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  • 1.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Finne Wistrand, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Medical grade polylactide, copolyesters and polydioxanone: Rheological properties and melt stability2018Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 72, s. 214-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheological measurements have shown that lactide-based copolymers with L-lactide content between 50 and 100 mol% with varying comonomers, as well as polydioxanone (PDX), can be used in additive manufacturing analogously to poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) if their melt behaviour are balanced. The results indicate that copolymers can be melt processed if the temperature is adjusted according to the melting point, and parameters such as the speed are tuned to conteract the elastic response. Small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology, thermal and chemical characterisation allowed us to map the combined effect of temperature and frequency on the behaviour of six degradable polymers and their melt stability. Values of complex viscosity and Tan delta obtained through nine time sweeps by varying temperature and frequency showed that the molecular structure and the number of methylene units influenced the results, copolymers of L-lactide with D-Lactide (PDLLA) or glycolide (PLGA) had an increased elastic response, while copolymers with trimethylene carbonate (PLATMC) or epsilon-caprolactone (PCLA) had a more viscous behaviour than PLLA, with respect to their relative melting points. PDLLA and PLGA require an increased temperature or lower speed when processed, while PLATMC and PCLA can be used at a lower temperature and/or higher speed than PLLA. PDX showed an increased viscosity compared to PLLA but a similar melt behaviour. Negligible chain degradation were observed, apart from PLGA.

  • 2.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Stenberg, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Determination of dynamic and sliding friction, and observation of stick-slip phenomenon on compacted polymer powders during high-velocity compaction2006Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 25, nr 8, s. 1069-1080Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic friction, sliding friction, and the stick-slip phenomenon have been studied on compacted polymer powders during high-velocity compaction. It is particularly important from a practical point of view to distinguish the stick-slip mechanism and the sliding mechanism which occur concurrently. A practical experimental system has been successfully developed to study the dry frictional force and to measure the sliding coefficient between the polymer powder particles and the die wall during high-velocity compaction. Two new components have been introduced as relaxation assists to improve the compaction process by reducing the frictional forces. It was found that the relaxation assist device leads to an improvement in the polymer powder compaction process by giving a more homogeneous opposite velocity and a better locking of the powder bed in the compacted form with less change in dimensions. The subsequent movement of the particles can be reduced and the powder bed attains a higher density with a minimum total elastic spring-back. The relative time of the stick-slip phenomenon during the compacting stage is also reduced so that the time needed to transfer from an intermittent stick-slip state to a smooth sliding state is reduced and the powder bed slides smoothly. It was found that the dynamic, dry frictional force is intermittent (stick-slip mechanism) at low compaction rates but that at high compaction rates is becomes more smooth (sliding mechanism). Both mechanisms depend on the nature of the powder and on the compaction conditions. At the beginning of the compaction stage, the sliding coefficient decreases due to an increase in the radial to axial stress ratio until the maximum pressure has been reached. During the reorganization stage, more time is needed for large particles to move, rotate and slide due to their relatively large diameter and mass. As a result, the reorganization stage is extended and the stick-slip phenomenon is observed more with increasing particle size. Much better transfer of the pressure throughout the powder bed and less loss of pressure lead to a higher sliding coefficient due to the overall friction during the compaction process. It was found that the sliding coefficient is proportional to the density. A more homogeneous density distribution in the compacted powder and a smaller pressure loss during compaction has a major influence on the sliding coefficient and on the quality of the compacted material

  • 3.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Stenberg, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Determination of springback gradient in the die on compacted polymer powders during high-velocity compaction2006Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 114-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A uniaxial high-velocity compaction process for polymer powder using a cylindrical, hardened steel die and a new technique with relaxation assist was tested with various heights. The influences of the relaxation assist device on the process characteristics are discussed. Two bonded strain gauges and a high-speed video camera system were used to investigate the springback phenomenon during the compaction process. It was found that the relaxation assist improves the compaction of the polymer powder by locking the powder bed in the compacted form. It is shown that the high-velocity compaction process is an interruption process and that the delay times between the pressure waves can be reduced by increasing the height of the relaxation assist device. The delay times between the pressure waves are also strongly dependent on the strain rate. If the height of the relaxation assist device is increased, the first gross instantaneous springback, and the total elastic springback, are reduced. In addition, the density of the powder bed is increased. The relative times of the compacting stage, decompacting stage and the reorganisation of the particles can be also controlled by altering the height of the relaxation assist.

