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  • 1.
    Azari, Amin
    et al.
    Wireless Multimedia Communications Laboratory, Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, University of Tehran, Iran .
    Harsini, Jalil
    Lahouti, Farshad
    Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Routing in Heterogeneous Clustered Multi-hop Wireless Networks2015In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 80, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the performance of clustered decode-and-forward multi-hop relaying (CDFMR) wireless Rayleigh fading networks, and sheds light on their design principles for energy and spectral efficiency. The focus is on a general performance analysis (over all SNR range) of heterogeneous wireless networks with possibly different numbers of relays in clusters of various separations. For clustered multi-hop relaying systems, hop-by-hop routing is known as an efficient decentralized routing algorithm which selects the best relay node in each hop using local channel state information. In this article, we combine hop-by-hop routing and cooperative diversity in CDFMR systems, and we derive (i) a closed-form expression for the probability distribution of the end-to-end SNR at the destination node; (ii) the system symbol error rate (SER) performance for a wide class of modulation schemes; and (iii) exact analytical expressions for the system ergodic capacity, the outage probability and the achievable probability of the SNR (power) gain. We also provide simple analytical asymptotic expressions for SER and the outage probability in high SNR regime. Numerical results are provided to validate the correctness of the presented analyses.

  • 2. Cho, Jeong-woo
    et al.
    Cho, Dong-ho
    KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology).
    Dynamic Buffer Management Scheme Based on Rate Estimation in Packet-Switched Networks2002In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 769-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     While traffic volume of real-time applications is rapidly increasing, current routers do not guarantee minimum QoS values of fairness and drop packets in random fashion. If routers provide a minimum QoS, resulting less delays, more fairness, and smoother sending rates, TCP-friendly rate control (TFRC) can be adopted for real-time applications. We propose a dynamic buffer management scheme that meets the requirements described above, and can be applied to TCP flow and to data flow for transfer of real-time applications. The proposed scheme consists of a virtual threshold function, an accurate and stable per-flow rate estimation, a per-flow exponential drop probability, and a dropping strategy that guarantees fairness when there are many flows. Moreover, we introduce a practical definition of active flows to reduce the overhead coming from maintaining per-flow states. We discuss how proposed scheme motivates real-time applications to adopt TFRC.

  • 3.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Fodor, Viktória
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    On the effects of the packet size distribution on FEC performance2006In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1104-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For multimedia traffic like VBR video, knowledge of the average loss probability is not sufficient to determine the impact of loss on the perceived visual quality and on the possible ways of improving it, for example by forward error correction (FEC) and error concealment. In this paper we investigate how the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process, i.e., the probability of consecutive losses and the distribution of the number of packets lost in a block of packets and the related FEC performance. We present an exact mathematical model for the loss process of an MMPP + MMPP/Er/1/K queue and compare the results of the model to simulations performed with various other packet size distributions (PSDs), among others, the measured PSD from an Internet backbone. The results show that analytical models of the PSD matching the first three moments (mean, variance and skewness) of the empirical PSD can be used to evaluate the performance of FEC in real networks. We conclude that the exponential PSD, though it is not a worst case scenario, is a good approximation for the PSD of today's Internet to evaluate FEC performance. We also conclude that the packet size distribution affects the packet loss process and thus the efficiency of FEC mainly in access networks where a single multimedia stream might affect the multiplexing behavior. We evaluate how the PSD affects the accuracy of the widely used Gilbert model to calculate FEC performance and conclude that the Gilbert model can capture loss correlations better if the CoV of the PSD is high.

