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  • 1. Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Design versus design - From the shaping of products to the creation of user experiences2003In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of design in the context of human-computer interaction is discussed based,on definitions from industrial design to the very practical problem of achieving usability in industrial projects in practice. Design is an important quality of a product that today has not been receiving enough attention when it comes to computerized artifacts. Design is also a process of creating the user's experience of a system. This article focuses more on design as a creative process of communication than on a posteriori product quality aspects. The Scandinavian tradition has stressed the importance of users participating actively in a user-centered design process. The article defines and discusses user-centered design in light of the theories of communication as put forth by Herbert Clark (1996). Communication is identified as one of the, key issues that needs to be addressed to achieve well-functioning user-centered design. The article discusses different terminology and gives examples from a theory on common ground. Finally, mock-ups, prototypes, and video are discussed as tools for facilitating communication and construction of common ground.

  • 2.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Lif, Magnus
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Lind, Mats
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Analysis of Information Utilization (AIU)1997In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 255-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of information utilization (AIU) is a method for describing and analyzing how information entities identified in information analysis are being used in the work situation. AIU aims at complementing existing methods for user interface design by identifying additional requirements for human-computer interaction. The method focuses on aspects, of computer-supported work, related to cognitive load, aspects of which end users often not are explicitly aware. For skilled workers in a professional work environment, the efficiency of the user interface is extremely important. We earlier stressed that important criteria for design of user interfaces deals with making the interface "obvious" to the users, by minimizing the cognitive load associated with the handling of it. AIU is performed through observation interviews in which human-computer experts interview representative users about their work situation and observe physical information-handling routines. The analysis identifies work tasks in terms of judgments and decision-making situations, requirements concerning the tasks that may have to be performed simultaneously, important features and priorities of the information, actions the user can initiate and so on. The method supports the interface designer with human-computer interaction requirements structured for a workspace-oriented design. It is integrated in user-centered development model and supports the simultaneous development of competence, organization, work activity, and information technology. This article describes the background and contents of the method and how the results of the analysis are documented and used in the design process. A number of application projects have shown that AIU makes it possible to capture aspects of human work and information processing that are important to the design of better interfaces. AIU is not a new method for system development but complements today methods for task and information analysis with more...

  • 3.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Domain specific design of user interfaces1995In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 135-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of graphical user interfaces in a computerized work environment is often considered to substantially improve the work situation. The outcome can, however, often be the opposite. Inappropriate use of windowing techniques, scrolling, and colors can result in tedious and confusing interaction with the computer. Today's standards and style guides define basic design principles but are insufficient for design of interfaces to end‐user applications. Here detailed domain knowledge is indeed essential. A domain‐specific style guide (DSSG) is an extension of today's standard with domain‐specific primitives, interface elements, and forms, together with domain‐specific guidelines. Careful dedicated analysis of information utilization in a domain is the development basis for a DSSG. The development is performed with an object‐oriented approach to facilitate the reuse of interface components and to support consistency and structure. Using a DSSG, the development of applications can be performed with a simplified information analysis. Therefore a more effective design process is possible, one in which end users can participate in the design using their own familiar domain‐related terminology. Time and costs for the development process can be drastically reduced if domain‐specific style guides, design guidelines, and development tools are used.

  • 4. Junestrand, S
    et al.
    Molin, G
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Keijer, U
    User study of video-mediated communication in the domestic environment with intellectually disabled persons2003In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 15, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A user study of video-mediated communication (VMC) involving six persons with mild intellectual disability is presented. It took place at comHOME, a full-scale model of an apartment of the future, showing innovative architectural and technical designs with regard to the integration of VMC into the domestic environment. Two different zones for VMC, comZONES, in the apartment, were tested, the videoTORSO (a large-screen set-tip for informal everyday,communication) and the workPLACE (a place for professional work tasks). The: purpose of the study was to get a deeper understanding of how people use these comZONES. The final discussion points out that the comZONES seem to be interpreted correctly and to function aptly in relation to the participants, in the study. An assumed explanation is that spatial recognition is a very fundamental human function and thus less significant with regard to the mental capacity of the individual.

