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  • 1. Berg, Hans E.
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Miklavcic, Lucijan
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 283-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P < 0.05) average (SD) muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P < 0.05) of extensor muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P < 0.05) by 3 (2)% during bedrest. Control subjects did not show any temporal changes in muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  • 2. Carlsson, Lars
    et al.
    Lind, Britta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Berglund, Bo
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Enhanced systolic myocardial function in elite endurance athletes during combined arm-and-leg exercise2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 905-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim here was to employ color tissue velocity imaging (TVI), to test the hypothesis that highly trained endurance athletes exhibit enhanced systolic function of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium both at rest and during combined arm-and-leg exercise in comparison with untrained subjects. For each of the ten elite male (EG) and ten matched control participants (CG), LV dimensions and systolic function were assessed at rest using echocardiography. Subsequently, these subjects exercised continuously on a combined arm-and-leg cycle ergometer for 3 min each at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of VO2max. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and peak contraction systolic velocities of the LV myocardium (PSV) were recorded in the end of each level. At rest, the trained and untrained groups differed with respect to LV dimensions, but not systolic function. At 60-100% VO2max, the EG group demonstrated both higher PSV and SBP. The observation that the EG athletes had higher PSV than CG during exercise at 60-100% VO2max, but not at rest or at 50% of VO2max, suggested an enhanced systolic capacity. This improvement is likely to be due to an enhanced inotropic contractility, which only becomes apparent during exercise.

  • 3. Debevec, Tadej
    et al.
    Bali, Tarsi C.
    Simpson, Elizabeth J.
    Macdonald, Ian A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Separate and combined effects of 21-day bed rest and hypoxic confinement on body composition2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 2411-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exacerbates reductions in body mass observed during unloading. To discern the separate and combined effects of simulated microgravity and hypoxia, 11 healthy males underwent three 21-day campaigns in a counterbalanced fashion: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 +/- A 0.3); (2) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FiO2 = 0.141 +/- A 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 +/- A 0.4; similar to 4,000 m); and (3) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FiO2 = 0.141 +/- A 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 +/- A 0.4). The same dietary menu was applied in all campaigns. Targeted energy intakes were estimated individually using the Harris-Benedict equation taking into account whether the subjects were bedridden or ambulatory. Body mass and water balance were assessed throughout the campaigns. Whole body and regional body composition was determined before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Before and during the campaigns, indirect calorimetry and visual analogue scores were employed to assess the resting energy expenditure (REE) and perceived appetite sensations, respectively. Energy intakes were lower than targeted in all campaigns (NBR: -5 %; HAMB: -14 %; HBR: -6 %; P < 0.01). Body mass significantly decreased following all campaigns (NBR: -3 %; HAMB: -4 %; HBR: -5 %; P < 0.01). While fat mass was not significantly altered, the whole body fat free mass was reduced (NBR: -4 %; HAMB: -5 %; HBR: -5 %; P < 0.01), secondary to lower limb fat-free mass reduction. Water balance was comparable between the campaigns. No changes were observed in REE and perceived appetite. Exposure to simulated altitude of similar to 4,000 m does not seem to worsen the whole body mass and fat-free mass reductions or alter resting energy expenditure and appetite during a 21-day simulated microgravity.

  • 4. Debevec, Tadej
    et al.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    Norman, Barbara
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Acute short-term hyperoxia followed by mild hypoxia does not increase EPO production: resolving the "normobaric oxygen paradox''2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 1059-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings suggest that besides renal tissue hypoxia, relative decrements in tissue oxygenation, using a transition of the breathing mixture from hyperoxic to normoxic, can also stimulate erythropoietin (EPO) production. To further clarify the importance of the relative change in tissue oxygenation on plasma EPO concentration [EPO], we investigated the effect of a consecutive hyperoxic and hypoxic breathing intervention. Eighteen healthy male subjects were assigned to either IHH (N = 10) or CON (N = 8) group. The IHH group breathed pure oxygen (F(i)O(2) ~ 1.0) for 1 h, followed by a 1-h period of breathing a hypoxic gas mixture (F(i)O(2) ~ 0.15). The CON group breathed a normoxic gas mixture (F(i)O(2) ~ 0.21) for the same duration (2 h). Blood samples were taken just before, after 60 min, and immediately after the 2-h exposure period. Thereafter, samples were taken at 3, 5, 8, 24, 32, and 48 h after the exposure. During the breathing interventions, subjects remained in supine position. There were significant increases in absolute [EPO] within groups at 8 and 32 h in the CON and at 32 h only in the IHH group. No significant differences in absolute [EPO] were observed between groups following the intervention. Relative (∆[EPO]) levels were significantly lower in the IHH than in the CON group, 5 and 8 h following exposure. The tested protocol of consecutive hyperoxic-hypoxic gas mixture breathing did not induce [EPO] synthesis stimulation. Moreover, the transient attenuation in ∆[EPO] in the IHH group was most likely due to a hyperoxic suppression. Hence, our findings provide further evidence against the "normobaric O(2) paradox" theory.

  • 5.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, results in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25cm and 50cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between the contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personality trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 6.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Taylor, Nigel A S
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Intraocular pressure and cerebral oxygenation during prolonged headward acceleration2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i.e., improves provisions for retinal perfusion), or the cerebral anoxia reserve. Subjects were exposed to 4-min +Gz plateaux either at 2 and 3 G (n = 10), or at 4 and 5 G (n = 12). Measurements included eye-level mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and at 2 and 3 G, IOP. IOP was similar at 1 (14.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg), 2 (14.0 +/- 1.6 mmHg), and 3 G (14.0 +/- 1.6 mmHg). During the G exposures, MAP exhibited an initial prompt drop followed by a partial recovery, end-exposure values being reduced by ae<currency>30 mmHg. Cerebral oxygenation showed a similar initial drop, but without recovery, and was followed by either a plateau or a further slight decrement to a minimum of about -14 mu M. Gz loading did not affect IOP. That cerebral oxygenation remained suppressed throughout these G exposures, despite a concomitant partial recovery of MAP, suggests that the increased risk of unconsciousness upon G-garment failure after prolonged +Gz exposure is due to reduced cerebral anoxia reserve.

  • 7.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Mekjavic, I.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    G tolerance vis-à-vis pressure-distension and pressure-flow relationships of leg arteries2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 10, p. 3619-3627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During increased gravitoinertial (G) load in the head-to-foot direction, pressures in dependent vascular beds are commonly raised to levels capable of distending precapillary vessels, which, in turn, may reduce arterial pressure, and hence compromise the capacity to withstand G load (G tolerance). We hypothesized that distensibility in precapillary leg vessels would be lower in a group of subjects possessing high G tolerance (H; n = 7; relaxed G tolerance = 6.6 ± 0.8 G) than in a group with low G tolerance (L; n = 8; G tolerance = 3.9 ± 0.3 G). The groups were matched with regard to gender, age, weight, height, and resting arterial pressure. Arterial pressure-distension and pressure-flow experiments were performed with the subject supine in a pressure chamber with a lower leg protruding to the outside. Increased intravascular pressure in the blood vessels of the outside leg was accomplished by stepwise increasing chamber pressure to 240 mmHg. Diameter and flow in the posterior tibial artery were measured by ultrasonographic/Doppler techniques. Pressure-induced increments in arterial diameter and flow were more pronounced (p < 0.03) in the L (14.1 ± 4.2% and 32 ± 21 ml/min respectively) than in the H (1.7 ± 5.0% and 1.6 ± 25 ml/min) group, and the pressure thresholds at which these increments commenced were lower (by 52 and 48 mmHg, respectively) in the L than in the H group (p < 0.04). Negative correlations were observed between G tolerance and the increments in diameter and flow (p < 0.02). Thus, the wall stiffness of precapillary leg vessels is greater in individuals with high relaxed G tolerance; whether a causal relationship exists remains to be established.

  • 8.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 499-509Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness were determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-wk period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 wks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced three-fold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  • 9. Ekblom, M. M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Martin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Concurrent EMG feedback acutely improves strength and muscle activation2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1899-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of electromyographic (EMG) feedback on muscle activation and strength during maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle actions. 15 females performed two sets of three lengthening and three shortening maximal voluntary isokinetic knee extensions at 20A degrees A s(-1) over 60A degrees range of motion. After the first set, subjects were randomized to either a control group (n = 8) or a feedback group (n = 7). In the second set, the control group performed tasks identical to those in the first set, whereas the feedback group additionally received concurrent visual feedback of the EMGrms from Vastus Medialis (VM). Knee extensor strength and EMG activation of VM, Vastus lateralis (VL) and hamstrings (HAM) were measured during the MVCs. Analyses were performed separately in a 1 s preactivation phase, a 1 s initial movement phase and a 1 s late movement phase. EMG feedback was associated with significantly higher knee extensor strength in all phases (20.5% p < 0.05, 18.2% p < 0.001 and 19% p < 0.001, respectively) for the eccentric MVCs and in the preactivation phase (16.3%, p < 0.001) and initial movement phases (7.2%, p < 0.05) for concentric MVCs. EMG feedback from VM further improved activation in VM and HAM but not VL. These findings suggested that concurrent visual EMG feedback from VM could acutely enhance muscle strength and activation. Before recommending implementation of EMG feedback in resistance training paradigms, the feedback parameters needs to be optimized and its long-term effects needs to be scrutinized.

