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  • 1.
    Carlmark, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Hawker, Craig J.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    New methodologies in the construction of dendritic materials2009Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 352-362Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic polymers are highly branched polymer structures, with complex, secondary architectures and well-defined spatial location of functional groups. Due to their unique physical and chemical features, applications in areas such as targeted drug-delivery, macromolecular carriers, catalysis, sensors, light harvesting, surface engineering and biomimetic materials have been proposed. However, only a few dendritic materials have been exploited commercially due to time consuming syntheses and the generation of significant waste/presence of unreacted starting materials. This tutorial review describes traditional synthesis of dendritic materials as well as recent advances in synthetic strategies, for example the use of Click chemistry, as a tool to efficiently obtain complex, functional dendritic structures.

  • 2.
    Carlmark, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Dendritic architectures based on bis-MPA: functional polymeric scaffolds for application-driven research2013Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 42, nr 13, s. 5858-5879Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic polymers are highly branched, globular architectures with multiple representations of functional groups. These nanoscale organic frameworks continue to fascinate researchers worldwide and are today under intensive investigation in application-driven research. A large number of potential application areas have been suggested for dendritic polymers, including theranostics, biosensors, optics, adhesives and coatings. The transition from potential to real applications is strongly dictated by their commercial accessibility, scaffolding ability as well as biocompatibility. A dendritic family that fulfills these requirements is based on the 2,2-bismethylolpropionic acid (bis-MPA) monomer. This critical review is the first of its kind to cover most of the research activities generated on aliphatic polyester dendritic architectures based on bis-MPA. It is apparent that these scaffolds will continue to be in the forefront of cutting-edge research as their structural variations are endless including dendrons, dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, dendritic-linear hybrids and their hybridization with inorganic surfaces.

  • 3. Chen, Guanying
    et al.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi.
    Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.
    Prasad, Paras N.
    Light upconverting core-shell nanostructures: nanophotonic control for emerging applications2015Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 1680-1713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Light upconverting nanostructures employing lanthanide ions constitute an emerging research field recognized with wide ramifications and impact in many areas ranging from healthcare, to energy and, to security. The core-shell design of these nanostructures allows us to deliberately introduce a hierarchy of electronic energy states, thus providing unprecedented opportunities to manipulate the electronic excitation, energy transfer and upconverted emissions. The core-shell morphology also causes the suppression of quenching mechanisms to produce efficient upconversion emission for biophotonic and photonic applications. Using hierarchical architect, whereby each shell layer can be defined to have a specific feature, the electronic structure as well as the physiochemical structure of the upconverting nanomaterials can be tuned to couple other electronic states on the surface such as excitations of organic dye molecules or localized surface plasmons from metallic nanostructures, or to introduce a broad range of imaging or therapeutic modalities into a single conduct. In this review, we summarize the key aspects of nanophotonic control of the light upconverting nanoparticles through governed design and preparation of hierarchical shells in the core-shell nanostructures, and review their emerging applications in the biomedical field, solar energy conversion, as well as security encoding.

  • 4.
    Kärkäs, Markus D.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Organisk kemi.
    Electrochemical strategies for C-H functionalization and C-N bond formation2018Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 5786-5865Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional methods for carrying out carbon-hydrogen functionalization and carbon-nitrogen bond formation are typically conducted at elevated temperatures, and rely on expensive catalysts as well as the use of stoichiometric, and perhaps toxic, oxidants. In this regard, electrochemical synthesis has recently been recognized as a sustainable and scalable strategy for the construction of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Here, electrosynthesis has proven to be an environmentally benign, highly effective and versatile platform for achieving a wide range of nonclassical bond disconnections via generation of radical intermediates under mild reaction conditions. This review provides an overview on the use of anodic electrochemical methods for expediting the development of carbon-hydrogen functionalization and carbon-nitrogen bond formation strategies. Emphasis is placed on methodology development and mechanistic insight and aims to provide inspiration for future synthetic applications in the field of electrosynthesis.

  • 5. Sun, Licheng C.
    et al.
    Hammarstrom, L.
    Akermark, B.
    Styring, S.
    Towards artificial photosynthesis: ruthenium-manganese chemistry for energy production2001Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 36-49Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and characterisation of supramolecular model systems mimicking the light reactions on the donor side of Photosystem II (PSII) in green plants have been reviewed. In these systems, manganese complexes and tyrosine are electron donors, modelling the manganese cluster and tyrosine(Z) in PSII. The donors have been covalently linked to a photosensitizer, a ruthenium(ii) tris-bipyridyl complex, that plays the role of the P-680 chlorophylls in PSII. It has been demonstrated that, in the presence of an external electron acceptor in solution, the model systems can undergo an intermolecular electron transfer from the photoexcited state of Ru-II to an acceptor, followed by an intramolecular electron transfer from the coordinated Mn complexes or the tyrosine unit to the photogenerated Ru-III. This leads to regeneration of the Ru-II and oxidation of the Mn complexes or generation of a tyrosine radical. The process closely mimics the primary reaction steps on the donor side of PSII.

