Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 69
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Assali, S.
    et al.
    Laehnemann, J.
    Vu, T. T. T.
    Jöns, Klaus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gagliano, L.
    Verheijen, M. A.
    Akopian, N.
    Bakkers, E. P. A. M.
    Haverkort, J. E. M.
    Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 6062-6068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  • 2. Bavinck, Maaike Bouwes
    et al.
    Jons, Klaus D.
    Zielinski, Michal
    Patriarche, Gilles
    Harmand, Jean-Christophe
    Akopian, Nika
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Delft Univ Techno, Netherlands.
    Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot2016In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1081-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer unprecedented potential to be controlled with atomic layer accuracy without random alloying. We show for the first time that crystal phase quantum dots are a source of pure single-photons and cascaded photon-pairs from type II transitions with excellent optical properties in terms of intensity and line width. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising quantum optical properties for single photon application and quantum optics.

  • 3. Berseth, P. A.
    et al.
    Harter, A. G.
    Zidan, R.
    Blomqvist, A.
    Araujo, C. M.
    Scheicher, R. H.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jena, P.
    Carbon Nanomaterials as Catalysts for Hydrogen Uptake and Release in NaAlH42009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1501-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A synergistic approach involving experiment and first-principles theory not only shows that carbon nanostructures can be used as catalysts for hydrogen uptake and release in complex metal hydrides such as sodium alanate, NaAlH4, but also provides an unambiguous understanding of how the catalysts work. Here we show that the stability of NaAlH4 originates with the charge transfer from Na to the AlH4 moiety, resulting in an ionic bond between Na+ and AlH4- and a covalent bond between Al and H. Interaction of NaAlH4 with an electronegative substrate such as carbon fullerene or nanotube affects the ability of Na to donate its charge to AlH4, consequently weakening the Al-H bond and causing hydrogen to desorb at lower temperatures as well as facilitating the absorption of H-2 to reverse the dehydrogenation reaction. In addition, based on our experimental observations and theoretical calculations it appears the curvature of the carbon nanostructure plays a role in the catalytic process. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation further reveals the time evolution of the charge transfer process.

  • 4.
    Bonanni, Valentina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Bonetti, Stefano
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Pakizeh, Tavakol
    Pirzadeh, Zhaleh
    Chen, Jianing
    Nogues, Josef
    Vavassori, Paolo
    Hillenbrand, Rainer
    Åkerman, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Dmitriev, Alexandre
    Designer Magnetoplasmonics with Nickel Nanoferromagnets2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 5333-5338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a new perspective on magnetoplasmonics in nickel nanoferromagnets by exploiting the phase tunability of the optical polarizability due to localized surface plasmons and simultaneous magneto-optical activity. We demonstrate how the concerted action of nanoplasmonics and magnetization can manipulate the sign of rotation of the reflected light's polarization (i.e., to produce Kerr rotation reversal) in ferromagnetic nanomaterials and, further, how this effect can be dynamically controlled and employed to devise conceptually new schemes for biochemosensing.

  • 5.
    Borgani, Riccardo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Pallon, Love
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Haviland, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Local Charge Injection and Extraction on Surface-Modified Al2O3Nanoparticles in LDPE2016In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 5934-5937, article id 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a recently developed scanning probe technique to image with high spatial resolution the injection and extraction of charge around individual surface-modified aluminum oxide nanoparticles embedded in a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. We find that the experimental results are consistent with a simple band structure model where localized electronic states are available in the band gap (trap states) in the vicinity of the nanoparticles. This work offers experimental support to a previously proposed mechanism for enhanced insulating properties of nanocomposite LDPE and provides a powerful experimental tool to further investigate such properties.

  • 6.
    Bruhn, Benjamin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Valenta, Jan
    Sangghaleh, Fatemeh
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Blinking Statistics of Silicon Quantum Dots2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 5574-5580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The blinking statistics of numerous single silicon quantum dots fabricated by electron-beam lithography, plasma etching, and oxidation have been analyzed. Purely exponential on- and off-time distributions were found consistent with the absence of statistical aging. This is in contrast to blinking reports in the literature where power-law distributions prevail as well as observations of statistical aging in nanocrystal ensembles. A linear increase of the switching frequency with excitation power density indicates a domination of single-photon absorption processes, possibly through a direct transfer of charges to trap states without the need for a bimolecular Auger mechanism. Photoluminescence saturation with increasing excitation is not observed; however, there is a threshold in excitation (coinciding with a mean occupation of one exciton per nanocrystal) where a change from linear to square-root increase occurs. Finally, the statistics of blinking of single quantum dots in terms of average on-time, blinking frequency and blinking amplitude reveal large variations (several orders) without any significant correlation demonstrating the individual microscopic character of each quantum dot.

  • 7. Cappel, Ute B
    et al.
    Daeneke, Torben
    Bach, Udo
    Oxygen-induced doping of spiro-MeOTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells and its impact on device performance.2012In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 4925-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) employing the hole conductor 2,2'7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) require the presence of oxygen during fabrication and storage. In this paper, we determine the concentrations of oxidized spiro-MeOTAD within devices under different operating and storage conditions by UV-vis spectroscopy. Relative concentrations of spiro-MeOTAD(+) were found to be greater than 10% after illumination for standard sDSCs, where no chemical dopant had been used in the solar cell fabrication but oxygen and lithium ions were present. We suggest that oxidized spiro-MeOTAD is created as a byproduct of oxygen reduction at the TiO(2) surface during cell illumination. Furthermore, we studied the effect of light soaking under different conditions and associated changes in spiro-MeOTAD(+) concentration on the solar cell measurements. Our findings give insights to photochemical reactions occurring within sDSCs and provide guidelines for which doping levels should be used in device fabrication in absence of oxygen.

