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  • 1. Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Larsson, Hans
    Sodersten, Maria
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Simberg, Susanna
    Svec, Jan G.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (Pback) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect Pback considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, Pback needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in Pback was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant Pback determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to Pback as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome.

  • 2. Baptista La, Filipa Martins
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pregnancy and the Singing Voice: Reports From a Case Study2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 431-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Significant changes in body tissues occur during pregnancy; however, literature concerning the effects of pregnancy on the voice is sparse, especially concerning the professional classically trained voice. Hypotheses. Hormonal variations and associated bodily changes during pregnancy affect phonatory conditions, such as vocal fold motility and glottal adduction. Design. Longitudinal case study with a semiprofessional classically trained singer. Methods. Audio, electrolaryngograph, oral pressure, and air flow signals were recorded once a week during the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, 48 hours after birth and during the following consecutive 11 weeks. Vocal tasks included diminuendo sequences of the syllable /pae/sung at various pitches, and performing a Lied. Phonation threshold pressures (PTPs) and collision threshold pressures (CTPs), normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), alpha ratio, and the dominance of the voice source fundamental were determined. Concentrations of sex female steroid hormones were measured on three occasions. A listening test of timbral brightness and vocal fatigue was carried out. Results. Results demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, which were considerably reduced after birth. During pregnancy, CTPs and PTPs were high; and NAQ, alpha ratio, and dominance of the voice source fundamental suggested elevated glottal adduction. In addition, a perceptible decrease of vocal brightness was noted. Conclusions. The elevated CTPs and PTPs during pregnancy suggest reduced vocal fold motility and increased glottal adduction. These changes are compatible with expected effects of elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone on tissue viscosity and water retention.

  • 3. Birch, Peer
    et al.
    Gümoes, Bodil
    Stavad, Hanne
    Prytz, Svend
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Velum Behavior in Professional Classic Operatic Singing2002In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 16, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Björklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Relationship Between Subglottal Pressure and Sound Pressure Level in Untrained Voices2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Subglottal pressure (Ps) is strongly correlated with sound pressure level (SPL) and is easy to measure by means of commonly available equipment. The SPL/Ps ratio is strongly dependent on the efficiency of the phonatory apparatus and should be of great relevance to clinical practice. However, published normative data are still missing. Method The subjects produced sequences of the syllable [pæ], and Ps was measured as the oral pressure during the [p] occlusion. The Ps to SPL relationship was determined at four pitches produced by 16 female and 15 male healthy voices and analyzed by means of regression analysis. Average correlation between Ps and SPL, average SPL produced with a Ps of 10 cm H2O, and average SPL increase produced by a doubling of Ps were calculated for the female and for the male subjects. The significance of sex and pitch conditions was analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Pitch was found to be an insignificant condition. The average correlation between Ps and SPL was 0.83 and did not differ significantly between the female and male subjects. In female and male subjects, Ps = 10 cm H2O produced 78.1 dB and 80.0 dB SPL at 0.3 m, and a doubling of Ps generated 11.1 dB and 9.3 dB increase of SPL. Both these gender differences were statistically significant. Conclusions The relationship between Ps and SPL can be reliably established from series of repetitions of the syllable [pæ] produced with a continuously changing degree of vocal loudness. Male subjects produce slightly higher SPL for a given pressure than female subjects but gain less for a doubling of Ps. As these relationships appear to be affected by phonation type, it seems possible that in the future, the method can be used for documenting degree of phonatory hypofunction and hyperfunction.

  • 5.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Musical theater and opera singing - Why so different?: A study of subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant frequency characteristics2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The considerable voice timbre differences between musical theater (MT) and western operatic singers are analyzed with respect to voice source and formant frequencies in five representatives of each singer group. Audio, subglottal pressure (P(sub)), and electroglottograph (EGG) signals were recorded while the subjects sang a sequence of [pae:] syllables starting at maximal vocal loudness and then gradually decreasing vocal loudness. The task was performed at each of two fundamental frequencies (F(0)), approximately one octave apart. Ten equally spaced P(sub) values were then selected for each F(0). The subsequent vowels were analyzed in terms of flow glottograms derived by inverse filtering the audio signal, which also yielded formant frequency data. Period time (T(0)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (U(p-t-p)), and maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) were measured from the flow glottograms while closed quotient Q(closed) (T(cl)/T(0)) was determined in combination with the differentiated EGG signal. Also the relationship between the first and the second harmonic in the spectrum (H(1)-H(2)), the amplitude quotient (AQ), that is, the ratio between U(p-t-p) and MFDR, and normalized AQ, that is, AQ normalized with respect to period time was calculated as well as the sound pressure level. The results showed that both the MT and the opera singers varied their P(sub) systematically, approximately doubling P(sub) for a doubling of F(0). For a given value of P(sub), the MT singers produced higher values of MFDR, U(p-t-p), and Q(closed), and lower values of H(1)-H(2), indicating a weaker fundamental. Further, the MT singers showed higher formant frequencies and did not show the opera singers' characteristic clustering of F(3), F(4), and F(5).

