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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    How does travel satisfaction sum up?: Decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1615-1642Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how satisfaction with individual trip legs aggregates to the overall travel experience for different types of trips will enable the identification of the trip legs that are most impactful. For this purpose we analyze data on retrospective evaluations of entire multi-modal trip experiences and satisfaction with individual trip legs. We formulate and describe alternative aggregation rules and underpin them in theory and previous empirical findings. The results of a series of regression models show that for a large number of multi-modal trip configurations normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules. This indicates that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience, especially for trips legs involving waiting and/or transferring time. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yielded the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction. No evidence for a disproportional effect of the last or most exceptional part of the trip was found. This research contributes to the literature on combining multi-episodic experiences and provides novel empirical evidence in the transport domain. 

  • 2.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Examining the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints on leisure activity participation in different seasons of the year2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multi-day, multi-period travel diaries data of 56 days (four waves of two-week diaries) for 67 individuals in Stockholm, this study aims to examine the effects of out-of-home and in-home constraints (e.g. teleworking, studying at home, doing the laundry, cleaning and taking care of other household member[s]) on individuals’ day-to-day leisure activity participation decisions in four different seasons. This study also aims to explore the effects of various types of working schedules (fixed, shift, partial- and full-flexible) on individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day leisure activities. A pooled model (56 days) and wave-specific models (14 days in each wave) are estimated by using dynamic ordered Probit models. The effects of various types of working schedules are estimated by using 28 days of two waves’ data. The results show that an individual’s leisure activity participation decision is significantly influenced by out-of-home work durations but not influenced by in-home constraints, regardless of any seasons. Individuals with shift working hours engage less in day-to-day leisure activities than other workers’ types in both spring and summer seasons. The thermal indicator significantly affects individuals’ leisure activity participation decisions during the autumn season. Individuals exhibit routine behaviour characterized by repeated decisions in participating in day-to-day leisure activities that can last up to 14 days, regardless of any seasons.

  • 3. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Appraising large-scale investments in a metropolitan transportation system1992In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 19, p. 267-283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Batley, Richard
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Bates, John
    John Bates Serv, Abingdon, Oxon, England..
    Bliemer, Michiel
    Univ Sydney, Inst Transport & Logist Studies, Transport Network Modelling, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Bourdon, Jeremy
    Arup, London, England..
    Cabral, Manuel Ojeda
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Chintakayala, Phani Kumar
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Choudhury, Charisma
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Daly, Andrew
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Dekker, Thijs
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Drivyla, Efie
    Arup, London, England..
    Fowkes, Tony
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Hess, Stephane
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Heywood, Chris
    Accent, London, England..
    Johnson, Daniel
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Laird, James
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Mackie, Peter
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Parkin, John
    Univ West England, Ctr Transport & Soc, Transport Engn, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sanders, Stefan
    Arup, London, England..
    Sheldon, Rob
    Accent, London, England..
    Wardman, Mark
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Worsley, Tom
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 583-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the study Provision of market research for value of time savings and reliability' undertaken by the Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent consortium for the UK Department for Transport (DfT). The paper summarises recommendations for revised national average values of in-vehicle travel time savings, reliability and time-related quality (e.g. crowding and congestion), which were developed using willingness-to-pay (WTP) methods, for a range of modes, and covering both business and non-work travel purposes. The paper examines variation in these values by characteristics of the traveller and trip, and offers insights into the uncertainties around the values, especially through the calculation of confidence intervals. With regards to non-work, our recommendations entail an increase of around 50% in values for commute, but a reduction of around 25% for other non-workrelative to previous DfT WebTAG' guidance. With regards to business, our recommendations are based on WTP, and thus represent a methodological shift away from the cost saving approach (CSA) traditionally used in WebTAG. These WTP-based business values show marked variation by distance; for trips of less than 20miles, values are around 75% lower than previous WebTAG values; for trips of around 100miles, WTP-based values are comparable to previous WebTAG; and for longer trips still, WTP-based values exceed those previously in WebTAG.