  • 8. Cavalli, Alessandro
    et al.
    Wang, Jia
    Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil
    Reimer, Michael E.
    Verheijen, Marcel A.
    Soini, Martin
    Plissard, Sebastien R.
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Haverkort, Jos E. M.
    Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.
    High-Yield Growth and Characterization of < 100 > InP p-n Diode Nanowires2016In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 3071-3077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor nanowires are nanoscale structures holding promise in many fields such as optoelectronics, quantum computing, and thermoelectrics. Nanowires are usually grown vertically on (111)-oriented substrates, while (100) is the standard in semiconductor technology. The ability to grow and to control impurity doping of (100) nanowires is crucial for integration. Here, we discuss doping of single-crystalline < 100 > nanowires, and the structural and optoelectronic properties of p-n junctions based on < 100 > InP nanowires. We describe a novel approach to achieve low resistance electrical contacts to nanowires via a gradual interface based on p-doped InAsP. As a first demonstration in optoelectronic devices, we realize a single nanowire light emitting diode in a < 100 >-oriented InP nanowire p-n junction. To obtain high vertical yield, which is necessary for future applications, we investigate the effect of the introduction of dopants on the nanowire growth.

  • 9. Chen, G.
    et al.
    Damasco, J.
    Qiu, H.
    Shao, W.
    Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.
    Valiev, Rashid
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. Tomsk State University,Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Wu, X.
    Han, G.
    Wang, Y.
    Yang, C.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Prasad, P. N.
    Energy-Cascaded Upconversion in an Organic Dye-Sensitized Core/Shell Fluoride Nanocrystal2015In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 7400-7407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles hold promises for bioimaging, solar cells, and volumetric displays. However, their emission brightness and excitation wavelength range are limited by the weak and narrowband absorption of lanthanide ions. Here, we introduce a concept of multistep cascade energy transfer, from broadly infrared-harvesting organic dyes to sensitizer ions in the shell of an epitaxially designed core/shell inorganic nanostructure, with a sequential nonradiative energy transfer to upconverting ion pairs in the core. We show that this concept, when implemented in a core-shell architecture with suppressed surface-related luminescence quenching, yields multiphoton (three-, four-, and five-photon) upconversion quantum efficiency as high as 19% (upconversion energy conversion efficiency of 9.3%, upconversion quantum yield of 4.8%), which is about ∼100 times higher than typically reported efficiency of upconversion at 800 nm in lanthanide-based nanostructures, along with a broad spectral range (over 150 nm) of infrared excitation and a large absorption cross-section of 1.47 × 10-14 cm2 per single nanoparticle. These features enable unprecedented three-photon upconversion (visible by naked eye as blue light) of an incoherent infrared light excitation with a power density comparable to that of solar irradiation at the Earth surface, having implications for broad applications of these organic-inorganic core/shell nanostructures with energy-cascaded upconversion.

  • 10. Chen, Si
    et al.
    Svedendahl, Mikael
    Duyne, Richard P Van
    Käll, Mikael
    Plasmon-enhanced colorimetric ELISA with single molecule sensitivity.2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust but ultrasensitive biosensors with a capability of detecting low abundance biomarkers could revolutionize clinical diagnostics and enable early detection of cancer, neurological diseases, and infections. We utilized a combination of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) refractive index sensing and the well-known enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to develop a simple colorimetric biosensing methodology with single molecule sensitivity. The technique is based on spectral imaging of a large number of isolated gold nanoparticles. Each particle binds a variable number of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme molecules that catalyze a localized precipitation reaction at the particle surface. The enzymatic reaction dramatically amplifies the shift of the LSPR scattering maximum, λ(max), and makes it possible to detect the presence of only one or a few HRP molecules per particle.

  • 11.
    Cui, Yanxia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Fung, Kin Hung
    Xu, Jun
    Ma, Hyungjin
    Jin, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Fang, Nicholas X.
    Ultrabroadband Light Absorption by a Sawtooth Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab2012In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1443-1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an ultrabroadband thin-film infrared absorber made of sawtoothed anisotropic metamaterial. Absorptivity of higher than 95% at normal incidence is supported in a wide range of frequencies, where the full absorption width at half-maximum is about 86%. Such property is retained well at a very wide range of incident angles too. Light of shorter wavelengths are harvested at upper parts of the sawteeth of smaller widths, while light of longer wavelengths are trapped at lower parts of larger tooth widths. This phenomenon is explained by the slowlight modes in anisotropic metamaterial waveguide. Our study can be applied in the field of designing photovoltaic devices and thermal emitters.

  • 12.
    Dhaka, Veer
    et al.
    Aalto University.
    Oksanen, Jani
    Aalto University.
    Jiang, Hua
    Aalto University.
    Haggren, Tuomas
    Aalto University.
    Nykänen, Antti
    Aalto University.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Kakko, Joona-Pekko
    Aalto University.
    Huhtio, Teppo
    Aalto University.
    Ruokolainen, Janne
    Aalto University.
    Mattila, Marco
    Aalto University.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Semiconductor Materials, HMA (Closed 20120101).
    Kauppinen, Esko I
    Aalto University.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto University.
    Aluminum-Induced Photoluminescence Red Shifts in Core-Shell GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Nanowires2013In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 3581-3588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a new phenomenon related to Al-induced carrier confinement at the interface in core-shell GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs nanowires grown using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy with Au as catalyst. All AlxGa1-xAs shells strongly passivated the GaAs nanowires, but surprisingly the peak photoluminescence (PL) position and the intensity from the core were found to be a strong function of Al composition in the shell at low temperatures. Large and systematic red shifts of up to similar to 66 nm and broadening in the PL emission from the GaAs core were observed when the Al composition in the shell exceeded 3%. On the contrary, the phenomenon was observed to be considerably weaker at the room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals Al segregation in the shell along six Al-rich radial bands displaying a 3-fold symmetry. Time-resolved PL measurements suggest the presence of indirect electron-hole transitions at the interface at higher Al composition. We discuss all possibilities including a simple shell-core-shell model using simulations where the density of interface traps increases with the Al content, thus creating a strong local electron confinement. The carrier confinement at the interface is most likely related to Al inhomogeneity and/or Al-induced traps. Our results suggest that a low Al composition in the shell is desirable in order to achieve ideal passivation in GaAs nanowires.