  • 6.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Cleveland, T
    Stone, E
    Voice source differences between registers in female musical theater singers2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical theater singing typically requires women to use two vocal registers. Our investigation considered voice source and subglottal pressure P-s characteristics of the speech pressure signal recorded for a sequence of /pae/ syllables sung at constant pitch and decreasing vocal loudness in each register by seven female musical theater singers. Ten equally spaced P-s values were selected, and the relationships between P-s and several parameters were examined; closed-quotient (Q(closed)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p), amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram. ie, the maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) [Up-t-p/(TO*MFDR)], where TO is the fundamental period. P, was typically slightly higher in chest than in head register. As P, influences the measured glottogram parameters, these were also compared at an approximately identical P-s of 11 cm H2O. Results showed that for typical tokens, MFDR and Q(closed) were significantly greater, whereas Up-t-p and therefore NAQ were significantly lower in chest than in head.

  • 7.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Cleveland, Tom
    Stone, Ed
    Voice Source Differences between Registers in Female Musical Theatre Singers2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Borch, D. Zangger
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 532-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  • 9. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Loudness and Pitch of Kunqu Opera2014In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F-0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F-0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F-0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  • 10. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Dippold, Sebastian
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arndt, Susan
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    High-Speed Imaging and Electroglottography Measurements of the Open Quotient in Untrained Male Voices' Register Transitions2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 644-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI. and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In ID subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration.

  • 11. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Arndt, Susan
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal Tract in Female Registers: A Dynamic Real-Time MRI Study2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of vocal registers is still unclarified. In a previous investigation, dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is able to produce up to 10 frames per second, was successfully applied for examinations of vocal tract modifications in register transitions in male singers. In the present study, the same MRI technique was used to study vocal tract shapes during four professional young sopranos' lower and upper register transitions. The subjects were asked to sing a scale on the vowel /a/ across their transitions. The transitions were acoustically identified by four raters. In neither of these transitions, clear vocal tract changes could be ascertained. However, substantial changes, that is, widening of the lips, opening of the jaw, elevation of the tongue dorsum, and continuous widening of the pharynx, were observed when the singers reached fundamental frequencies that were close to the frequency of the first formant of the vowel sung. These findings suggest that in these subjects register transition was not primarily the result of modifications of the vocal tract.

  • 12. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    Perturbation Measurements in Untrained Male Voices' Transitions From Modal to Falsetto Register2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 663-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Voice periodicity during transitions from modal to falsetto register still remains an unclarified question. Method. We examined the acoustic and electroglottographic signals of 20 healthy untrained male voices' transitions from modal to falsetto register on the vowels /a, e, i, o, u, and ae/. Results. In addition to discontinuities in fundamental frequency (F0), an independent increase of jitter, relative average perturbation, and shimmer was observed during and apparently caused by the register transition. In falsetto, the jitter was higher than in the modal register. The contact quotient derived from the electroglottographic signal tended to be lower for higher than for lower F0. Conclusion. Register transitions are associated with increase of perturbation.

  • 13.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Linköping Univ, Sweden.
    Herbst, C.T.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    McAllister, A.
    Comparing Vocal Fold Contact Criteria Derived From Audio and Electroglottographic Signals2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Collision threshold pressure (CTP), that is, the lowest subglottal pressure facilitating vocal fold contact during phonation, is likely to reflect relevant vocal fold properties. The amplitude of an electroglottographic (EGG) signal or the amplitude of its first derivative (dEGG) has been used as criterion of such contact. Manual measurement of CTP is time consuming, making the development of a simpler, alternative method desirable. Method. In this investigation, we compare CTP values measured manually to values automatically derived from dEGG and to values derived from a set of alternative parameters, some obtained from audio and some from EGG signals. One of the parameters was the novel EGG wavegram, which visualizes sequences of EGG or dEGG cycles, normalized with respect to period and amplitude. Raters with and without previous acquaintance with EGG analysis marked the disappearance of vocal fold contact in dEGG and in wavegram displays of /pa:/-=sequences produced with continuously decreasing vocal loudness by seven singer subjects. Results. Vocal fold contact was mostly identified accurately in displays of both dEGG amplitude and wavegram. Automatically derived CTP values showed high correlation with those measured manually and with those derived from the ratings of the visual displays. Seven other parameters were tested as criteria of such contact. Mainly, because of noise in the EGG signal, most of them yielded CTP values differing considerably from those derived from the manual and the automatic methods, although the EGG spectrum slope showed a high correlation. Conclusion. The possibility of measuring CTP automatically seems promising for future investigations.