  • 5.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models2014In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time and cost parameters (under the assumption that the variance of the error components of the indirect utility function is equal across the two datasets). It is found that the travel time parameter has remained constant over time but that the travel cost parameter has declined in real terms. The trend decline in the cost parameter can be entirely explained by higher average income level in the 2007 sample compared to the 1994 sample. The results support the recommendation to keep the travel time parameter constant over time in forecast models, but to deflate the travel cost parameter with the forecasted income increase among travellers and the relevant income elasticity of the cost parameter. Evidence from this study further suggests that the inter-temporal and the cross-sectional income elasticities of the cost parameter are equal. The average elasticity is found to be -0.8 to -0.9 in the present sample of drivers, and the elasticity is found to increase with the real income level, both in the cross-section and over time.

  • 6.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Reimal, T.
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsidy level of public transport systems varies considerably among systems worldwide. While limited-scale free-fare public transport (FFPT) services such as limited campaigns and fare evasion for special groups or specific services are prevalent, there is only limited evidence on the consequences of introducing a full-fledged FFPT. The case of Tallinn, Estonia offers a full-scale experiment that provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impacts of FFPT. This study examines travel pattern changes based on individual travel habit survey shortly before and almost 1 year after the introduction of FFPT policy in Tallinn based on interviews and travel diaries of a random sample of 1500 household. We analyse modal shift effects and whether they are driven by trip generation or trip substitution, travel attitudes and satisfactions as well as impacts on equity, employment prospects, and trip destination choices. Almost a year after the introduction of FFPT, public transport usage increased by 14 % and there is evidence that the mobility of low-income residents has improved. The effect of FFPT on ridership is substantially lower than those reported in previous studies due to the good level of service provision, high public transport usage and low public transport fees that existed already prior to the FFPT.

  • 7.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Transport Sci, Teknikringen 10, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Reimal, Triin
    Ramboll AB, Krukmakargatan 21, S-10462 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn (vol 44, pg 1083, 2017)2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1601-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    de Jong, Gerard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Vierth, Inge
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Tavasszy, L.
    Ben-Akiva, M.
    Recent developments in national and international freight transport models within Europe2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 347-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decade has seen many new freight transport models for use in transport planning by public authorities. Some of these models have developed new concepts, such as logistics modules, inclusion of transshipments, storage and sourcing and the determination of shipment size. This paper provides a review of the European literature on freight transport models that operate at the national or international level and have been developed since 2004. The introduction of elements of logistics thinking is identified as a common theme in recently developed models, and further worked out. Furthermore, ideas on what might be the next key developments in freight transport modelling are presented.

  • 9.
    Dharmowijoyo, Dimas B. E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Day-to-day variability in travellers' activity-travel patterns in the Jakarta metropolitan area2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 601-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using four consecutive days of SITRAMP 2004 data from the Jakarta metropolitan area (JMA), Indonesia, this study examines the interactions between individuals’ activity-travel parameters, given the variability in their daily constraints, resources, land use and road network conditions. While there have been a significant number of studies into day-to-day variability in travel behaviour in developed countries, this issue is rarely examined in developing countries. The results show that some activity-travel parameter interactions are similar to those produced by travellers from developed countries, while others differ. Household and individual characteristics are the most significant variables influencing the interactions between activity-travel parameters. Different groups of travellers exhibit different trade-off mechanisms. Further analyses of the stability of activity-travel patterns across different days are also provided. Daily commuting time and regular work and study commitments heavily shape workers’ and students’ flexibility in arranging their travel time and out-of-home time budget, leading to more stable daily activity-travel patterns than non-workers.