  • 4.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Stenberg, Bengt
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Development of a High-Velocity Compaction process for polymer powders2005Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 24, nr 7, s. 909-919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The High-Velocity Compaction (HVC) process for powder polymers has been studied, with a focus on the compactibility characteristics and surface morphology of the compacted materials, with and without relaxation assists, by increasing compacting quantity and direction. The basic phenomena associated with HVC are explained and the general energy principle is introduced to explain pull-out phenomena during the decompacting stage. Polyamide-11 powders with different particle size distributions have been compacted with the application of different compaction profiles, e.g. different energies and velocities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image computer board camera, (IC-PCI Imaging Technology) have been used to the study the morphological characteristics, the limit of plastic deformation and particle bonding by plastic flow at contact points, and pull-out phenomena. The relative green density is influenced more by the pre-compacting (primary compaction step) than by the post-compacting (secondary compaction step). The pressure and density distribution differences between the upper and lower surface are not uniform. Projectile supports or 'relaxation assists' are presented as a new technique to reduce pull-out phenomenon. Experimental results for different compaction profiles are presented showing the effect of varying the opposite velocity during the decompacting stage, and how to improve the homogeneous densification between the upper and lower surface and the evenness of the upper surface of the compacted powder bed by using relaxation assists.

  • 5.
    Azhdar, Bruska
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Yu, Wenbin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Reitberger, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Kärnkemi.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    A new method for assessing the efficiency of stabilizers in polyolefins exposed to chlorinated water media2009Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 28, nr 6, s. 661-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chlorine used as disinfectant in tap water degrades most materials, including polyethylene. The most adequate (functional) test method, the pressure test, is complicated and expensive because the chlorinated aqueous media (Cl-2 or ClO2 in water) are unstable and they undergo reactions that are dependent on the pH. A new method which assesses the protection efficiency of phenolic antioxidants in polyolefins was developed. The method uses a liquid hydrocarbon analogue, squalane, in which antioxidants are dissolved. The organic phase was dispersed in the aqueous chlorinated phase (containing 10 ppm of either Cl-2 or ClO2; pH=6.8) at 70 degrees C by intense stirring. The depletion of antioxidant (Irganox 1010) was monitored by standard DSC determination of the oxidation induction time. It was shown that 300 min of exposure was sufficient to obtain useful data.

  • 6. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Vilaplana, Domingo Francisco Javier
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Thermal analysis as a quality tool for assessing the influence of thermo-mechanical degradation on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)2009Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 169-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was simulated by multiple processing to assess the effects of thermo-mechanical degradation, and characterized using rheological and thermal analysis techniques. Thermo-mechanical degradation under repeated extrusion induces chain scission reactions in PET, which result in a dramatic loss in the deformation capabilities and an increase in the fluidity of the polymer under reprocessing, reducing its recycling possibilities after four extrusion cycles. Multiple reprocessing severely affects the storage modulus and the microstructure of recycled PET, both in the amorphous and crystalline regions. Multimodal melting behavior is observed for reprocessed PET, indicating heterogeneous and segregated crystalline regions. A deconvolution procedure has been applied to individually characterize each crystalline population in terms of lamellar thickness distribution and partial crystallinity. Thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) have proved to be suitable techniques for the quality assessment of recycled PET, giving unequivocal information about its degree of degradation compared to the common technological measurements of melt-mass flow rate (MFR) or oxidative stability (T-OX).