  • 14.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    McAllister, Anita
    Collision and Phonation Threshold Pressures Before and After Loud, Prolonged Vocalization in Trained and Untrained Voices2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 527-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

  • 15. Gill, Brian P.
    et al.
    Lã, Filipa M. B.
    Lee, Jessica
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Stockholm Musikpedagogiska Institut.
    Spectrum Effects of a Velopharyngeal Opening in Singing2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question whether or not a velopharyngeal opening is advantageous in singing has been discussed for a very long time among teachers of singing. The present investigation analyzes the acoustic consequences of a large, a narrow, and a nonexistent velopharyngeal opening (VPO). A divided flow mask (nasal and oral) connected to flow transducers recorded the nasal and oral DC flows in four female and four male classically trained singers while they sang vowel sequences at different pitches under these three experimental conditions. Acoustic effects were analyzed in three long-term average spectra parameters: (i) the sound level at the fundamental frequency, (ii) the level of the highest peak below 1 kHz, and (iii) the level of the highest peak in the 2–4 kHz region. For a narrow VPO, an increase in the level of the highest peak in the 2–4 kHz region was observed. As this peak is an essential voice component in the classical singing tradition, a narrow VPO seems beneficial in this type of singing.

  • 16. Gramming, Patricia
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Leanderson, Rolf
    Perkins, William H.
    Relationship between changes in voice pitch and loudness1988In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Changes in mean fundamental frequency accompanying changes in loudness of phonation are analyzed in 9 professional singers, 9 nonsingers, and 10 male and 10 female patients suffering from vocal functional dysfunction. The subjects read discursive texts with noise in earphones, and some also at voluntarily varied vocal loudness. The healthy subjects phonated as softly and as loudly as possible at various fundamental frequencies throughout their pitch ranges, and the resulting mean phonetograms are compared. Mean pitch was found to increase by about half-semitones per decibel sound level. Grossly, the subject groups gave similar results, although the singers changed voice pitch more than the nonsingers. The voice pitch changes may be explained as passive results of changes of subglottal pressure required for the sound level variation.

  • 17.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Hertegård, S.
    Larsson, H.
    Sundberg, J.
    Simultaneous analysis of vocal fold vibration and transglottal airflow: Exploring a new experimental setup2003In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 319-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis system for studying the relationship between vocal fold vibration and the associated transglottal airflow. Recordings of airflow, electroglottography (EGG), oral air pressure, and acoustic signals were performed simultaneously with highspeed imaging at a rate of approximately 1900 frames/s. Inverse filtered airflow is compared with the simultaneous glottal area extracted from the highspeed image sequence. The accuracy of the synchronization between the camera images and the foot pedal synchronization pulse was examined, showing that potential synchronization errors increase with time distance to the synchronization pulse. Therefore, analysis was limited to material near the synchronization pulse. Results corroborate previous predictions that air flow lags behind area, but also they reveal that relationships between these two entities may be complex and apparently varying with phonation mode.

  • 18.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Larsson, Hans
    Sundberg, Johan
    Simultaneous analysis of vocal fold vibration and transglottal airflow: exploring a new experimental setup2003In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 17, p. 319-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis system for studying the relationship between vocal fold vibration and the associated transglottal airflow. Recordings of airflow, electroglottography (EGG), oral air pressure, and acoustic signals were performed simultaneously with high-speed imaging at a rate of approximately 1900 frames/s. Inverse filtered airflow is compared with the simultaneous glottal area extracted from the high-speed image sequence. The accuracy of the synchronization between the camera images and the foot pedal synchronization pulse was examined, showing that potential synchronization errors increase with time distance to the synchronization pulse. Therefore, analysis was limited to material near the synchronization pulse. Results corroborate previous predictions that air flow lags behind area, but also they reveal that relationships between these two entities may be complex and apparently varying with phonation mode.

  • 19. Gustafsson, J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Södersten, M.
    Schalling, E.
    Motor-Learning-Based Adjustment of Ambulatory Feedback on Vocal Loudness for Patients With Parkinson's Disease2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate how the direct biofeedback on vocal loudness administered with a portable voice accumulator (VoxLog) should be configured, to facilitate an optimal learning outcome for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), on the basis of principles of motor learning. Study Design: Methodologic development in an experimental study. Methods: The portable voice accumulator VoxLog was worn by 20 participants with PD during habitual speech during semistructured conversations. Six different biofeedback configurations were used, in random order, to study which configuration resulted in a feedback frequency closest to 20% as recommended on the basis of previous studies. Results: Activation of feedback when the wearer speaks below a threshold level of 3dB below the speaker's mean voice sound level in habitual speech combined with an activation time of 500ms resulted in a mean feedback frequency of 21.2%. Conclusions: Settings regarding threshold and activation time based on the results from this study are recommended to achieve an optimal learning outcome when administering biofeedback on vocal loudness for individuals with PD using portable voice accumulators.