  • 4. Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Baucke, Stephan
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Tuning SCTP failover for carrier grade telephony signaling2010In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 133-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) has not only been selected as the signaling transport protocol of choice in IETF SIGTRAN, the architecture that bridges circuit-switched and IP-based mobile core networks, but also plays a pivotal role in SAE/LTE, the next-generation UMTS/HSPA networks. To meet the redundancy requirements of telecom signaling traffic, SCTP includes a failover mechanism that enables rerouting of traffic from an unreachable network path to a backup path. However, the recommendations provided by IETF on how to configure the SCTP failover mechanism to meet telecom signaling requirements are kept quite general and leave much of the tuning to the telecom equipment vendor and/or operator. Several works by us and others have been carried out to study the effect of different SCTP parameters on the failover performance. The main contribution of this paper is that it gives a coherent treatment of how to configure the SCTP failover mechanism for carrier-grade telephony signaling, and provides practically usable configuration recommendations. The paper also discusses an alternate or complementary way of optimizing the SCTP failover mechanism by relaxing the exponential backoff that foregoes a retransmission timeout in SCTP. Some results showing significantly reduced failover times by use of this mechanism, with only marginal deteriorating effects on a signaling network, are discussed and analyzed in the paper. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Fodor, Gabor
    et al.
    Telek, Miklós
    Koutsimanis, Chrysostomos
    Performance analysis of scheduling and interference coordination policies for OFDMA networks2008In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1252-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems there is an intimate relationship between the packet scheduler and the inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) functionalities: they determine the set of frequency channels (sub-carriers) that are used to carry the packets of in-progress sessions. In this paper we build on previous work - in which we compared the so called random and coordinated ICIC policies - and analyze three packet scheduling methods. The performance measures of interest are the session blocking probabilities and the overall throughput. We find that the performance of the so-called Fifty-Fifty and What-It-Wants scheduling policies is somewhat improved by coordinated sub-carrier allocation, especially in poor signal-to-noise-and-interference situations and at medium traffic load values. The performance of the All-Or-Nothing scheduler is practically insensitive to the choice of the sub-carrier allocation policy.

  • 6.
    Fu, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Intra-Domain Routing Convergence with Centralized Control2009In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 53, no 18, p. 2985-2996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decentralized control scheme for routing in current IP networks has been questioned, and a centralized routing scheme has been proposed as an alternative. In this paper, we compare the convergence of centralized control scheme with decentralized link-state routing protocols. We first review the architectural advantages and challenges of centralized control. Thereafter, we identify and discuss the components of the convergence time in both schemes. We present how to achieve fast routing convergence in networks with centralized control. in particular, we analyze how to distribute forwarding information efficiently. Finally, we perform simulation studies on the convergence time for both real and synthetic network topologies and study the impact of control element location, link weights, and number of failures on the convergence time. The results show that the centralized control scheme can provide faster routing convergence than link-state routing protocols.

  • 7. Gkatzikis, L.
    et al.
    Sourlas, V.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Koutsopoulos, I.
    Low complexity content replication through clustering in Content-Delivery Networks2017In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 121, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary Content Delivery Networks (CDN) handle a vast number of content items. At such a scale, the replication schemes require a significant amount of time to calculate and realize cache updates, and hence they are impractical in highly-dynamic environments. This paper introduces cluster-based replication, whereby content items are organized in clusters according to a set of features, given by the cache/network management entity. Each cluster is treated as a single item with certain attributes, e.g., size, popularity, etc. and it is then altogether replicated in network caches so as to minimize overall network traffic. Clustering items reduces replication complexity; hence it enables faster and more frequent caches updates, and it facilitates more accurate tracking of content popularity. However, clustering introduces some performance loss because replication of clusters is more coarse-grained compared to replication of individual items. This tradeoff can be addressed through proper selection of the number and composition of clusters. Due to the fact that the exact optimal number of clusters cannot be derived analytically, an efficient approximation method is proposed. Extensive numerical evaluations of time-varying content popularity scenarios allow to argue that the proposed approach reduces core network traffic, while being robust to errors in popularity estimation.

  • 8.
    Helgason, Ólafur
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Kouyoumdjieva, Sylvia T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Pajevic, Ljubica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Yavuz, Emre A.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A Middleware for Opportunistic Content Distribution2016In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a middleware architecture for a mobile peer-to-peer content distribution system. Our architecture allows wireless content dissemination between mobile nodes without relying on infrastructure support. In addition, it supports the dissemination of contents between the wireless ad-hoc domain and the wired Internet. In the ad-hoc domain, contents are exchanged opportunistically when nodes are within communication range. Applications access the service of our platform through a publish/subscribe interface and therefore do not have to deal with low-level opportunistic networking issues or matching and soliciting of contents. Our middleware consists of three key components. A content structure that facilitates dividing contents into logical topics and allows efficient matching of content lookups and downloading under sporadic node connectivity. A solicitation protocol that allows nodes to solicit content meta-information in order to discover contents available at a neighboring node and to download content entries disjointedly from different nodes. An API that allows applications to access the system services through a publish/subscribe interface. In this work we present the design and implementation of our middleware and describe a set of applications that use the services provided by our middleware. We also assess the performance of the system using our Android implementation as well as a simulation implementation for large-scale evaluation.