  • 7.
    Blom, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Amplitude and frequency dependence of magneto-sensitive rubber in a wide frequency range2005Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 656-662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new aspects of the dynamic behaviour in the audible frequency range of magneto-sensitive (MS) rubber are highlighted: the existence of an amplitude dependence of the shear modulus - referred to as the Fletcher-Gent effect - for even small displacements, and the appearance of large MS effects. In order to illustrate these two features, results are presented of measurements performed in the audible frequency range on two different kinds of rubber: silicone and natural rubber with a respective iron particle volume concentration of 33%. The particles used are of irregular shape and randomly distributed within the rubber. An external magnetic field of 0-0.8 T is applied. Both kinds of rubber are found to be strongly amplitude dependent and, furthermore, displaying large responses to externally applied magnetic fields - a maximum of 115%. Also included are graphs of measurements on silicone and natural rubber devoid of iron particles. Those results support the conclusion that introducing iron particles in the rubber gives rise to a strong, non-negligible, amplitude dependence in the entire frequency range.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    On Microindentation of Viscoelastic Polymers1998Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 49-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Ekelund, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Fantoni, P. F.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Thermal ageing assessment of EPDM-chlorosulfonated polyethylene insulated cables using line resonance analysis (LIRA)2011Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 86-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two cables with chlorosulfonated polyethylene jackets and EPDM core insulations, but having different designs and geometries, were aged at 140 degrees C for different periods of time mimicking ageing at 50 degrees C for an exposure time of more than one hundred years. The cable samples were aged in dry air and dry nitrogen. The cable samples were studied with indenter modulus measurements, tensile tests, infrared spectroscopy and line resonance analysis (LIRA). The main question was whether universal correlations could be established between the two classical methods (indenter and tensile testing) and LIRA. The global ageing indicator (CBAC2) obtained by LIRA showed good correlation with the indenter modulus of the jacketing and with the mechanical properties of the core insulation. Almost universal CBAC2 values were obtained for samples reaching a critical state; the latter being defined according to a criterion based on LOCA test data. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the core insulation degraded by an essentially oxygen-free mechanism, with a gradual increase in the concentration of vinyl and vinylene groups. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    García Tárrago, Maria-José
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik.
    Vinolas, J.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Gil-Negrete, N.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Frequency and amplitude dependence of the axial and radial stiffness of carbon-black filled rubber bushings2007Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 629-638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency and amplitude dependent dynamic behavior of carbon-black filled rubber bushings is experimentally investigated for a commercially available bushing in the axial and radial directions. Based on measurement observations, models for the axial and radial dynamic stiffness of rubber bushings are developed. The amplitude dependence-referred to as the Fletcher-Gent effect and mainly caused by the presence of carbon-black fillers in the rubber-is included in the analytical models by means of equivalent shear moduli, which result from applying a separable elastic, viscoelastic and friction material model to equivalent strains of the non-homogeneous strain states inside the bushing when subjected to axial or radial deflections. Good correlations between measurements and the axial and radial models at amplitudes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mm from 5 to 155 Hz-when the material parameters are achieved from axial measurements at 0.1 mm-prove the accuracy of both stiffness models.

  • 11.
    Gedde, Ulf W
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material.
    Untitled2016Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 55, s. A2-A2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12. González-Ausejo, J.
    et al.
    Sanchez-Safont, E.
    Lagaron, J. M.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Gamez-Perez, J.
    Cabedo, L.
    Assessing the thermoformability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/poly(acid lactic) blends compatibilized with diisocyanates2017Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 62, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is a renewable alternative to conventional barrier packaging polymers due to its thermoplastic properties, biodegradability and gas barrier performance but its potential industrial applications are limited by its high price and difficult processability. A thorough study concerning the thermoforming ability of PHBV, and blends with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) incorporating three different diisocyanates as compatibilizers (hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(hexamethylene) diisocyanate and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate) is herein presented after component melt blending. A straightforward universal qualitative method is proposed to assess the thermoformability, based on a visual inspection of a thermoformed specimen and the ability to reproduce the mold shape, and the thermoforming window of the material. The results reveal a significant improvement in the thermoforming capacity and a widening of the thermoforming windows as the correct amounts of diisocyanates are incorporated. The barrier properties and the biodisintegrability of the blends was also studied, confirming a predictable slight decrease of the barrier performance when PLA is added, but without negatively affecting the disintegrability under composting conditions with respect to pristine PHBV.

  • 13.
    Guastavino, Rémi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
    A 3D displacement measurement methodology for anisotropic porous cellular foam materials2007Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 711-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new testing methodology for three dimensional (3D) full-field displacement mapping at the surface of elastic materials under static loading, here with a special focus on macroscopic behaviour of an anisotropic porous cellular foam. Three displacement components on four adjacent surfaces are estimated for cubic samples of the foam using a dual-camera 3D image correlation system. The critical feature of the proposed method is the provision made for efficient mapping of the four visible sides of the cubic sample, involving a rotating table and a common lateral reference frame. The overall setup used is described in some detail, together with the main steps of the measurement procedure and including remarks on the experience made during the development. Observations made concerning specific deformation phenomena occurring at discontinuities are discussed.