  • 20. Hallqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    La, Filipa M. B.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Soul and Musical Theater: A Comparison of Two Vocal Styles2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonatory and resonatory characteristics of nonclassical styles of singing have been rarely analyzed in voice research. Six professional singers volunteered to sing excerpts from two songs pertaining to the musical theater and to the soul styles of singing. Voice source parameters and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering tones, sung at the same fundamental frequencies in both excerpts. As compared with musical theater, the soul style was characterized by significantly higher subglottal pressure and maximum flow declination rate. Yet sound pressure level was lower, suggesting higher glottal resistance. The differences would be the effects of firmer glottal adduction and a greater frequency separation between the first formant and its closest spectrum partial in soul than in musical theater.

  • 21. Han, Qichao
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Duration, Pitch, and Loudness in Kunqu Opera Stage Speech2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, article id UNSP 255.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Kunqu is a special type of opera within the Chinese tradition with 600 years of history. In it, stage speech is used for the spoken dialogue. It is performed in Ming Dynasty's mandarin language and is a much more dominant part of the play than singing. Stage speech deviates considerably from normal conversational speech with respect to duration, loudness and pitch. This paper compares these properties in stage speech conversational speech. Method. A famous, highly experienced female singer's performed stage speech and reading of the same lyrics in a conversational speech mode. Clear differences are found. Results. As compared with conversational speech, stage speech had longer word and sentence duration and word duration was less variable. Average sound level was 16 dB higher. Also mean fundamental frequency was considerably higher and more varied. Within sentences, both loudness and fundamental frequency tended to vary according to a low-high-low pattern. Conclusions. Some of the findings fail to support current opinions regarding the characteristics of stage speech, and in this sense the study demonstrates the relevance of objective measurements in descriptions of vocal styles.

  • 22. Herbst, Christian T.
    et al.
    Hess, Markus
    Müller, Frank
    Svec, Jan G.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Glottal Adduction and Subglottal Pressure in Singing2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 391-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that independent variation of vocal loudness and glottal configuration (type and degree of vocal fold adduction) does not occur in untrained speech production. This study investigated whether these factors can be varied independently in trained singing and how subglottal pressure is related to average glottal airflow, voice source properties, and sound level under these conditions. A classically trained baritone produced sustained phonations on the endoscopic vowel [i:] at pitch D4 (approximately 294 Hz), exclusively varying either (a) vocal register; (b) phonation type (from "breathy" to "pressed" via cartilaginous adduction); or (c) vocal loudness, while keeping the others constant. Phonation was documented by simultaneous recording of videokymographic, electroglottographic, airflow and voice source data, and by percutaneous measurement of relative subglottal pressure. Register shifts were clearly marked in the electroglottographic wavegram display. Compared with chest register, falsetto was produced with greater pulse amplitude of the glottal flow, H1-H2, mean airflow, and with lower maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), subglottal pressure, and sound pressure. Shifts of phonation type (breathy/flow/neutral/pressed) induced comparable systematic changes. Increase of vocal loudness resulted in increased subglottal pressure, average flow, sound pressure, MFDR, glottal flow pulse amplitude, and H1-H2. When changing either vocal register or phonation type, subglottal pressure and mean airflow showed an inverse relationship, that is, variation of glottal flow resistance. The direct relation between subglottal pressure and airflow when varying only vocal loudness demonstrated independent control of vocal loudness and glottal configuration. Achieving such independent control of phonatory control parameters would be an important target in vocal pedagogy and in voice therapy.

  • 23. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. University College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Contact Quotient Versus Closed Quotient: A Comparative Study on Professional Male Singers2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The term "closed quotient'' is frequently used for data derived both from inverse filtering and from electroglottography. In the former case, it is defined as the ratio between the closed phase and the period, as measured in flow glottograms (FLOGG), whereas in the latter case, it is defined as the time interval between the falling and rising parts of the electroglottogram (EGG), measured at some percentage of the peak-to-peak amplitude. The study aims at analyzing differences between EGG-and FLOGG-based closed quotients and their relationships with voice source parameters. Study Design. Comparative study. Methods. FLOGG- and EGG-based measures collected from five professional male singers were compared, under different pitch and loudness conditions. Results. Compared with the FLOGG-based quotient, the EGG-based quotient (i) varied more between subjects, (ii) presented greater values, (iii) varied less with subglottal pressure, (iv) varied less with the normalized amplitude quotient (ie, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate), and (v) varied less with the relative amplitude of the voice source fundamental. Conclusions. Although positively related, FLOGG- and EGG-based closed quotients differ and must not be confused.