  • 9.
    Josilo, Sladana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Pacifici, Valentino
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dan, György
    Distributed algorithms for content placement in hierarchical cache networks2017In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 125, p. 160-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing popularity of mobile multimedia content and the increase of wireless access bitrates are straining backhaul capacity in mobile networks. A cost-effective solution to reduce the strain, enabled by emerging all-IP 4G and 5G mobile backhaul architectures, could be in-network caching of popular content during times of peak demand. Motivated by the potential benefits of caching in mobile backhaul networks, in this paper we formulate the problem of content placement in a hierarchical cache network as a binary integer programming problem. We provide a polynomial time solution when the link costs are induced by a potential and we propose a 2-approximation algorithm for the general case. The 2-approximation requires full information about the network topology and the link costs, as well as about the content demands at the different caches, we thus propose two distributed algorithms that are based on limited information on the content demands. We show that the distributed algorithms terminate in a finite number of steps, and we provide analytical results on their approximation ratios. We use simulations to evaluate the proposed algorithms in terms of the achieved approximation ratio and computational complexity on hierarchical cache network topologies as a model of mobile backhaul networks.

  • 10. Kuzniar, Maciej
    et al.
    Peresini, Peter
    Kostic, Dejan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Canini, Marco
    KAUST.
    Methodology, Measurement and Analysis of Flow Table Update Characteristics in Hardware OpenFlow Switches2018In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) and OpenFlow are actively being standardized and deployed. These deployments rely on switches that come from various vendors and differ in terms of performance and available features. Understanding these differences and performance characteristics is essential for ensuring successful and safe deployments.

    We propose a systematic methodology for SDN switch performance analysis and devise a series of experiments based on this methodology. The methodology relies on sending a stream of rule updates, while relying on both observing the control plane view as reported by the switch and probing the data plane state to determine switch characteristics by comparing these views. We measure, report and explain the performance characteristics of flow table updates in six hardware OpenFlow switches. Our results describing rule update rates can help SDN designers make their controllers efficient. Further, we also highlight differences between the OpenFlow specification and its implementations, that if ignored, pose a serious threat to network security and correctness.

  • 11.
    Lee, Hyang-Won
    et al.
    KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology).
    Cho, Jeong-woo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Chong, Song
    KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology).
    Distributed Max-Min Flow Control for Multi-rate Overlay Multicast2010In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 1727-1738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a distributed algorithm to compute bandwidth max-min fair rates in an overlay multicast network supporting multi-rate data delivery. The proposed algorithm is scalable in that it does not require each logical link to maintain the saturation status of all sessions and virtual sessions traveling through it, stable in that it converges asymptotically to the desired equilibrium satisfying the minimum plus max-min fairness even in the presence of heterogeneous round-trip delays, and has explicit link buffer control in that the buffer occupancy of every bottlenecked link in the network asymptotically converges to the pre-defined value. The algorithm is based on PI (proportional integral) control in the feedback control theory and by appealing to the Nyquist stability criterion, a usable stability condition is derived in the presence of sources with heterogeneous round-trip delays. In addition, we propose an efficient feedback consolidation algorithm which is computationally simpler than its hard-synchronization based counterpart and eliminates unnecessary consolidation delay by preventing it from awaiting backward control packets that do not directly contribute to the session rate. Through simulations we further verify the analytical results and the performance of the proposed multi-rate multicast flow control scheme based on these two algorithms.

  • 12.
    Más, Ignacio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Probe-based Admission Control for a Differentiated-Services Internet2007In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 51, no 13, p. 3902-3918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    End-point admission control solutions have been proposed to meet quality requirements of audio-visual applications with little support from routers. These proposals decentralize the admission decision by requiring each host or access gateway to probe the network before sending data. In this paper we describe a probe-based admission control scheme that offers a reliable upper bound on packet loss, as well as small end-to-end delay and delay jitter. The admission control supports host mobility and multicast communications without adding any complexity to the network nodes. We present a mathematical analysis which relates system performance to design parameters and which can be used as a dimensioning aid for the system. Finally, we describe performance results from an experimental prototype as well as simulations that prove that the scheme provides a reliable and efficient solution for QoS provisioning for delay and loss sensitive applications.