  • 10. Dharmowijoyo, Dimas B. E.
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    On complexity and variability of individuals' discretionary activities2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 177-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a hierarchical structured equation model and a multi-dimensional 3-week household time-use and activity diary conducted in Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia, this study investigated the interaction among individuals' non-instrumental variables, time space (such as their day-to-day time duration of activity participation, socio-demographics and built environment), and health factors on individuals' day-to-day discretionary activities. The results show that individuals' subjective characteristics and day-to-day time-space components significantly influence decision making processes to participate in certain activities, particularly grocery shopping. Integration between subjective factors and day-to-day time duration of activity participation also reveals how an individual categorises a particular behaviour as routine, planned or impulsive. For example, grocery shopping is a planned behaviour with real consequences (e.g. starving). Appearing as a strong commitment and intention enables individuals to allocate time to engage in this activity. Thus, given the individual's time-space constraints, there may be a regular trade-off between frequency and duration. On the other hand, out-of-home social-recreational activity is a less urgent/impulsive activity and depends far more on an individual's day-to-day time-space constraints than his/her subjective characteristics. If the situation on the given day is not feasible for him/her to undertake the out-of-home social recreational activity, he/she is more likely to re-schedule the activity. The study results also show that land use configuration and perceived accessibilities influence individuals' discretionary activity participation.

  • 11.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fonseca, Keiko V. O.
    Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieweglowski, Rafael
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Schepanski, Renan
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    The influence of passenger load, driving cycle, fuel price and different types of buses on the cost of transport service in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 2195-2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the influence of passenger load, driving cycle, fuel price and four different types of buses on the cost of transport service for one bus rapid transit (BRT) route in Curitiba, Brazil. First, the energy use is estimated for different passenger loads and driving cycles for a conventional bi-articulated bus (ConvBi), a hybrid-electric two-axle bus (HybTw), a hybrid-electric articulated bus (HybAr) and a plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle bus (PlugTw). Then, the fuel cost and uncertainty are estimated considering the fuel price trends in the past. Based on this and additional cost data, replacement scenarios for the currently operated ConvBi fleet are determined using a techno-economic optimisation model. The lowest fuel cost ranges for the passenger load are estimated for PlugTw amounting to (0.198–0.289) USD/km, followed by (0.255–0.315) USD/km for HybTw, (0.298–0.375) USD/km for HybAr and (0.552–0.809) USD/km for ConvBi. In contrast, the coefficient of variation (Cv'>C v  Cv) of the combined standard uncertainty is the highest for PlugTw (Cv'>C v  Cv: 15–17%) due to stronger sensitivity to varying bus driver behaviour, whereas it is the least for ConvBi (Cv'>C v  Cv: 8%). The scenario analysis shows that a complete replacement of the ConvBi fleet leads to considerable higher cost of transport service on the BRT route, amounting to an increase by 64% to 139%, depending on the bus fleet composition. Meanwhile, the service quality is improved resulting in 42% up to 64% less waiting time for passengers at a bus stop.

  • 12.
    Dziekan, Katrin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    What do people know about their public transport options?: Investigating the memory representation of public transport through telephone interviews in a residential area of Stockholm, Sweden2008In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 519-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the memory representations of residents regarding the public transport system in their city. Telephone interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 204 inhabitants in a selected residential inner-city area in Stockholm. Route knowledge questions, recognition tasks, free-recall tasks and estimations of service frequency were used to explore memory representations. The results showed that, in general, residents in metropolitan areas have good knowledge of the public transport options along well-known transport corridors. The memory representation of lesser-known transport corridors tends to be of a poorer quality. In the results presented here, the variables gender, age, employment status, level of education and car availability had no correlation with the quality of the memory representation, but experience increased knowledge. Although frequent users of public transport had a more detailed representation of the system, the less frequent users also had a considerable- and good-memory representation. An explorative hierarchy for representation of public transport lines in the memory is proposed. It is hypothesised that memory representations of a transport line can be affected by the following three factors: the extent to which a line is visible in the urban area, the straightness of the routes and whether or not stops are labelled, for example, by destination area. Simply put, these factors determine how well a person knows a line. It was found that people first remember a commuter train and a trunk bus line, followed by metro lines and suburban buses and finally normal inner-city buses with the poorest anchorage in memory.