  • 24. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Real-Time Visual Feedback of Airflow in Voice Training: Aerodynamic Properties of Two Flow Ball Devices2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 3, article id UNSP 390.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Flow ball devices have been used as teaching tools to provide visual real-time feedback of airflow during singing. This study aims at exploring static back pressure and ball height as function of flow for two devices, marketed as flow ball and floating ball game. Study Design. This is a comparative descriptive study. Methods. A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used to investigate the aerodynamic properties of these two devices, testing them for four different ball sizes. The flow range investigated was between 0 and 0.5 L/s. Audio, flow, pressure, and ball height were recorded. Results. The flow pressure profiles for both tested devices were similar to those observed in previous studies on narrow tubes. For lifting the ball, both devices had a flow and a pressure threshold. The tested floating ball game required considerably higher back pressure for a given flow as compared with the flow ball. Conclusions. Both tested devices have similar effects on back pressure as straws of 3.7 and 3.0 mm in diameter for the flow ball and the floating ball game, respectively. One might argue that both devices could be used as tools for practicing semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, with the additional benefit of providing real-time visual feedback of airflow during phonation. The flow threshold, combined with the flow feedback, would increase awareness of flow, rather than of pressure, during exercises using a flow ball device.

  • 25.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    An Exploration of Skin Acceleration Level as a Measureof Phonatory Function in Singing2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Two kinds of fluctuations are observed in phonetogram recordingsof singing. Sound pressure level (SPL) can vary due to vibrato and also due tothe effect of open and closed vowels. Since vowel variation is mostly a consequence of vocal tract modification and is not directly related to phonatory function, it could be helpful to suppress such variation when studying phonation. Skin acceleration level (SAL), measured at the jugular notch and on the sternum, might be less influenced by effects of the vocal tract. It is explored in this study as an alternative measure to SPL. Five female singers sang vowel series on selected pitches and in different tasks. Recorded data were used to investigate two null hypotheses: (1) SPL and SAL are equally influenced by vowel variation and (2) SPL and SAL are equally correlated to subglottal pressure (PS). Interestingly, the vowel variation effect was small in both SPL and SAL. Furthermore, in comparison to SPL, SAL correlated weakly to PS. SAL exhibited practically no dependence on fundamental frequency, rather, its major determinant was the musical dynamic. This results in a non-sloping, square-like phonetogram contour. These outcomes show that SAL potentially can facilitate phonetographic analysis of the singing voice.

  • 26.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pabon, Peter
    Royal Conservatory, the Hague/University Utrecht/Voice Quality Systems.
    The Singer’s Voice Range Profile: Female Professional Opera Soloists2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 410-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the collection of 30 Voice Range Profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice . Objectives: We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer’s protocol in VRP aquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Method: Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Results: Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics: the voice area above a defined level threshold, and the dynamic range independent from F0, were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRP’s. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency based information. Conclusion: Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer’s voice evaluation.

  • 27. Laukkanen, AM.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Peak-to-Peak Glottal Flow Amplitude as a Function of F(0)2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 614-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the peak-to-peak (p-t-p) amplitude of the voice source as a function of fundamental frequency (F(0)). Nine males and nine females with or without singing training produced (1) a glissando from lowest to highest F(0) and back in their speaking range on /a:/ and (2) an ascending-descending scale pattern on /pa:pa:/. Audio and airflow signals were recorded, the latter picked up from a pneumotach mask. F(0) was measured from the audio signal and the oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion for in estimate of subglottal pressure. Airflow signal was inverse filtered and the p-t-p amplitude was measured for 10 F(0) values, equidistantly spaced along the subject's F(0) range in semitones, thus facilitating comparison between individuals and genders. Most females and males showed both a wide range of relatively large p-t-p amplitude in the speech range and a more or less pronounced p-t-p amplitude maximum, which was located on average at 232 and 162 Hz, respectively. The p-t-p amplitude maximum seems to reflect a complicated interplay between factors that tend to increase and those that tend to decrease the p-t-p amplitude with increasing F(0).

  • 28. Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    et al.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Throaty voice quality: Subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant characteristics2006In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Throaty" voice quality has been regarded by voice pedagogues as undesired and even harmful. This study attempts to identify acoustic and physiological correlates of this quality. One male and one female subject read a text habitually and with a throaty voice quality. Oral pressure during p-occlusion was measured as an estimate of subglottal pressure. Long-term average spectrum analysis described the average spectrum characteristics. Sixteen syllables, perceptually evaluated with regard to throaty quality by five experts, were selected for analysis. Formant frequencies and voice source characteristics were measured by means of inverse filtering, and the vocal tract shape of the throaty and normal versions of the vowels [a,u,i,ae] of the male subject were recorded by magnetic resonance imaging. From this material, area functions were derived and their resonance frequencies were determined. The throaty versions of these four vowels all showed a pharynx that was narrower than ill the habitually produced versions. To test the relevance of formant frequencies to perceived throaty quality, experts rated degree of throatiness in synthetic vowel samples, in which the measured formant frequency values of the subject were used. The main acoustic correlates of throatiness seemed to be all increase of F1, a decrease of F4, and in front vowels a decrease of F2, which presumably results from a narrowing of the pharynx. In the male Subject, voice Source parameters suggested a more hyperfunctional voice in throaty samples.

