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  • 1. Alao, John Patrick
    et al.
    Michlíková, Sona
    Dinér, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Gothenburg University.
    Grøtli, Morten
    Sunnerhagen, Per
    Selective inhibition of RET mediated cell proliferation in vitro by the kinase inhibitor SPP862014In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 14, no 853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The RET tyrosine kinase receptor has emerged as a target in thyroid and endocrine resistant breast cancer. We previously reported the synthesis of kinase inhibitors with potent activity against RET. Herein, we have further investigated the effect of the lead compound SPP86 on RET mediated signaling and proliferation. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that SPP86 may be useful for studying the cellular activity of RET.

    Methods

    We compared the effects of SPP86 on RET-induced signaling and proliferation in thyroid cancer cell lines expressing RET-PTC1 (TPC1), or the activating mutations BRAFV600E (8505C) and RASG13R (C643). The effect of SPP86 on RET- induced phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt and MAPK pathway signaling and cell proliferation in MCF7 breast cancer cells was also investigated.

    Results

    SPP86 inhibited MAPK signaling and proliferation in RET/PTC1 expressing TPC1 but not 8505C or C643 cells. In TPC1 cells, the inhibition of RET phosphorylation required co-exposure to SPP86 and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF573228. In MCF7 cells, SPP86 inhibited RET- induced phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt and MAPK signaling and estrogen receptorα (ERα) phosphorylation, and inhibited proliferation to a similar degree as tamoxifen. Interestingly, SPP86 and PF573228 inhibited RET/PTC1 and GDNF- RET induced activation of Akt and MAPK signaling to a similar degree.

    Conclusion

    SPP86 selectively inhibits RET downstream signaling in RET/PTC1 but not BRAFV600E or RASG13R expressing cells, indicating that downstream kinases were not affected. SPP86 also inhibited RET signaling in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Additionally, RET- FAK crosstalk may play a key role in facilitating PTC1/RET and GDNF- RET induced activation of Akt and MAPK signaling in TPC1 and MCF7 cells.