  • 14.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Editorial2017Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Kallio, Kai J.
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation, Polymer Centre.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Effects of ethanol content and temperature on the permeation of fuel through polyamide-12-based pipes2010Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 603-608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new test method has been developed which enables the fuel permeation properties of polyamide-12 (PA-12) - based pipes to be investigated. Fuel lines were exposed to circulating fuel with equal volume contents of toluene, isooctane and 0, 25 or 85 vol.% ethanol for up to 6 months at 60-110 degrees C. The pipes were either of a single PA12-layer or a multi-layer type, the latter having a poly(vinylidene fluoride) barrier layer between two PA12 sections. With a Thwing-Albert cup attached to the fuel line, it was possible to expose a pipe-section to surrounding air running in a separate pipe loop at a controlled flow-rate. Gas/vapour samples were collected from this loop using a syringe and, subsequently, analysed with a flame ionization detector. It was observed in the case of multi-layer pipes that the presence of ethanol increased the permeability (average values) of the "total" fuel as well as of the individual hydrocarbons. In addition, the 60 degrees C fuel permeability (85 vol.% ethanol) increased after a high temperature (110 degrees C peak) cycle, whereas the ethanol-free fuel flux seemed to decrease.

  • 16.
    Kallio, Kai J.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Nageye, Arbi S.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Ageing properties of car fuel-lines;accelerated testing in “close-to-real” service conditions2010Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 41-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ethanol-based fuels and tougher restrictions on fuel emissions put a higher demand on car fuel-line (pipe) systems. In this context, it is important to be able to establish and predict properties based on measurements on pipes exposed to real or “close-to-real” environments. This paper presents a new method to age pipes in accelerated “close-to-real” conditions. In this method, the pipe is exposed to circulating fuel on the inside and to air on the outside. The method/equipment allows for non-destructive mechanical testing on “continuous” pipes. The usefulness of the ageing method/system was illustrated on polyamide-12 (PA12) pipes exposed to fuels with varying ethanol content at 50 °C and 110 °C for a maximum of, respectively, ca 3 years and 100 days. “Non-destructive” three-point bending as well as tensile testing was used to assess the ageing-induced changes in mechanical properties. The most conclusive information was that the lowest pipe extensibility (ductility) of dried, previously fuel-exposed pipes was observed at the end of the ageing periods and at the higher ethanol contents. In fact, optical microscopy showed that the tensile fractured pipes, exposed to 25/30 vol. % ethanol at 110 °C (100 h), showed no signs of macroscopic yielding. The trends were interpreted, based also on findings from previous work, as being due to the loss of plasticiser (possibly also PA12 monomers/oligomers) and material “degradation/annealing” processes, the latter involving possibly stabiliser issues.

     

  • 17.
    Kari, Leif
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Lindgren, K.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Feng, Leiping
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Nilsson, A.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Constrained polymer layers to reduce noise: reality or fiction? - An experimental inquiry into their effectiveness2002Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 949-958Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency and temperature dependent noise radiation properties of constrained polymer layered oil pans are examined through mobility and intensity measurements. Four metal/polymer/metal sandwich composites of varied thermo-plastic elastomer systems of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene triblock copolymers are investigated within a wide frequency range covering 1000-5000 Hz, and over a wide temperature range covering 20-100 degreesC, with results compared to those of an ordinary steel oil pan. The mobility and intensity are found to be strongly frequency and temperature dependent, displaying a substantial mobility reduction as compared to that of the ordinary pan, while using the constrained layer damping configurations at their maximum loss factor temperatures. However, the reduction of noise radiation is smaller than that of the mobility at those temperatures, mainly due to the increased radiation efficiency while adding damping materials.

