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  • 1.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Including second order effects in environmental assessments of ICT2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can have both negative and positive impacts on the environment. Immediate negative environmental impacts arise due to the production, use and disposal of ICT products, while positive effects can arise because ICT products and services replace other products. Other, more indirect consequences of introducing new technologies include e.g. that money saved by reducing costs due to ICT-induced energy efficiency, is being used in consumption of other goods and services that also need energy in their production. Such effects are examined within different disciplines under headings such as rebound effects, indirect effects, second order effects and ripple effects. This paper presents a review and discussion of different second order effects that can be linked to ICT usage in general, using e-commerce as an example. This is a first necessary step in developing methods which include second order effects when analysing the environmental impacts of ICT.

  • 2. Carlsen, H.
    et al.
    Lempert, R.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Schweizer, V.
    Choosing small sets of policy-relevant scenarios by combining vulnerability and diversity approaches2016In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 84, p. 155-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulation models can generate large numbers of scenarios, far more than can be effectively utilized in most decision support applications. How can one best select a small number of scenarios to consider? One approach calls for choosing scenarios that illuminate vulnerabilities of proposed policies. Another calls for choosing scenarios that span a diverse range of futures. This paper joins these two approaches for the first time, proposing an optimization-based method for choosing a small number of relevant scenarios that combine both vulnerability and diversity. The paper applies the method to a real case involving climate resilient infrastructure for three African river basins (Volta, Orange and Zambezi). Introducing selection criteria in a stepwise manner helps examine how different criteria influence the choice of scenarios. The results suggest that combining vulnerability- and diversity-based criteria can provide a systematic and transparent method for scenario selection.

  • 3.
    Frostell, Björn M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Modeling both direct and indirect environmental load of purchase decisions: a web-based tool addressing household metabolism2015In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 71, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer awareness is continuously increasing towards pro-environmental behavior. Thus, we developed a web-based environmental feedback tool EcoRunner, which is designed for Swedish households aiming at increasing the awareness in a more pro-environmental direction. The conceptual model of EcoRunner has been developed based on top-down and bottom-up approaches connecting economic activities within a household to environmental pressures (both direct and indirect). In addition, the development of the tool includes a multi-level model aiming at better tailor-made advice to consumers. In this paper, we examine the EcoRunner tool with average single Swedish household expenditures as well as explore options for reductions and systems effects. Analysis shows that food and non-alcoholic beverages, fuel for personal transport (e.g. car) and air transports have significant environmental pressures. In addition, this study suggests that EcoRunner could be used in education systems as an environmental feedback tool to enlighten consumers motivation and change consumption patterns.

  • 4.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Aebischer, Bernard
    Rizzoli, Andrea E.
    Modeling and evaluating the sustainability of smart solutions2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart technologies provide diverse and promising opportunities to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions; they are increasingly expected to shift modern societies' patterns of production and consumption towards sustainability. However, the existence of a theoretical potential does not imply that every smart solution (application of a smart technology) will contribute to sustainability. Policy-makers are therefore in need of methodologies to evaluate the sustainability of smart solutions. This paper gives an overview of the current discussion in the field and the emerging methodological challenges. The challenges of assessing the direct impact of the ICT components and infrastructures are special cases of known issues in life cycle assessment methodology. The challenges of assessing indirect impacts are inherently interdisciplinary and call for integrated modelling approaches. The last two sections provide an overview of the papers assembled in this thematic issue that treat specific cases and general principles of modeling and evaluating the sustainability of smart solutions.

  • 5.
    Hischier, Roland
    et al.
    Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland).
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland).
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); University of Zürich, Department of Informatics, Zürich (Switzerland).
    Evaluating the sustainability of electronic media: Strategies for life cycle inventory data collection and their implications for LCA results2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies independently carried out to assess the environmental impacts of electronic versus print media. Although the two studies lead to the same overall conclusion for the case of a news magazine namely that the tablet version of the magazine has environmental advantages over the print version there are significant differences in the details of the LCA results. We show how these differences can be explained by differences in the methodological approaches used for life cycle inventory (LCI) modelling, in particular the use of rough average data versus the attempt to use the most specific and detailed data as possible. We conclude that there are several issues in LCA practice (at least when applied in the domain of media) that can significantly influence the results already at the LCI level: The data collection strategy used (e.g. relying on desk-based research or dismantling a given device) and the decisions made at inventory level with regard to parameters with significant geographic variability, such as the electricity mix or recycling quotas.

