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  • 1.
    Ding, Qian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schenk, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Occupational diseases in the People’s Republic of China between 2000 and 20102013In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1423-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study provides a description and analysis of the development of occupational diseases in China as recorded in the official statistics during the period 2000-2010, identifies major challenges, and explores possible solutions for prevention and control. Methods: In-depth textual analysis and data analysis of China's annual national reports of occupational diseases, as well as of corresponding policy and regulation documents. Results: The number of recorded cases of occupational diseases increased rapidly in China between 2000 and 2010. Pneumoconiosis was the most prevalent category of occupational diseases. Chemical poisonings accounted for 13% of the cases of occupational diseases. Conclusions: Difficulties in diagnosis and inefficient surveillance are major impediments to the mitigation of occupational diseases. The new definition of occupational disease has provided an opportunity to enlarge the Catalogue of Occupational Diseases. Improved coordination of the different chemical regulations meant to protect human health may also facilitate the prevention of occupational disease.

  • 2.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    A Risk-Neutral Default for Chemical Risk Management2008In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 964-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many risk management decisions concerning industrial chemicals, including decisions on classification and labeling, lack of toxicity data is interpreted as (or has the same implications as) absence of toxicity In other words, if the toxicity of a chemical is unknown, it is treated as having no or low toxicit) This practice is difficult to defend from a decision-theoretical point of view. We apply standard decision theory to toxicity data and investigate an alternative approach in which substances with unknown properties are treated as if they had the average toxicity among tested substances in the group to which they belong. An index of acute toxicity is proposed and then used to define a risk-neutral hazard default that can be applied to industrial chemicals for which no specific information on acute toxicity is available. It is proposed that such a risk-neutral approach is preferable to the current practice of treating substances with unknown acute toxicity in the same manner as substances that can reasonably be assumed to have no such harmful properties. The risk-neutral approach could be generalized to other toxicological endpoints. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:964-967, 2008.

  • 3. Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kircher, Albert
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Gillberg, Mats
    Fatigue at sea in Swedish shipping-a field study2010In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 733-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today many merchant ships sail with only two nautical officers, working a shift schedule of 6 hr on and 6 hr off. There are concerns that such a shift schedule is related to fatigue. However, little data exist from onboard studies of seafarers.

    METHODS: Data were collected on board 13 ships. Fifteen participants worked on a 6-on, 6-off watch system and another 15 on a 4-on, 8-off watch system. Electrooculography, actigraphy, diaries, and reaction time tests were used to measure the effects of shift system on fatigue and sleep.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Sleepiness was higher during the night shift in the 6-on, 6-off system. Moreover, sleepiness increased more during the watch in the 6-on, 6-off system compared to the 4-on, 8-off system. There was a trend toward shorter sleep episodes in the 6-on, 6-off system and sleep was more often split into two episodes.

  • 4. Norman, Kerstrin
    et al.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Toomingas, Allan
    Working conditions and health among female and male employees at a call center in Sweden2004In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The call center industry is one of the most expansive labor market sectors in Sweden today. The purpose of this study was to investigate the working conditions and symptoms among employees at a call center in Sweden. Methods This study represents the cross-sectional baseline survey, which was part of a prospective cohort study. Fifty-seven call center workers were compared with a reference group of 1,459 professional computer users from other occupations. A questionnaire covered physical and psychosocial working conditions and symptoms during the last month. Structured observations in accordance with an ergonomic checklist were used to assess workstation design during the subject's ordinary work. Results The call center group had worked for a shorter time in their present tasks and spent longer continuous time in front of the computer than the reference group. There were deficiencies in workspace, keyboard- and input device placement. The subjects reported poor support from their immediate supervisor, low control and limited opportunities to influence their work. A higher proportion of the call center group reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusion The call center operators were exposed to working conditions that in other studies have indicated an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. The stud), also shows that young computer operators in the call center group with a short working career had a higher prevalence of neck- and upper extremity symptoms than older computer workers in other labor market sectors.

  • 5.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Re: Am J Ind Med 44 : 204-213, 2003. Response to the letter to the editor from Vickie L. Wells (ACGIH)2005In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 464-466Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Scrutinizing ACGIH risk assessments: The trichloroethylene case2003In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs)for occupational exposure to chemicals and physical agents have been very influential in the setting of occupational exposure limits in many countries. Methods Three ACGIH risk assessments of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) [ACGIH (1989): 5th edition; ACGIH (1992): 5th edition. Revised Vol II; ACGIH (1996): Suppl. 6th edition] are compared to 26 other risk assessments made of the same chemical substance. The documents are compared in terms of their overall conclusions and the data selected for assessment. Results It is shown that these ACGIH risk assessment documents were based on incomplete and biased data sets. Conclusions The data on which the ACGIH [ACGIH (1996): Suppl. 6th edition] base their TCE risk assessment do not adequately reflect the available scientific knowledge about TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity. This may have influenced their conclusion that TCE is not carcinogenic in either animals or humans which stand out compared to contemporary risk assessments.

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