  • 29. Lehto, Laura
    et al.
    Airas, Matti
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Alku, Paavo
    Comparison of two inverse filtering methods in parameterization of the glottal closing phase characteristics in different phonation types2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 138-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverse filtering (IF) is a common method used to estimate the source of voiced speech, the glottal flow. This investigation aims to compare two IF methods: one manual and the other semiautomatic. Glottal flows were estimated from speech pressure waveforms of six female and seven male subjects producing sustained vole /a/ in breathy, normal, and pressed phonation. The closing phase characteristics of the glottal pulse were parameterized using two time-based parameters: the closing quotient (C1Q) and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ). The information given by these two parameters indicates a strong correlation between the two IF methods. The results are encouraging in showing that the parameterization of the voice source in different speech sounds can be performed independently of the technique used for inverse filtering.

  • 30. Lindestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Södersten, M.
    Merker, B.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Voice source characteristics in mongolian throat singing studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering2001In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mongolian throat singing can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

  • 31. Lindström, Fredric
    et al.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Sodersten, Maria
    McAllister, Anita
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Observations of the Relationship Between Noise Exposure and Preschool Teacher Voice Usage in Day-Care Center Environments2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the relationship between noise exposure and vocal behavior (the Lombard effect) is well established, actual vocal behavior in the workplace is still relatively unexamined. The first purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between noise level and both voice level and voice average fundamental frequency (F-0) for a population of preschool teachers in their normal workplace. The second purpose was to study the vocal behavior of each teacher to investigate whether individual vocal behaviors or certain patterns could be identified. Voice and noise data were obtained for female preschool teachers (n = 13) in their workplace, using wearable measurement equipment. Correlations between noise level and voice level, and between voice level and F-0, were calculated for each participant and ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 for voice level and from 0.11 to 0.78 for F-0. The large spread of the correlation coefficients indicates that the teachers react individually to the noise exposure. For example, some teachers increase their voice-to-noise level ratio when the noise is reduced, whereas others do not.

  • 32.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6 dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6 dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4 dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

  • 33. McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Sederholm, E
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perturbation and hoarseness: a pilot study of six children's voices.1996In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental frequency (FO) perturbation has been found to be useful as an acoustic correlate of the perception of dysphonia in adult voices. In a previous investigation, we showed that hoarseness in children's voices is a stable concept composed mainly of three predictors: hyperfunction, breathiness, and roughness. In the present investigation, the relation between FO perturbation and hoarseness as well as its predictors was analyzed in running speech of six children representing different degrees of hoarseness. Two perturbation measures were used: the standard deviation of the distribution of perturbation data and the mean of the absolute value of perturbation. The results revealed no clear relation.

  • 34. McDonnell, Maria
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Lindestad, Per-Ake
    Larsson, Hans
    Vocal Fold Vibration and Phonation Start in Aspirated, Unaspirated, and Staccato Onset2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypotheses. Singers learn to produce well-controlled tone onsets by accurate synchronization of glottal adduction and buildup of subglottal pressure. Spectrographic analyses have shown that the higher spectrum partials are present also at the vowel onset in classically trained singers' performances. Such partials are produced by a sharp discontinuity in the waveform of the transglottal airflow, presumably produced by vocal fold collision. Study Design. After hearing a prompt series of a triad pattern, six singer subjects sang the same triad pattern on the vowel /i/ (1) preceded by an aspirated /p/, (2) preceded by an unaspirated /p/, and (3) without any preceding consonant in staccato. Methods. Using high-speed imaging we examined the initiation of vocal fold vibration in aspirated and unaspirated productions of the consonant /p/ as well as in the staccato tones. Results. The number vibrations failing to produce vocal fold collision were significantly higher in the aspirated /p/ than in the unaspirated /p/ and in the staccato tones. High frequency ripple in the audio waveform was significantly delayed in the aspirated /p/. Conclusions. Initiation of vocal fold collision and the appearance of high-frequency ripple in the vowel /i/ are slightly delayed in aspirated productions of a preceding consonant /p/.

