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  • 1.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Gustafsson, M.
    Johansson, C.
    On particulate emissions from moving trains in a tunnel environment2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 59, s. 35-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.

  • 2.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Teknikringen 10, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sun, Y.
    Chen, Y.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    The effect of residential housing policy on car ownership and trip chaining behaviour in Hangzhou, China2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 62, s. 125-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    China has recently initialised affordable housing policies to provide low rent housings for medium and low income households aiming to satisfy the growing demand in the housing market. The travel behaviour of residents in these two different types of housing is likely to differ, since public housing tenants have a limited choice of residential location, as the location of low-rent housing is fixed, while residents in commodity housing are able to take their travel patterns into account in choosing their housing location. Therefore, this paper investigates the differences in car ownership and trip chaining behaviour arising from living in different types of residential housing. The self-selection bias caused by the differences in the observed individual and household characteristics is partially controlled by a propensity score matching approach. The study further considers the endogenous effect of car ownership on travel chaining behaviour, thus controlling for the self-selection bias at car ownership level. The results show that residents in private commodity housing are more likely to own a car than those in low-rent housing with similar individual and household characteristics. Different life cycle stages play a vital role in car ownership after self-selection in residential housing has been taken into account. Living in private commodity housing has a direct negative effect on trip chaining complexity, after controlling for endogenous car ownership, although this effect is offset by the tendency for private commodity housing owners to do complex trip chaining because they have one or more cars.

  • 3.
    Chengxi, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Estimating changes in transport CO2 emissions due to changes in weather and climate in Sweden2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 49, s. 172-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a considerable body of studies on the relationship between daily transport activities and CO2 emissions. However, how these emissions vary in different weather conditions within and between the seasons of the year is largely unknown. Because individual activity–travel patterns are not static but vary in different weather conditions, it is immensely important to understand how CO2 emissions vary due to the change of weather. Using Swedish National Travel Survey data, with emission factors calculated through the European emission factor model ARTEMIS, this study is a first attempt to derive the amount of CO2 emission changes subject to the change of weather conditions. A series of econometric models was used to model travel behaviour variables that are crucial for influencing individual CO2 emissions. The marginal effects of weather variables on travel behaviour variables were derived. The results show an increase of individual CO2 emissions in a warmer climate and in more extreme temperature conditions, whereas increasing precipitation amounts and snow depths show limited effects on individual CO2 emissions. It is worth noting that the change in CO2 emissions in the scenario of a warmer climate and a more extreme temperature tends to be greater than the sum of changes in CO2 emissions in each individual scenario. Given that a warmer climate and more extreme weather could co-occur more frequently in the future, this result suggests even greater individual CO2 emissions than expected in such a future climate.

  • 4.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Fordonsdynamik.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Energy Efficiency Analyses of a Vehicle in Modal and Transient Driving Cycles including Longitudinal and Vertical Dynamics2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 53, s. 263-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing concerns about the environmental issues caused by vehicles and a strive forbetter fuel economy, urge the legislators to introduce conservative regulations on vehicletesting and homologation procedures. To have accurate evaluations, driving cycles thatcan sufficiently describe the vehicles’ conditions experienced during driving is a prerequisite.In current driving cycles there are still some issues which are disregarded. The aim ofthe presented work is to study the contribution of chassis and vehicle dynamics settings ontyre rolling loss in comparison with the original assumptions made in the NEDC, FTP andHWFET driving cycles. A half-car model including a semi-physical explicit tyre model tosimulate the rolling loss is proposed. For the chosen vehicle and tyre characteristics,depending on the specific chassis settings and considered driving cycle, considerable differenceup to 7% was observed between the energy consumption of the proposed- and conventionalapproach. The current work aims to provide the legislators with a betterinsight into the real effects of chassis and vehicle dynamics during the certification processto further improve the test related procedures required for homologation such as generationof road load curves. I.e., the aim is not to provide a new homologation process, sincethere are also other effects such as road roughness and tyre temperature that need to beconsidered. The results are also of interest for the vehicle manufacturers for further considerationsduring test preparation as well as in the development phase in order to reduce theenvironmental impacts.