  • 2. Brennan, Donal J.
    et al.
    Brändstedt, Jenny
    Rexhepaj, Elton
    Foley, Michael
    Pontén, Fredrik
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Gallagher, William M.
    O'Connor, Darran P.
    O'Herlihy, Colm
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer2010In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 10, p. 125-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Results: Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion: HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  • 3. Gremel, Gabriela
    et al.
    Djureinovic, Dijana
    Niinivirta, Marjut
    Laird, Alexander
    Ljungqvist, Oscar
    Johannesson, Henrik
    Bergman, Julia
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik
    Navani, Sanjay
    Khan, Naila
    Patil, Tushar
    Sivertsson, Åsa
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Harrison, David J.
    Ullenhag, Gustav J.
    Stewart, Grant D.
    Ponten, Fredrik
    A systematic search strategy identifies cubilin as independent prognostic marker for renal cell carcinoma2017In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 17, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an unmet clinical need for better prognostic and diagnostic tools for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Human Protein Atlas data resources, including the transcriptomes and proteomes of normal and malignant human tissues, were searched for RCC-specific proteins and cubilin (CUBN) identified as a candidate. Patient tissue representing various cancer types was constructed into a tissue microarray (n = 940) and immunohistochemistry used to investigate the specificity of CUBN expression in RCC as compared to other cancers. Two independent RCC cohorts (n = 181; n = 114) were analyzed to further establish the sensitivity of CUBN as RCC-specific marker and to explore if the fraction of RCCs lacking CUBN expression could predict differences in patient survival. Results: CUBN was identified as highly RCC-specific protein with 58% of all primary RCCs staining positive for CUBN using immunohistochemistry. In venous tumor thrombi and metastatic lesions, the frequency of CUBN expression was increasingly lost. Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients with CUBN positive tumors had a significantly better prognosis compared to patients with CUBN negative tumors, independent of T-stage, Fuhrman grade and nodal status (HR 0.382, CI 0.203-0.719, P = 0.003). Conclusions: CUBN expression is highly specific to RCC and loss of the protein is significantly and independently associated with poor prognosis. CUBN expression in ccRCC provides a promising positive prognostic indicator for patients with ccRCC. The high specificity of CUBN expression in RCC also suggests a role as a new diagnostic marker in clinical cancer differential diagnostics to confirm or rule out RCC.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Kupershmidt, Ilya
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Edlundh-Rose, Esther
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Lundeberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Global gene expression analysis in time series following N-acetyl L-cysteine induced epithelial differentiation of human normal and cancer cells in vitro2005In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 5, p. 75-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer prevention trials using different types of antioxidant supplements have been carried out at several occasions and one of the investigated compounds has been the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Studies at the cellular level have previously demonstrated that a single supplementation of NAC induces a ten-fold more rapid differentiation in normal primary human keratinocytes as well as a reversion of a colon carcinoma cell line from neoplastic proliferation to apical-basolateral differentiation [1]. The investigated cells showed an early change in the organization of the cytoskeleton, several newly established adherens junctions with E-cadherin/β-catenin complexes and increased focal adhesions, all features characterizing the differentiation process. Methods: In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the proliferation arrest and accelerated differentiation induced by NAC treatment of NHEK and Caco-2 cells in vitro, we performed global gene expression analysis of NAC treated cells in a time series (1, 12 and 24 hours post NAC treatment) using the Affymetrix GeneChip™ Human Genome U95Av2 chip, which contains approximately 12,000 previously characterized sequences. The treated samples were compared to the corresponding untreated culture at the same time point. Results: Microarray data analysis revealed an increasing number of differentially expressed transcripts over time upon NAC treatment. The early response (1 hour) was transient, while a constitutive trend was commonly found among genes differentially regulated at later time points (12 and 24 hours). Connections to the induction of differentiation and inhibition of growth were identified for a majority of up- and down-regulated genes. All of the observed transcriptional changes, except for seven genes, were unique to either cell line. Only one gene, ID-1, was mutually regulated at 1 hour post treatment and might represent a common mediator of early NAC action. The detection of several genes that previously have been identified as stimulated or repressed during the differentiation of NHEK and Caco-2 provided validation of results. In addition, real-time kinetic PCR analysis of selected genes also verified the differential regulation as identified by the microarray platform. Conclusion: NAC induces a limited and transient early response followed by a more consistent and extensively different expression at later time points in both the normal and cancer cell lines investigated. The responses are largely related to inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of differentiation in both cell types but are almost completely lineage specific. ID-1 is indicated as an early mediator of NAC action.

  • 5. Larsson, Anna
    et al.
    Fridberg, Marie
    Gaber, Alexander
    Nodin, Björn
    Levéen, Per
    Jonsson, Göran
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Birgisson, Helgi
    Jirström, Karin
    Validation of podocalyxin-like protein as a biomarker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer2012In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 12, p. 282-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein and stem cell marker that has been associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and adverse outcome in several cancer types. We recently demonstrated that overexpression of PODXL is an independent factor of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to validate these results in two additional independent patient cohorts and to examine the correlation between PODXL mRNA and protein levels in a subset of tumours. Method: PODXL protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays with tumour samples from a consecutive, retrospective cohort of 270 CRC patients (cohort 1) and a prospective cohort of 337 CRC patients (cohort 2). The expression of PODXL mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR in a subgroup of 62 patients from cohort 2. Spearman's Rho and Chi-Square tests were used for analysis of correlations between PODXL expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were applied to assess the relationship between PODXL expression and time to recurrence (TTR), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: High PODXL protein expression was significantly associated with unfavourable clinicopathological characteristics in both cohorts. In cohort 1, high PODXL expression was associated with a significantly shorter 5-year OS in both univariable (HR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.43-3.63, p = 0.001) and multivariable analysis (HR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.25-3.43, p = 0.005). In cohort 2, high PODXL expression was associated with a shorter TTR (HR = 2.93; 95% CI 1.26-6.82, p = 0.013) and DFS (HR = 2.44; 95% CI 1.32-4.54, p = 0.005), remaining significant in multivariable analysis, HR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.05-5.96, p = 0.038 for TTR and HR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.13-3.94, p = 0.019 for DFS. No significant correlation could be found between mRNA levels and protein expression of PODXL and there was no association between mRNA levels and clinicopathological parameters or survival. Conclusions: Here, we have validated the previously demonstrated association between immunohistochemical expression of PODXL and poor prognosis in CRC in two additional independent patient cohorts. The results further underline the potential utility of PODXL as a biomarker for more precise prognostication and treatment stratification of CRC patients.