  • 35. Millgård, M.
    et al.
    Fors, T.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Flow Glottogram Characteristics and Perceived Degree of Phonatory Pressedness2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 287-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Phonatory pressedness is a clinically relevant aspect of voice, which generally is analyzed by auditory perception. The present investigation aimed at identifying voice source and formant characteristics related to experts' ratings of phonatory pressedness. Study Design: Experimental study of the relations between visual analog scale ratings of phonatory pressedness and voice source parameters in healthy voices. Methods: Audio, electroglottogram, and subglottal pressure, estimated from oral pressure during /p/ occlusion, were recorded from five female and six male subjects, each of whom deliberately varied phonation type between neutral, flow, and pressed in the syllable /pae/, produced at three loudness levels and three pitches. Speech-language pathologists rated, along a visual analog scale, the degree of perceived phonatory pressedness in these samples. Results: The samples were analyzed by means of inverse filtering with regard to closed quotient, dominance of the voice source fundamental, normalized amplitude quotient, peak-to-peak flow amplitude, as well as formant frequencies and the alpha ratio of spectrum energy above and below 1000Hz. The results were compared with the rating data, which showed that the ratings were closely related to voice source parameters. Conclusions: Approximately, 70% of the variance of the ratings could be explained by the voice source parameters. A multiple linear regression analysis suggested that perceived phonatory pressedness is related most closely to subglottal pressure, closed quotient, and the two lowest formants.

  • 36. Morris, R.J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    LoVetri, J.
    Berkun, D.
    Long-Term Average Spectra From a Youth Choir Singing in Three Vocal Registers and Two Dynamic Levels2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/HypothesisFew studies have reported the acoustic characteristics of youth choirs. In addition, scant data are available on youth choruses making the adjustments needed to sing at different dynamic levels in different registers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to acoustically analyze the singing of a youth chorus to observe the evidence of the adjustments that they made to sing at two dynamic levels in three singing registers.Study DesignSingle-group observational study.MethodsThe participants were 47 members of the Brooklyn Youth Chorus who sang the same song sample in head, mixed, and chest voice at piano and forte dynamic levels. The song samples were recorded and analyzed using long-term average spectra and related spectral measures.ResultsThe spectra revealed different patterns among the registers. These differences imply that the singers were making glottal adjustments to sing the different register and dynamic level versions of the song. The duration of the closed phase, as estimated from the amplitudes of the first two harmonics, differed between the chest and head register singing at both dynamic levels. In addition, the spectral slopes differed among all three registers at both dynamic levels.ConclusionsThese choristers were able to change registers and dynamic levels quickly and with minimal prompting. Also, these acoustic measures may be a useful tool for evaluating some singing skills of young choristers.

  • 37. Mürbe, D.
    et al.
    Pabst, F.
    Hofmann, G.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Effects of a professional solo singer education on auditory and kinesthetic feedback - A longitudinal study of singers' pitch control2004In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 236-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of auditory and kinesthetic feedback to pitch control in singing was described in a previous report of this project for students at the beginning of their professional solo singer education.(1) As it seems reasonable to assume that pitch control can be improved by training, the same students were reinvestigated after 3 years of professional singing education. As in the previous study, the singers sang an ascending and descending triad pattern with and without masking noise in legato and staccato and in a slow and a fast tempo. Fundamental frequency and interval sizes between adjacent tones were determined and compared with their equivalents in the equally tempered tuning. The average deviations from these values were used as estimates of intonation accuracy. Intonation accuracy was reduced by masking noise, by staccato as opposed to legato singing, and by fast as opposed to slow performance. The contribution of the auditory feedback to pitch control was not significantly improved after education, whereas the kinesthetic feedback circuit was improved in slow legato and slow staccato tasks. The results support the assumption that the kinesthetic feedback contributes substantially to intonation accuracy.

  • 38. Mürbe, Dirk
    et al.
    Zahnert, Thomas
    Kuhlisch, Eberhard
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of professional singing education on vocal vibrato - A longitudinal study2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 683-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal vibrato is regarded as one of the essential characteristics of voice quality in classical singing. Professional singers seem to develop vibrato automatically, without actively striving to acquire it. In this longitudinal investigation, the vocal vibrato of 22 singing students was examined at the beginning of and after 3 years of professional singing education. Subjects sang an ascending-descending triad pattern in slow tempo on vowel [a:] at a comfortable pitch level twice at soft (piano) and twice at medium (mezzo-forte) loudness. The top note of the triad pattern was sustained for approximately 5 s. The mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the vibrato rate were measured for this note. Results revealed that after 3 years of training, voices with vibrato slower than 5.2 Hz were found to have a faster vibrato, and voices with vibrato faster than 5.8 Hz were found to have a slower vibrato. Standard deviation of vibrato rate was higher in soft than in medium loudness, particularly before the education. Also high values of SD of vibrato rate, exceeding 0.65 Hz, had decreased after the education. These findings confirm that vibrato characteristics can be affected by singing education.

  • 39. Nienkerke-Springer, A
    et al.
    McAllister, T
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of family therapy on children's voices2005In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The families of nine children with deviant voice qualities were selected for family treatment according to the SYGESTI model. Recordings of the children's speech were made before and after therapy. Perceptual evaluation of their voice quality showed significant improvement in various perceptual parameters after the therapy. Acoustical analysis confirmed changes of voice quality and mean fundamental frequency in speech. The therapy also was found to improve relations between family members, conflict management and other aspects of communication. The results suggest that these children's deviant voices were related to family conditions.