  • 13. Dukette, Tiffany E
    et al.
    Mackay, Michael E
    Van Horn, Brooke
    Wooley, Karen L
    Drockenmuller, Eric
    Malkoch, Michael
    Hawker, Craig J
    Conformation of intramolecularly cross-linked polymer nanoparticles on solid substrates2005In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1704-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformation of cross-linked, monomolecular, polystyrene nanoparticles on a solid substrate is considered as a function of cross-linking degree and substrate surface free energy. It is found that an extreme amount of cross-linking is necessary for the ca. 5-10 nm diameter nanoparticles to retain their original spherical shape, regardless of surface free energy. A lesser amount of cross-linking produces a nanoparticle that collapses to a pancake-like conformation on a high-energy substrate yet remains spherical on a low-energy surface. A simple model is developed to reveal the relationship between nanoparticle modulus and surface free energy to define the nanoparticle conformation.

  • 14.
    Ekeroth, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Munger, E. Peter
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Boyd, Robert
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ekspong, Joakim
    Umea Univ, Dept Phys, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Wagberg, Thomas
    Umea Univ, Dept Phys, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umea Univ, Dept Phys, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Brenning, Nils
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics. Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Catalytic Nanotruss Structures Realized by Magnetic Self-Assembly in Pulsed Plasma2018In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 3132-3137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable nanostructures that feature a high surface area are firmly attached to a conducting substrate and can be fabricated efficiently over significant areas, which are of interest for a wide variety of applications in, for instance, energy storage and catalysis. We present a novel approach to fabricate Fe nanoparticles using a pulsed-plasma process and their subsequent guidance and self-organization into well-defined nanostructures on a substrate of choice by the use of an external magnetic field. A systematic analysis and study of the growth procedure demonstrate that nondesired nanoparticle agglomeration in the plasma phase is hindered by electrostatic repulsion, that a polydisperse nanoparticle distribution is a consequence of the magnetic collection, and that the formation of highly networked nanotruss structures is a direct result of the polydisperse nanoparticle distribution. The nanoparticles in the nanotruss are strongly connected, and their outer surfaces are covered with a 2 nm layer of iron oxide. A 10 mu m thick nanotruss structure was grown on a lightweight, flexible and conducting carbon-paper substrate, which enabled the efficient production of H-2 gas from water splitting at a low overpotential of 210 mV and at a current density of 10 mA/cm(2).

  • 15.
    Elfström, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Silicon Nanoribbons for Electrical Detection of Biomolecules2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 945-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct electrical detection of biomolecules at high sensitivity hat recently been demonstrated using semiconductor nanowires. Here we demonstrate that semiconductor nanoribbons, in this case, a thin sheet of silicon on an oxidized silicon substrate, can approach the same sensitivity extending below the picomolar concentration regime in the biotin/streptavidin case. This corresponds to less than similar to 20 analyte molecules bound to receptors on the nanoribbon surface. The micrometer-size lateral dimensions of the nanoribbon enable optical lithography to be used, resulting in a simple and high-yield fabrication process. Electrical characterization of the nanoribbons is complemented by computer simulations showing enhanced sensitivity for thin ribbons. Finally, we demonstrate that the device can be operated both in inversion as well as in accumulation mode and the measured differences in detection sensitivity are explained in terms of the distance between the channel and the receptor coated surface with respect to the Debye screening length. The nanoribbon approach opens up for large scale CMOS fabrication of highly sensitive biomolecule sensor chips for potential use in medicine and biotechnology.

  • 16.
    Elfström, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Juhasz, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Engfeldt, Torun
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Surface Charge Sensitivity of Silicon Nanowires: Size Dependence2007In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 2608-2612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanowires of different widths were fabricated in silicon on insulator (SOI) material using conventional process technology combined with electron-beam lithography. The aim was to analyze the size dependence of the sensitivity of such nanowires for biomolecule detection and for other sensor applications. Results from electrical characterization of the nanowires show a threshold voltage increasing with decreasing width. When immersed in an acidic buffer solution, smaller nanowires exhibit large conductance changes while larger wires remain unaffected. This behavior is also reflected in detected threshold shifts between buffer solutions of different pH, and we find that nanowires of width > 150 nm are virtually insensitive to the buffer pH. The increased sensitivity for smaller sizes is ascribed to the larger surface/volume ratio for smaller wires exposing the channel to a more effective control by the local environment, similar to a surrounded gate transistor structure. Computer simulations confirm this behavior and show that sensing can be extended even down to the single charge level.

  • 17. El-Sayed, Ramy
    et al.
    Eita, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Barrefelt, Åsa
    Ye, Fei
    Jain, Himanshu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Fares, Mona
    Lundin, Arne
    Crona, Mikael
    Abu-Salah, Khalid
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Thermostable Luciferase from Luciola cruciate for Imaging of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanotubes Carrying Doxorubicin Using in Vivo Imaging System2013In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1393-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we introduce a novel method for in vivo imaging of the biodistribution of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) labeled with recombinant thermo-stable Luciola cruciata luciferase (LcL). In addition, we highlight a new application for green fluorescent proteins in which they are utilized as imaging moieties for SWNTs. Carbon nanotubes show great positive potential compared to other drug nanocarriers with respect to loading capacity, cell internalization, and biodegradability. We have also studied the effect of binding mode (chemical conjugation and physical adsorption) on the chemiluminescence activity, decay rate, and half-life. We have shown that through proper chemical conjugation of LcL to CNTs, LcL remained biologically active for the catalysis of D-luciferin in the presence of ATP to release detectable amounts of photons for in vivo imaging. Chemiluminescence of LcL allows imaging of CNTs and their cargo in nonsuperficial locations at an organ resolution with no need of an excitation source. Loading LcL-CNTs with the antitumor antibiotic doxorubicin did not alter their biological activity for imaging. In vivo imaging of LcL-CNTs has been carried out using "IVIS spectrum" showing the uptake of LcL-CNTs by different organs in mice. We believe that the LcL-CNT system is an advanced powerful tool for in vivo imaging and therefore a step toward the advancement of the nanomellicine field.