  • 10.
    Elia, Antonis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Barlow, Matthew J.
    Deighton, Kevin
    Wilson, Oliver J.
    O'Hara, John P.
    Erythropoietic responses to a series of repeated maximal dynamic and static apnoeas in elite and non-breath-hold divers2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2557-2565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration is increased following static apnoea-induced hypoxia. However, the acute erythropoietic responses to a series of dynamic apnoeas in non-divers (ND) or elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) are unknown.

    METHODS: Participants were stratified into EBHD (n = 8), ND (n = 10) and control (n = 8) groups. On two separate occasions, EBHD and ND performed a series of five maximal dynamic apnoeas (DYN) or two sets of five maximal static apnoeas (STA). Control performed a static eupnoeic (STE) protocol to control against any effects of water immersion and diurnal variation on EPO. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels were monitored up to 30 s post each maximal effort. Blood samples were collected at 30, 90, and 180 min after each protocol for EPO, haemoglobin and haematocrit concentrations.

    RESULTS: No between group differences were observed at baseline (p > 0.05). For EBHD and ND, mean end-apnoea SpO2 was lower in DYN (EBHD, 62 ± 10%, p = 0.024; ND, 85 ± 6%; p = 0.020) than STA (EBHD, 76 ± 7%; ND, 96 ± 1%) and control (98 ± 1%) protocols. EBHD attained lower end-apnoeic SpO2 during DYN and STA than ND (p < 0.001). Serum EPO increased from baseline following the DYN protocol in EBHD only (EBHD, p < 0.001; ND, p = 0.622). EBHD EPO increased from baseline (6.85 ± 0.9mlU/mL) by 60% at 30 min (10.82 ± 2.5mlU/mL, p = 0.017) and 63% at 180 min (10.87 ± 2.1mlU/mL, p = 0.024). Serum EPO did not change after the STA (EBHD, p = 0.534; ND, p = 0.850) and STE (p = 0.056) protocols. There was a significant negative correlation (r = - 0.49, p = 0.003) between end-apnoeic SpO2 and peak post-apnoeic serum EPO concentrations.

    CONCLUSIONS: The novel findings demonstrate that circulating EPO is only increased after DYN in EBHD. This may relate to the greater hypoxemia achieved by EBHD during the DYN.

  • 11.
    Elia, Antonis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Wilson, Oliver J.
    Lees, Matthew
    Parker, Paul J.
    Barlow, Matthew J.
    Cocks, Matthew
    O'Hara, John P
    Skeletal muscle, haematological and splenic volume characteristics of elite breath-hold divers.2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 11-12, p. 2499-2511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to provide an evaluation of the oxygen transport, exchange and storage capacity of elite breath-hold divers (EBHD) compared with non-divers (ND).

    METHODS: Twenty-one healthy males' (11 EBHD; 10 ND) resting splenic volumes were assessed by ultrasound and venous blood drawn for full blood count analysis. Percutaneous skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis to measure capillarisation, and fibre type-specific localisation and distribution of myoglobin and mitochondrial content using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy.

    RESULTS: Splenic volume was not different between groups. Reticulocytes, red blood cells and haemoglobin concentrations were higher (+ 24%, p < 0.05; + 9%, p < 0.05; + 3%, p < 0.05; respectively) and mean cell volume was lower (- 6.5%, p < 0.05) in the EBHD compared with ND. Haematocrit was not different between groups. Capillary density was greater (+ 19%; p < 0.05) in the EBHD. The diffusion distance (R95) was lower in type I versus type II fibres for both groups (EBHD, p < 0.01; ND, p < 0.001), with a lower R95 for type I fibres in the EBHD versus ND (- 13%, p < 0.05). Myoglobin content was higher in type I than type II fibres in EBHD (+ 27%; p < 0.01) and higher in the type I fibres of EBHD than ND (+ 27%; p < 0.05). No fibre type differences in myoglobin content were observed in ND. Mitochondrial content was higher in type I than type II fibres in EBHD (+ 35%; p < 0.05), with no fibre type differences in ND or between groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, EBDH demonstrate enhanced oxygen storage in both blood and skeletal muscle and a more efficient oxygen exchange capacity between blood and skeletal muscle versus ND.

  • 12.
    Frohm, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Swedish School of Sports and Helath Sciences.
    Thorstensson, Alf
    Swedish School of Sports and Health Sciences.
    A new device for controlled eccentric overloading in training and rehabilitation2005In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 94, no 1-2, p. 168-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to evaluate a device that allows for eccentric overload to be applied under controlled and safe conditions and it is applicable in exercises commonly used in training and rehabilitation. The machine contains a barbell, which is lowered and raised by a motor, following a predetermined velocity profile. It is capable of handling heavy loads (> 500 kg) and is instrumented with a sensor to measure the velocity of the barbell and two scales to measure the vertical component of the ground reaction force. The velocity recordings of the built-in displacement sensor were found to correspond well with those obtained using a motion-capture system. Applying known weights on each scale demonstrated linearity with respect to magnitude and independence regarding location of application. The velocity of the barbell was found to be dependent on the load on the barbell and on the resisting force produced by the individual training in the machine. The combined man-machine reliability was tested using a group of habitually active males (n = 13, 2855 years) performing squats. Peak voluntary resisting force and position at peak resistance were recorded on two occasions, showing no significant differences and a coefficient of variation of 9% and 22%, respectively. Preliminary observations from training in the machine have been positive both for increasing performance in top athletes and for causing pain relief in patients with diffuse knee problems. The possibility of feedback of the force under each foot makes individual dosage of training load possible, which is valuable, e.g. in rehabilitation of a unilateral injury.

  • 13. Golja, P
    et al.
    Kacin, A
    Tipton, M J
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mekjavic, I B
    Hypoxia increases the cutaneous threshold for the sensation of cold.2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 92, no 1-2, p. 62-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutaneous temperature sensitivity was tested in 13 male subjects prior to, during and after they breathed either a hypocapnic hypoxic (HH), or a normocapnic hypoxic (NH) breathing mixture containing 10% oxygen in nitrogen. Normocapnia was maintained by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Cutaneous thresholds for thermal sensation were determined by a thermosensitivity testing device positioned on the plantar side of the first two toes on one leg. Heart rate, haemoglobin saturation, skin temperature at four sites (arm, chest, thigh, calf) and adapting temperature of the skin (T(ad); degrees centigrade), i.e. the temperature of the toe skin preceding a thermosensitivity test, were measured at minute intervals. Tympanic temperature (T(ty); degrees centigrade) was measured prior to the initial normoxic thermosensitivity test, during the hypoxic exposure and after the completion of the final normoxic thermosensitivity test. End-tidal carbon dioxide fraction and minute inspiratory volume were measured continuously during the hypoxic exposure. Ambient temperature, T(ty), T(ad) and mean skin temperature remained similar in both experimental conditions. Cutaneous sensitivity to cold decreased during both HH (P<0.001) and NH conditions (P<0.001) as compared with the tests undertaken pre- and post-hypoxia. No similar effect was observed for cutaneous sensitivity to warmth. The results of the present study suggest that sensitivity to cold decreases during the hypoxic exposure due to the effects associated with hypoxia rather than hypocapnia. Such alteration in thermal perception may affect the individual's perception of thermal comfort and consequently attenuate thermoregulatory behaviour during cold exposure at altitude.

  • 14. Henje Blom, Eva
    et al.
    Olsson, Erik M G
    Serlachius, Eva
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Ingvar, Martin
    Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 877-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether there is a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) versus lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population of healthy adolescents. HRV is as an index of tonic autonomic activity and in adults HRV is related to lifestyle and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but it is not known if this is the case in adolescents. HRV was registered for 4 min in sitting position in 99 healthy adolescents (age range 15 years 11 months-17 years 7 months) and repeated after 6 months. On both occasions there were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between physical activity and HRV, with respective r values: high frequency (HF) 0.26, 0.30; low frequency power (LF) 0.35, 0.29 and the standard deviation of inter-beat intervals (SDNN) 0.28, 0.37. There was no significant interaction between first and second measurements. In contrast, there were no correlations to sleeping patterns, eating habits and smoking. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease [body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/length in m(2)), systolic blood pressure and p-glucose] did not show any repeatable significant correlations to HRV. Multiple regression models showed that physical activity was a predictor for HF, LF and SDNN in both measurements. In conclusion HF, LF and SDNN were reproducible after 6 months and were related to physical activity on both occasions.