  • 18.
    Linde, E.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Verardi, L.
    Pourmand, P.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Fabiani, D.
    Gedde, U. W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Non-destructive condition monitoring of aged ethylene-propylene copolymer cable insulation samples using dielectric spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy2015Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 46, s. 72-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of changes in dielectric response as a result of thermal and irradiative ageing of cable insulation of ethylene propylene copolymer rubber containing 38 wt.% filler were investigated. Samples were aged in three different combinations of irradiation dose rate and temperature, 0.42 kGy h(-1) at 85 degrees C, and 1.58 kGy h(-1) at 55 and 85 degrees C, and subsequently studied by dielectric spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy using a portable spectrometer, and tensile testing. The extractable mass fraction and density were determined and related to the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz. The ageing led to an increase in the dielectric permittivity, stiffness, density and degree of oxidation, together with a decrease in both strain-at-break and relaxation time, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy. Except for the strain-at-break, the properties changed in a linear fashion with increasing imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz, with particularly good agreement with respect to the density. As these properties are affected by the degree of oxidation, the results show that both NMR using a portable spectrometer and dielectric spectroscopy can be used as condition monitoring techniques to detect the degree of oxidation in complex systems such as filled copolymers.

  • 19.
    Linde, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Thomas, Blomfeldt
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Long-term performance of a DEHP-containing carbon-black-filled NBR membrane2014Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 25-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A NBR membrane containing carbon black (36 wt.%) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP; 11 wt.%) that had been used at temperatures up to 45 C in pressurised air showed cracking after 2 years in service. Samples were aged in air at elevated temperatures and their mechanical properties were assessed by tensile testing, the glass transition temperature was obtained by DSC, and the DEHP content was determined by liquid chromatography. The loss of DEHP was controlled by the boundary conditions at low temperatures and the loss rate was constant at 90 C within a certain DEHP concentration range (8 to 11 wt.%). The presence of carbon black and DEHP made it impossible to determine oxidation products by infrared spectroscopy. Strain-at-break data were analysed in a way that enabled the effect of DEHP migration to be separated from the effect of thermal oxidation. This allowed extrapolation in both temperature and oxygen pressure domains of high temperature/low oxygen pressure data to the service conditions. The analysis showed that both DEHP evaporation and thermal oxidation had a significant impact on the strain-at-break, but that the latter was the more important. Data for the mechanical properties and the glass transition temperature indicated that oxidation was non-uniform with increasing depth in the specimens. This condition of the 4.5 mm thick samples meant that it was inappropriate to use the specimen Young's modulus for extrapolation purposes.

  • 20.
    Linde, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Verardi, Luca
    University of Bologna.
    Fabiani, Davide
    University of Bologna.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Dielectric spectroscopy as a condition monitoring technique for cable insulation based on crosslinked polyethylene2015Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 44, s. 135-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric spectroscopy was evaluated as a condition monitoring technique for aged polyethylene electrical insulation in nuclear power plants. Bare core insulations of crosslinked polyethylene were aged at 55 and 85 °C under exposure to 60Co γ-radiation at different dose rates (0.42, 0.76 and 1.06 kGy h−1) to different total doses. The samples were studied by dielectric spectroscopy and tensile testing, and the crystallinity, mass fraction of soluble component and density were determined. The oxidation profiles along the depth of the insulations were assessed by infrared microscopy. The aged samples showed an increase in both the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity over the whole frequency range studied, an increase in the mass fraction of soluble component and in the material density, and a decrease in the strain-at-break. The imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity at 100 kHz increased in a linear fashion with increasing material density, the latter being strictly related to the extent of oxidation of the material according to infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The generic relationship between the imaginary part of the permittivity and the density included all the data obtained under different ageing conditions. The results suggest that dielectric spectroscopy can be used for in-situ measurements of the degree of oxidation of polyethylene cables, in order to obtain information about the condition of the cable insulation to enable the remaining lifetime to be predicted.

  • 21.
    Lokander, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Stenberg, Bengt
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Improving the magnetorheological effect in isotropic magnetorheological rubber materials2003Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 677-680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetorheological (MR) rubber materials are the solid analogue of magnetorheological fluids; i.e. their theological properties can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. However, the use of a crosslinked matrix allows larger particles to be used than in fluid matrices, and when large irregular particles are used alignment of the particles is not necessary for obtaining a substantial MR effect. We show that the absolute MR effect of isotropic MR rubber materials with large irregular iron particles is independent of the matrix material, and that the relative MR effect can be increased by the addition of plasticisers. Other ways of increasing the MR effect are to increase the magnetic field, although the materials saturate magnetically at high fields, or to use small amplitude strains. Finally, we show that the damping of isotropic MR rubbers is to some extent increased by an applied magnetic field, but that the increase is too small to be of any practical importance.