  • 18.
    Fornara, Andrea
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Johansson, Petter
    Petersson, Karolina
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Qin, Jian
    Olsson, Eva
    Ilver, Dag
    Krozer, Anatol
    Muhammed, Mamoun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Johansson, Christer
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics (Closed 20120101), Functional Materials, FNM (Closed 20120101).
    Tailored Magnetic Nanoparticles for Direct and Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules in Biological Samples2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 3423-3428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed nanoparticles with tailored magnetic properties for sensitive detection of biomolecules directly in biological samples in a single step. Thermally blocked nanoparticles obtained by thermal hydrolysis are mixed with sample solutions and the variation of the magnetic relaxation due to surface binding is used to detect the presence of biomolecules. The binding events significantly increase the hydrodynamic volume of nanoparticles, thus changing their Brownian relaxation frequency which is measured by a specifically developed AC-susceptometer.

    The system was tested for the presence of Brucella antibodies in serum samples from infected cows and the surface of the nanoparticles was functionalized with lipopolysaccarides (LPS) from Brucella abortus. The hydrodynamic volume of functionalized particles increased by 25-35% as a result of the binding of the antibodies, as measured by changes in the susceptibility in an alternating magnetic field. The method has shown high sensitivity, with detection limit of 7 nmol·L-1 in serum without any pre-treatment of the biological samples.

    The detection method is very sensitive, cost-efficient and versatile, giving a direct indication if the animal is infected or not, making it suitable for point-of care applications. The functionalization of tailored magnetic nanoparticles can be modified to suit numerous homogenous assays for a wide range of applications.

  • 19.
    Fu, Ying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Ågren, Hans
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    A lossless negative dielectric constant from quantum dot exciton polaritons2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1551-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospects for a lossless negative dielectric constant material for optical devices are studied. Simulations show that with sufficient gain, a mixture of two semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can produce an effective dielectric constant that is lossless and negative. This permits, in concept, arbitrarily small scaling of the optical mode volume, a major goal in the field of nanophotonics. The proposed implementation of a lossless negative dielectric constant material based on colloidal QDs opens a tractable path.

  • 20. Guo, Xin
    et al.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Bao, Jiming
    Wiley, Benjamin J.
    Yang, Qing
    Zhang, Xining
    Ma, Yaoguang
    Yu, Huakang
    Tong, Limin
    Direct Coupling of Plasmonic and Photonic Nanowires for Hybrid Nanophotonic Components and Circuits2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 4515-4519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires using ultracompact near-field interaction. Photon-plasmon coupling efficiency up to 80% with coupling length down to the 200 nm level is achieved between individual Ag and ZnO nanowires. Hybrid nanophotonic components, including polarization splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and microring cavities, are fabricated out of coupled Ag and ZnO nanowires. These components offer relatively low loss with subwavelength confinement; a hybrid nanowire microcavity exhibits a Q-factor of 520.

  • 21.
    Haffouz, Sofiane
    et al.
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Zeuner, Katharina D.
    KTH.
    Dalacu, Dan
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Poole, Philip J.
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Lapointe, Jean
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Poitras, Daniel
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Mnaymneh, Khaled
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Wu, Xiaohua
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Couillard, Martin
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Korkusinski, Marek
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Schöll, Eva
    KTH.
    Jöns, Klaus D.
    KTH.
    Zwiller, Valery
    KTH.
    Williams, Robin L.
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada..
    Bright Single InAsP Quantum Dots at Telecom Wavelengths in Position-Controlled InP Nanowires: The Role of the Photonic Waveguide2018In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 3047-3052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the site-selected growth of bright single InAsP quantum dots embedded within InP photonic nanowire waveguides emitting at telecom wavelengths. We demonstrate a dramatic dependence of the emission rate on both the emission wavelength and the nanowire diameter. With an appropriately designed waveguide, tailored to the emission wavelength of the dot, an increase in the count rate by nearly 2 orders of magnitude (0.4 to 35 kcps) is obtained for quantum dots emitting in the telecom O-band, showing high single-photon purity with multiphoton emission probabilities down to 2%. Using emission-wavelength-optimized waveguides, we demonstrate bright, narrow-line-width emission from single InAsP quantum dots with an unprecedented tuning range of 880 to 1550 nm. These results pave the way toward efficient single-photon sources at telecom wavelengths using deterministically grown InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots.

  • 22. Hagberg, Erik C.
    et al.
    Malkoch, Michael
    Ling, Yibo
    Hawker, Craig J.
    Carter, Kenneth R.
    Effects of modulus and surface chemistry of thiol-ene photopolymers in nanoimprinting2007In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 233-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiol-ene photopolymers were studied as patternable resins for nanocontact molding imprint lithography. Photopolymerizable thiol and ene monomer mixtures were used, and after molding, patterned thiol-ene polymer features the size and shape of the original molds were replicated. Adhesion and release were examined and controlled by manipulating the surface chemistry of the substrate and mold. A direct correlation between cured thiol-ene polymer modulus and pattern fidelity was observed.

  • 23.
    Hajian, Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    Linköping University.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Hamedi, Mahiar M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH.
    Understanding the Dispersive Action of Nanocellulose for Carbon Nanomaterials2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1439-1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at understanding the excellent ability of nanocelluloses to disperse carbon nanomaterials (CNs) in aqueous media to form long-term stable colloidal dispersions without the need for chemical functionalization of the CNs or the use of surfactant. These dispersions are useful for composites with high CN content when seeking water-based, efficient, and green pathways for their preparation. To establish a comprehensive understanding of such dispersion mechanism, colloidal characterization of the dispersions has been combined with surface adhesion measurements using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) in aqueous media. AFM results based on model surfaces of graphene and nanocellulose further suggest that there is an association between the nanocellulose and the CN. This association is caused by fluctuations of the counterions on the surface of the nanocellulose inducing dipoles in the sp2carbon lattice surface of the CNs. Furthermore, the charges on the nanocellulose will induce an electrostatic stabilization of the nanocellulose–CN complexes that prevents aggregation. On the basis of this understanding, nanocelluloses with high surface charge density were used to disperse and stabilize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide particles in water, so that further increases in the dispersion limit of CNTs could be obtained. The dispersion limit reached the value of 75 wt % CNTs and resulted in high electrical conductivity (515 S/cm) and high modulus (14 GPa) of the CNT composite nanopapers.

