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  • 1. Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    Modeling nitrate leaching with a biogeochemical model modified based on observations in a row-crop field in Iowa2006Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 196, nr 1-2, s. 116-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of nitrate leaching from cropland is crucial for preventing surface or ground water degradation. Accurate modeling of nitrate leaching requires simulations of both soil hydrological and biogeochemical processes. This paper reports an attempt to improve an existing biogeochemical model, Denitrification-Decomposition or DNDC, for estimation of nitrate leaching from crop fields with tile drainage system. DNDC was equipped with detailed biogeochemical processes of nitrogen turnover but a simple module for one-dimensional movement of soil water. Observations from nine drainage tiles with three different fertilizer treatments in 4 years (1996-1999) at an experimental field in Iowa were used for model modifications. Preliminary comparisons with observed tile discharge flow indicated that the original DNDC lacked the water leaching recession character. To correct this deviation, new water retention features were added to DNDC by: (1) adopting a recession curve to regulate the gravity drainage flow in the explicitly simulated soil profile (0-50 cm) and (2) introducing a virtual water pool for the space between the bottom of the modeled soil profile (50 cm) and the tile lines depth of placement (145 cm) to control the tile discharge flow. With these modifications, model prediction of water leaching fluxes from the tile drainage lines was improved. An adsorbed N pool was created in DNDC to simulate the buffering effect of soil on the amount of nitrate available for leaching. The Langmuir equation was adopted to simulate adsorption and desorption of ammonium ions on the soil absorbents. This modification enhanced the model capacity for simulating free ammonium dynamics, nitrification, and nitrate leaching. Sensitivity tests of the modified DNDC showed that the modeled impact of differences of precipitation, soil texture, soil organic carbon content, and fertilizer application rates on nitrate leaching rates were consistent with observations reported by other researchers. This study indicated that a biogeochemical model with limited modifications in hydrology could serve nitrate leaching prediction and be useful for sustainable agricultural management.

  • 2. He, H.
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Svensson, Magnus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Meyer, A.
    Klemedtsson, L.
    Kasimir, Å.
    Factors controlling Nitrous Oxide emission from a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil, derived using the CoupModel2016Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 321, s. 46-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emissions have been identified in hemiboreal forests in association with draining organic soils. However, the specific controlling factors that regulate the emissions remain unclear. To examine the importance of different factors affecting N2O emissions in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibration also aims to estimate parameter density distributions, the covariance matrix of estimated parameters and the correlation between parameters and variables information, useful when applying the model on other peat soil sites and for further model improvements. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as cumulative measured N2O emissions (simulated 8.7±1.1kgN2Oha-1year-1 (n=97); measured 8.7±2.7kgN2Oha-1year-1 (n=6)), but did not capture every measured peak. Parameter uncertainties were reduced after calibration, in which 16 out of 20 parameters changed from uniform distributions into normal distributions or log normal distributions. Four parameters describing bypass water flow, oxygen diffusion and soil freezing changed significantly after calibration. Inter-connections and correlations between many calibrated parameters and variables reflect the complex and interrelated nature of pedosphere, biosphere and atmosphere interactions. This also highlights the need to calibrate a number of parameters simultaneously. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that N2O emissions during growing seasons are controlled by competition between plants and microbes for nitrogen, while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. Our results also indicate that N2O is mainly produced in the capillary fringe close to the groundwater table by denitrification in the anaerobic zone. We conclude that, in afforested drained peatlands, the plants and groundwater level have important influences on soil N availability, ultimately controlling N2O emissions.