  • 5.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Fonseca, K. V. O.
    Nieweglowski, R.
    Schepanski, R.
    Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 58, s. 122-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates Well-to-Wheel (WTW) fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for six types of city buses with conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains, including two-axle, articulated and bi-articulated chassis in the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system in Curitiba, Brazil. Particular emphasis is put on the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel, TTW) of the city buses using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The simulations are based on real-world driving patterns collected from Curitiba, comprising 42 driving cycles that represent city bus operation on seven BRT routes with six operation times for each. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses use 30% and 75% less WTW fossil energy per distance compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (19.46 MJfossil,WTW/km). This gives an absolute reduction of 1115 gCO2e,WTW/km in WTW GHG emissions when operating a plug-in hybrid-electric city bus instead of a conventional two-axle city bus (1539 gCO2e,WTW/km). However, a conventional bi-articulated city bus can be environment-friendlier than hybrid-electric city buses in terms of WTW fossil energy use and WTW GHG emissions per passenger-distance, if its passenger capacity is sufficiently utilised. Nonetheless, the plug-in hybrid-electric city bus remains the most energy-efficient and less polluting option. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains offer the possibility to achieve much higher levels of decarbonisation in the BRT system in Curitiba than the blending mandate of 7%vol biodiesel into diesel implemented in Brazil in 2016. In addition, the simulations show that TTW energy use can considerably vary by up to 77% between different operation times, BRT routes and types of city buses. In conclusion, advanced powertrains and large passenger capacity utilisation can promote sustainability in Curitiba's BRT system. The results of this analysis provide important insights for decision makers both in Curitiba and other cities with similar conditions.

  • 6. Engström, E.
    et al.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    The choice of new private and benefit cars vs. climate and transportation policy in Sweden2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 69, s. 276-292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dedicated to show climate leadership, Sweden has committed to cut 70% of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in the domestic transportation sector by 2030 compared to 2010 levels (except flights). This study evaluated the environmental impacts of three recent new car policies. Based on questionnaires and market supply data, multinomial logit discrete choice models were developed for private buyers and individuals with company cars for private use, denoted benefit cars. Estimates indicated that preferences among individuals with benefit cars were generally in favor of Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) as compared to gasoline cars, in contrast with private consumers (ceteris paribus). Thus, the company car market seemed to be the main gateway for AFVs into the fleet; however, average GHG emissions per car sold were similar in both buyer segments, which was likely related to stronger preferences for larger and more expensive benefit cars. The results indicated that subsidies to private buyers would be influential only if they decreased the costs of AFVs as compared to conventional vehicles, and that none of the investigated policies had been very effective in shifting choices in favor of AFVs. Reduced fringe benefits tax for AFVs, annually worth up to €1100, resulted in only 0.7% lower average carbon emissions. A 'super Green Car’ premium, worth approximately €2000–€4000 at the time of purchase, decreased emissions by 0.4% among private consumers, twice the impact of a five-year tax-exemption for ‘Green Cars’. It appears that more stringent policies are needed to more substantially reduce GHG emissions from new cars.

  • 7.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Hjorth, Katrine
    Lyk-Jensen, Stephanie Vincent
    Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?2010Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 370-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover, respondents having bus as the current or the alternative mode seem not to value comfort differently across modes. Strategic behaviour seems to play no role. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Geurs, Karst
    et al.
    Zondag, Barry
    de Jong, Gerard
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    de Bok, Michiel
    Accessibility appraisal of land-use/transport policy strategies: More than just adding up travel-time savings2010Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 382-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the accessibility benefits associated with some land-use policy strategies for the Netherlands that anticipate on expected climate change. A disaggregate logsum accessibility measure using the Dutch national land-use/transport interaction model TIGRIS XL is used to compute changes in consumer surplus. The measure provides an elegant and convenient solution to measure the full accessibility benefits from land-use and/or transport policies, when discrete choice travel-demand models are available that already produce logsums. It accounts for both changes in generalised transport costs and changes in destination utility, and is thus capable of providing the accessibility benefits from changes in the distribution of activities, due to transport or land-use policies. The case study shows that logsum accessibility benefits from land-use policy strategies can be quite large compared to investment programmes for road and public transport infrastructure, largely due to changes in trip production and destination utility, which are not measured in the standard rule-of-half benefit measure.

  • 9.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Infrastruktur och samhällsplanering.
    Transport telematics in urban systems: A backcasting Delphi study1998Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 445-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper includes a presentation of the results from a scenario study on transport telematics in urban passenger transport. An international Delphi panel of 100 experts from 20 countries replied to questions on the feasibility and impact of a restricted number of different technical scenarios. The results show that most experts see substantial potential for limiting certain transport problems if there is broad implementation of transport telematics as described in this study. The majority of experts favoured a scenario based on extended public transport information. In that scenario, environmental gains were in practice paid for in terms of less comfortable trips and longer travel times.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Parking Benefit Districts – The transferability of a measure to reduce car dependency to a European context2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 56, s. 129-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking Benefit Districts (PBDs) are a parking measure where revenues from on-street parking charges are returned to the area where they are charged, and stakeholders in the area participate in prioritizing how the revenues are to be spent. The purpose of this article is to analyse whether and how a PBD programme can be transferred to a European context, and whether it can contribute to reduced car dependency. The first part of the article provides an overview of some salient features of PBD programmes in the USA through a literature survey. This is followed by results from interviews and from a focus group with civil servants and a deputy mayor in Stockholm. The results are used to analyse the conditions for implementing a PBD programme in Stockholm, as well as for analysing how such a programme can be designed to reduce car dependency. A main conclusion is that there are no legal barriers that render a PBD programme impossible in Stockholm, even though there are some legal restrictions. We also conclude that a PBD programme might contribute to reduced car dependency in two different ways, either by increasing acceptance for parking charges or by improving the alternatives to private cars. There seem to be several aspects in a PBD programme that can contribute to increased acceptance for parking charges. However, there is no tradition of working with these principles in Sweden and the programme's redistributional effects need to be taken into account when designing the programme.

  • 11.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Design and evaluation of railway corridors based on spatial ecological and geological criteria2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 46, s. 207-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is closely linked to several sustainability issues of main policy relevance, and significant impacts on biodiversity as well as resource use and construction costs relate to the corridor design and location in the landscape. The aim of this study was to develop methods for railway corridor planning, in which corridor design and location would be based on important ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The method, an MCA framework including both spatial and non-spatial MCA, was demonstrated on a railway planning proposition in an urbanising area north of Stockholm, Sweden. Alternative spatial alignments for 6 railway corridors were derived based on criteria representing biodiversity, resource efficiency and costs, developed from ecological and geological knowledge, data and models. The method identified a study area specific positive synergy between ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The evaluation part of the methodology could furthermore identify uncertainties in the input data and assumptions and conflicts between ecological criteria. In order to arrive at a well-informed decision support system, the criteria as well as the decision rules employed could be further elaborated. Other relevant sustainability issues would also need to be integrated, such as cultural landscapes, recreation, and other ecosystem services. Still, arriving at a corridor design informed by the ecological and geological conditions in the planned area, as demonstrated by this study, could improve the sustainability performance of transport infrastructure planning.

  • 12.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Electric vehicle users and their travel patterns in Greater Stockholm2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 52, s. 98-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) show promise for improving the environmental sustainability of the transport system since, as opposed to conventional vehicles, they have no tailpipe exhaust gas emissions. The use of EVs can also decrease the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, especially if the electricity has been generated with renewable energy sources. However, the scale of projected benefits can be questioned since the travel patterns of car drivers may not stay the same after changing to EVs, due to various factors such as higher investment costs, lower operation costs and general perceptions associated with electric vehicles. In this study, the travel patterns of both electric vehicle users and conventional vehicle users in Greater Stockholm are compared with regard to the number of trips made and the modal share of the car in the total travel distance. For this purpose, a one-day travel diary carried out in autumn 2014 has been used. The main findings are the following: firstly, the EV is generally perceived by respondents to be more environmentally friendly than public transport modes. Secondly, EV users make significantly more trips than their non-EV using counterparts, according to their one-day travel diaries and controlling for socio-economic and situational variables. Thirdly, EV users choose the car for a significantly larger percentage of their total travel distance than conventional vehicle users. Those observations would suggest a rebound effect, as EVs still consume a considerable amount of energy and contribute to other external effects such as congestion.

  • 13.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. ITekn Solutions, Sweden.
    Jin, Junchen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Lei, Wei
    Multi-criteria analysis of optimal signal plans using microscopic traffic models2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 32, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing concerns on environment and natural resources, coupled with increasing demand for transport, put lots of pressure for improved efficiency and performance on transport systems worldwide. New technology nowadays enables fast innovation in transport, but it is the policy for deployment and operation with a systems perspective that often determines success. Smart traffic management has played important roles for continuous development of traffic systems especially in urban areas. There is, however, still lack of effort in current traffic management and planning practice prioritizing policy goals in environment and energy. This paper presents an application of a model-based framework to quantify environmental impacts and fuel efficiency of road traffic, and to evaluate optimal signal plans with respect not only to traffic mobility performance but also other important measures for sustainability. Microscopic traffic simulator is integrated with micro-scale emission model for estimation of emissions and fuel consumption at high resolution. A stochastic optimization engine is implemented to facilitate optimal signal planning for different policy goals, including delay, stop-and-goes, fuel economy etc. In order to enhance the validity of the modeling framework, both traffic and emission models are fine-tuned using data collected in a Chinese city. In addition, two microscopic traffic models are applied, and lead to consistent results for signal optimization. Two control schemes, fixed time and vehicle actuated, are optimized while multiple performance indexes are analyzed and compared for corresponding objectives. Solutions, representing compromise between different policies, are also obtained in the case study by optimizing an integrated performance index.

  • 14.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Lei, Wei
    Robles, Danny
    Multi-objective evaluation of optimal signal plans using a microscopic modeling framework2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15. Poulikakos, L.
    et al.
    Arraigada, M.
    Morgan, G.
    Heutschi, K.
    Anderegg, P.
    Partl, Manfred
    Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Soltic, S.
    In Situ Measurements of the Environmental Footprint of Freight Vehicles in Switzerland2008Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 274-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eureka Logchain Footprint is an ongoing European cooperative project aimed at developing methods to identify road and rail vehicles through their environmental "footprint" as characterised by their dynamic load, noise, ground borne vibrations, and gaseous emissions. Part of the project involves the installation of road and rail footprint monitoring stations throughout Europe. This paper reports the results of the first road station built on the A1 motorway in Switzerland on a flexible asphalt pavement. Individual vehicle data on weigh in motion, noise and vibration sensors were measured in situ. Methods for the incorporation of gaseous emissions from vehicles are discussed. The results indicate that the various footprint parameters need to be assessed separately to determine the environmental impact of heavy vehicles.

  • 16.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Williams, Katie
    Lindsay, Morag
    Dair, Carol
    The influence of individuals' environmental attitudes and urban design features on their travel patterns in sustainable neighborhoods in the UK2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 190-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the influence of individuals' environmental attitudes and urban design features on travel behavior, including mode choice. It uses data from residents of 13 new neighborhood UK developments designed to support sustainable travel. It is found that almost all respondents were concerned about environmental issues, but their views did not necessarily 'match' their travel behavior. Individuals' environmental concerns only had a strong relationship with walking within and near their neighborhood, but not with cycling or public transport use. Residents' car availability reduced public transport trips, walking and cycling. The influence of urban design features on travel behaviors was mixed, higher incidences of walking in denser, mixed and more permeable developments were not found and nor did residents own fewer cars than the population as a whole. Residents did, however, make more sustainable commuting trips than the population in general. Sustainable modes of travel were related to urban design features including secured bike storage, high connectivity of the neighborhoods to the nearby area, natural surveillance, high quality public realm and traffic calming. Likewise the provision of facilities within and nearby the development encouraged high levels of walking.

  • 17.
    Tu, Minghui
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Maskinkonstruktion.
    Towards a two-part train traffic emission factors model for airborne wear particlesInngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Tu, Minghui
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Towards a two-part train traffic emissions factor model for airborne wear particles2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 67, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017 a new railway tunnel containing two stations opened in Stockholm, Sweden. A series of field measurements were carried out on the platforms in this tunnel before and after it was opened for normal traffic. These measurements were used to investigate the contribution of airborne particle emissions from wear processes to total train emissions. This field data was used to develop a two-part train traffic emission factor model for PM10. The two parts are the accumulative effect term (relating to operating distance such as wheel-rail contact and overhead electric line sliding contact) and a brake effect term (relating to the number of braking operations such as brake disc and brake pad contact). The results show that operating a single trial train at a higher than normal frequency on an otherwise empty platform increases the platform particulate concentration until the concentration reaches a steady value. The model suggests that brake emissions account for about 50% of the total emissions measured in the tunnels.