  • 13.
    Peresini, Peter
    et al.
    EPFL.
    Kuzniar, Maciej
    EPFL.
    Canini, Marco
    UCLouvain.
    Venzano, Daniele
    EURECOM.
    Kostic, Dejan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Rexford, Jennier
    Princeton University.
    Systematically Testing OpenFlow Controller Applications2015In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of OpenFlow-capable switches enables exciting new network functionality, at the risk of programming errors that make communication less reliable. The centralized programming model, where a single controller program manages the network, seems to reduce the likelihood of bugs. However, the system is inherently distributed and asynchronous, with events happening at different switches and end hosts, and inevitable delays affecting communication with the controller. In this paper, we present efficient, systematic techniques for testing unmodified controller programs. Our NICE tool applies model checking to explore the state space of the entire system—the controller, the switches, and the hosts. Scalability is the main challenge, given the diversity of data packets, the large system state, and the many possible event orderings. To address this, we propose a novel way to augment model checking with symbolic execution of event handlers (to identify representative packets that exercise code paths on the controller). We also present a simplified OpenFlow switch model (to reduce the state space), and effective strategies for generating event interleavings likely to uncover bugs. Our prototype tests Python applications on the popular NOX platform. In testing three real applications—a MAC-learning switch, in-network server load balancing, and energy-efficient traffic engineering—we uncover thirteen bugs

  • 14.
    Petreska, Neda
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Inst Embedded Syst & Commun Technol ES, Munich, Germany..
    Al-Zubaidy, Hussein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Knorr, Rudi
    Fraunhofer Inst Embedded Syst & Commun Technol ES, Munich, Germany..
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Bound-based power optimization for multi-hop heterogeneous wireless industrial networks under statistical delay constraints2019In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, p. 262-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The noticeably increased deployment of wireless networks for battery-limited industrial applications in recent years highlights the need for tractable performance analysis methodologies as well as efficient QoS-aware transmit power management schemes. In this work, we seek to combine several important aspects of such networks, i.e., multi-hop connectivity, channel heterogeneity and the queuing effect, in order to address these needs. We design delay-bound-based algorithms for transmit power minimization and network lifetime maximization of multi-hop heterogeneous wireless networks using our previously developed stochastic network calculus approach for performance analysis of a cascade of buffered wireless fading channels. Our analysis shows an overall transmit power saving of up to 95% compared to a fixed power allocation scheme in case when the service is modeled via a Shannon capacity. For a more realistic set-up, we evaluate the performance of the suggested algorithm in a WirelessHART network, which is a widely used communication standard for industrial process automation applications. We find that link heterogeneity can significantly reduce network lifetime when no efficient power management is applied. Using extensive simulation study we further show that the proposed bound-based power allocation performs reasonably well compared to the real optimum, especially in the case of WirelessHART networks.

  • 15. Raffaelli, Carla
    et al.
    Vlachos, Kyriakos
    Andriolli, Nicola
    Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios
    Buron, Jakob
    van Caenegem, Ruth
    Danilewicz, Grzegorz
    Finochietto, Jorge M.
    Garcia-Haro, Joan
    Klonidis, Dimitrios
    O'Mahony, Mike
    Maier, Guido
    Pattavina, Achille
    Pavon-Marino, Pablo
    Ruepp, Sarah
    Savi, Michele
    Scaffardi, Mirco
    Tomkos, Ioannis
    Tzanakaki, Anna
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Zouraraki, Olga
    Neri, Fabio
    Photonics in switching: Architectures, systems and enabling technologies2008In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1873-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the Virtual Department on Switching (VDS) of the European e-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence. Contributions from outstanding European research groups in this field are collected to offer a platform for future research in optical switching. The paper contains the main topics related to network scenarios, switch architectures and experiments, with an effort to investigate synergies and challenging opportunities for collaboration and integration of research expertise in the field.

  • 16.
    Wuhib, Fetahi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dam, Mads
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Stadler, Rolf
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Decentralized detection of global threshold crossings using aggregation trees2008In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1745-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timely detection that a monitored variable has crossed a given threshold is a fundamental requirement for many network management applications. A challenge is the detection of threshold crossing of network-wide variables, which are computed from device counters across the network, using aggregation functions such as SUM, MAX and AVERAGE. This paper contains a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of TCA-GAP, a protocol for detecting threshold crossings of network-wide aggregates in a distributed way. Elements of its design include tree-based incremental aggregation for estimating the value of aggregates, a local hysteresis mechanism to reduce overhead and dynamic recomputation of local thresholds to ensure correctness. The protocol is evaluated through extensive simulation using real traces in scenarios with network sizes up to 5232 nodes. From the measurements, we conclude that the protocol is efficient in the sense that the overhead is negligible when the aggregate is far from the threshold. It is scalable as the protocol overhead is independent of the system size for the network sizes and scenario configurations considered. We demonstrate that the local hysteresis parameter can be used to control the tradeoff between protocol overhead and detection delay. We further report on results on how node failures impact overhead and detection quality of the protocol.

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