  • 6.
    Walter, Marie V.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Simplifying the synthesis of dendrimers: accelerated approaches2012Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 41, nr 13, s. 4593-4609Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendrimers are highly branched and monodisperse macromolecules that display an exact and large number of functional groups distributed with unprecedented control on the dendritic framework. Based on their globular structure, compared to linear polymers of the same molecular weight, dendrimers are foreseen to deliver extraordinary features for applications in areas such as cancer therapy, biosensors for diagnostics and light harvesting scaffolds. Of the large number of reports on dendrimer synthesis only a few have reached commercial availability. This limitation can be traced back to challenges in the synthetic paths including a large number of reaction steps required to obtain dendritic structures with desired features. Along with an increased number of reaction steps come not only increased waste of chemical and valuable starting materials but also an increased probability to introduce structural defects in the dendritic framework. This tutorial review briefly covers traditional growth approaches to dendrimers and mainly highlights accelerated approaches to dendrimers. A special focus capitalizes on the impact of the click chemistry concept on dendrimer synthesis and the promise it has to successfully accomplish highly sophisticated dendrimers, both traditional as well as heterofunctional, in a minimum number of chemical steps. It is clear that accelerated synthetic approaches are of greatest importance as these will encourage the scientific community to synthesize and access dendrimers for specific applications. The final goal of accelerated synthesis is to deliver economically justified dendritic materials for future applications without compromising the environmental perspective.

  • 7. Wang, Xindong
    et al.
    Valiev, Rashid R.
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi. Tomsk State Univ, Russia.
    Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Teoretisk kemi och biologi. Harbin Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Chunhui
    Chen, Guanying
    Dye-sensitized lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles2017Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 46, nr 14, s. 4150-4167Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising for applications as wide as biological imaging, multimodal imaging, photodynamic therapy, volumetric displays, and solar cells. Yet, the weak and narrow absorption of lanthanide ions poses a fundamental limit of UCNPs to withhold their brightness, creating a long-standing hurdle for the field. Dye-sensitized UCNPs are emerging to address this performance-limiting problem, yielding up to thousands-fold brighter luminescence than conventional UCNPs without dye sensitization. In their configuration, organic dyes with spectrally broad and intense absorption are anchored to the surface of UCNPs to harvest the excitation light energy, which is then transferred via Forster and/or Dexter mechanisms across the organic/inorganic interface to the lanthanides incorporated in UCNPs (with or devoid of a shell) to empower efficient upconversion. This tutorial review highlights recent progress in the development of dye sensitized UCNPs, with an emphasis on the theory of energy transfer, the geometric classification of the dye sensitized core and core/shell nanocrystals, and their emerging photonic and biophotonic applications. Opportunities and challenges offered by dye sensitized UCNPs are also discussed.

  • 8.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi.
    Artificial photosynthesis: opportunities and challenges of molecular catalysts2019Inngår i: Chemical Society Reviews, ISSN 0306-0012, E-ISSN 1460-4744, Vol. 48, nr 7, s. 2216-2264Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular catalysis plays an essential role in both natural and artificial photosynthesis (AP). However, the field of molecular catalysis for AP has gradually declined in recent years because of doubt about the long-term stability of molecular-catalyst-based devices. This review summarizes the development history of molecular-catalyst-based AP, including the fundamentals of AP, molecular catalysts for water oxidation, proton reduction and CO2 reduction, and molecular-catalyst-based AP devices, and it provides an analysis of the advantages, challenges, and stability of molecular catalysts. With this review, we aim to highlight the following points: (i) an investigation on molecular catalysis is one of the most promising ways to obtain atom-efficient catalysts with outstanding intrinsic activities; (ii) effective heterogenization of molecular catalysts is currently the primary challenge for the application of molecular catalysis in AP devices; (iii) development of molecular catalysts is a promising way to solve the problems of catalysis involved in practical solar fuel production. In molecular-catalysis-based AP, much has been attained, but more challenges remain with regard to long-term stability and heterogenization techniques.

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