacting hybrid landscapes2011In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1305-1322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban nature is typically managed through top-down, bureaucratic, and expert-driven approaches that tend to rationalize and simplify the interactions between humans and their surroundings. In the last few decades, there has been a significant push in cultural geography and the design disciplines to develop a relational ontology of urban nature, a perspective that emphasizes the hybrid connections between humans and nonhumans, built and unbuilt, social and natural. This perspective offers new and exciting ways of conceptualizing urban nature but it has not produced alternatives to conventional governance. In other words, thinking differently about urban nature has yet to produce different ways of interacting with it. In this paper we argue that civic environmentalism can enact a relational ontology by engaging urban residents in processes of democratic deliberation and action in the reworking of urban nature. We illustrate this approach with a case study of a community-led project to construct a pedestrian trail along an urban creek in Seattle, Washington. The example demonstrates how the concept of civic environmentalism embraces a relational perspective of urban nature, while also producing generative forms of political action.

  • 7.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis, NA (closed 2012-06-30).
    Eriksson, E.A.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Invariance of achieved utility in random utility models1995In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 27, p. 121-142Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Urban welfare maximization and housing market equilibrium in a random utility setting1987In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 19, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Placing the stakes: the enactment of territorial stakeholders in planning processes2013In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 781-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an investigation into processes of becoming-stakeholder. It focuses specifically on strategic spatial planning where the stakeholder concept has become one of the linchpins of much contemporary theory and practice. Through drawing upon the sociology of attachments and scholarship on subjectification, it is argued that the enactment of stakeholders in strategic planning processes can be gainfully understood as the production of stakeholder subjectivities by way of practices of ontological choreography which can generate territorial attachments and rearticulate existing attachments into a specifically territorial format. From this perspective, stakeholderness is never an ontologically pregiven property to be uncovered by diligent analysis. Rather, we might come to see that stakeholder subjectification is a process through which actors learn to be affected, and where these affections further come to be articulated as territorial attachments engendering, or at least prompting, a 'caring for place'. Still, as relational effects, subjectivities are always potentially precarious achievements and it is important not to take for granted that the subjectivities enacted in a specific situation or setting will be easily transposable to other contexts.

  • 10.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Spatial planning and/as caring formore-than-human place2014In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1001-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Nordregio.
    When soft spaces harden: the EU strategy for the Baltic Sea Region2012In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 263-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the first ever so-called 'macroregional strategy' developed under the aegis of the European Commission: the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR). Through a drawing together of elements of actor-network theory and regionalization theory, it is argued that the adoption of the EUSBSR can be seen as a milestone within a wider process towards Baltic Sea regionalization, whereby the Baltic Sea region is increasingly 'solidified' through the positioning of the European Commission as a spokesperson for the interests of the region. It is further suggested that, if not seriously contested, the possible acceptance of the European Commission as a designated regional spokesperson might be a crucial step in a process whereby the soft space of the Baltic Sea Region may gradually become more formalized. Nonetheless, caution must be taken so as not to confuse degrees of formal institutional fixity with degrees of durability.

  • 12.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Soneryd, L.
    Linke, S.
    The legitimization of concern: A flexible framework for investigating the enactment of stakeholders in environmental planning and governance processes2017In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 2517-2535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the 1990s and onwards, environmental planning and governance has undergone a broad participatory turn. This paper focuses on one specific aspect of participatory processes and the concrete arrangements through which they are carried out, more specifically: how such processes always come to enact some actors as ‘legitimately concerned’ stakeholders and others not. Such investigations bring into focus context-specific effects of inclusion and exclusion as well as de/legitimization of specific actors and concerns. We propose a flexible framework for untangling the various components which in different ways influence the fine-grained power dynamics at play in such events, particularly focusing on the enactments of stakeholders that result from the situated interplay of rationales and infrastructures for participation. The guiding ambitions for the framework is for it to be applicable to a broad range of subfields of environmental planning and governance while avoiding the analytical risks of strong normative commitments from the outset regarding whether participation per se is good or bad, and offering some novel insights into the investigated cases. Throughout the paper, we utilize two case studies, from urban planning and fisheries management, to test the analytical productivity of the proposed framework while also searching for cues for the further development of the framework itself.

  • 13. Pesch, Udo
    et al.
    Vernay, Anne-Lorene
    van Bueren, Ellen
    Pandis Iverot, Sofie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Stockholm Municipal, Sweden.
    Niche entrepreneurs in urban systems integration: On the role of individuals in niche formation2017In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 1922-1942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sustainable urban innovation projects, the efforts, endurance and enthusiasm of individuals at key positions are considered a crucial factor for success. This article studies the role of individual agency in sociotechnical niches by using Kingdon's agenda-setting model. Although strategic niche management is commonly used to study processes of urban innovation, the process of niche formation and the role of individual agency has been understudied. We will introduce the notion of the 'niche entrepreneur' as an actor who, analogous to Kingdon's policy entrepreneur, connects the elements that are needed to develop a successful niche that allows learning for sustainability transitions. We will study the process of niche formation and the role of individual entrepreneurship therein, and identify the strategies that have been used by individuals to create a successful niche. This will be done for three cases in urban systems integration: the development of Eva Lanxmeer, a residential district in a drinking water retention area in Culemborg, the Netherlands; the transformation of the waste management practices of Lille Metropole Urban Community, France; and the development of the urban district Hammarby Sjostad, Sweden. Our findings show that for the successful formation of niches, it is necessary to create ambitious, but clear goals and matching concrete operational plans; niche entrepreneurs may play the role of project champions that contribute significantly to the operationalization, monitoring and the effectuation of the original goals of the project; the strategies of niche entrepreneurs emphasize the building of coalitions and the securing of space for learning.

  • 14.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    An Unplanned Green Wave: Settlement patterns in Sweden during the 1990s.2002In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, p. 1395-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Westlund, Hans
    An unplanned green wave: settlement patterns in Sweden during the 1990s2002In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1395-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the population changes in the countryside and in urban centres within the municipalities of Sweden outside the metropolitan areas, between 1990 and 1997. Overall, the countryside showed a higher population increase than the municipality centres. Smaller population centres suffered a population decline. The increase in population in the countryside was strongest in areas surrounding the metropolises and around regional centres. Statistical analysis showed that population change outside population centres mainly varies with the average income, labour-market access, and taxation values or housing costs in the municipalities. This process of change has run directly counter to the policy that was formulated for small municipalities from the end of the 1960s onwards. The growth in rural population was spontaneous for the most part, and more or less in conflict with the plans of the municipalities.

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