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  • 1.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lantz, Ann
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Accessibility to electronic communication for people with cognitive disabilities: a systematic search and review of empiricla evidence2014In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize measures for accessibility to electronic communication for people with cognitive disabilities by seeking answers to the following research questions: What measures to make electronic  communication accessible to people with cognitive disabilities are evaluated and reported in the scientific literature? What documented effects do these measures have? Empirical studies describing and assessing cognitive accessibility measures were identified by searches of 13 databases. Data were extracted and methodological quality was assessed. Findings were analyzed and recommendations for practice and research were made. Twenty-nine articles with considerable variations in studied accessibility measures, diagnoses, methods, outcome measures, and quality were included. They address the use of Internet, e-mail, telephone, chat, television, multimedia interfaces, texts and pictures, operation of equipment, and entering of information. Although thin, the current evidence base indicates that the accessibility needs, requirements, and preferences of people with cognitive disabilities are diverse. This ought to be reflected in accessibility guidelines and standards. Studies to systematically develop and recommend effective accessibility measures are needed to address current knowledge gaps.

  • 2.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Andersson, Hans
    Human Kind Business Development, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Per
    Accomplishing universal access through system reachability: a management perspective2004In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe the need of a method by which we can estimate the return on accessibility investments in information technology (IT) systems. This paper reveals some of the reasons why accessibility still is a secondhand criterion when designing digital services. It also describes the authors experiences regarding the concept of accessibility and how it must develop in order to obtain the status of a basic business criterion for the benefit of disabled people who are currently excluded from public services and labour markets. The paper also questions the need of a separate accessibility standard. Additionally, we discuss some of the hindering in the market and limiting perspectives that are blocking further development. One of the problems in the market seems to be that accessibility as a concept has been more of an issue about creating equal opportunities and therefore probably does not have the quality of a business criterion. In order to bridge that gap, we argue for replacing accessibility with reachability, which is a concept based on a measure used by media when estimating the reached percentage of a population or target group.

  • 3.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Harker, Susan
    Loughborough University.
    The software accessibility of human-computer interfaces: ISO Technical Specification 160712004In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the recently published Technical Specification ISO 16071 from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), along with the process through which the document has been developed. ISO TS 16071 contains guidelines on designing accessible software. This paper also relates the activities within ISO to other ongoing standardisation activities, within, for example, W3C and ETSI. Scope, contents, guidelines and the definition of accessibility in ISO 16071 are discussed in relation to other definitions. Finally, the process of turning the technical specification (TS) into an international standard (IS) is discussed.

  • 4.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Harker, Susan
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Vanderheiden, Gregg
    University of Wisconsin, USA.
    Guidelines, Standards, Methods and Processes for Software Accessibility2004In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Persson, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Institute for Humane Technology (IHT), Sweden.
    Åhman, Henrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Yngling, Alexander Arvei
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: different concepts—one goal? On the concept of accessibility—historical, methodological and philosophical aspects2015In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 505-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility and equal opportunities for all in the digital age have become increasingly important over the last decade. In one form or another, the concept of accessibility is being considered to a greater or smaller extent in most projects that develop interactive systems. However, the concept varies among different professions, cultures and interest groups. Design for all, universal access and inclusive design are all different names of approaches that largely focus on increasing the accessibility of the interactive system for the widest possible range of use. But, in what way do all these concepts differ and what is the underlying philosophy in all of these concepts? This paper aims at investigating the various concepts used for accessibility, its methodological and historical development and some philosophical aspects of the concept. It can be concluded that there is little or no consensus regarding the definition and use of the concept, and consequently, there is a risk of bringing less accessibility to the target audience. Particularly in international standardization the lack of consensus is striking. Based on this discussion, the authors argue for a much more thorough definition of the concept and discuss what effects it may have on measurability, conformance with standards and the overall usability for the widest possible range of target users.

  • 6. Yang, Yi-Fan
    et al.
    Hwang, Sheue-Ling
    Schenkman, Bo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    An improved Web search engine for visually impaired users2012In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Google search engine was studied as a Web prototype to be modified and improved for blind users. A Specialized Search Engine for the Blind (SSEB) was developed with an accessible interface and improved functions (searching assistance functions, user-centered functions, and specialized design for the blind). An experiment was conducted with twelve participants, both blind and sighted, to verify the effects of SSEB. The performance was better with the SSEB than with the Google search engine, and the participants also showed higher satisfactions with the SSEB. Interface considerations for designing an accessible Web site for blind users are important. The users of SSEB could in the future be expanded to include most, if not all, visually impaired people, since the World Wide Web and all Internet resources should ideally be accessible to everyone.

1 - 6 of 6
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