  • 3.
    Juston, John
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Andrén, Olof
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Uncertainty analyses for calibrating a soil carbon balance model to agricultural field trial data in Sweden and Kenya2010Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 221, nr 16, s. 1880-1888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How do additional data of the same and/or different type contribute to reducing model parameter and predictive uncertainties? Most modeling applications of soil organic carbon (SOC) time series in agricultural field trial datasets have been conducted without accounting for model parameter uncertainty. There have been recent advances with Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses in the field of hydrological modeling that are applicable, relevant and potentially valuable in modeling the dynamics of SOC. Here we employed a Monte Carlo method with threshold screening known as Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) to calibrate the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM) to long-term field trail data from Ultuna, Sweden and Machang'a, Kenya. Calibration results are presented in terms of parameter distributions and credibility bands on time series simulations for a number of case studies. Using these methods, we demonstrate that widely uncertain model parameters, as well as strong covariance between inert pool size and rate constant parameters, exist when root mean square simulation errors were within uncertainties in input estimations and data observations. We show that even rough estimates of the inert pool (perhaps from chemical analysis) can be quite valuable to reduce uncertainties in model parameters. In fact, such estimates were more effective at reducing parameter and predictive uncertainty than an additional 16 years time series data at Ultuna. We also demonstrate an effective method to jointly, simultaneously and in principle more robustly calibrate model parameters to multiple datasets across different climatic regions within an uncertainty framework. These methods and approaches should have benefits for use with other SOC models and datasets as well.

  • 4.
    Juston, John
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    DeBusk, Thomas A.
    Grace, Kevin A.
    Jackson, Scott D.
    A model of phosphorus cycling to explore the role of biomass turnover in submerged aquatic vegetation wetlands for Everglades restoration2013Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 251, s. 135-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered wetlands using submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) are a cornerstone to the Stormwater Treatment Area (STA) project for stripping phosphorus from agricultural stormwater and lake water before entering protected Everglades marshes in south Florida, USA. However, recent efforts have suggested that the apparent lowest achievable outflow P (C*) in SAV systems (similar to 16 mu g/l) may not be low enough for proposed regulatory criteria. Thus, deepened predictive understanding on the functionality of these systems is of critical importance. Here, we develop a steady-state mass balance model of intermediate complexity to investigate C* in SAV systems. The model focuses on the role of SAV biomass turnover and P release to the water column, drawing upon established principles from shallow lake studies. This study introduces several large and unique datasets collected from a single study site (STA-2 Cell 3) over a 10-year period and demonstrates coherence in these data through the modeling approach. The datasets included inflow outflow values, P storage in accrued sediment at two intervals, annual surveys of SAV species composition, gradients of SAV tissue-P, and gradients of internal water column P concentration (previously published). The model was implemented and calibrated in an uncertainty framework with Monte Carlo methods, threshold screening, and multi-criteria limits of acceptability. Model calibration and validation appeared successful, resulting distributions of model parameters and accepted model simulations were relatively narrow, and results deepened perspectives on the previously identified C*. Rooted SAV species may be mining substantial P from underlying soils via root uptake and thus contributing internal loads. Steady turnover and decomposition of SAV biomass may be accounting for up to about a third of the background C*. These perspectives are relevant to STA optimization; our unique data, usage, and calibration strategy should be of interest to the aquatic ecosystem modeling community in general.

  • 5.
    Karlberg, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Ben-Gal, Alon
    Gilat Research Centre, Israel.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Shani, Uri
    Modelling transpiration and growth in salinity-stressed tomato under different climatic conditions2006Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 190, nr 1-2, s. 15-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Models aiming to simulate growth under salinity stress and varied climatic conditions must rely on accurate methods for predicting transpiration and photosynthesis. Traditionally, models have described salinity stress as a decrease in water uptake caused by a low osmotic potential in the soil; however, many physiological studies suggest that reduced plant growth observed under saline conditions could be caused by increased respiration. Explicit calculation of photosynthesis and respiration enables both approaches to be tested and compared in a simulation model. We used an integrated ecosystems model (the CoupModel) to simulate photosynthesis and transpiration over a range of salinities. The model was calibrated and tested on two sets of data (two different seasons) on saline water, drip-irrigated tomato from lysimeter trials in the Arava Valley, Israel. Yields for the spring season were significantly lower than during the first autumn season even though transpiration was higher. As a result, water use efficiency differed by a factor of two between seasons. The model was successful in capturing this large variation, which was caused primarily by high levels of radiation and vapour pressure deficits during spring. For autumn the salinity stress approach in which water uptake was reduced performed well, whereas during spring the increased respiration approach correlated better with measurements. The concept of water use efficiency was found to be a useful tool for interpreting the accumulated effects of climatic and environmental conditions on particular agricultural systems. An attempt to simulate tomatoes grown in production beds indicated that the model set-up was also able to describe conventional cropping systems