  • 24. Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Herland, Anna
    Karlsson, Roger H.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Electrochemical Devices Made from Conducting Nanowire Networks Self-Assembled from Amyloid Fibrils and Alkoxysulfonate PEDOT2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1736-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins offer an almost infinite number of functions and geometries for building nanostructures. Here we have focused on amyloid fibrillar proteins as a nanowire template and shown that these fibrils can be coated with the highly conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate PEDOT through molecular self-assembly in water. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the coated fibers have a diameter around 15 nm and a length/thickness aspect ratio >1:1000. We have further shown that networks of the conducting nanowires are electrically and electrochemically active by constructing fully functional electrochemical transistors with nanowire networks, operating at low voltages between 0 and 0.5 V.

  • 25. Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Asberg, Peter
    Inganäs, Olle
    Bridging dimensions in organic electronics: assembly of electroactive polymer nanodevices from fluids2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 631-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing and patterning of electroactive materials from solvents is a hallmark of flexible organic electronics, and commercial applications based on these properties are now emerging. Printing and ink-jetting are today preferred technologies for patterning, but these limit the formation of nanodevices, as they give structures way above the micrometer lateral dimension. There is therefore a great need for cheap, large area patterning of nanodevices and methods for top-down registration of these. Here we demonstrate large area patterning of connected micro/nanolines and nanotransistors from the conducting polymer PEDOT, assembled from fluids. We thereby simultaneously solve problems of large area nanopatterning, and nanoregistration.

  • 26.
    Iovan, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Naidyuk, Yu. G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Vedyaev, A.
    Dieny, B.
    Korenivski, Vladislav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Spin diode based on Fe/MgO double tunnel junction2008In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 805-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a spin diode consisting of a semiconductor-free nanoscale Fe/MgO-based double tunnel junction. The device exhibits a near perfect spin-valve effect combined with a strong diode effect. The mechanism consistent with our data is resonant tunneling through discrete states in the middle ferromagnetic layer sandwiched by tunnel barriers of different spin-dependent transparency. The observed magnetoresistance is a record high > 1000%, essentially making the structure an on/off spin switch. This, combined with the strong diode effect, similar to 100, demonstrates a new device principle, promising for memory and reprogrammable logic applications.

  • 27.
    Jiang, Jun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Kula, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Lu, W.
    National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Luo, Yi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    First-principles simulations of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of molecular electronic devices2005In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1551-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a powerful experimental tool for studying the molecular and metal contact geometries in molecular electronic devices. A first-principles computational method based on the hybrid density functional theory is developed to simulate the IETS of realistic molecular electronic devices. The calculated spectra of a real device with an octanedithiolate embedded between two gold contacts are in excellent agreement with recent experimental results. Strong temperature dependence of the experimental IETS spectra is also reproduced. It is shown that the IETS is extremely sensitive to the intramolecular conformation and the molecule-metal contact geometry changes. With the help of theoretical calculations, it has finally become possible to fully understand and assign the complicated experimental IETS and, more importantly, provide the structural information of the molecular electronic devices.

  • 28.
    Juhasz, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Elfström, Niklas
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Linnros, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics.
    Controlled Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires by Electron Beam Lithography and Electrochemical Size Reduction2005In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that electrochemical size reduction can be used for precisely controlled fabrication of silicon nanowires of widths approaching the 10 nm regime. The scheme can, in principle, be applied to wires defined by optical lithography but is here demonstrated for wires of similar to100-200 nm width, defined by electron beam lithography. As for electrochemical etching of bulk silicon, the etching can be tuned both to the pore formation regime as well as to electropolishing. By in-situ optical and electrical characterization, the process can be halted at a certain nanowire width. Further electrical characterization shows a conductance decreasing faster than dimensional scaling would predict. As an explanation, we propose that charged surface states play a more pronounced role as the nanowire cross-sectional dimensions decrease.

  • 29. Karimi, M.
    et al.
    Heurlin, M.
    Limpert, S.
    Jain, V.
    Zeng, X.
    Geijselaers, I.
    Nowzari, A.
    Fu, Ying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Samuelson, L.
    Linke, H.
    Borgström, M. T.
    Pettersson, H.
    Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared2018In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor nanowires have great potential for realizing broadband photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon. However, the spectral range of such detectors has so far been limited to selected regions in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. Here, we report on the first intersubband nanowire heterostructure array photodetectors exhibiting a spectrally resolved photoresponse from the visible to long-wavelength infrared. In particular, the infrared response from 3 to 20 μm is enabled by intersubband transitions in low-bandgap InAsP quantum discs synthesized axially within InP nanowires. The intriguing optical characteristics, including unexpected sensitivity to normal incident radiation, are explained by excitation of the longitudinal component of optical modes in the photonic crystal formed by the nanostructured portion of the detectors. Our results provide a generalizable insight into how broadband nanowire photodetectors may be designed and how engineered nanowire heterostructures open up new, fascinating opportunities for optoelectronics.

  • 30.
    Kula, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Jiang, Jun
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Luo, Yi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Probing molecule-metal bonding in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy2006In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1693-1698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present first-principles calculations for the inelastic electron tunneling spectra ( IETS) of three molecules, 1-undecane thiol (C11), alpha, omega-bis(thioacetyl)oligophenylenethynylene (OPE), and alpha,omega-bis(thioacetyl) oligophenylenevinylene (OPV), sandwiched between two gold electrodes. We have demonstrated that IETS is very sensitive to the bonding between the molecule and electrodes. In comparison with experiment of Kushmerick et al. (Nano Lett. 2004, 4, 639), it has been concluded that the C11 forms a strong chemical bond, while the bonding of the OPE and OPV systems are slightly weaker. All experimental spectral features have been correctly assigned.