  • 19. Waygood, E. O. D.
    et al.
    Sun, Yilin
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Transportation carbon dioxide emissions by built environment and family lifecycle: Case study of the Osaka metropolitan area2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 31, s. 176-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How a city grows and changes, along with where people choose to live likely affects travel behavior, and thus the amount of transportation CO2 emissions that they produce. People generally go through different stages in their life, and different travel needs are associated with each. The impact of the built environment may vary depending on the lifecycle stage, and the years spent at each stage will differ. A family with children may last for twenty to thirty years, while the time spent without dependents might be short in comparison. Over a family's lifecycle, how big of a difference might the built environment, through household location choice, have on the amount of transportation CO2 emissions produced? From a climate change perspective, how significant is residential location on the CO2 produced by transportation use? This paper uses data from the Osaka metropolitan area to compare the direct transportation CO2 emissions produced over a family's lifecycle across five different built environments to determine whether any are sustainable and which lifecycle stage has the greatest overall emissions. This understanding would enable the design of a targeted policy based on household lifecycle to reduce overall transportation CO2 of individuals throughout one's lifecycle. The yearly average per-capita family lifetime transportation CO2 emissions were 0.25, 0.35, 0.58, 0.78, and 0.79 metric tonnes for the commercial, mixed-commercial, mixed-residential, autonomous, and rural areas respectively. The results show that only the commercial and mixed-commercial areas were considered to be sustainable from a climate change and transportation perspective.

  • 20.
    Westin, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Can high speed rail offset its embedded emissions?2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the climate implications of investments in high speed railway lines given uncertainty in future transport demand, technology and power production. To capture the uncertainty of estimated parameters, distributions for the annual traffic emissions reduction required to compensate for the embedded emissions from the construction of infrastructure are calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. In order to balance the annualized emissions from the railway construction, traffic volumes of more than 10 million annual one-way trips are usually required. Most of the traffic diverted from other modes must come from aviation and the project cannot involve the extensive use of tunnels.

  • 21.
    Wikström, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Molde University College, Faculty of Business Administration and Social Sciences.
    Alvfors, Per
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Investigating barriers for plug-in electric vehicle deployment in fleets2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 49, s. 59-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial vehicle fleets constitute a favourable entry for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the road transport system. During an extensive demonstration project, with 500 PEVs operating in 100 public and private enterprises, 40 battery electric vehicle (BEV) users were invited to focus group discussions. The focus groups allowed the users to discuss their actual experiences of operating BEVs and thereby provide a greater understanding of the operating conditions experienced by BEV users in different organisations. Based on the discussions, this paper focus on operational barriers, rather than traditional technical or economical barriers. The findings complemented earlier data collected from the demonstration project and further explained the recorded driving and charging behaviour. The conditions to adopt the BEVs vary between the users, and this in turn can relate to organisational conditions. Given a favourable introduction, users adopt and accept the technology. The paper contributes with new findings regarding implementation of BEVs in commercial vehicle fleets and provides an in-depth understanding of the operational barriers that public or private enterprises face when introducing BEVs in their vehicle fleets.

  • 22.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Sustainable air transport - on track in 20502005Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 111-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper three 'Images' of air travel on a sustainable path in 2050 are outlined. The method used is backcasting. A stabilization of the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere at 450 parts per million is assumed to constitute a sustainable level. It is concluded that a refinement of the conventional turbofan aircraft is probably not sufficient to reach even the less demanding target level, even though a 40% reduction of fuel intensity may be achieved. The introduction of more radical aircraft configurations, e.g. the flying wing, probably has the greatest potential for reducing fuel consumption, but the development of such aircraft is uncertain. A less risky strategy is to opt for a high-speed propeller aircraft with a cruise speed which is 20-25% lower than for a conventional turbofan aircraft. This configuration entails a 56% cut of carbon dioxide emissions per passenger-kilometre compared to 2000. If this technology trajectory is combined with a development characterized by a weakened emphasis on economic growth together with less hectic lifestyles, it may be possible to reach even the most demanding of the target levels. Air travel per capita in 2050 would then be slightly higher than in 2000. If only the less demanding target level is to be reached global air travel per capita may be about 110% higher than in 2000.

  • 23.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    The role of high-speed rail in mitigating climate change: The Swedish case Europabanan from a life cycle perspective2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 208-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a life cycle perspective is used to analyse Europabanan, a proposed high-speed rail track in Sweden. The life cycle emissions reductions are found to be 550,000 tons of CO2-equivalents per annum by 2025/2030 with almost 60% of this coming from a shift from truck to rail freight and 40% from a shift from air and road travel to high-speed rail travel. In contexts similar to Sweden, it is thus an important issue whether a large increase is required in freight rail capacity anyway, since high-speed rail investments may not be justified for the passenger markets alone. The study also indicates that a substantial share of emissions due to construction of the new railway could be counterbalanced through the reduced need for building and maintaining roads and airports, and for manufacturing cars.

1 - 23 of 23
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