  • 6. Norman, Josefine
    et al.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    Farahbakhshazad, Neda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus
    Li, Changsheng
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Simulation of NO and N2O emissions from a spruce forest during a freeze/thaw event using an N-flux submodel from the PnET-N-DNDC model integrated to CoupModel2008Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 216, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of nitrogen gases (N2O, No and N-2) emitted from forest soils depends on interactions between soil properties, climatic factors and soil management. To increase the understanding of nitrogen processes in soil ecosystems, two dynamic models, CoupModel (coupled heat and mass transfer model for soil-plant-atmosphere systems) and the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model were selected. Both are dynamic models with different submodels for soil, vegetation, hydrology and climate system. CoupModel has a higher degree of detail on soil physical and abiotic components, whereas the DNDC model contains details of microbiological processes involved in production of nitrogen gases. To improve the previous simple submodel of nitrogen emission in CoupModel, we included a submodel corresponding to the forest version of DNDC containing photosynthesis/evapotranspiration-nitrogen (PnET-N-DNDC model). The nitrogen (N) and carbon

  • 7.
    Pang, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sallnäs, Ola
    Trubins, Renats
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Böttcher, Hannes
    Habitat network assessment of forest bioenergy options using the landscape simulator LandSim: A case study of Kronoberg, southern Sweden2017Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 345, s. 99-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest biomass is a renewable resource that is increasingly utilised for bioenergy purposes in Sweden, which along with the extraction of industrial wood may conflict with biodiversity conservation. The aim of this paper is to present a method for integrated sustainability assessment of forest biomass extraction, particularly from bioenergy and biodiversity perspectives. The landscape simulator LandSim was developed and linked with models for the assessment of biomass yields and habitat networks representing prioritised biodiversity components. It was applied in a case study in Kronoberg County in southern Sweden. Forest growth and management were simulated for the period 2010-2110, following two land zoning scenarios, one applying even-aged forest management on all forest land except for protected areas (EAF-tot), and one applying continuous cover forest management on parts of the forest land, combined with protected areas and an intensified even-aged management on the other parts (CCF-int). The EAF-tot scenario implied higher yields of biomass feedstock for bioenergy, the CCF-int scenario only giving 66% of that yield, while the CCF-int scenario performed substantially better when it came to the habitat network indicators, if habitat suitability was ensured. Conclusively, the case study confirmed that the modelling framework of the LEcA tool, linking the landscape simulator LandSim with the biomass yield assessment and the habitat network model can be used for integrating main policy concerns when assessing renewable energy options.

  • 8.
    Svensson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Langvall, Ola
    Lindroth, Anders
    Bayesian calibration of a model describing carbon, water and heat fluxes for a Swedish boreal forest stand.2008Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 213, nr 3-4, s. 331-344Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified major fluxes of carbon (C), heat and water, including uncertainty estimates, in a boreal forest in northern Sweden, using a process-based model (Coup-Model) and Bayesian calibration methodology. Coupled C, water and heat fluxes were described together with estimated uncertainties for all major components of the simulated C budget. Simulated mean gross primary production was 641 +/- 74 gC m(-2) yr(-1), total ecosystem respiration 570 +/- 55 gC m(-2)yr(-1) and net ecosystem productivity 71 +/- 37gCm(-2)yr(-1). Most high-resolution measurements were well described but some interesting exceptions arose between model and measurements, e.g. latent heat flux was overestimated and field layer (understory) root litter production underestimated. Bayesian calibration reduced the assumed prior parameter ranges in 30 of 33 parameters, thus reducing the uncertainty in the estimates. There was a high degree of couplings between different sub-models and processes in the model, highlighting the importance of considering parameters not as singularities but in clusters