  • 15. Kacin, Alan
    et al.
    Golja, Petra
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tipton, Michael J.
    Gorjanc, Jurij
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Human temperature regulation during cycling with moderate leg ischaemia2005In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 95, no 2-3, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of graded ischaemia in the legs on the regulation of body temperature during steady-state exercise was investigated in seven healthy males. It was hypothesised that graded ischaemia in the working muscles increases heat storage within the muscles, which in turn potentiates sweat secretion during exercise. Blood perfusion in the working muscles was reduced by applying a supra-atmospheric pressure (+6.6 kPa) around the legs, which reduced maximal working capacity by 29%. Each subject conducted three separate test trials comprising 30 min of steady-state cycling in a supine position. Exercise with unrestricted blood flow (Control trial) was compared to ischaemic exercise conducted at an identical relative work rate (Relative trial), as well as at an identical absolute work rate (Absolute trial); the latter corresponding to a 20% increase in relative workload. The average (SD) increases in both the rectal and oesophageal temperatures during steady-state cycling was 0.3 (0.2) degrees C and did not significantly differ between the three trials. The increase in muscle temperature was similar in the Control (2.7 (0.3) degrees C) and Absolute (2.4 (0.7) degrees C) trials, but was substantially lower (P < 0.01) in the Relative trial (1.4 (0.8) degrees C). Ischaemia potentiated (P < 0.01) sweating on the forehead in the Absolute trial (24.2 (7.3) g m(-2) min(-1)) compared to the Control trial (13.4 (6.2) g m(-2) min(-1)), concomitant with an attenuated (P < 0.05) vasodilatation in the skin during exercise. It is concluded that graded ischaemia in working muscles potentiates the exercise sweating response and attenuates vasodilatation in the skin initiated by increased core temperature, effects which may be attributed to an augmented muscle metaboreflex.

  • 16. Kacin, Alan
    et al.
    Golja, Petra
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tipton, Michael J.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    The influence of acute and 23 days of intermittent hypoxic exposures on the exercise-induced forehead sweating response2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 557-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of acute and 23 days of intermittent exposures to normobaric hypoxia on the forehead sweating response during steady-state exercise was investigated. Eight endurance athletes slept in a normobaric hypoxic room for a minimum of 8 h per day at a simulated altitude equivalent to 2,700 m for 23 days (sleep high-train low regimen). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2(peak)) and peak work rate (WR(peak)) were determined under normoxic (20.9%O(2)) and hypoxic (13.5%O(2)) conditions prior to (pre-IHE), and immediately after (post-IHE) the intermittent hypoxic exposures (IHE). Also, each subject performed three 30-min cycle-ergometry bouts: (1) normoxic exercise at 50% WR(peak) attained in normoxia (control trial; CT); (2) hypoxic exercise at 50% WR(peak) attained in hypoxia (hypoxic relative trial; HRT) and (3) hypoxic exercise at the same absolute work rate as in CT (hypoxic absolute trial; HAT). Exposure to hypoxia induced a 33 and 37% decrease (P < 0.001) in (VO2(peak)) pre-IHE and post-IHE, respectively. Despite similar relative oxygen uptake during HAT pre-IHE and post-IHE, the ratings of perceived whole-body exertion decreased substantially (P < 0.05) post-IHE. Pre-IHE the sweat secretion on the forehead (m(sw)f) was greater (P < 0.01) in the HAT (2.60 (0.80) mg cm(-2) min(-1)) compared to the other two trials (CT = 1.87 (1.09) mg cm(-2) min(-1); HRT = 1.57 (0.82) mg cm(-2) min(-1)) despite a similar exercise-induced elevation in body temperatures, resulting in an augmented (P < 0.01) gain of the sweating response (m(sw)f/Delta T(re)). The augmented (m(sw)f) and m(sw)f/Delta T(re) during the HAT were no longer evident post-IHE. Thus, it appears that exercise sweating on the forehead is potentiated by acute exposure to hypoxia, an effect which can be abolished by 23 days of intermittent hypoxic exposures.

  • 17. Kacin, Alan
    et al.
    Golja, Petra
    Tipton, Michael J.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    The influence of fatigue-induced increase in relative work rate on temperature regulation during exercise2008In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat-loss responses during steady-load exercise are affected by an increase in relative work rate induced by muscle ischaemia or hypoxaemia. The present study investigated whether progressive increases in perception of exertion and relative oxygen uptake %VO2peak which occur during prolonged steady-load exercise as a result of progressively increased peripheral fatigue, might also affect the regulation of heat loss responses and hence the exercise-induced increase in mean body temperature. Ten male subjects first performed a ramp-test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer to evaluate their initial peak oxygen uptake (Control VO2peak). On a separate day, 120 min of cycling at constant power output corresponding to 60% of Control VO2peak was performed in thermoneutral environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 50%, wind speed = 5 m s(-1)). This was immediately followed by another maximal performance test (Fatigue VO2peak). During prolonged exercise, median (range) rating of perceived exertion for whole-body (RPEwb) increased (P < 0.01) from initial 3.5 (1-5) to 5.5 (5-9) at the end of exercise. Fatigue VO2peak and peak power output were 9 (5) and 10 (5)% lower (P < 0.01) when compared to control values. At the onset of exercise, heat production, mechanical efficiency, heat loss and mean body temperature increased towards asymptotic values, thereafter remained constant throughout the 120 min exercise, despite the concomitant progressive increase in relative work rate, as reflected in increased RPEwb and relative oxygen uptake. It is thus concluded that the increase in relative work rate induced predominantly by peripheral muscle fatigue affects neither the level of increase in mean body temperature nor the regulation of heat loss responses during prolonged steady-load exercise.

  • 18.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    et al.
    Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Slovenia .
    Debevec, T
    Amon, M
    Kounalakis, S.N.
    Simunic, B
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    Respiratory muscle endurance training: Effect on normoxic and hypoxic exercise performance2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 759-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of respiratory muscle endurance training on endurance exercise performance in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Eighteen healthy males were stratified for age and aerobic capacity; and randomly assigned either to the respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT = 9) or to the control training group (CON = 9). Both groups trained on a cycle-ergometer 1 h day(-1), 5 days per week for a period of 4 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 50% of peak power output. Additionally, the RMT group performed a 30-min specific endurance training of respiratory muscles (isocapnic hyperpnea) prior to the cycle ergometry. Pre, Mid, Post and 10 days after the end of training period, subjects conducted pulmonary function tests (PFTs), maximal aerobic tests in normoxia ((V) over dotO(2max)NOR), and in hypoxia ((V) over dotO(2max)HYPO; F(I)O(2) = 0.12); and constant-load tests at 80% of (V) over dotO(2max)NOR in normoxia (CLT(NOR)), and in hypoxia (CLT(HYPO)). Both groups enhanced (V) over dotO(2max)NOR (CON: +13.5%; RMT: +13.4%), but only the RMT group improved (V) over dotO(2max)HYPO Post training (CON: -6.5%; RMT: +14.2%). Post training, the CON group increased peak power output, whereas the RMT group had higher values of maximum ventilation. Both groups increased CLT(NOR) duration (CON: +79.9%; RMT: +116.6%), but only the RMT group maintained a significantly higher CLT(NOR) 10 days after training (CON: +56.7%; RMT: +91.3%). CLT(HYPO) remained unchanged in both groups. Therefore, the respiratory muscle endurance training combined with cycle ergometer training enhanced aerobic capacity in hypoxia above the control values, but did not in normoxia. Moreover, no additional effect was obtained during constant-load exercise.

  • 19.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Prevailing evidence contradicts the notion of a "normobaric oxygen paradox"2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 4177-4178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Gadefors, Magnus
    Mil Acad Karlberg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Lars-Ove
    Mil Acad Karlberg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Physiological and psychological determinants of whole-body endurance exercise following short-term sustained operations with partial sleep deprivation2018In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1373-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of short-term field-based military training with partial sleep deprivation on whole-body endurance performance in well-trained individuals. Before and after a 2-day sustained operations (SUSOPS), 14 cadets performed a 15-min constant-load cycling at 65% of peak power output (PPO; CLT65), followed by an exhaustive constant-load trial at 85% of PPO (CLT85). Physiological [oxygen uptake (O-2), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and regional oxygenation (TOI) in the frontal cerebral cortex and vastus lateralis muscle] and psychological [effort perception (RPE), affective valence (FS), and perceived activation (FAS)] variables were monitored during exercise. SUSOPS reduced time to exhaustion in CLT85 by 29.1% (p = 0.01). During the CLT65 trial, SUSOPS potentiated the exercise-induced elevations in O-2 and HR (p < 0.05), and blunted MAP (p = 0.001). CO did not differ between trials. Yet, towards the end of both CLT85 trials, CO tended to decline (p 0.08); a response that occurred at an earlier stage in the SUSOPS trial. During CLT65, SUSOPS altered neither cerebral nor muscle TOI. The SUSOPS CLT85 trial, however, was terminated at similar leg-muscle deoxygenation (p > 0.05) and lower prefrontal cortex deoxygenation (p < 0.01). SUSOPS increased RPE at submaximal intensities (p = 0.05), and suppressed FAS and FS throughout (p < 0.01). The present findings indicate, therefore, that a brief period of military sustained operations with partial sleep deprivation augment cardiorespiratory and psychological strain, limiting high-intensity endurance capacity.