  • 6.
    Jansson, Per-Erik.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Moon, D. S.
    A coupled model of water, heat and mass transfer using object orientation to improve flexibility and functionality2001In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of our software development is to introduce user-friendly document-orientation and graphical features that are typical in Windows software and to retain the possibility of easily extending existing legacy Fortran code. Keys to this development were the use of five development tools and our special management of shared memory. Numerical development of the code was thus continued in Fortran while the newly introduced multiple-document interface allows the new graphical features that are considered more user friendly (e.g. tool bar, status bar, animation, etc.) can be further refined and adjusted using Visual C++6.0 and the MS Visual Studio. Object orientation makes it possible to include modules with different type of dependencies that restrict the user interface to the specific use of the model. A large number of sub-models are combined and all input/output data have been adapted to an object-oriented standard. Multiple-run features and built-in links to a common database are new important features.

  • 7.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Designing next generation multimodal traveler information systems to support sustainability-oriented decisions2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores functionality that could be included in the next generation multimodal travel information system to support sustainability-oriented decisions. It identifies situations in the journey's three phases, pre-, on- and post-trip that have the potential to change travel patterns and also transport choices that the individual makes in order to perform activities in their daily life. Requirements on a traveler information system were derived from these situations and choices. The identified requirements are then transferred into functionalities in a travel information system that has potentials to encourage decisions that could lead to lower energy usage. Nine traveler information systems for multimodal and public transport travel are systematically investigated to find out if they include the proposed functionality. The investigated systems are in operation primarily in Sweden, Germany, the UK and one has global coverage. The investigation results in a discussion about future opportunities with proposal to encourage sustainability oriented travel decisions in the next generation travel information system.

  • 8.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lövehagen, Nina
    Ericsson.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Smart sustainable cities - Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the opportunities of using ICT as an enabling technology to reduce energy use in cities. An analytical framework is developed in which a typology of ICT opportunities is combined with a typology of household functions, i.e. all the activities that require energy. The energy used for household functions is calculated using a consumption-based lifecycle perspective. The analytical framework is intended to be of use to researchers, city and regional authorities and ICT companies interested in acquiring a better understanding of how ICT investments could contribute to reduce energy use in cities.

  • 9. Palosuo, T.
    et al.
    Foereid, B.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Shurpali, N.
    Lehtonen, A.
    Herbst, M.
    Linkosalo, T.
    Ortiz, C.
    Rampazzo Todorovic, G.
    Marcinkonis, S.
    Li, C.
    Jandl, R.
    A multi-model comparison of soil carbon assessment of a coniferous forest stand2012In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 35, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulated soil carbon stock dynamics of an Austrian coniferous forest stand with five soil-only models (Q, ROMUL, RothC, SoilCO2/RothC and Yasso07) and three plant-soil models (CENTURY, CoupModel and Forest-DNDC) for an 18-year period and the decomposition of a litter pulse over a 100-year period. The objectives of the study were to assess the consistency in soil carbon estimates applying a multi-model comparison and to present and discuss the sources of uncertainties that create the differences in model results. Additionally, we discuss the applicability of different modelling approaches from the view point of large-scale carbon assessments. Our simulation results showed a wide range in soil carbon stocks and stock change estimates reflecting substantial uncertainties in model estimates. The measured stock change estimate decreased much more than the model predictions. Model results varied not only due to the model structure and applied parameters, but also due to different input information and assumptions applied during the modelling processes. Initialization procedures applied with the models induced large differences among the modelled soil carbon stocks and stock change estimates. Decomposition estimates of the litter pulse driven by model structures and parameters also varied considerably. Our results support the use of relatively simple soil-only models with low data requirements in inventory type of large-scale carbon assessments. It is important that the modelling processes within the national inventories are transparently reported and special emphasis is put on how the models are used, which assumptions are applied and what is the quality of data used both as input and to calibrate the models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 10. Senapati, N.
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Smith, P.
    Chabbi, A.
    Modelling heat, water and carbon fluxes in mown grassland under multi-objective and multi-criteria constraints2016In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 80, p. 201-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Monte Carlo-based calibration and uncertainty assessment was performed for heat, water and carbon (C) fluxes, simulated by a soil-plant-atmosphere system model (CoupModel), in mown grassland. Impact of different multi-objective and multi-criteria constraints was investigated on model performance and parameter behaviour. Good agreements between hourly modelled and measurement data were obtained for latent and sensible heat fluxes (R2 = 0.61, ME = 0.48 MJ m-2 day-1), soil water contents (R2 = 0.68, ME = 0.34%) and carbon-dioxide flux (R2 = 0.60, ME = -0.18 g C m-2 day-1). Multi-objective and multi-criteria constraints were efficient in parameter conditioning, reducing simulation uncertainty and identifying critical parameters. Enforcing multi-constraints separately on heat, water and C processes resulted in the highest model improvement for that specific process, including some improvement too for other processes. Imposing multi-constraints on all groups of variables, associated with heat, water and C fluxes together, resulted in general effective parameters conditioning and model improvement.