  • 9. Wu, J.
    et al.
    Jansson, Per- Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Miljögeokemi och ekoteknik.
    van der Linden, L.
    Pilegaard, K.
    Beier, C.
    Ibrom, A.
    Modelling the decadal trend of ecosystem carbon fluxes demonstrates the important role of functional changes in a temperate deciduous forest2013Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 260, s. 50-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperate forests are globally important carbon sinks and stocks. Trends in net ecosystem exchange have been observed in a Danish beech forest and this trend cannot be entirely attributed to changing climatic drivers. This study sought to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed trend, using a dynamic ecosystem model (CoupModel) and model data fusion with multiple constraints and model experiments. Experiments with different validation datasets showed that a multiple constraints model data fusion approach that included the annual tree growth, the seasonal canopy development, the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the CO2 fluxes decreased the parameter uncertainty considerably compared to using CO2 fluxes as validation data alone. The fitted model was able to simulate the observed carbon fluxes well (R-2 = 0.8, mean error = 0.1 g C m(-2) d(-1)) but did not reproduce the decadal (1997-2009) trend in carbon uptake when global parameter estimates were used. Annual parameter estimates were able to reproduce the decadal scale trend; the yearly fitted posterior parameters (e.g. the light use efficiency) indicated a role for changes in the ecosystem functional properties. A possible role for nitrogen demand during mast years is supported by the inter-annual variability in the estimated parameters. The inter-annual variability of photosynthesis parameters was fundamental to the simulation of the trend in carbon fluxes in the investigated beech forest and this demonstrates the importance of functional change in carbon balance.

  • 10.
    Wu, Jiechen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Franzén, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Nutrient flows following changes in source strengths, land use and climate in an urban catchment, Råcksta Träsk in Stockholm, Sweden2016Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 338, s. 69-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing nutrient flows to urban lakes is one of the main challenges to environmental sustainability in cities. Considering that future urban and climate changes may increase the challenge of handling future eutrophication, prediction of future nutrient loadings to aquatic environments in urban catchments has become increasingly important. Based on a new, innovative, structured Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) approach, where a source model was coupled to a Generalised Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) model, this study investigated nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) delivery from sources to a water recipient for an urban catchment, using the case of Racksta Trask in Stockholm, Sweden, as an example. Potential effects from future changes in atmospheric deposition, vehicle volume and land use and from climate change (temperature and precipitation) were examined by comparing model scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2050-2059). Model results suggested that climate change may have a greater impact on nitrogen loading to Racksta Trask lake than increasing vehicle volume and land use change. In addition, the results suggested that nitrogen loading to the lake may increase taking into account all changes examined, despite the expected decrease in background atmospheric deposition of nitrogen. In contrast, a marginal impact was found for phosphorus loading to the lake under all scenarios examined, resulting in only a slight increase in the combined scenario. From a nutrient pathways perspective, the results suggested that major pathways of nutrient loadings to the lake may not be much affected under most future scenarios examined, although groundwater was found to be a potentially sensitive pathway of nitrogen transport in the climate scenario. The model results provided important information for managers who need to plan for future nutrient handling in urban catchments, and the coupled SFA-GWLF model was suggested to be worthy of further testing at other sites and conditions.

  • 11.
    Wu, Sihong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Biogeofysik.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik, Biogeofysik.
    Kolari, Pasi
    Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Modeling seasonal courses of carbon fluxes and evaportranspiration in response to low temperature and moisture in a boreal scots pine ecosystem2011Inngår i: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 222, s. 3103-3119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions act above and below ground, and regulate carbon fluxes and evapotranspiration. The productivity of boreal forest ecosystems is strongly governed by low temperature and moisture conditions, but the understanding of various feedbacks between vegetation and environmental conditions is still unclear. In order to quantify the seasonal responses of vegetation to environmental factors, the seasonality of carbon and heat fluxes and the corresponding responses for temperature and moisture in air and soil were simulated by merging a process-based model (CoupModel) with detailed measurements representing various components of a forest ecosystem in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. The uncertainties in parameters, model assumptions, and measurements were identified by generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). Seasonal and diurnal courses of sensible and latent heat fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 were successfully simulated for two contrasting years. Moreover, systematic increases in efficiency of photosynthesis, water uptake, and decomposition occurred from spring to summer, demonstrating the strong coupling between processes. Evapotranspiration and NEE flux both showed a strong response to soil temperature conditions via different direct and indirect ecosystem mechanisms. The rate of photosynthesis was strongly correlated with the corresponding water uptake response and the light use efficiency. With the present data and model assumptions, it was not possible to precisely distinguish the various regulating ecosystem mechanisms. Our approach proved robust for modeling the seasonal course of carbon fluxes and evapotranspiration by combining different independent measurements. It will be highly interesting to continue using long-term series data and to make additional tests of optional stomatal conductance models in order to improve our understanding of the boreal forest ecosystem in response to climate variability and environmental conditions.

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