  • 6. Lauss, Martin
    et al.
    Attila, Frigyesi
    Rydén, Tobias
    Lund University.
    Höglund, Mattias
    Robust assignment of cancer subtypes from expression data using a uni-variate gene expression average as classifier2010In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 10, p. 532-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Genome wide gene expression data is a rich source for the identification of gene signatures suitable for clinical purposes and a number of statistical algorithms have been described for both identification and evaluation of such signatures. Some employed algorithms are fairly complex and hence sensitive to over-fitting whereas others are more simple and straight forward. Here we present a new type of simple algorithm based on ROC analysis and the use of metagenes that we believe will be a good complement to existing algorithms.Results: The basis for the proposed approach is the use of metagenes, instead of collections of individual genes, and a feature selection using AUC values obtained by ROC analysis. Each gene in a data set is assigned an AUC value relative to the tumor class under investigation and the genes are ranked according to these values. Metagenes are then formed by calculating the mean expression level for an increasing number of ranked genes, and the metagene expression value that optimally discriminates tumor classes in the training set is used for classification of new samples. The performance of the metagene is then evaluated using LOOCV and balanced accuracies.Conclusions: We show that the simple uni-variate gene expression average algorithm performs as well as several alternative algorithms such as discriminant analysis and the more complex approaches such as SVM and neural networks. The R package rocc is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rocc/index.html.

  • 7. Magnusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Gremel, Gabriela
    Ryden, Lisa
    Ponten, Victor
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dimberg, Anna
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Ponten, Fredrik
    ANLN is a prognostic biomarker independent of Ki-67 and essential for cell cycle progression in primary breast cancer2016In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, article id 904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein required for cytokinesis, has recently been presented as part of a prognostic marker panel in breast cancer. The objective of the current study was to further explore the prognostic and functional value of ANLN as a single biomarker in breast cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical assessment of ANLN protein expression was performed in two well characterized breast cancer cohorts (n = 484) with long-term clinical follow-up data and the results were further validated at the mRNA level in a publicly available transcriptomics dataset. The functional relevance of ANLN was investigated in two breast cancer cell lines using RNA interference. Results: High nuclear fraction of ANLN in breast tumor cells was significantly associated with large tumor size, high histological grade, high proliferation rate, hormone receptor negative tumors and poor prognosis in both examined cohorts. Multivariable analysis showed that the association between ANLN and survival was significantly independent of age in cohort I and significantly independent of proliferation, as assessed by Ki-67 expression in tumor cells, age, tumor size, ER and PR status, HER2 status and nodal status in cohort II. Analysis of ANLN mRNA expression confirmed that high expression of ANLN was significantly correlated to poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. Consistent with the role of ANLN during cytokinesis, transient knock-down of ANLN protein expression in breast cancer cell lines resulted in an increase of senescent cells and an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle with altered cell morphology including large, poly-nucleated cells. Moreover, ANLN siRNA knockdown also resulted in decreased expression of cyclins D1, A2 and B1. Conclusions: ANLN expression in breast cancer cells plays an important role during cell division and a high fraction of nuclear ANLN expression in tumor cells is correlated to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, independent of Ki-67, tumor size, hormone receptor status, HER2 status, nodal status and age.