  • 13.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. DTU Transport, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Van dender, Kurt
    Joint Transport Res Ctr Int Transport Forum & OEC, F-75755 Paris 16, France..
    Road pricing with complications2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 479-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rationale for congestion charges is that by internalising the marginal external congestion cost, they restore efficiency in the transport market. In the canonical model underlying this view, congestion is a static phenomenon, users are taken to be homogenous, there is no travel time risk, and a highly stylised model of congestion is used. The simple analysis also ignores that real pricing schemes are only rough approximations to ideal systems and that inefficiencies in related markets potentially affect the case for congestion charges. The canonical model tends to understate the marginal external congestion cost because it ignores user heterogeneity and trip timing inefficiencies. With respect to the relevance of interactions between congestion and congestion charges and tax distortions and distributional concerns, recent insights point out that there is no general case for modifying charges for such interactions. Therefore the simple Pigouvian rule remains a good first approximation for the design of road charging systems.

  • 14.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Frejinger, Emma
    Univ Montreal, Dept Comp Sci & Operat Res, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    An empirical study on aggregation of alternatives and its influence on prediction in car type choice models2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 563-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing and predicting car type choices are important for policy analysis. Car type choice models are often based on aggregate alternatives. This is due to the fact that analysts typically do not observe choices at the detailed level that they are made. In this paper, we use registry data of all new car purchases in Sweden for two years where cars are observed by their brand, model and fuel type. However, the choices are made at a more detailed level. Hence, an aggregate (observed) alternative can correspond to several disaggregate (detailed) alternatives. We present an extensive empirical study analyzing estimation results, in-sample and out-of-sample fit as well as prediction performance of five model specifications. These models use different aggregation methods from the literature. We propose a specification of a two-level nested logit model that captures correlation between aggregate and disaggregate alternatives. The nest specific scale parameters are defined as parameterized exponential functions to keep the number of parameters reasonable. The results show that the in-sample and out-of-sample fit as well as the prediction performance differ. The best model accounts for the heterogeneity over disaggregate alternatives as well as the correlation between both disaggregate and aggregate alternatives. It outperforms the commonly used aggregation method of simply including a size measure.

  • 15.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Fixed-line network design in light of autonomous busesIn: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An upcoming field of interest is the induced demand level and changes in network design for public transport system operating autonomous buses. In this work a multi-objective optimization-based multi-agent simulation framework is developed to study potential changes in the network design and frequency settings when autonomous vehicles (AV) systems are deployed on fixed-route networks in addition to existing PT systems. During the optimization process multiple deployment scenarios (network configurations and service frequency) are evaluated and optimized concerning the operator cost, user cost and infrastructure preparation costs of the system. User-focused network design and operator-focused network design are studied for a real-world network in Sweden. The results provide insights into the network design and level of service implications brought about by the deployment of autonomous bus (AB) when those are integrated in route-based PT systems.

  • 16.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Network design for line-based autonomous bus services2022In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 467-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An emerging field of interest is the design of public transport networks operating autonomous buses and the potential to attract higher levels of travel demand. In this work a multi-objective optimization and multi-agent simulation framework is developed to study potential changes in the network design and frequency settings compared to conventional PT systems when autonomous vehicles (AV) systems are deployed on fixed-route networks. During the optimization process multiple deployment scenarios (network configurations and service frequency) are evaluated and optimized considering the operator cost, user cost and infrastructure preparation costs of the system. User-focused network design and operator-focused network design are studied for a real-world urban area in Sweden. The results provide insights into the network design and level of service implications brought about by the deployment of autonomous bus (AB) when those are integrated in route-based PT systems. We show that the deployment of autonomous buses result with a network design that increases service ridership. In the context of our case study this increase is likely to primarily substitute walking.

  • 17.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem for combined passenger and freight transport2024In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the development of modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles, which enable alternate transport of different demand types. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed fleet of single-purpose vehicles. Depending on cost parameters, our findings suggest that in certain scenarios, the total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing total vehicle trip duration and total distance traveled by on average 33% and 16%, respectively. The required fleet size can be reduced by 35% on average when operating multi-purpose vehicles. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to determine if the combined service of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing transport operations.