  • 5. Junestrand, S.
    et al.
    Molin, G.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    Keijer, Ulf
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Architecture.
    User study of video-mediated communication in the domestic environment with intellectually disabled persons2003In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A user study of video-mediated communication (VMC) involving six persons with mild intellectual disability is presented. It took place at comHOME, a full-scale model of an apartment of the future, showing innovative architectural and technical designs with regard to the integration of VMC into the domestic environment. Two different zones for VMC, comZONES, in the apartment, were tested, the videoTORSO (a large-screen set-tip for informal everyday,communication) and the workPLACE (a place for professional work tasks). The: purpose of the study was to get a deeper understanding of how people use these comZONES. The final discussion points out that the comZONES seem to be interpreted correctly and to function aptly in relation to the participants, in the study. An assumed explanation is that spatial recognition is a very fundamental human function and thus less significant with regard to the mental capacity of the individual.

  • 6.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Does the use of E-mail change over time?2003In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 419-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many empirical studies of the use of e-mail have been performed, but longitudinal studies are not common. In this article a longitudinal study is presented, with data collected during 1994,1995, and 1998. The research question was as follows: How does the use of e-mail change over time concerning problems experienced with e-mail, the flow of messages, and time to handle mail (i.e., to send and receive a response)? Results show that the flow of messages was stable (sent mail per day) or doubled (received messages per day). Time to handle mail was stable over the 5 years, but the experienced amount of time to handle mail changed from not being sufficient to sometimes sufficient depending on the total work situation. Experienced problems with e-mail decreased during the 5-year study period. The time for respondents to reply to a message changed during this period from immediately to in a day or even a week. Respondents accepted not receiving replies to their own messages, but they used strategies to get answers to the most important messages.

  • 7.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
    Heavy Users of Electronic Mail1998In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 361-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted using a questionnaire and interviews concerning how electronic mail (E-mail) is used as a work tool for communication. The questionnaire, distributed electronically within a large organization, showed that employees sending and receiving large numbers of E-mail messages are not the same employees having problems handling E-mail. Managers seem to have problems to a larger extent than members of other workgroups. Interviews were then conducted with 10 employees selected by strata from the questionnaire study. Strata were based on the variables of job category, number of E-mail messages sent and received per day, and E-mail handling problems. The interviews showed that, although employees continually entered the E-mail program, they did not see this action as disruptive of other work activities; instead, they saw it as having a positive effect. E-mail handling problems correlated with the number of messages stored in the inbox (.72). Employees felt a shortage of time for handling E-mail and gave examples of communication problems. Regardless of the number of messages in the inbox and whether employees felt a time shortage, employees had difficulty organizing stored messages within folders and catalogues.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    Uppsala Universitet.
    A Corporate Style Guide That Includes Domain Knowledge1999In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 317-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different professions adopt their own language such that the semantics involve elements very specific to their domain. System developers approaching users in a new domain often experience initial difficulties when trying to understand these semantics and associated work practices. Although most software developers also lack knowledge of human-computer interaction (HCI), means of transferring domain and HCI knowledge to developers in a convenient form are needed. A domain-specific style guide could be a worthy framework for the development of a high-level structure of interface elements and guidelines, including domain knowledge. Such a style guide is suggested as a practical form for packaging domain and HCI knowledge to aid developers. Anticipated benefits are enhanced application quality, usability, efficiency, and acceptance as the communication among software developers and intended users improves. The speed of application development could also increase.

    This article summarizes a project in which a medical style guide was developed and describes in more detail the work procedure utilized in the development of a corporate style guide for the tax-handling domain. Finally, suggestions on style guide development conditions are presented based on experiences from the establishment of the style guide in an organization

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