  • 22.
    Lokander, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Stenberg, Bengt
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Performance of Isotropic Magnetorheological Rubber Materials2003Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 245-251Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetorheological (MR) rubber materials are the solid analog of magnetorheological fluids; hence, their theological properties can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. If the particles embedded in the matrix are carbonyl iron, they have to be aligned by a magnetic field before the curing of the rubber, in order to achieve a substantial MR effect. However, the use of a crosslinked matrix allows larger particles to be used. We show that MR rubber materials with large irregular particles have a large MR effect although the particles are not aligned within the material. This is explained by the low critical particle volume concentration of such particles. A similar effect can be obtained for materials with carbonyl iron, if the particles are badly dispersed and thereby behaving like larger irregular particles. Besides the achieved level of dispersion, the theological properties of the matrix material do not influence the MR effect.

  • 23.
    Pourmand, Payam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Kemi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Kemi.
    Gedde, Ulf W
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Deterioration of highly filled EPDM rubber by thermal ageing in air: Kinetics and non-destructive monitoring2017Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 64, s. 267-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of air ageing at different temperatures between 110 and 170 degrees C on cable transit seals based on highly filled EPDM rubber used in nuclear power plants were studied. The changes of the macroscopic mechanical properties (Young's modulus, indentation modulus and strain-at-break) were in accordance with the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 110 kJ mol(-1). Profiling to assess the structure and property gradients within aged blocks was performed via IR spectroscopy, micro-indentation, gravimetric analysis of n-heptane-extracted samples and non-invasive portable NMR spectroscopy. A previously developed methodology was used to separate the deterioration into three different processes: polymer oxidation that was diffusion-limited at all temperatures, migration of low-molar-mass species to the surrounding media and anaerobic changes to the polymer network. The methodology allowed the assessment of the kinetics (rate as a function of time and temperature) of the different processes. It was noticed that polymer oxidation yielded more crosslinking at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. The data obtained by both the portable NMR (a non-invasive method) and the indentation modulus profiling showed correlations with strain-at-break data, indicating their usefulness as condition monitoring methods.

  • 24.
    Pourmand, Payam
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Linde, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Gedde, U. W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Profiling of thermally aged EPDM seals using portable NMR, indenter measurements and IR spectroscopy facilitating separation of different deterioration mechanisms2016Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 53, s. 77-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes occurring in EPDM cable transit seals during thermal ageing and the causes of these changes were investigated. Samples were aged at a temperature of 170 °C, and subsequently evaluated with respect to the distance from the surface with modulus profiling, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, based on the extractable mass fraction profiles for initial and aged materials. The ageing resulted in an increase in the modulus and in the degree of oxidation and in a decrease in the NMR transverse relaxation time, T2. The NMR data were obtained in a non-invasive manner by ex situ experiments performed with a portable low-field spectrometer (NMR MOUSE). The results showed deterioration processes that can be attributed to different mechanisms i.e. oxidation, anaerobic crosslinking and migration of oil extender. The unique combination of parameter profiles made it possible to resolve and quantify these three contributing mechanisms. The NMR results highlight the potential of this method for on-site testing.

  • 25.
    Rajput, Moeen S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Design and evaluation of a novel instrumented drop-weight rig for controlled impact testing of polymer composites2018Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 68, s. 446-455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A drop-weight rig (DWR) intended to test the true impact response of laminated compositematerials is presented. The test setup is designed to prevent the transfer of unwanted mechanical noise, e.g. vibrations, into the load cell that is used to measure the load during the impact event. A novel catch mechanism preventing secondary impact is also implemented in the DWR design. A detailed evaluation is performed both in terms of the experimental modal and uncertainty analysis of the measured results from the DWR. The results demonstrate that the rig is capable of capturing the true impact response, providing highly resolved and noise-free force-time measurements where even subtle details of the impact event are visible. The rig also enables impact testing with good repeatability.