  • 31.
    Lemme, Max C.
    et al.
    Harvard University.
    Koppens, Frank H. L.
    Falk, Abram L.
    Rudner, Mark S.
    Park, Hongkun
    Levitov, Leonid S.
    Marcus, Charles M.
    Gate-Activated Photoresponse in a Graphene p-n Junction2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 4134-4137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study photodetection in graphene near a local electrostatic gate, which enables active control of the potential landscape and carrier polarity. We find that a strong photoresponse only appears when and where a p-n junction is formed, allowing on-off control of photodetection. Photocurrents generated near p-n junctions do not require biasing and can be realized using submicrometer gates. Locally modulated photoresponse enables a new range of applications for graphene-based photodetectors including, for example, pixilated infrared imaging with control of response on subwavelength dimensions.

  • 32. Lin, Hongzhen
    et al.
    Tian, Yuxi
    Zapadka, Karolina
    Persson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Thomsson, Daniel
    Mirzov, Oleg
    Larsson, Per-Olof
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Scheblykin, Ivan G.
    Fate of Excitations in Conjugated Polymers: Single-Molecule Spectroscopy Reveals Nonemissive "Dark" Regions in MEH-PPV Individual Chains2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 4456-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single chains of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV (poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene)) were studied with wide-field fluorescence microscopy (dispersion in inert polymer matrices) and with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (chloroform solution). The fluorescence yield of individual molecules in matrices was found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that in solution and it decreased substantially with increasing chain length. It suggests that isolation of MEH-PPV molecules in polymer matrices creates favorable conditions for photogeneration of nonemissive primary excited states.

  • 33. Liu, Li-Hong
    et al.
    Lerner, Michael M.
    Yan, Mingdi
    Portland State University.
    Derivitization of Pristine Graphene with Well-Defined Chemical Functionalities2010In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 3754-3756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene poses considerable challenges due to the lack of reactive functional groups. Herein, we report a simple and general method to covalently functionalize pristine graphene with well-defined chemical functionalities. It is a solution-based process where solvent-exfoliated graphene was treated with perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) by photochemical or thermal activation. Graphene with well-defined functionalities was synthesized, and the resulting materials were soluble in organic solvents or water depending on the nature of the functional group on PFPA.

  • 34. Liu, Li-Hong
    et al.
    Yan, Mingdi
    Portland State University.
    Simple Method for the Covalent Immobilization of Graphene2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 3375-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple and efficient method to immobilize graphene on silicon wafers using perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) as the coupling agent. Graphene sheets were covalently attached to PFPA-functionalized wafer surface by a simple heat treatment under ambient conditions. The formation of single and multiple layers of graphene were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and optical and atomic force microscopy. Evidence of covalent bond formation between graphene and PFPA decorated silicon wafer was given by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sonication treatment.

  • 35. Liu, Qingkun
    et al.
    Cui, Yanxia
    Gardner, Dennis
    Li, Xin
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Smalyukh, Ivan I.
    Self-Alignment of Plasmonic Gold Nanorods in Reconfigurable Anisotropic Fluids for Tunable Bulk Metamaterial Applications2010In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1347-1353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the bulk self-alignment of dispersed gold nanorods imposed by the intrinsic cylindrical micelle self-assembly in nematic and hexagonal liquid crystalline phases of anisotropic fluids. External magnetic field and shearing allow for alignment and realignment of the liquid crystal matrix with the ensuing long-range orientational order of well-dispersed plasmonic nanorods. This results in a switchable polarization-sensitive plasmon resonance exhibiting stark differences from that of the same nanorods in isotropic fluids. The device-scale bulk nanoparticle alignment may enable optical metamaterial mass production and control of properties arising from combining the switchable nanoscale structure of anisotropic fluids with the surface plasmon resonance properties of the plasmonic nanorods.

  • 36. Lobastov, Vladimir A.
    et al.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    California Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Jau
    Zewail, Ahmed H.
    Ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM): Four-dimensional imaging and diffraction of nanostructures during phase transitions2007In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 2552-2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-dimensional (4D) imaging during structural changes are reported here using ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM). For nanostructures, the phase transition in the strongly correlated material vanadium dioxide is our case study. The transition is initiated and probed in situ, in the microscope, by a femtosecond near-infrared and electron pulses (at 120 kell). Real-space imaging and Fourier-space diffraction patterns show that the transition from the monoclinic (P2(1)/c) to tetragonal (P4(2)/mnm) structure is induced in 3 +/- 1 ps, but there exists a nonequilibrium (metastable) structure whose nature is determined by electronic, carrier-induced, structural changes. For the particles studied, the subsequent recovery occurs in about 1 ns. Because of the selectivity of excitation from the 3d(II)-band, and the relatively low fluence used, these results show the critical role of carriers in weakening the V4+-V4+ bonding in the monoclinic phase and the origin of the nonequilibrium phase. A theoretical two-dimensional (2D) diffusion model for nanoscale materials is presented, and its results account for the observed behavior.

  • 37. Lodewijks, Kristof
    et al.
    Maccaferri, Nicolo
    Pakizeh, Tavakol
    Dumas, Randy K.
    Zubritskaya, Irina
    Åkerman, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Vavassori, Paolo
    Dmitriev, Alexandre
    Magnetoplasmonic Design Rules for Active Magneto-Optics2014In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 7207-7214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light polarization rotators and nonreciprocal optical isolators are essential building blocks in photonics technology. These macroscopic passive devices are commonly based on magneto-optical Faraday and Kerr polarization rotation. Magnetoplasmonics, the combination of magnetism and plasmonics, is a promising route to bring these devices to the nanoscale. We introduce design rules for highly tunable active magnetoplasmonic elements in which we can tailor the amplitude and sign of the Kerr response over a broad spectral range.

  • 38. Mashoff, T.
    et al.
    Pratzer, M.
    Geringer, V.
    Echtermeyer, T. J.
    Lemme, Max C.
    AMO GmbH, AMICA, Aachen, Germany.
    Liebmann, M.
    Morgenstern, M.
    Bistability and Oscillatory Motion of Natural Nanomembranes Appearing within Monolayer Graphene on Silicon Dioxide2010In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 461-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The truly two-dimensional material graphene is an ideal candidate for nanoelectromechanics due to its large strength and mobility. Here we show that graphene flakes provide natural nanomembranes of diameter down to 3 nm within its intrinsic rippling. The membranes can be lifted either reversibly or hysteretically by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The clamped-membrane model including van-der-Waals and dielectric forces explains the results quantitatively. AC-fields oscillate the membranes, which might lead to a completely novel approach to controlled quantized oscillations or single atom mass detection.