  • 18.
    Hess, Stephan
    et al.
    Institute for Transport Studies and Choice Modelling Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Daly, Andrew
    Institute for Transport Studies and Choice Modelling Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs for appraisal value of travel time measures2020In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stated choice surveys have established themselves as the preferred approach for value of travel time elicitation with the help of choice models. However, major differences exist in the approach used across regions and contexts. In Europe (particularly Northern Europe), value of travel time is often estimated in large national studies, which continue to rely extensively on simple time-money trade-offs. On the other hand, studies in Australia and South America in particular tend to have a more local focus and follow the notion that more complex setups are preferable. The European studies however are also those where the results are actually used in cost–benefit analysis and data from European studies have formed a testbed for many advanced model specifications. The present paper aims to provide a critical appraisal of the use of simple time-money trade-offs, drawing from our experience in recent European studies. We highlight a number of issues, in terms of differences in valuations across formats as well as a lack of clarity on how respondents actually interpret travel time in these simple time-money trade-offs.

  • 19.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. VTI.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Estimating preferred departure times of road users in a large urban network2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 767-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reliably predict and assess effects of congestion charges and other congestion mitigating measures, a transportation model including dynamic assignment and departure time choice is important. This paper presents a transport model that incorporates departure time choice for analysis of road users’ temporal adjustments and uses a mesoscopic traffic simulation model to capture the dynamic nature of congestion. Departure time choice modelling relies heavily on car users’ preferred times of travel and without knowledge of these no meaningful conclusions can be drawn from application of the model. This paper shows how preferred times of travel can be consistently derived from field observations and conditional probabilities of departure times using a reverse engineering approach. It is also shown how aggregation of origin–destination pairs with similar preferred departure time profiles can solve the problem of negative solutions resulting from the reverse engineering equation. The method is shown to work well for large-scale applications and results are given for the network of Stockholm.

  • 20.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Susilo, Yusak O
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Measuring the impacts of weather variability on home-based trip chaining behaviour: a focus on spatial heterogeneity2015In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 2011 Swedish national travel survey data, this paper explores the influence of weather characteristics on individuals’ home-based trip chaining complexity. A series of panel mixed ordered Probit models are estimated to examine the influence of individual/household social demographics, land use characteristics, and weather characteristics on individuals’ home-based trip chaining complexity. A thermal index, the universal thermal climate index (UTCI), is used in this study instead of using directly measured weather variables in order to better approximate the effects of the thermal environment. The effects of UTCI are segmented into different seasons to account for the seasonal difference of UTCI effects. Moreover, a spatial expansion method is applied to allow the impacts of UTCI to vary across geographical locations, as individuals in different regions have different weather/climate adaptions. The effects of weather are examined in subsistence, routine, and discretionary trip chains. The results reveal that the ‘ground covered with snow’ condition is the most influential factor on the number of trips chained per trip chain among all other weather factors. The variation of UTCI significantly influences trip chaining complexity in autumn but not in spring and winter. The routine trip chains are found to be most elastic towards the variation of UTCI. The marginal effects of UTCI on the expected number of trips per routine trip chain have considerable spatial variations, while these spatial trends of UTCI effects are found to be not consistent over seasons.

  • 21.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    OTB Research Institute for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Maat, Kees
    The Influence of Built Environment to the Trends in Commuting Journeys in the Netherlands2007In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 589-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe commuting trends in the Netherlands in the past decade and examine the influence of urban form and travel accessibility on commuting journeys over time on the basis of data from the Dutch National Travel Survey. Exploratory analysis is performed to identify changes in commuting participation, departure time, commuting time, commuting distance and the modal split. Regression analysis and choice models are used to examine the influence of the built environment on commuting parameters over time. The results indicate that urban form has consistently influenced the parameters of commuting journey in the Netherlands in the last 10 years. However, the trend of the influence is unique for each commuting model. Some influences have become less significant in the last decade and some have become stronger.

  • 22.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Axhausen, Kay W.
    Repetitions in individual daily activity-travel-location patterns: a study using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index2014In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 995-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the Mobidrive and Thurgau six-week travel diary datasets this paper examines the degree of repetition of individuals' choices of their daily activity-travel-location combinations. The results show that the repetitiveness of individual activity-travel-mode-location combinations is highly influenced by the individuals' out-of-home commitments, the intra-household conditions and the availability and the accessibility of the activity locations. Different types of activity have different pattern of repetition. The level of repetition of individual's daily activity-travel pattern is less correlated to travel mode choice, but more to the individuals' commitments and obligations. The repetitiveness of mode choices is more related to the conditions or the accessibilities of the activity location, but not directly to the activity itself.