  • 21.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    et al.
    Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Slovenia .
    Kounalakis, S.N.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    Aerobic exercise training preceded by respiratory muscle endurance training: a synergistic action enhances the hypoxic aerobic capacity2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 10, p. 2629-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    et al.
    Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Slovenia .
    Musizza, B
    Kounalakis, S.N.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    Enhancement of the finger cold-induced vasodilation response with exercise training2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 133-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) is a cyclical increase in finger temperature that has been suggested to provide cryoprotective function during cold exposures. Physical fitness has been suggested as a potential factor that could affect CIVD response, possibly via central (increased cardiac output, decreased sympathetic nerve activity) and/or peripheral (increased microcirculation) cardiovascular and neural adaptations to exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of endurance exercise training on the CIVD response. Eighteen healthy males trained 1 h d(-1) on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak power output, 5 days week(-1) for 4-weeks. Pre, Mid, Post, and 10 days after the cessation of training and on separate days, subjects performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion ((V) over dotO(2peak)); and a 30-min hand immersion in 8 degrees C water to examine their CIVD response. The exercise-training regimen significantly increased (V) over dotO(2peak) (Pre: 46.0 +/- 5.9, Mid: 52.5 +/- 5.7, Post: 52.1 +/- 6.2, After: 52.6 +/- 7.6 ml kg(-1) min-1; P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in average finger skin temperature (Pre: 11.9 +/- 2.4, After: 13.5 +/- 2.5 degrees C; P < 0.05), the number of waves (Pre: 1.1 +/- 1.0, After: 1.7 +/- 1.1; P < 0.001) and the thermal sensation (Pre: 1.7 +/- 0.9, After: 2.5 +/- 1.4; P < 0.001), after training. In conclusion, the aforementioned endurance exercise training significantly improved the finger CIVD response during cold-water hand immersion.

  • 23. Kounalakis, S.
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I.
    Exercise thermoregulatory responses following a 28-day sleep-high train-low regimen2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 11, p. 3881-3891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potentiated exercise-sweating rate observed during acute hypoxia is diminished after a sleep-high train-low (SH-TL) regimen. We tested the hypothesis that this attenuation of the sweating response after SH-TL is compensated for by an increase in heat loss via vasodilatation. Nine male subjects participated in a 28-day SH-TL regimen. Before (pre-), and after (post-) the SH-TL protocol, they performed an test under normoxia and hypoxia. Additionally, pre- and post-SH-TL they completed three 30-min constant-work rate trials on a cycle ergometer. In one trial, the subjects inspired room air while exercising at 50 % of normoxic (CT). In the remaining trials, subjects exercised in hypoxia (FIO2 12.5 %), either at the same absolute (HAT) or relative (50 % of hypoxic ) work rate (HRT) as in CT. Despite similar exercise core temperature responses between pre- and post-SH-TL trials, sweating rate was potentiated in HAT pre-SH-TL [CT: 1.97 (0.42); HRT: 1.86 (0.31); HAT: 2.55 (0.53) mg cm(-2) min(-1); p < 0.05]. Post-SH-TL exercise sweating rate was increased for CT, and remained unchanged in HRT and HAT [CT: 2.42 (0.76); HRT: 2.01 (0.33); HAT: 2.59 (0.30) mg cm(-2) min(-1)]. Pre-SH-TL, the forearm-fingertip skin temperature difference (Tsk(f-f)) was higher in HAT than in CT and HRT by similar to 3.5A degrees C (p < 0.05). The inter-condition differences in Tsk(f-f) were diminished post-SH-TL. In conclusion, the decrease in sweating rate during hypoxic exercise, following a SH-TL regimen, was countered by an increase in vasodilatation (reduced Tsk(f-f)), whereas SH-TL enhanced the sweating response during normoxic exercise. The mechanisms underlying these SH-TL-induced alterations in thermoregulatory responses remain to be settled.

  • 24. Kounalakis, S. N.
    et al.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    Nassis, G.P
    Geladas, N.D.
    The role of muscle pump in the development of cardiovascular drift2008In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 103, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the role of muscle pump in the development of cardiovascular drift (CVdrift) during cycling. Twelve healthy males (23.4 ± 0.5 years, mean ± SE) exercised for 90 min with 40 and 80 pedal revolutions per minute (rpm) at the same oxygen consumption, in two separate days. CVdrift was developed in both conditions as indicated by the drop in stroke volume (SV) and the rise in heart rate (HR) from the 20th min onwards (ΔSV = −16.2 ± 2.0 and −17.1 ± 1.0 ml beat−1; ΔHR = 18.3 ± 2.0 and 17.5 ± 3.0 beats min−1 for 40 and 80 rpm, respectively, P < 0.05) but without difference between conditions. Mean cardiac output (CO2 rebreathing) was 14.7 ± 0.3 l min−1 and 15.0 ± 0.3 l min−1, and mean arterial pressure was 100.0 ± 1.0 mmHg and 96.7 ± 0.8 mmHg for 40 and 80 rpm, respectively, without significant changes over time, and without difference between conditions. Electromyographic activity (iEMG) was lower throughout exercise with 80 rpm (35.6 ± 1.2% and 11.0 ± 1.0% for 40 and 80 rpm, respectively). Similarly, total hemoglobin, determined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was 58.0 ± 0.8 (AU) for 40 rpm and 53.0 ± 1.4 (arbitrary units) for 80 rpm, from 30th min onwards (P < 0.05), an indication of lower leg blood volume during the faster pedal rate condition. Thermal status (rectal and mean skin temperature), blood and plasma volume changes, blood lactate concentration, muscle oxygenation (NIRS signal) and the rate of perceived exertion were similar in the two trials. It seems that muscle pump is not an important factor for the development of CVdrift during cycling, at least under the present experimental conditions

  • 25.
    Kölegard, Roger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Effects of physical fitness on relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressor response2013In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 11, p. 2749-2759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots are commonly recommended strength training as a means of improving the tolerance to withstand high gravitoinertial (G) loads. Previous studies on the effect of short-term strength-training regimens on G-endurance show equivocal results, with a majority of the studies suggesting improved G-endurance. The mechanisms underlying such improvement are unknown. Presumably, any change in G-tolerance induced by physical training habits should be manifest following long-term training. We also reasoned that during repeated straining maneuvers-as during certain G-endurance protocols-the relaxed G-tolerance and the exercise pressure response may play a significant role in maintaining adequate arterial pressure, and hence that different training modalities might alter G-endurance, by altering the exercise pressor response. Three groups of males were studied, long-term (>6 months) endurance-trained (E; n = 17), strength-trained (S; n = 16) and untrained (U; n = 17) individuals. The pressor response was studied during sustained (40 s) isometric knee extensions at 50 % of the maximal contraction level. Relaxed gradual onset-rate G-tolerance was determined. G-tolerance was similar in the E (4.6 +/- 0.5 G), S (4.9 +/- 0.8 G) and U (4.6 +/- 0.8 G) groups. The mean arterial pressure increase during isometric exercise was higher in the S (36 +/- 7 mmHg = mean +/- SD) and U (35 +/- 16 mmHg) groups than in the E group (28 +/- 8 mmHg). The results suggest that relaxed G-tolerance is unaffected by physical training habits, and that the training modality affects the magnitude of the exercise pressor response. However, it seems that the response is blunted by endurance training rather than enhanced by strength training.

  • 26.
    Kölegård, Roger
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Distensibility in human veins as affected by 5 weeks of repeated elevations of local transmural pressure2011In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 3119-3125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of repeated increments in local intravascular pressure (pressure training; PT) on (1) distensibility in two arm veins, and (2) pain in the arm induced by markedly increased intravascular pressure. Elevation of venous distending pressure (DP) in an arm was induced by placing the subject (n = 8) in a pressure chamber with one arm protruding to the outside via a port in the chamber door, and increasing chamber pressure. During 5 weeks, venous DP in one arm was repeatedly (3 × 40 min/week) increased (65-105 mmHg). Pressure-distension relationships were determined in the brachial and cephalic veins by measuring diameter changes by ultrasonography during stepwise increments in DP to 180 mmHg. In the brachial vein, the diameter change in response to an increase in DP from 30 to 180 mmHg (distensibility) was reduced (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm (11%) compared to that in the control arm before (23%) and after (21%) PT. The cephalic vein showed a similar response with a reduced (P < 0.05) distensibility in the pressure-trained arm (20%) compared to that in the control arm before (29%) and after (25%) PT. At any given DP, arm pain was less (P < 0.05) in the pressure-trained arm than in the control arm before and after PT, presumably reflecting the reduced venous distensibility in the pressure-trained arm. The results support the concept that the distensibility of venous walls adapts to meet the demands imposed by the prevailing local transmural pressures.