  • 26.
    Schneider, Christof
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner.
    Kazemahvazi, Sohrab
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner.
    Compression and tensile properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate)-composites2013Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 221-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tensile and compression properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate) (SrPET) composites has been investigated. SrPET composites or all-polymer composites have improved mechanical properties compared to the bulk polymer but with maintained recyclability. In contrast to traditional carbon/glass fibre reinforced composites, SrPET composites are very ductile, resulting in high failure strains without softening or catastrophic failure. In tension, the SrPET composites behave linear elastically until the fibre-matrix interface fails, at which point the stiffness starts decreasing. As the material is further strained, strain hardening occurs and the specimen finally fails at a global strain above 10%. In compression, the composite initially fails through fibre yielding, and at higher strains through fibre bending. The stress-strain response is reminiscent of an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a high strain to failure (typically over 10%). This indicates that SrPET composites are not only candidates as semi-structural composites but also as highly efficient energy absorbing materials.

  • 27.
    Sjoberg, M.
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Farkostteknik.
    Testing of nonlinear interaction effects of sinusoidal and noise excitation on rubber isolator stiffness2003Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 343-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonlinear excitation effects on dynamic stiffness and damping of a filled rubber isolator are investigated through measurements. For a single harmonic excitation they are found to exhibit a strong amplitude dependence, following the well-known Payne effect where stiffness is high for small excitation amplitudes and low for large amplitudes while damping displays a maximum at intermediate amplitudes. However, expanding the measurements to a multiple harmonic excitation, the commonly applied superimposition principle of single harmonic responses due to this excitation is shown to be non-valid. On the contrary, it is found that reference stiffness at a small excitation amplitude and high frequency is reduced and damping increased while superimposing a large amplitude low frequency excitation component. Superimposition of low frequency noise signals displays essentially the same influence on the reference characteristics. As a rule of thumb, the largest excitation amplitude over the isolator normally determines the stiffness at the reference frequency while the influence of envelope amplitude is increased as its frequency approaches that of the component of interest.

  • 28. Ullsten, N. H.
    et al.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Polymerteknologi.
    A new test method based on head space analysis to determine permeability to oxygen and carbon dioxide of flexible packaging2003Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 291-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique for determining oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities of flexible packaging was developed and tested on very-low density, low density and high density polyethylene pouches. The pouch head-space and pouch volume of carbon dioxide filled pouches were measured as a function of time until an equilibrium pouch gas composition was established. Permeabilities were obtained from the rates of carbon dioxide loss and oxygen uptake. HSP-method permeability values were in good agreement with those obtained from traditional flat-film permeability techniques. The HSP-method was found to be a valuable tool for determining and quantifying changes in carbon dioxide and oxygen pouch barrier properties due, for example, to exposure to olive oil or due to the existence of poor welds.

  • 29.
    Van Der Kelen, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Ultraljud.
    Cuenca, Jacques
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Ultraljud.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Ultraljud.
    A method for the inverse estimation of the static elastic compressional moduli of anisotropic poroelastic foams-With application to a melamine foam2015Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 43, s. 123-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the application of a method for the characterisation of the static, fully relaxed elastic properties of poroelastic materials. The approach is based on full field measurements of the 3D displacements in a number of points on the faces of the compressed material sample. These are used as targets in an inverse estimation to fit a model of the material to the experimental data. The material is modelled as an orthotropic equivalent solid, whose principal directions are not necessarily aligned with the coordinate system in which the experiments are conducted. The angles of relative orientation accounting for the potential misalignment are estimated, together with the elastic moduli of the material. In addition, the proposed model considers the region of reduced stiffness close to material discontinuities, which has been identified in previous investigations. The method is applied to a melamine foam, which is found to have its lowest stiffness in the direction parallel to the rise direction of the material. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Wallström, Stina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Microbiological growth testing of polymeric materials: an evaluation of new methods2005Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 557-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms growing on high voltage insulators made of silicone rubber cause changes in appearance and properties of the silicone material. This study presents the design and building of microenvironment chambers simulating outdoor environment and the use of these for long-term studies of the development of mixed biofilms on silicone rubber materials. Results from the microenvironment chambers are compared to standard test procedures used in combination with new methods to evaluate the effect of two common flame retardants, ATH and zinc borate, on the development of a biofilm. Algae, bacteria and fungi isolated from silicone rubber insulators collected from Tanzania, Sri Lanka and Sweden, respectively, were used in the tests performed. Results show that zinc borate has a protective effect against all the microorganisms tested.