  • 39.
    Naureen, Shagufta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Shahid, Naeem
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    High Optical Quality InP-Based Nanopillars Fabricated by a Top-Down Approach2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 4805-4811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense and uniform arrays of Top-based nanopillars were fabricated by dry etching using self-assembly of colloidal silica particles for masking. The pillars, both single and arrays, fabricated from epitaxially grown InP and InP/GaInAsP/InP quantum well structures :how excellent photoluminescence (PL) even at room temperature. The measured PL line widths are comparable to the as-grown wafer indicating high quality fabricated pillars. A stamping technique enables transfer with arbitrary densities of the nanopillars freed from the substrate by selectively etching a sacrificial InGaAs layer.

  • 40.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rutland, Mark
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tunable Nanolubrication between Dual-Responsive Polyionic Grafts2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 2984-2990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on a direct approach of quantitatively probing the nanotribological response of chemically end-grafted polyions.  A combination of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), in the now well established colloidal probe mode was utilized to investigate the stimuli-induced lubrication behavior between poly-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) grafts on gold.  Force and friction measurements showed reversible transitions of up to an order of magnitude difference induced by varying the solvent conditions.  The greatly enhanced lubrication observed at low pH was attributed to the formation of a repulsive, highly charged, hydrated cushion.  At high pH the friction was significantly increased.  The system turned attractive above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) with a small friction reduction interpreted as nanoscopic flattening at the interfacial boundary.

  • 41.
    Pallon, Love K. H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Yu, Shun
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Liu, Dongming
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Diaz, Ana
    Holler, Mirko
    Chen, Xiangrong R.
    Gubanski, Stanislaw
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Three-Dimensional Nanometer Features of Direct Current Electrical Trees in Low-Density Polyethylene2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1402-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical trees are one reason for the breakdown of insulating materials in electrical power systems. An understanding of the growth of electrical trees plays a crucial role in the development of reliable high voltage direct current (HVDC) power grid systems with transmission voltages up to 1 MV. A section that contained an electrical tree in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been visualized in three dimensions (3D) with a resolution of 92 nm by X-ray ptychographic tomography. The 3D imaging revealed prechannel-formations with a lower density with the width of a couple of hundred nanometers formed around the main branch of the electrical tree. The prechannel structures were partially connected with the main tree via paths through material with a lower density, proving that the tree had grown in a step-by-step manner via the prestep structures formed in front of the main channels. All the prechannel structures had a size well below the limit of the Paschen law and were thus not formed by partial discharges. Instead, it is suggested that the prechannel structures were formed by electro-mechanical stress and impact ionization, where the former was confirmed by simulations to be a potential explanation with electro-mechanical stress tensors being almost of the same order of magnitude as the short-term modulus of low-density polyethylene.

  • 42. Prasongkit, Jariyanee
    et al.
    Grigoriev, Anton
    Pathak, Biswarup
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Scheicher, Ralph H.
    Transverse Conductance of DNA Nucleotides in a Graphene Nanogap from First Principles2011In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1941-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication of nanopores in atomically thin graphene has recently been achieved, and translocation of DNA has been demonstrated. Taken together with an earlier proposal to use graphene nanogaps for the purpose of DNA sequencing, this approach can resolve the technical problem of achieving single-base resolution in electronic nucleobase detection. We have theoretically evaluated the performance of a graphene nanogap setup for the purpose of whole-genome sequencing, by employing density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function method to investigate the transverse conductance properties of nucleotides inside the gap. In particular, we determined the electrical tunneling current variation at finite bias due to changes in the nucleotides orientation and lateral position. Although the resulting tunneling current is found to fluctuate over several orders of magnitude, a distinction between the four DNA bases appears possible, thus ranking the approach promising for rapid whole-genome sequencing applications.

  • 43. Reindl, Marcus
    et al.
    Jöns, Klaus D.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Nano Photonics.
    Huber, Daniel
    Schimpf, Christian
    Huo, Yongheng
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Rastelli, Armando
    Trotta, Rinaldo
    Phonon-Assisted Two-Photon Interference from Remote Quantum Emitters2017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 4090-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic quantum technologies are on the verge of finding applications in everyday life with quantum cryptography and quantum simulators on the horizon. Extensive research has been carried out to identify suitable quantum emitters and single epitaxial quantum dots have emerged as near-optimal sources of bright, on demand, highly indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon-pairs. In order to build up quantum networks, it is essential to interface remote quantum emitters. However, this is still an outstanding challenge, as the quantum states of dissimilar "artificial atoms" have to be prepared on-demand with high fidelity and the generated photons have to be made indistinguishable in all possible degrees of freedom. Here, we overcome this major obstacle and show an unprecedented two-photon interference (visibility of 51 +/- 5%) from remote strain-tunable GaAs quantum dots emitting on-demand photon-pairs. We achieve this result by exploiting for the first time the full potential of a novel phonon-assisted two-photon excitation scheme, which allows for the generation of highly indistinguishable (visibility of 71 +/- 9%) entangled photon-pairs (fidelity of 90 +/- 2%), enables push-button biexciton state preparation (fidelity of 80 +/- 2%) and outperforms conventional resonant two-photon excitation schemes in terms of robustness against environmental decoherence. Our results mark an important milestone for the practical realization of quantum repeaters and complex multiphoton entanglement experiments involving dissimilar artificial atoms.

  • 44.
    Rudberg, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Salek, Pawel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Luo, Yi
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry.
    Nonlocal exchange interaction removes half-metallicity in graphene nanoribbons2007In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 2211-2213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Band gap studies of zigzag-edge graphene ribbons are presented. While earlier calculations at LDA level show that zigzag-edge graphene ribbons become half-metallic when cross-ribbon electric fields are applied, our calculations with hybrid density functional demonstrate that finite graphene ribbons behave as half-semiconductors. The spin-dependent band gap can be changed in a wide range, making possible many applications in spintronics.