  • 27.
    Kölegård, Roger
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Swedish Def Res Agcy.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Karolinska Inst, Swedish Def Res Agcy.
    Eiken, Ola
    Karolinska Inst, Swedish Def Res Agcy.
    Increased distensibility in dependent veins following prolonged bedrest2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 106, no 4, p. 547-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Displacement of blood to the lower portion of the body that follows a postural transition from recumbent to erect is augmented by a prolonged period of recumbency (bedrest). Information is scarce as to what extent this augmented blood-volume shift to dependent veins is attributable to increased distensibility of the veins. Accordingly, we studied the effect of 5 weeks of horizontal bedrest on the pressure-distension relationship in limb veins. Elevation of venous distending pressure was induced by exposure of the body except the tested limb to supra-atmospheric pressure with the subject seated in a pressure chamber with one arm, or supine with a lower leg, protruding through a hole in the chamber door. Diameter changes in response to an increase of intravenous pressure (distensibility) from 60 to about 140 mmHg were measured in the brachial and posterior tibial veins using ultrasonographic techniques. Prior to bedrest, the distensibility was substantially less in the tibial than in the brachial vein. Bedrest increased (P < 0.01) pressure distension in the tibial vein by 86% from 7 +/- A 3% before to 13 +/- A 3% after bedrest. In the brachial vein, bedrest increased (P < 0.05) pressure distension by 36% from 14 +/- A 5% before to 19 +/- A 5% after bedrest. Thus, removal of the gravity-dependent pressure components that act along the blood vessels in erect posture increases the distensibility of dependent veins.

  • 28. Lindholm, Peter
    et al.
    Conniff, Mary
    Gennser, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Pendergast, David
    Lundgren, Claes
    Effects of fasting and carbohydrate consumption on voluntary resting apnea duration2007In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 417-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breath holding is normally terminated due to the urge to breathe, mainly caused by the increasing carbon dioxide level. It was recently shown that a combination of 18 h of carbohydrate-free diet and prolonged exercise prior to breath holding lowered the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and end-expiratory PO(2 )at maximal breath-hold break-point (MBP). Current hypothesis: fasting will result in longer breath-hold duration than will fasting followed by carbohydrate intake. It was also hypothesized that breath-holds during carbohydrate supplementation would be ended at a higher alveolar PO(2). Ten male non-divers performed multiple breath-holds either to the first diaphragmatic contraction (PBP), or to MBP. The breath-holds were performed during normal diet (control; C), twice during fasting (F14 h, F18 h), followed by post fasting carbohydrate consumption (PFCC) and a repetition of the breath-hold testing 1-2 h after ingestion of carbohydrates. Duration, RER, end-tidal PO(2) and PCO(2), SaO(2) and blood glucose were determined. RER and blood glucose increased after PFCC compared with fasting and control conditions (P < 0.001). PBP breath-hold duration increased from 129 +/- 34 s at C to 148 +/- 33 s at F18 h, and was reduced during PFCC to 122 +/- 30 s (P < 0.001). End-tidal PO(2) was higher at PFCC compared to F18 h (10.4 +/- 1.2 vs. 9.5 +/- 1.2 kPa at PBP, P < 0.05). Similar trends in breath-hold duration and physiology were seen in breath-holds that were terminated at MBP. Dietary restriction can affect breath-hold duration. The lower O(2) level at breakpoint during fasting suggests that breath holding may be less safe during fasting; the increased risk may be mitigated by ingestion of carbohydrates before breath holding.

  • 29. Lindholm, Peter
    et al.
    Gennser, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Aggravated hypoxia during breath-holds after prolonged exercise2005In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 93, no 5-6, p. 701-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperventilation prior to breath-hold diving increases the risk of syncope as a result of hypoxia. Recently, a number of cases of near-drownings in which the swimmers did not hyperventilate before breath-hold diving have come to our attention. These individuals had engaged in prolonged exercise prior to breath-hold diving and it is known that such exercise enhances lipid metabolism relative to carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in a lower production of CO(2) per amount of O(2 )consumed. Therefore, our hypothesis was that an exercise-induced increase in lipid metabolism and the associated reduction in the amount of CO(2) produced would cause the urge to breathe to develop at a lower P O(2), thereby increasing the risk of syncope due to hypoxia. Eight experienced breath-hold divers performed 5 or 6 breath-holds at rest in the supine position and then 5 or 6 additional breath-holds during intermittent light ergometer exercise with simultaneous apnoea (dynamic apnoea, DA) on two different days: control (C) and post prolonged sub-maximal exercise (PPE), when the breath-holds were performed 30 min after 2 h of sub-maximal exercise. After C and before the prolonged submaximal exercise subjects were put on a carbohydrate-free diet for 18 h to start the depletion of glycogen. The respiratory exchange ratio ( RER) and end-tidal P CO(2), P O(2), and SaO(2) values were determined and the data were presented as means (SD). The RER prior to breath-holding under control conditions was 0.83 (0.09), whereas the corresponding value after exercise was 0.70 (0.05) ( P <0.01). When the three apnoeas of the longest duration for each subject were analysed, the average duration of the dynamic apnoeas was 96 (14) s under control conditions and 96 (17) s following exercise. Both P O(2) and P CO(2) were higher during the control dynamic apnoeas than after PPE [PO(2) 6.9 (1.0) kPa vs 6.2 (1.2) kPa, P <0.01; P CO(2) 7.8 (0.5) kPa vs 6.7 (0.4) kPa, P <0.001; ANOVA testing]. A similar pattern was observed after breath-holding under resting conditions, i.e., a lower end-tidal P O(2) and P CO(2) after exercise (PPE) compared to control conditions. Our findings demonstrate that under the conditions of a relatively low RER following prolonged exercise, breath-holding is terminated at a lower P O(2) and a lower P CO(2) than under normal conditions. This suggests that elevated lipid metabolism may constitute a risk factor in connection with breath-holding during swimming and diving.

  • 30.
    Linnarsson, D
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Spaak, J
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Baroreflex impairment during rapid posture changes at rest and exercise after 120 days of bed rest.2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthostatic intolerance is common after space flight and head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. We hypothesized that HDT-induced impairments of arterial blood pressure (AP) control would be more marked during exercise and that recovery of baroreflex function after very long-term HDT would be delayed. Six subjects were studied before (BDC) during (day 60, D60; D113) and after (recovery day 0, R0; R3; R15) 120 days of HDT. Supine resting subjects were exposed to repeated 1 min passive tilts to upright at 3-min interval. During 50 W steady-state exercise corresponding tilt had a 2-min duration at 4-min interval. The amplitudes of the tilt-induced transient beat-by-beat deviations in AP and rate (HR) were determined during the gravity transients. At rest these deviations did not change over time, but during exercise the total peak-to-nadir range of deviations in systolic AP (SAP) at up-tilt and down-tilt increased to 168+/-16% (mean+/-SEM) of BDC at D113 with no clear recovery upto and including R15. Counter-regulatory HR responses were not increased proportionally and especially not tachycardic responses to up-tilt, resulting in a reduction of baroreflex sensitivity (deltaRR-interval/deltaSAP) by 55+/-9% of BDC at D113 with no recovery upto and including R15. We conclude that prolonged bed rest cause long-lasting impairments in AP control and baroreflex function in exercising humans.

  • 31. McDonnell, A.C.
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, P.J.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    Circadian rhythm of peripheral perfusion during 10-day hypoxic confinement and bed rest2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 10, p. 2093-2104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future planetary habitats will be hypobaric and hypoxic to reduce the risk of decompression sickness during preparation for extra-vehicular activities. This study was part of a research programme investigating the combined effects of hypoxia and microgravity on physiological systems. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced peripheral vasoconstriction persists at night and is aggravated by bed rest. Since sleep onset has been causally linked to nocturnal vasodilatation, we reasoned that hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction at night may explain sleep disturbances at altitude. Peripheral perfusion alterations as a consequence of bed rest may explain poor sleep quality reported during sojourns on the International Space Station. Eleven males underwent three 10-day interventions in a randomised order: (1) hypoxic ambulatory confinement; (2) hypoxic bed rest; (3) normoxic bed rest. During each intervention we conducted 22-h monitoring of peripheral perfusion, as reflected by the skin temperature gradient. Measurements were conducted on the first (D 1) and last day (D 10) of each intervention. All interventions resulted in a decrease in daytime toe perfusion from D 1 to D 10. There was no difference in the magnitude of the daytime reduction in toe perfusion between the three interventions. There was a significant vasodilatation of the toes in all interventions by 11 pm. The fingertips remained well perfused throughout. Daytime vasoconstriction induced by hypoxia and/or bed rest is abolished at night, lending further support to the theory that changes in peripheral skin temperature may be functionally linked to sleep onset.