  • 23.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Chengxi, Liu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, Teknikringen 10, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, Teknikringen 10, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30years2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 793-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

  • 24.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The influence of parents' travel patterns, perceptions and residential self-selectivity to their children travel mode shares2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 357-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the UK National Travel Survey from 2002 to 2006, this paper investigates the influence of households' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions on accessibilities and their travel patterns on their children daily travel mode share. In doing this, this study introduces a model structure that represents the complex interactions between the parents' travel patterns, their perceptions on public transport services and their reported residential self-selectivity reasons and the children travel mode shares. This structure is analysed with structural equation modelling. The model estimation results show that parents' residential self-selectivity, parents' perceptions and satisfactions on accessibilities and their daily travel patterns significantly influence the children's daily travel mode shares. However, the effects are not uniform across household members. This study has revealed that households' residential self-selectivity behaviours have more correlations with the children's non-motorised mode shares, whilst the parents' perceptions and satisfactions on transport infrastructure and public transport service qualities have more correlations with parents' mode shares. The results also confirm that parents' non-motorised modes use in travelling is highly correlated with the children's physically active travel mode shares. However, at the same time, the results also show that the effects of mothers' car use to the children travel mode shares is more apparent than fathers'.

  • 25. Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Centre Transport Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willingness to accept commuting time within the household: stated preference evidence2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 219-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, stated preference data is used to derive estimated values of commuting time (VOCT). Both spouses in two-earner households are individually making trade-offs between commuting time and wage; both with regard to their own commuting time and wage only, as well as when both their own commuting time and wage and their spouse's commuting time and wage are simultaneously changed. Thus, we are able to compare how male spouses and female spouses value each other's commuting time. When only ones own commuting time and wage are attributes, the empirical results show that the estimated VOCT is plausible with a tendency towards high values compared to other studies, and that VOCT does not differ significantly between men and women. When decisions affecting commuting time and wage of both spouses are analyzed, both spouses value the commuting time of the wife highest. Further analysis show that this result is driven by households where the man has the highest income. If VOCT were to be gender specific in policy implications, the value might be higher for women than for men in two-earner households.

  • 26.
    Tornberg, Patrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Sensemaking in Swedish national transport planningIn: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas different theoretical perspectives on transport planning often represent demarcated academic strands, transport planners involved in planning practices rely on different kinds of knowledge and procedures to make sense of the situations they find themselves in, on which their subsequent actions are based. The overall aim of this paper is to explore how transport planning practices can be analysed from a sensemaking perspective, a perspective which has not had a salient role in the transport planning literature. The paper is empirically focused on the development of the current Swedish National Plan for Transport Investments, describing the preparatory phases of the prioritization process. It shows how the different elements of the process have contributed to the ways planners have made sense of various regional contexts and the political guidelines for the process. A conclusion of the paper is that a sensemaking perspective opens up the potential for alternative ways to frame particular spatial contexts or situations, and the scope for different approaches is widened. An implication of such a conclusion is that the political dimension of the planning process could be made more explicit. It is therefore suggested that a more prominent role for political visions as tools for sensegiving in the planning process could strengthen the degree to which outcomes of planning processes are grounded in political commitments to approved plans, as well as the democratic legitimacy of these processes.

  • 27.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI Box 55685, 102 15, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Gothenburg congestion charges: cost-benefit analysis and distribution effects2020In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 145-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs an ex-post cost-benefit and distribution analysis of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013, based on observed effects and an ex-post evaluated transport model. Although Gothenburg is a small city with congestion limited to the highway junctions, the congestion charge scheme is socially beneficial, generating a net surplus of euro20 million per year. From a financial perspective, the investment cost was repaid in slightly more than a year and, from a social surplus perspective, is repaid in < 4 years. Still, the sums that are redistributed in Gothenburg are substantially larger than the net benefit. In the distribution analysis we develop an alternative welfare rule, where the utility is translated to money by dividing the utility by the average marginal utility of money, thereby avoiding putting a higher weight on high-income people. The alternative welfare rule shows larger re-distribution effects, because paying charges is more painful for low-income classes due to the higher marginal utility of money. Low-income citizens pay a larger share of their income because all income classes are highly car dependent in Gothenburg and workers in the highest income class have considerably higher access to company cars for private trips. No correlation was found between voting pattern and gains, losses or net gain.

