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  • 1.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Exploratory Testing: Do Contextual Factors Influence Software Fault Identification?2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory Testing (ET) is a manual approach to software testing in which learning, test design and test execution occurs simultaneously. Still a developing topic of interest to academia, although as yet insufficiently investigated, most studies focus on the skills and experience of the individual tester. However, contextual factors such as project processes, test scope and organisational boundaries are also likely to affect the approach.

    Objective: This study explores contextual differences between teams of testers at a MedTec firm developing safety-critical products to ascertain whether contextual factors can influence the outcomes of ET, and what associated implications can be drawn for test management.

    Method: A development project was studied in two iterations, each consisting of a quantitative phase testing hypotheses concerning when ET would identify faults in comparison to other testing approaches and a qualitative phase involving interviews.

    Results: Influence on ET is traced to how the scope of tests focus learning on different types of knowledge and imply an asymmetry in the strength and number of information flows to test teams.

    Conclusions: While test specialisation can be attractive to software development organisations, results suggest changes to processes and organisational structures might be required to maintain test efficiency throughout projects: the responsibility for test cases might need to be rotated late in projects, and asymmetries in information flows might require management to actively strengthen the presence and connections of test teams throughout the firm. However, further research is needed to investigate whether these results also hold for non safety-critical faults.

  • 2.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

    Objective

    This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

    Method

    Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

    Results

    The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

    Conclusion

    The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 3.
    Blouin, Arnaud
    et al.
    Univ Rennes, INSA Rennes, INRIA, CNRS,IRISA, Rennes, France..
    Lelli, Valeria
    Univ Fed Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil..
    Baudry, Benoit
    KTH.
    Coulon, Fabien
    Univ Toulouse Jean Jaures, Toulouse, France..
    User interface design smell: Automatic detection and refactoring of Blob listeners2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 102, p. 49-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. User Interfaces (UIs) intensively rely on event-driven programming: interactive objects send UI events, which capture users' interactions, to dedicated objects called controllers. Controllers use several UI listeners that handle these events to produce UI commands. Objective. First, we reveal the presence of design smells in the code that describes and controls UIs. Second, we demonstrate that specific code analyses are necessary to analyze and refactor UI code, because of its coupling with the rest of the code. Method. We conducted an empirical study on four large Java software systems. We studied to what extent the number of UI commands that a UI listener can produce has an impact on the change- and fault-proneness of the UI listener code. We developed a static code analysis for detecting UI commands in the code. Results. We identified a new type of design smell, called Blob listener, that characterizes UI listeners that can produce more than two UI commands. We proposed a systematic static code analysis procedure that searches for Blob listener that we implement in InspectorGuidget. We conducted experiments on the four software systems for which we manually identified 53 instances of Blob listener. InspectorGuidget successfully detected 52 Blob listeners out of 53. The results exhibit a precision of 81.25% and a recall of 98.11%. We then developed a semi-automatically and behavior-preserving refactoring process to remove Blob listeners. 49.06% of the 53 Blob listeners were automatically refactored. Patches have been accepted and merged. Discussions with developers of the four software systems assess the relevance of the Blob listener. Conclusion. This work shows that UI code also suffers from design smells that have to be identified and characterized. We argue that studies have to be conducted to find other UI design smells and tools that analyze UI code must be developed.

  • 4.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Bayesian network model for likelihood estimations of acquirement of critical software vulnerabilities and exploits2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 58, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software vulnerabilities in general, and software vulnerabilities with publicly available exploits in particular, are important to manage for both developers and users. This is however a difficult matter to address as time is limited and vulnerabilities are frequent. Objective: This paper presents a Bayesian network based model that can be used by enterprise decision makers to estimate the likelihood that a professional penetration tester is able to obtain knowledge of critical vulnerabilities and exploits for these vulnerabilities for software under different circumstances. Method: Data on the activities in the model are gathered from previous empirical studies, vulnerability databases and a survey with 58 individuals who all have been credited for the discovery of critical software vulnerabilities. Results: The proposed model describes 13 states related by 17 activities, and a total of 33 different datasets. Conclusion: Estimates by the model can be used to support decisions regarding what software to acquire, or what measures to invest in during software development projects.

  • 5.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    The Tarpit - A general theory of software engineering2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 70, p. 181-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Recent years have seen an increasing interest in general theories of software engineering. As in other academic fields, these theories aim to explain and predict the key phenomena of the discipline. Objective: The present article proposes a general theory of software engineering that we have labeled the Tarpit theory, in reference to the 1982 epigram by Alan Perlis. Method: An integrative theory development approach was employed to develop the Tarpit theory from four underlying theoretical fields: (i) languages and automata, (ii) cognitive architecture, (iii) problem solving, and (iv) organization structure. Its applicability was explored in three test cases. Results: The theory demonstrates an explanatory and predictive potential for a diverse set of software engineering phenomena. It demonstrates a capability of explaining Brooks's law, of making predictions about domain-specific languages, and of evaluating the pros and cons of the practice of continuous integration. Conclusion: The presented theory appears capable of explaining and predicting a wide range of software engineering phenomena. Further refinement and application of the theory remains as future work.

  • 6.
    Wohed, Petia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    Russell, Nick
    ter Hofstede, Arthur H. M.
    Andersson, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Computer and Systems Sciences, DSV.
    van der Aalst, Wil M. P.
    Patterns-based evaluation of open source BPM systems: The cases of jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark2009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1187-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In keeping with the proliferation of free software development initiatives and the increased interest in the business process management domain, many open source workflow and business process management systems have appeared during the last few years and are now under active development. This upsurge gives rise to two important questions: What are the capabilities of these systems? and How do they compare to each other and to their closed source counterparts? In other words: What is the state-of-the-art in the area?. To gain an insight into these questions, we have conducted an in-depth analysis of three of the major open source workflow management systems - jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark, the results of which are reported here. This analysis is based on the workflow patterns framework and provides a continuation of the series of evaluations performed using the same framework on closed source systems, business process modelling languages, and web-service composition standards. The results from evaluations of the three open source systems are compared with each other and also with the results from evaluations of three representative closed source systems: Staffware, WebSphere MQ and Oracle BPEL PM. The overall conclusion is that open source systems are targeted more toward developers rather than business analysts. They generally provide less support for the patterns than closed source systems, particularly with respect to the resource perspective, i.e. the various ways in which work is distributed amongst business users and managed through to completion.

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