  • 31.
    Yu, Wenbin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Sedghi, Ehram
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Nawaz, Sohail
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Oderkerk, J.
    Costa, F. R.
    Gedde, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Assessing the Long-­term Performance of Polyethylene Stabilised WithPhenolic Antioxidants Exposed to Water Containing Chlorine Dioxide2013Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 359-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of chlorine dioxide disinfectant to tap water prevents the spread of infection but has a serious drawback in that it degrades materials used in piping, including pipes made of polyethylene. Efficient methods are required to assess the long-term performance of different combinations of antioxidants and polyethylene grades. We have previously presented a screening method which exposes solutions of phenolic antioxidants in squalane (a liquid, low molar mass analogue of polyethylene) to 70 °C water containing either chlorine dioxide or chlorine. This method assesses the stability of the antioxidants towards these aqueous chlorinated media by determining the oxidation induction time through differential scanning calorimetry. The same experimental set-up with two modifications was used in developing a new method. A 0.3 mm thick polyethylene tape replaced the squalane phase and the supply of fresh water containing chlorine dioxide (10 ppm at pH = 6.8) was continuous; this required minimum attention from the operator over the longer exposure time periods used. Tapes of medium-density polyethylene containing 0.1 wt.% of six different phenolic antioxidants were studied. A linear relationship was established between the times to reach antioxidant depletion in the polyethylene tape samples and the times in the squalane samples (with the same antioxidants at the same concentration). A linear relationship was also found between the initial antioxidant consumption rates in polyethylene and squalane. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of drawn samples revealed the onset of surface oxidation and surface embrittlement in tape samples exposed beyond the time for antioxidant depletion.

  • 32. Yurindatama, D.
    et al.
    Barsoum, Imad
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Lättkonstruktioner. The Petroleum Institute, United Arab Emirates.
    Constitutive model and failure locus of a polypropylene grade used in offshore intake pipes2017Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 57, s. 245-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BorECO®™ BA212E is a polypropylene block co-polymer which has become a common material in the manufacturing of large diameter non-pressurized gravity offshore intake pipelines. These lines are used for transportation of sea water for cooling of petrochemical process plants. The pipe sections are joined by butt heat fusion welding to create the pipeline. Recently a few premature failures of such pipelines have been reported in the field. Hence, there is a need to characterize the constitutive behavior of the pipe and weld material in order to properly design these pipes. The aim of this work is to determine the material constitutive behaviors of the pipe material and the welded joint material. Uniaxial tensile tests of both the pipe and weld joint material are conducted at various strain rates. Both the pipe and weld material show a rather high strain rate dependency, with the weld material having about half the yield strength than that of the pipe material. An analytical constitutive material model is developed for both the pipe and weld material, incorporating the effect of strain rate. The failure locus, expressed in terms of the equivalent plastic strain at failure vs. the stress triaxiality, for both materials is also determined as part of the constitutive model using notched dumbbell specimens. The constitutive model and failure loci for the pipe and weld material are implemented in a finite element model (FEM) and are validated by conducting a series of independent four-point bend experiments on both material types. The validation is carried out by comparing the FEM results of the four-point bend model with the experimental results, which show a rather good agreement.

  • 33.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania, Södertälje, Sweden .
    Wentzel, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, MWL Strukturakustik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    An efficient method for obtaining the hyperelastic properties of filled elastomers in finite strain applications2015Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 41, s. 44-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient methodology for obtaining hyperelastic material parameters for filled elastomers utilizing unloading curves in uniaxial tension, pure shear and the inflation of a rubber membrane is presented. Experimental results from biaxial extension are crucial when fitting hyperelastic material parameters, and the bubble inflation technique is an excellent method of obtaining this data when specialized test equipment is unavailable. Moreover, filled elastomers have considerable hysteresis, and the hysteresis grows with increasing strain amplitudes. Therefore, the loading curve is in general comprised of both elastic and inelastic contributions, even at very low strain rates. Consequently, it is deemed more accurate to use experimental data from the unloading curve to describe the elastic behavior of the material. The presented methodology enables obtainment of parameters related to both the first and second strain invariant, which is required for a good fit between measurement and simulation results. Finally, it is essential that a chosen material model is accurate in all deformation modes when designing components subjected to a complex, multi-axial load history. An accurate material model enables more concepts and geometries of a component to be studied before a physical prototype is available.

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