  • 28.
    Zahedi, Seyedmostafa
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Ma, Zhenliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Dynamic interlining in bus operations2023In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces and evaluates the concept of the dynamic interlining of buses. Dynamic interlining is an operational strategy for routes with a terminal station at a common hub, allowing a portion of (or all) the fleet to be shared among the routes belonging to the hub (shared fleet) as needed. The shared fleet is dispatched on an on-demand basis to serve scheduled trips on any route to avoid delays and regulate services. The paper examines systematically the impacts of dynamic interlining on service reliability. It formulates the dispatching problem as an optimization problem and uses simulation to evaluate the dynamic interlining strategy under a variety of operating conditions. Using bus routes in Boston’s Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) as a case study, the strategy’s feasibility and factors that affect its performance are investigated. Results show that dynamic interlining can improve service reliability (increases on-time departures and decreases departure headways variability at the hub). The fraction of the fleet that is shared has the most dominant impact on performance. In the case where all buses are dynamically interlined, the performance improves as route frequency increases and more routes participate in the strategy.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Qi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ma, Zhenliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Zhang, Pengfei
    Institute of Physics, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Mobility knowledge graph: review and its application in public transport2023In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding human mobility in urban areas is crucial for transportation planning, operations, and online control. The availability of large-scale and diverse mobility data (e.g., smart card data, GPS data), provides valuable insights into human mobility patterns. However, organizing and analyzing such data pose significant challenges. Knowledge graph (KG), a graph-based knowledge representation method, has been successfully applied in various domains but has limited applications in urban mobility. This paper aims to address this gap by reviewing existing KG studies, introducing the concept of a mobility knowledge graph (MKG), and proposing a general learning framework to construct MKG from smart card data. The MKG represents hidden travel activities between public transport stations, with stations as nodes and their relations as edges. Two decomposition approaches, rule-based and neural network-based models, are developed to extract MKG relations from smart card data, capturing latent spatiotemporal travel dependencies. The case study is conducted using smart card data from a heavily used urban railway system to validate the effectiveness of MKG in predicting individual trip destinations. The results demonstrate the significance of establishing an MKG database, as it assists in a typical problem of predicting individual trip destinations for public transport systems with only tap-in records. Additionally, the MKG framework offers potential for efficient data management and applications such as individual mobility prediction and personalized travel recommendations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    MKG
  • 30.
    Zhang, Qi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ma, Zhenliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Zhang, Pengfei
    Institute of Physics, Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450002, China.
    Ling, Yancheng
    Department of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Real-time bus arrival delays analysis using seemingly unrelated regression model2024In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively manage and control public transport operations, understanding the various factors that impact bus arrival delays is crucial. However, limited research has focused on a comprehensive analysis of bus delay factors, often relying on single-step delay prediction models that are unable to account for the heterogeneous impacts of spatiotemporal factors along the bus route. To analyze the heterogeneous impact of bus arrival delay factors, the paper proposes a set of regression equations conditional on the bus location. A seemingly unrelated regression equation (SURE) model is developed to estimate the regression coefficients, accounting for potential correlations between regression residuals caused by shared unobserved factors among equations. The model is validated using bus operations data from Stockholm, Sweden. The results highlight the importance of developing stop-specific bus arrival delay models to understand the heterogeneous impact of explanatory variables. The significant factors impacting bus arrival delays are primarily associated with bus operations, such as delays at consecutive upstream stops, dwell time, scheduled travel time, recurrent congestion, and current traffic conditions. Factors like the calendar and weather have significant but marginal impacts on arrival delays. The study suggests that different bus operating management strategies, such as schedule adjustments, route optimization, and real-time monitoring and control, should be tailored to the characteristics of stop sections since the impacts of these factors vary depending on the stop location.

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