  • 32. Mekjavic, Igor B.
    et al.
    Golja, Petra
    Tipton, Michael J.
    Eiken, Ola
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Human thermoregulatory function during exercise and immersion after 35 days of horizontal bed-rest and recovery2005In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 95, no 2-3, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated the effect of 35 days of experimental horizontal bed-rest on exercise and immersion thermoregulatory function. Fifteen healthy male volunteers were assigned to either a Control (n = 5) or Bed-rest (n = 10) group. Thermoregulatory function was evaluated during a 30-min bout of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed immediately by a 100-min immersion in 28 degrees C water. For the Bed-rest group, exercise and immersion thermoregulatory responses observed post-bed-rest were compared with those after a 5 week supervised active recovery period. In both trials, the absolute work load during the exercise portion of the test was identical. During the exercise and immersion, we recorded skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and third digit of the right hand (DeltaT(forearm-fingertip))--an index of skin blood flow, sweating rate from the forehead, oxygen uptake and heart rate at minute intervals. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort at 5-min intervals. Exercise thermoregulatory responses after bed-rest and recovery were similar. Subjective ratings of temperature perception and thermal comfort during immersion indicated that subjects perceived similar combinations of Tsk and Tre to be warmer and thermally less uncomfortable after bed-rest. The average (SD) exercise-induced increase in Tre relative to resting values was not significantly different between the Post-bed-rest (0.4 (0.2) degrees C) and Recovery (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) trials. During the post-exercise immersion, the decrease in Tre, relative to resting values, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the Post-bed-rest trial (0.9 (0.5) degrees C) than after recovery (0.4 (0.3) degrees C). DeltaT(forearm-fingertip) was 5.2 (0.9) degrees C and 5.8 (1.0) degrees C at the end of the post-bed-rest and recovery immersions, respectively. The gain of the shivering response (increase in VO(2) relative to the decrease in Tre; VO(2)/Tre) was 1.19 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Recovery trial, and was significantly attenuated to 0.51 l min(-1) degrees C(-1) in the Post-bed-rest trial. The greater cooling rate observed in the post-bed-rest trial is attributed to the greater heat loss and reduced heat production. The former is the result of attenuated cold-induced vasoconstriction and enhanced sweating rate, and the latter a result of a lower shivering VO(2) response.

  • 33. Morrison, SA
    et al.
    Cihua, U
    Zavec-Pavlinic, D
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, IB
    The effect of a Live-high Train-high exercise regimen on behavioural temperature regulation2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, p. 255-265, article id 28025662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    Acute hypoxia alters the threshold for sensation of cutaneous thermal stimuli. We hypothesised that hypoxia-induced alterations in cutaneous temperature sensation may lead to modulation of the perception of temperature, ultimately influencing behavioural thermoregulation and that the magnitude of this effect could be influenced by daily physical training.

    METHODS:

    Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a normobaric hypoxic environment (PIO2 = 88.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, corresponding to 4175 m elevation). Subjects were randomly assigned to a non-exercising (Live-high, LH, N = 6), or exercising group (Live-high Train-high, LH-TH, N = 8) comprised of 1-h bouts of cycle ergometry, twice daily, at a work-rate equivalent to 50% hypoxic peak power output. A subset of subjects (N = 5) also completed a control trial under normoxic conditions. The thermal comfort zone (TCZ) was determined in normoxia, and during hypoxic confinement days 2 (HC2) and 10 (HC10) in both groups using a water-perfused suit in which water temperature was regulated by the subjects within a range, they deemed thermally comfortable. Mean skin temperature and proximal-distal temperature gradients (two sites: forearm-fingertip, calf-toe) were recorded each minute throughout the 60-min protocol.

    RESULTS:

    The average width of the TCZ did not differ between the control group (9.0 ± 6.9 °C), and the LH and LH-TH groups on days HC2 (7.2 ± 4.2 °C) and HC10 (10.2 ± 7.5 °C) of the hypoxic exposure (p = 0.256). [Formula: see text] was marginally higher on HC2 (35.9 ± 1.0 °C) compared to control (34.9 ± 0.8 °C, p = 0.040), but not on HC10 (35.6 ± 1.0 °C), reflecting the responses of hand perfusion.

    CONCLUSION:

    There was a little systematic effect of hypoxia or exercise training on TCZ magnitude or boundary temperatures.

  • 34. Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical sensors, signals and systems (MSSS).
    Arndt, Anton
    Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing2013In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 1385-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study incorporated variations in speed and the horizontal resistance acting upon elite female skiers during double poling (DP) on a treadmill and specifically analyzed biomechanical adaptations to these variations. Whole body kinematics and pole force data were recorded and used to calculate the moment of force acting on the shoulder and elbow joints. Data were obtained with a 3D optoelectronic system using reflective markers at given anatomical landmarks. Forces along the long axis of the right pole were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer. Surface electrodes were used to record EMG activity in the rectus femoris, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles. In a first set of recordings, the participants double poled with zero elevation at five different speeds from 8 to 17 km h(-1). In a second set of recordings, horizontal resistance was added by weights (0.4-1.9 kg) attached to a pulley system pulling the skier posteriorly during DP at 14 km h(-1). Results showed increasing relative duration of the thrust phase with increasing resistance, but not with speed. Significant kinematic differences occurred with increase in both speed and resistance. The mean (+/- SD) horizontal force components ranged between 1.7 (+/- 1.3) and 2.8 (+/- 1.1) percent (%) bodyweight (BW) in the speed adaptation and 3.1 (+/- 0.6) and 4.0 (+/- 1.3) % BW in the adaptation to horizontal resistance. Peak muscle activity showed a central to peripheral (proximo-distal) activation sequence. The temporal cycle phase pattern in the adaptation to speed and horizontal resistance differed.

  • 35.
    Nobel, Gerard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Tribukait, Arne
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold- induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (Delta T (ff)), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the Delta T (ff) response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

  • 36.
    Nobel, Gerard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Tribukait, Arne
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Effects of motion sickness on thermoregulatory responses in a thermoneutral air environment2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 1717-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion sickness (MS) has been identified as a non-thermal factor that can moderate autonomic thermoregulatory responses. It has been shown that MS exaggerates core cooling during immersion in cold (15A degrees C) and luke-warm (28A degrees C) water by attenuating cold-induced vasoconstriction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MS affects thermal balance in a thermoneutral air environment. Eleven subjects were exposed to rotation in two conditions, control (CN) and MS. In the CN condition subjects refrained from head movements, whereas in the MS condition they performed a sequence of maximal head movements (left, right, up, down) at 15-s intervals until they were very nauseous. Sweating rate, rectal temperature (T (re)), the difference in temperature between the right forearm and tip of the second finger (T (ff)) as an index of cutaneous vasomotor tone, perceived MS, thermal comfort and temperature perception were recorded before and during rotation, and during 90-min post-rotation. During the post-rotation period, T (re) dropped and sweating rate increased in the MS but not in the CN condition. The T (ff) response suggests that MS-induced peripheral vasodilatation which, together with the sweating resulted in increased heat loss. During rotation, subjects perceived temperature to be uncomfortably high, suggesting that MS may also affect thermoregulatory behaviour. It thus appears that also in a thermoneutral air environment MS may substantially affect thermal balance.

  • 37.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fluckey, James D
    Pozzo, Marco
    Tesch, Per A
    Resistance training using eccentric overload induces early adaptations in skeletal muscle size2008In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 271-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifteen healthy men performed a 5-week training program comprising four sets of seven unilateral, coupled concentric-eccentric knee extensions 2-3 times weekly. While eight men were assigned to training using a weight stack (WS) machine, seven men trained using a flywheel (FW) device, which inherently provides variable resistance and allows for eccentric overload. The design of these apparatuses ensured similar knee extensor muscle use and range of motion. Before and after training, maximal isometric force (MVC) was measured in tasks non-specific to the training modes. Volume of all individual quadriceps muscles was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Performance across the 12 exercise sessions was measured using the inherent features of the devices. Whereas MVC increased (P < 0.05) at all angles measured in FW, such a change was less consistent in WS. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in task-specific performance (i.e., load lifted) in WS. Average work showed a non-significant 8.7% increase in FW. Quadriceps muscle volume increased (P < 0.025) in both groups after training. Although the more than twofold greater hypertrophy evident in FW (6.2%) was not statistically greater than that shown in WS (3.0%), all four individual quadriceps muscles of FW showed increased (P < 0.025) volume whereas in WS only m. rectus femoris was increased (P < 0.025). Collectively the results of this study suggest more robust muscular adaptations following flywheel than weight stack resistance exercise supporting the idea that eccentric overload offers a potent stimuli essential to optimize the benefits of resistance exercise.

  • 38.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Keramidas, Michail E.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    No association between hand and foot temperature responses during local cold stress and rewarming.2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 1141-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine whether associations exist between temperature responses in the fingers vs. toes and hand vs. foot during local cold-water immersion and rewarming phases.

    METHODS: Seventy healthy subjects (58 males, 12 females) immersed their right hand or right foot, respectively, in 8 °C water for 30 min (CWI phase), followed by a 15-min spontaneous rewarming (RW) in 25 °C air temperature.

    RESULTS: Temperature was lower in the toes than the fingers during the baseline phase (27.8 ± 3.0 vs. 33.9 ± 2.5 °C, p < 0.001), parts of the CWI phase (min 20-30: 8.8 ± 0.7 vs. 9.7 ± 1.4 °C, p < 0.001), and during the RW phase (peak temperature: 22.5 ± 5.1 vs. 32.7 ± 3.6 °C, p < 0.001). Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) was more common in the fingers than in the toes (p < 0.001). Within the first 10 min of CWI, 61% of the subjects exhibited a CIVD response in the fingers, while only 6% of the subjects had a CIVD response in the toes. There was a large variability of temperature responses both within and between extremities, and there was a weak correlation between finger- and toe temperature both during the CWI (r = 0.21, p = 0.08) and the RW phases (r = 0.26, p = 0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that there is generally a lower temperature in the toes than the fingers after a short time of local cold exposure and that the thermal responses of the fingers/hands are not readily transferable to the toes/foot.

  • 39.
    Norrbrand, Lena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pozzo, Marco
    Tesch, Per A
    Flywheel resistance training calls for greater eccentric muscle activation than weight training2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 997-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in muscle activation and performance were studied in healthy men in response to 5 weeks of resistance training with or without "eccentric overload". Subjects, assigned to either weight stack (grp WS; n = 8) or iso-inertial "eccentric overload" flywheel (grp FW; n = 9) knee extensor resistance training, completed 12 sessions of four sets of seven concentric-eccentric actions. Pre- and post-measurements comprised maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) and training mode-specific force. Root mean square electromyographic (EMG(RMS)) activity of mm. vastus lateralis and medialis was assessed during MVC and used to normalize EMG(RMS) for training mode-specific concentric (EMG(CON)) and eccentric (EMG(ECC)) actions at 90°, 120° and 150° knee joint angles. Grp FW showed greater (p < 0.05) overall normalized angle-specific EMG(ECC) of vastii muscles compared with grp WS. Grp FW showed near maximal normalized EMG(CON) both pre- and post-training. EMG(CON) for Grp WS was near maximal only post-training. While RFD was unchanged following training (p > 0.05), MVC and training-specific strength increased (p < 0.05) in both groups. We believe the higher EMG(ECC) activity noted with FW exercise compared to standard weight lifting could be attributed to its unique iso-inertial loading features. Hence, the resulting greater mechanical stress may explain the robust muscle hypertrophy reported earlier in response to flywheel resistance training.

  • 40.
    Peolsson, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Brodin, Lars-Ake
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Tissue motion pattern of ventral neck muscles investigated by tissue velocity ultrasonography imaging2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 899-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed this experimental study to investigate tissue motions and thus infer the recruitment pattern of the ventral neck muscles [sternocleidomastoid (SCM), longus capitis (Lca), and longus colli (Lco)] at the C4-C5 level in healthy volunteers during isometric manual resistance of the head in flexion in a seated position. This exercise is used in the physiotherapeutic treatment of neck pain and is assumed to activate the deep ventral muscles, but the assumption has not been clearly evaluated. Neck flexors of 16 healthy volunteers (mean age 24 years, SD 3.7) were measured using ultrasonography with strain and strain rate (SR) tissue velocity imaging (TVI) during isometric contraction of flexor muscles. TVI involves using Doppler imaging to study tissue dynamics. All three muscles showed a deformation compared to rest. Except for the initial contraction phase, Lco exhibited a lower strain than Lca and SCM but was the only muscle with a significant change in SR between the phases. When the beginning of the contraction phase was analysed, Lco was the first to be deformed among most volunteers, followed by Lca and then SCM. The exercise investigated seems to be useful as a "stabilizing" exercise for Lco. Our suggestion is that in further research, Lco and Lca should be investigated as separate muscles. TVI could be used to study tissue motions and thus serve as an indicator of muscle patterning between the neck flexors, with the possibility of separating Lco and Lca.

  • 41. Rittweger, Joern
    et al.
    Bareille, Marie-Pierre
    Clement, Gilles
    Linnarsson, Dag
    KTH.
    Paloski, William H.
    Wuyts, Floris
    Zange, Jochen
    Angerer, Oliver
    Short-arm centrifugation as a partially effective musculoskeletal countermeasure during 5-day head-down tilt bed rest-results from the BRAG1 study2015In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, no 6, p. 1233-1244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human centrifugation, also called artificial gravity (AG), is proposed as a combined strategy against detrimental effects of microgravity in long-term space missions. This study scrutinized human short-arm centrifugation as countermeasure against musculoskeletal de-conditioning. Eleven healthy male subjects [mean age of 34 (SD 7) years] completed the cross-over trial, including three campaigns of -6A degrees head-down tilt bed rest (HDT) for 5 days, with preceding baseline data collection and recovery phases. Bed rest without AG was used as control condition (Ctrl), and AG with 1 g at the center of mass applied once per day for 30 min in one bout (AG(1x30)) and in 6 bouts of 5 min (AG(6x5), 3-min rest between bouts) as experimental conditions. End-points were muscle strength, vertical jump performance, and biomarkers of bone and protein metabolism. AG(6x5) was better tolerated than AG(1x30). Bone resorption markers CTX, NTX, and DPD all increased by approximately 25 % toward the end of bed rest (P < 0.001), and nitrogen balance decreased by approximately 3 g/day (P < 0.001), without any protection by AG (P > 0.4). Decreases in vertical jump height by 2.1 (SE 0.6) cm after Ctrl bed rest was prevented by either of the AG protocols (P = 0.039). The present study yielded succinct catabolic effects upon muscle and bone metabolism that were un-prevented by AG. The preservation of vertical jump performance by AG in this study is likely caused by central nervous rather than by peripheral musculoskeletal effects.

  • 42. Rojc, Bojan
    et al.
    Morrison, Shawnda A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Dolenc-Groselj, Leja
    The separate and combined effects of hypoxia and sustained recumbency/inactivity on sleep architecture2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 9, p. 1973-1981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to determine the separate and combined effects of hypoxia and inactivity/unloading on sleep architecture during a 10-day period of confinement. Ten subjects participated in three 10-day trials in random order: hypoxic ambulatory (HAMB), hypoxic bedrest (HBR), and normoxic bedrest (NBR). During the HAMB and HBR trials, subjects were confined to a hypoxic facility. The hypoxia profile was: simulated altitude of 2,990 m on day 1, 3,380 m on day 2, and 3,881 m on day 3. In the NBR and HBR trials, subjects maintained a horizontal position throughout the confinement period. During each trial, sleep polysomnography was conducted one night prior to (baseline; altitude of facility is 940 m) and on the first (NT1, altitude 2,990 m) and tenth (NT10, altitude 3,881 m) night of the 10-day intervention. Average time in sleep stage 1 decreased from NT1 to NT10 irrespective of trial. Overall incidence and time spent in periodic breathing increased from NT1 to NT10 in both HAMB and HBR. During NT1, both HAMB and HBR reduced slow-wave sleep and increased light sleep, whereas NBR and HBR increased the number of awakenings/night. There were fewer awakenings during HAMB than NBR. Acute exposure to both hypoxia and bedrest (HBR) results in greater sleep fragmentation due to more awakenings attributed to bedrest, and lighter sleep as a result of reduced slow wave sleep caused by the hypoxic environment.

  • 43. Sahlén, Anders
    et al.
    Shahgaldi, Kambiz
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Aagaard, Philip
    Manouras, Aristomenis
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Winter, Reidar
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Braunschweig, Frieder
    Altered ventriculo-arterial coupling during exercise in athletes releasing biomarkers after endurance running2012In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 4069-4079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise can lead to release of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a poorly understood phenomenon proposed to especially occur with highintensity exercise in less trained subjects. We hypothesised that haemodynamic perturbations during exercise are larger in athletes with cTnT release, and studied athletes with detectable cTnT levels after an endurance event (HIGH; n = 16; 46 ± 9 years) against matched controls whose levels were undetectable (LOW; n = 11; 44 ± 7 years). Echocardiography was performed at rest and at peak supine bicycle exercise stress. Left ventricular (LV) end-systolic elastance (ELV a load-independent measure of LV contractility), effective arterial elastance (EA a lumped index of arterial load) and end-systolic meridional wall stress were calculated from cardiac dimensions and brachial blood pressure. Efficiency of cardiac work was judged from the ventriculo-arterial coupling ratio (EA/ELV: optimal range 0.5-1.0). While subgroups had similar values at rest, we found ventriculo-arterial mismatch during exercise in HIGH subjects (0.47 (0.39-0.58) vs. LOW: 0.73 (0.62-0.83); p<0.01] due to unopposed increase in ELV (p<0.05). In LOW subjects, a greater increase occurred in EA during exercise (+81 ± 67 % vs. HIGH: +39 ± 32 %; p = 0.02) which contributed to a maintained coupling ratio. Subjects with higher baseline NT-proBNP had greater systolic wall stress during exercise (R2 = 0.39; p<0.01) despite no correlation at rest (p = ns). In conclusion, athletes with exercise-induced biomarker release exhibit ventriculo-arterial mismatch during exercise, suggesting non-optimal cardiac work may contribute to this phenomenon.

  • 44. Spaak, J
    et al.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Linnarsson, D
    Impaired pressor response after spaceflight and bed rest: evidence for cardiovascular dysfunction.2001In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 85, no 1-2, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized that impaired cardiovascular responses to isometric muscle action contribute to the cardiovascular deconditioning that occurs after space flight (SF) and head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT). Six subjects were studied before, during and after 120 days of -6 degrees HDT, and four subjects were studied before, during (two subjects) and after 179-389 days of SF. Subjects performed a sustained handgrip (SHG) at a force equivalent to 30% of maximum contraction force for 2 min, and heart-rate (HR) and pressor (mean arterial pressure, deltaMAP) responses were recorded. At the same relative force, both deltaHR and deltaMAP were significantly reduced during the first days after HDT (-54%, P<0.05 and -43%, P<0.05). In two subjects studied within 24 h after their return from SF, deltaMAP was practically absent (-79%, P<0.05) whereas in four subjects studied 1-4 days after return from SF, deltaMAP was reduced by 35% (P<0.05). deltaHR was not significantly changed. Our finding of attenuated pressor responses to SHG after HDT and SF supports the notion of impairments at both the neurocirculatory control and effector organ levels.

  • 45.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Haruna, Y
    Tedner, B
    Linnarsson, D
    Short-term cardiovascular responses to rapid whole-body tilting during exercise.2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 81, no 4, p. 259-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective was to characterize the responses of heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) to changes in posture during concomitant dynamic leg exercise. Ten men performed dynamic leg exercise at 50, 100, and 150 W and were rapidly and repeatedly tilted between supine (0 degrees ) and upright (80 degrees ) positions at 2-min intervals. Continuous recordings of BP and HR were made, and changes in central blood volume were estimated from transthoracic impedance. Short-lasting increases in BP were observed immediately upon tilting from the upright to the supine position (down-tilt), averaging +18 mmHg (50 W) to +31 mmHg (150 W), and there were equally short-lasting decreases in BP, ranging from -26 to -38 mmHg upon tilting from supine to upright (up-tilt). These components occurred for all pressure parameters (systolic, mean, diastolic, and pulse pressures). We propose that these transients reflect mainly tilt-induced changes in total peripheral resistance resulting from decreases and increases of the efficiency of the venous muscle pump. After 3-4 s (down-tilt) and 7-11 s (up-tilt) there were large HR transients in a direction opposite to the pressure transients. These HR transients were larger during the down-tilt (-15 to -26 beats. min(-1)) than during the up-tilt (+13 to +17 beats. min(-1)), and increased in amplitude with work intensity during the down-tilt. The tilt-induced HR fluctuations could be modelled as a basically linear function of an arterial baroreflex input from a site half-way between the heart and the carotid sinus, and with varying contributions of fast vagal and slow sympathetic HR responses resulting in attenuated tachycardic responses to hypotensive stimuli during exercise.

  • 46.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    G tolerance and the vasoconstrictor reserve2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 12, p. 2521-2528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because leg arterial stiffness is higher in subjects with high G tolerance, we hypothesized that subjects with high G tolerance would have larger capacity for vasoconstriction. Sixteen subjects, eight with high and eight with low G tolerance (H and L group, respectively), were exposed to a cold pressor test (CPT) in supine and upright posture. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. In the supine position, CPT increased TPR more in the H group; 31 +/- A 18 % than in the L group; 11 +/- A 7 % (p < 0.05). The L group had larger increases in CO than the H group; 17 +/- A 16 vs. 3.4 +/- A 7 % (p = 0.06). In the upright position, the H group had a larger MAP response to CPT than the L group; 26 +/- A 14 vs. 14 +/- A 7 % (p = 0.06). The H group, but not the L group, had significant increases in TPR whereas the L group had significant increases in CO and SV. In response to CPT, the high G tolerance group elevated MAP by increasing TPR, whereas the low G tolerance group showed a dependency on increased CO. The H group seemed to have a larger vasoconstrictor reserve. The results further suggest that vasoconstrictor reserve capacity could constitute the link between the recent finding that indicates a relationship between G tolerance and arterial distensibility in the legs.

  • 47.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    Migeotte, P. -F
    Delière, Q.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology.
    The arterial baroreflex and inherent G tolerance2016In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: High G tolerance is based on the capacity to maintain a sufficient level of arterial pressure (AP) during G load; therefore, we hypothesized that subjects with high G tolerance (H group) would have stronger arterial baroreflex responses compared to subjects with low G tolerance (L group). The carotid baroreflex was evaluated using the neck pressure method (NP), which assesses open-loop responses. Methods: The carotid baroreflex was tested in 16 subjects, n = 8 in the H and L group, respectively, in the supine and upright posture. Heart rate and AP were measured. Results: There were no differences between groups in the maximum slopes of the carotid baroreflex curves. However, the H group had a larger systolic and mean AP (SAP, MAP) increase to the initial hypotensive stimuli of the NP sequence in the upright position compared to the L group, 7.5 ± 6.6 vs 2.0 ± 2.4 and 4.1 ± 3.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.1 mmHg for SAP and MAP, respectively. Furthermore, the L group exhibited an increased latency between stimuli and response in AP in the upright compared to supine position, 4.1 ± 1.0 vs 3.1 ± 0.9 and 4.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.6 ± 0.9 s, for SAP and MAP. No differences in chronotropic responses were observed between the groups. Conclusions: It is concluded that the capacity for reflexive vasoconstriction and maintained speed of the vascular baroreflex during orthostatic stress are coupled to a higher relaxed GOR tolerance.

  • 48.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Rullman, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Effects of training with flow restriction on the exercise pressor reflex2018In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 1903-1909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized that 5 weeks of endurance training with blood flow restriction (R-training), providing relative ischemia and stimulation of the muscle chemoreflex, would decrease the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) when compared to training with the same workload in a free-flow condition (NR-training). 10 subjects performed one-leg knee-extension training four times a week during a 5-week period. Both legs were trained with identical workload, with one leg being trained during flow-restriction induced by lower body positive pressure. The EPR was assessed by measuring the increase in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during an isometric knee extension of 35% of max torque for 90 s, this was done before (C), and after training in each leg (R and NR, respectively). At the end of isometric contraction, the increase in mean AP (MAP) in the NR-trained leg and in the control condition were 41 +/- 4 and 38 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, whereas the increase in the R-trained leg was 30 +/- 4 mmHg (p < 0.05 R vs C and NR), corresponding to a decrease of about 25%. A similar patter was observed with respect to responses in HR, where the increase was 28 +/- 3 and 28 +/- 3 bpm in the NR and C, and 22 +/- 4 in the R condition (p < 0.05 R vs C and NR). Peripheral metabolic changes induced by relative ischemia are important in modifying the EPR in response to exercise training.

  • 49.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Spaak, J
    Linnarsson, D
    Cardiovascular responses to upright and supine exercise in humans after 6 weeks of head-down tilt (-6 degrees).2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 83, no 4-5, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven healthy men performed steady-state dynamic leg exercise at 50 W in supine and upright postures, before (control) and repeatedly after 42 days of strict head-down tilt (HDT) (-6 degrees) bedrest. Steady-state heart rate (fc), mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded. The following data changed significantly from control values. The fc was elevated in both postures at least until 12 days, but not at 32 days after bedrest. Immediately after HDT, SV and Qc were decreased by 25 (SEM 3)% and 19 (SEM 3)% in supine, and by 33 (SEM 5)% and 20 (SEM 3)% in upright postures, respectively. Within 2 days there was a partial recovery of SV in the upright but not in the supine posture. The SV and Qc during supine exercise remained significantly decreased for at least a month. Submaximal oxygen uptake did not change after HDT. We concluded that the cardiovascular response to exercise after prolonged bedrest was impaired for so long that it suggested that structural cardiac changes had developed during the HDT period.

  • 50.
    Sundblad, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology (Closed 20130701).
    Spaak, J
    Linnarsson, D
    Haemodynamic and baroreflex responses to whole-body tilting in exercising men before and after 6 weeks of bedrest.2000In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 82, no 5-6, p. 397-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We sought to determine whether the cardiovascular deconditioning that occurs in exercising men after prolonged (42 days) bedrest in the head-down tilt (HDT) position is primarily related to mechanical changes in the heart or to an impaired arterial-cardiacchronotropic baroreflex. Seven subjects were studied before (C, control) and repeatedly after HDT with rapid tilting between the upright and supine positions during steady-state 50-W dynamic leg exercise. Ventricular interdependence was assumed to be an index of cardiac size; it was assessed on the basis of the initial dip of arterial pulse pressure (PP) induced by a sudden tilt from the upright to the supine position (down-tilt). Arterialcardiac-chronotropic baroreflex sensitivity (ABS) was assessed as the ratio between tilt-induced heart rate transients and the preceding (and reciprocal) transient in arterial pressure. On the first day of recovery, the initial PP dip was -4 (2) mmHg (where 1 mmHg is 0.13 kPa), less than half of the control value; on subsequent recovery days, the initial PP dip was not significantly different from the control value. When tilting from the upright to the supine position, mean ABS ranged from 1.02 to 1.06 bpm/mmHg during three separate control sessions. Tilts in the opposite direction gave lower ABS values because of the more sluggish HR response and ranged from 0.43 to 0.45 bpm/mmHg in the control situations. ABS did not change after HDT. Our results indicate that impairments of the cardiovascular system after long-term bedrest are of haemodynamic rather than baroreflex origin.

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