  • 8. O'Leary, Patrick C.
    et al.
    Penny, Sarah A.
    Dolan, Roisin T.
    Kelly, Catherine M.
    Madden, Stephen F.
    Rexhepaj, Elton
    Brennan, Donal J.
    McCann, Amanda H.
    Ponten, Fredrik
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Zagozdzon, Radoslaw
    Duffy, Michael J.
    Kell, Malcolm R.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Gallagher, William M.
    Systematic antibody generation and validation via tissue microarray technology leading to identification of a novel protein prognostic panel in breast cancer2013In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although omic-based discovery approaches can provide powerful tools for biomarker identification, several reservations have been raised regarding the clinical applicability of gene expression studies, such as their prohibitive cost. However, the limited availability of antibodies is a key barrier to the development of a lower cost alternative, namely a discrete collection of immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based biomarkers. The aim of this study was to use a systematic approach to generate and screen affinity-purified, mono-specific antibodies targeting progression-related biomarkers, with a view towards developing a clinically applicable IHC-based prognostic biomarker panel for breast cancer. Methods: We examined both in-house and publicly available breast cancer DNA microarray datasets relating to invasion and metastasis, thus identifying a cohort of candidate progression-associated biomarkers. Of these, 18 antibodies were released for extended analysis. Validated antibodies were screened against a tissue microarray (TMA) constructed from a cohort of consecutive breast cancer cases (n = 512) to test the immunohistochemical surrogate signature. Results: Antibody screening revealed 3 candidate prognostic markers: the cell cycle regulator, Anillin (ANLN); the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PDZ-Binding Kinase (PBK); and the estrogen response gene, PDZ-Domain Containing 1 (PDZK1). Increased expression of ANLN and PBK was associated with poor prognosis, whilst increased expression of PDZK1 was associated with good prognosis. A 3-marker signature comprised of high PBK, high ANLN and low PDZK1 expression was associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (p < 0.001) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) (p < 0.001). This novel signature was associated with high tumour grade (p < 0.001), positive nodal status (p = 0.029), ER-negativity (p = 0.006), Her2-positivity (p = 0.036) and high Ki67 status (p < 0.001). However, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that the signature was not a significant predictor of BCSS (HR = 6.38; 95% CI = 0.79-51.26, p = 0.082). Conclusions: We have developed a comprehensive biomarker pathway that extends from discovery through to validation on a TMA platform. This proof-of-concept study has resulted in the identification of a novel 3-protein prognostic panel. Additional biochemical markers, interrogated using this high-throughput platform, may further augment the prognostic accuracy of this panel to a point that may allow implementation into routine clinical practice.

  • 9.
    Zheng, Daoshan
    et al.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Canc Biol, 4500 San Pablo Rd,Griffin 210, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Trynda, Justyna
    Mayo Clin, Dept Canc Biol, 4500 San Pablo Rd,Griffin 210, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Williams, Cecilia
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vold, Jeremy A.
    Mayo Clin, Mayo Canc Registry, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Nguyen, Justin H.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Surg, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.;Mayo Clin, Ctr Canc, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Harnois, Denise M.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Surg, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.;Mayo Clin, Ctr Canc, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Bagaria, Sanjay P.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Surg, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.;Mayo Clin, Ctr Canc, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    McLaughlin, Sarah A.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Surg, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.;Mayo Clin, Ctr Canc, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Li, Zhaoyu
    Mayo Clin, Dept Canc Biol, 4500 San Pablo Rd,Griffin 210, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA..
    Sexual dimorphism in the incidence of human cancers2019In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundSex differences in the incidences of cancers become a critical issue in both cancer research and the development of precision medicine. However, details in these differences have not been well reported. We provide a comprehensive analysis of sexual dimorphism in human cancers.MethodsWe analyzed four sets of cancer incidence data from the SEER (USA, 1975-2015), from the Cancer Registry at Mayo Clinic (1970-2015), from Sweden (1970-2015), and from the World Cancer Report in 2012.ResultsWe found that all human cancers had statistically significant sexual dimorphism with male dominance in the United States and mostly significant in the Mayo Clinic, Sweden, and the world data, except for thyroid cancer, which is female-dominant.ConclusionsSexual dimorphism is a clear but mostly neglected phenotype for most human cancers regarding the clinical practice of cancer. We expect that our study will facilitate the mechanistic studies of sexual dimorphism in human cancers. We believe that fully addressing the mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in human cancers will greatly benefit current development of individualized precision medicine beginning from the sex-specific diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

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