  • 45.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Modal Engineering of Second-Harmonic Generation in Single GaP Nanopillars2014In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 5376-5381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on modal dispersion engineering for second-harmonic generation (SHG) from single vertical GaP nanopillars/nanowaveguides, fabricated by a top-down approach, using optical modal overlap between the pump (830 nm) and SHG (415 nm). We present a modal analysis for the SHG process in GaP nanopillars and demonstrate efficient utilization of the longitudinal component of the nonlinear polarization density. Our SHG measurements show quantitatively the presented model. We experimentally demonstrate that polarization beam shaping and field distribution modification of the radiated SHG light, at nanometer scale, can be achieved by tuning the pillar diameter and linear pump polarization. SHG from single pillars can be used as femtosecond nanoscopic light sources at visible wavelengths applicable for single cell/molecular imaging and interesting for future integrated nanophotonics components. While this work focuses on GaP nanopillars, the results are applicable to other semiconductor nanowire materials and synthesis methods.

  • 46.
    Sanatinia, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Semiconductor Materials, HMA.
    Surface Second-Harmonic Generation from Vertical GaP Nanopillars2012In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 820-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the experimental observation and analysis of second-harmonic generation (SHG) from vertical GaP nanopillars. Periodic arrays of GaP nanopillars with varying diameters ranging from 100 to 250 nm were fabricated on (100) undoped GaP substrate by nanosphere lithography and dry etching. We observed a strong dependence of the SHG intensity on pillar diameter. Analysis of surface and bulk contributions to SHG from the pillars including the calculations of the electric field profiles and coupling efficiencies is in very good agreement with the experimental data. Complementary measurements of surface optical phonons by Raman spectroscopy are also in agreement with the calculated field intensities at the surface. Finally, polarization of the measured light is used to distinguish between the bulk and surface SHG from GaP nanopillars.

  • 47. Sandén, Tor
    et al.
    Wyss, Romain
    Santschi, Christian
    Hassaine, Gherici
    Deluz, Cedric
    Martin, Olivier J. F.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Vogel, Horst
    A Zeptoliter Volume Meter for Analysis of Single Protein Molecules2012In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 370-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central goal in bioanalytics is to determine the concentration of and interactions between biomolecules. Nanotechnology allows performing such analyses in a highly parallel, low-cost, and miniaturized fashion. Here we report on label-free volume, concentration, and mobility analysis of single protein molecules and nanoparticles during their diffusion through a subattoliter detection volume, confined by a 100 nm aperture in a thin gold film. A high concentration of small fluorescent molecules renders the aqueous solution in the aperture brightly fluorescent. Nonfluorescent analytes diffusing into the aperture displace the fluorescent molecules in the solution, leading to a decrease of the detected fluorescence signal, while analytes diffusing out of the aperture return the fluorescence level. The resulting fluorescence fluctuations provide direct information on the volume, concentration, and mobility of the nonfluorescent analytes through fluctuation analysis in both time and amplitude.

  • 48. Shao, Yinming
    et al.
    Post, Kirk W.
    Wu, Jhih-Sheng
    Dai, Siyuan
    Frenzel, Alex J.
    Richardella, Anthony R.
    Lee, Joon Sue
    Sarnarth, Nitin
    Fogler, Michael M.
    Balatsky, Alexander V.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
    Basov, D. N.
    Faraday Rotation Due to Surface States in the Topological Insulator (Bi1-xSbx)(2)Te-32017In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 980-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy, we have explored the charge dynamics of (Bi,Sb)(2)Te-3 thin films on InP substrates. From the magneto-transmission data we extracted three distinct cyclotron resonance (CR) energies that are all apparent in the broad band Faraday rotation (FR) spectra. This comprehensive FR-CR data set has allowed us to isolate the response of the bulk states from the intrinsic surface states associated with both the top and bottom surfaces of the film. The FR data uncovered that electron- and hole-type Dirac Fermions reside on opposite surfaces of our films, which paves the way for observing many exotic quantum phenomena in topological insulators.

  • 49. Shin, Junsoo
    et al.
    Nascimento, Von Braun
    Geneste, Gregory
    Rundgren, John
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics.
    Plummer, E. Ward
    Dkhil, Brahim
    Kalinin, Sergei V.
    Baddorf, Arthur P.
    Atomistic Screening Mechanism of Ferroelectric Surfaces: An In Situ Study of the Polar Phase in Ultrathin BaTiO3 Films Exposed to H2O2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 3720-3725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polarization screening mechanism and ferroelectric phase stability of ultrathin BaTiO3 films exposed to water molecules is determined by first principles theory and in situ experiment. Surface crystallography data from electron diffraction combined with density functional theory calculations demonstrate that small water vapor exposures do not affect surface structure or polarization. Large exposures result in surface hydroxylation and rippling, formation of surface oxygen vacancies, and reversal of the polarization direction. Understanding interplay between ferroelectric phase stability, screening, and atomistic processes at surfaces is a key to control low-dimensional ferroelectricity.

  • 50.
    Smith, Anderson
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Paussa, A.
    DIEGM, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.
    Vaziri, Sam
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sterner, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Esseni, D.
    DIEGM, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.
    Palestri, P.
    DIEGM, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze 206, 33100 Udine, Italy.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Lemme, Max
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits. University of Siegen, Hölderlinstrasse 3, 57076 Siegen, Germany.
    Electromechanical Piezoresistive Sensing in Suspended Graphene Membranes2013In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 3237-3242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monolayer graphene exhibits exceptional electronic and mechanical properties, making it a very promising material for nanoelectromechanical devices. Here, we conclusively demonstrate the piezoresistive effect in graphene in a nanoelectromechanical membrane configuration that provides direct electrical readout of pressure to strain transduction. This makes it highly relevant for an important class of nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) transducers. This demonstration is consistent with our simulations and previously reported gauge factors and simulation values. The membrane in our experiment acts as a strain gauge independent of crystallographic orientation and allows for aggressive size scalability. When compared with conventional pressure sensors, the sensors have orders of magnitude higher sensitivity per unit area.

12 1 - 50 of 69
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf