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  • 1. Bergenius, J.
    et al.
    Tribukait, Arne
    Karolinska Hospital.
    Brantberg, K.
    The subjective horizontal at different angles of roll-tilt in patients with unilateral vestibular impairment1996In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 40, no 5-6, p. 385-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subjective visual horizontal is mainly dependent on the otolithic system. A group of 11 patients with sudden unilateral vestibular impairment were asked to set a dimly illuminated bar according to their subjective horizontal when they were seated upright and tilted 10, 20, and 30 degrees to the right and left in a completely darkened room (Bias test). The patients were examined within 1 week, after 3 and 6 weeks, and 9 patients consented to the 11-week follow-up. The results were compared with ENG examinations. In the acute stage of the disease all patients, when they were in upright position, set the light bar tilted towards the affected side. At roll tilt to the affected side, 9 of the 11 patients set the light bar in the same direction as their body tilt (undercorrection). At a tilt to the unaffected side 6 of the 11 patients made an undercorrection. For the group of patients the magnitude of undercorrection was larger at tilt to the affected side than to the unaffected side. The patients' ability to correctly align the light bar with the true horizontal gradually improved but was found normal in both upright and tilted positions in only three of the nine patients at the last follow-up. In four of the six patients who still demonstrated pathologic results, these were met only in tilted positions. No significant correlation was found between the intensity of spontaneous nystagmus or the degree of caloric side difference and the deviation in setting of the light bar in upright or tilted positions. The large asymmetric perceptual responses at tilt found at onset might be explained by the two-directional organisation of the utricle.

  • 2.
    Nobel, Gerard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Tribukait, Arne
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the impairment of human thermoregulation during motion sickness2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 82, no 3-4, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion sickness (MS) exaggerates body cooling during cold-water immersion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is influenced by two anti-MS drugs: the histamine-receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine-receptor blocker scopolamine (Scop). Nine healthy male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min in five conditions: (1) control (CN): no medication, no MS provocation; (2) MS-control (MS-CN): no medication, MS provocation; (3) MS-placebo (MS-P): placebo DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (4) MS-DMH: DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (5) MS-Scop: Scop and placebo DMH, MS provocation. MS was induced by use of a rotating chair. Throughout the experiments rectal temperature (T-re), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and third finger (T-ff) as an index of peripheral vasoconstriction, and oxygen uptake (VO2) as a measure of shivering thermogenesis, were recorded. DMH and Scop were similarly efficacious in ameliorating nausea. The fall in T-re was greater in the MS-CN and MS-P conditions than in the CN condition. DMH, but not Scop, prevented the MS-induced increase in body-core cooling. MS attenuated the cold-induced vasoconstriction, an effect which was fully prevented by DMH but only partially by Scop. MS provocation did not affect VO2 in any condition. The results suggest that the MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is predominantly mediated by histaminergic mechanisms and that DMH might be useful in conjunction with maritime accidents or other scenarios where exposure to cold and MS are imminent features.

  • 3.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    Karolinska Hospital.
    Bergenius, J.
    Brantberg, K.
    The subjective visual horizontal for different body tilts in the roll plane: characterization of normal subjects1996In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 40, no 5-6, p. 375-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish a method for estimation of the perceptual horizontal as a test of otolith function in diagnosis of atypical vertigo, in a first study we have standardized a test procedure and characterized a body of normal material consisting of 72 healthy subjects, 24 of them examined with tests followed by retests. The perceptual visual horizontal in darkness was estimated in the upright body position and at body tilts of 10, 20, and 30 degrees to the right and to the left by means of a narrow luminous bar. The deviation of the perceptual horizontal relative to the gravitational horizontal is expressed as a function of body tilt. In the upright body position, 95% had a perceptual horizontal within the range of +/- 2.5 degrees. In the tilted positions, there was a tendency to set the light bar tilted oppositely with respect to the body tilt. The results suggest that roll tilt to the right and to the left is sensed by two independent functional units. Furthermore, the results imply that some other factor might be of importance and that the perceptual horizontal in the upright position and tilt perception are complementary in reflecting vestibular function. Differences between individuals were great in comparison with intraindividual variability and the test-retest variability. The results are discussed against the background of the extensive literature.

  • 4.
    Tribukait, Arne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Nobel, Gerard
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology.
    Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation2010In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the regulation of body temperature have been studied almost exclusively in animals. Recently, we have found that motion sickness, i.e. a condition where hippocampal cholinergic mismatch signals induce a release of histamine in the vomiting centre, accelerates the decline in body temperature in men during exposure to cold. In the present study we measured the thermoregulatory effects of two substances commonly used against motion sickness, i.e. the histamine (H1) receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine receptor blocker scopolamine (SCOP). In three trials, control (CN), DMH and SCOP, 10 male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min. The trials were separated by a minimum of three days and their order was alternated between subjects. In all trials the subject received, in a double blind fashion, a transdermal patch (SCOP or placebo) 12-14 h before immersion and a tablet (DMH or placebo) 1 h before immersion. Mean skin temperature, rectal temperature (T-rec), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (T-ff), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded. The fall in T-rec was smaller in the DMH than in the CN and SCOP conditions. The recordings of T-ff and VO2 suggest that SCOP attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction while DMH increases shivering thermogenesis. Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness.

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