  • 11. van der Harst, Eugenie
    et al.
    Potting, Josepha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Variation in LCA results for disposable polystyrene beverage cups due to multiple data sets and modelling choices2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 51, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of the same products often result in different, sometimes even contradictory outcomes. Reasons for these differences include using different data sets and deviating modelling choices. This paper purposely used different data sets and modelling choices to identify how these differences propagated in LCA results. Vehicle for this methodological exploration was an LCA case study of a typical polystyrene (PS) disposable cup. An initial LCA of PS cups was made using only one data set per process. Contribution and sensitivity analysis identified those processes with influential contribution to the overall environmental impact. Next additional data sets were acquired for all influential processes. The spread in impact results for each life cycle process was calculated after impact assessment for each individual inventory data set as to preserve the correlation between inventory data within each individual data set. The spread in impact results reflects uncertainty existing between different data sets for the same process and due to modelling choices. The influence on overall LCA results was quantified by systematically applying all combinations of data sets and modelling choices. Results from the different data sets and modelling choices systematically point to the same processes as main contributors to all impact categories (PS production, cup manufacturing, PS incineration and PS recycling). The spread in toxicity indicators exceeds the energy-related impact categories. Causes of spread are resources and energy used (type, amount, date and origin), reported emissions, and applied allocation procedures. Average LCA results show slight preference for recycling PS compared to incineration in most impact categories. Overlapping spread in results of the two waste treatments, however, does not support the preference for recycling. The approach in this paper showed how variation in data sets and modelling choices propagates in LCA outcomes. This is especially useful for generic LCAs as systematic use of multiple data sets and multiple modelling choices increases the insight in relative contributions of processes to, and uncertainty in the overall LCA. These results might be less easy to perceive, but they provide decision makers with more robust information.

  • 12. Zulkafli, Zed
    et al.
    Perez, Katya
    Vitolo, Claudia
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Dewulf, Art
    De Bièvre, Bert
    Clark, Julian
    Hannah, David M.
    Shaheed, Simrita
    User-driven design of decision support systems for polycentric environmental resources management2017In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 88, p. 58-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and decentralized technologies such as the Internet provide increasing opportunities to create knowledge and deliver computer-based decision support for multiple types of users across scales. However, environmental decision support systems/tools (henceforth EDSS) are often strongly science-driven and assuming single types of decision makers, and hence poorly suited for more decentralized and polycentric decision making contexts. In such contexts, EDSS need to be tailored to meet diverse user requirements to ensure that it provides useful (relevant), usable (intuitive), and exchangeable (institutionally unobstructed) information for decision support for different types of actors. To address these issues, we present a participatory framework for designing EDSS that emphasizes a more complete understanding of the decision making structures and iterative design of the user interface. We illustrate the application of the framework through a case study within the context of water-stressed upstream/downstream communities in Lima, Peru.

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