  • 40.
    Pabon, Peter
    Institute of Sonology, Royal Conservatory.
    Objective acoustic voice-quality parameters in the computer phonetogram1991In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Stallinga, R.
    Södersten, M.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Effects on Vocal Range and Voice Quality of Singing Voice Training: The Classically Trained Female Voice2014In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 36-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesA longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study programme, using the Voice Range Profile (VRP). Study DesignPre- and post-training recordings were made of students that participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study programme. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals, was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a sub-group of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, that was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. MethodsThe VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of ‘mixed voice.’ VRP’s were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared to the self-assessed vocal changes. ResultsPre-post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum SPL values. The students’ self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. ConclusionsVRP’s of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the group average. High resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis as well as for groups comprised of singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focussed training programme, given by a faculty that has agreed on the goals.

  • 42.
    Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Royal Conservatoire, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Feature maps of the acoustic spectrum of the voice2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The change in the spectrum of sustained /a/ vowels was mapped over the voice range from low to high fundamentalfrequency and low to high sound pressure level (SPL), in the form of the so-called voice range profile (VRP). In eachinterval of one semitone and one decibel, narrowband spectra were averaged both within and across subjects. Thesubjects were groups of 7 male and 12 female singing students, as well as a group of 16 untrained female voices. Foreach individual and also for each group, pairs of VRP recordings were made, with stringent separation of themodal/chest and falsetto/head registers. Maps are presented of eight scalar metrics, each of which was chosen toquantify a particular feature of the voice spectrum, over fundamental frequency and SPL. Metrics 1 and 2 chart the roleof the fundamental in relation to the rest of the spectrum. Metrics 3 and 4 are used to explore the role of resonances inrelation to SPL. Metrics 5 and 6 address the distribution of high frequency energy, while metrics 7 and 8 seek todescribe the distribution of energy at the low end of the voice spectrum. Several examples are observed ofphenomena that are difficult to predict from linear source-filter theory, and of the voice source being less uniform overthe voice range than is conventionally assumed. These include a high-frequency band-limiting at high SPL and anunexpected persistence of the second harmonic at low SPL. The two voice registers give rise to clearly different maps.Only a few effects of training were observed, in the low frequency end below 2 kHz. The results are of potentialinterest in voice analysis, voice synthesis and for new insights into the voice production mechanism.

  • 43. Reid, Katherine L. P.
    et al.
    Davis, Pamela
    Oates, Jennifer
    Cabrera, Densil
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Black, Michael
    Chapman, Janice
    The acoustic characteristics of professional opera singers performing in chorus versus solo mode2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, members of a professional opera chorus were recorded using close microphones, while singing in both choral and solo modes. The analysis included computation of long-term average spectra (LTAS) for the two song sections performed and calculation of singing power ratio (SPR) and energy ratio (ER), which provide an indication of the relative energy in the singer's formant region. Vibrato rate and extent were determined from two matched vowels, and SPR and ER were calculated for these vowels. Subjects sang with equal or more power in the singer's formant region in choral versus solo mode in the context of the piece as a whole and in individual vowels. There was no difference in vibrato rate and extent between the two modes. Singing in choral mode, therefore, required the ability to use a similar vocal timbre to that required for solo opera singing.

  • 44. Roers, Friederike
    et al.
    Muerbe, Dirk
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Predicted Singers' Vocal Fold Lengths and Voice Classification - A Study of X-Ray Morphological Measures2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 408-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music Dresden, Germany have been submitted to a detailed physical examination of a variety of factors with relevance to voice function since 1959. In the years 1959-1991, this scheme of examinations included X-ray profiles of the singers' vocal tracts. This material of 132 X-rays of voice professionals was used to investigate different laryngeal morphological measures and their relation to vocal fold length. Further, the study aimed to investigate if there are consistent anatomical differences between singers of different voice classifications. The study design used was a retrospective analysis. Vocal fold length could be measured in 29 of these singer subjects directly. These data showed a strong correlation with the anterior-posterior diameter of the subglottis and the trachea as well as with the distance from the anterior contour of the thyroid cartilage to the anterior contour of the spine. These relations were used in an attempt to predict the 132 singers' vocal fold lengths. The results revealed a clear covariation between predicted vocal fold length and voice classification. Anterior-posterior subglottic-tracheal diameter yielded mean vocal fold lengths of 14.9, 16.0, 16.6, 18.4, 19.5, and 20.9 mm for sopranos, mezzo-sopranos, altos, tenors, baritones, and basses, respectively. The data support the assumption that there are consistent anatomical laryngeal differences between singers of different voice classifications, which are of relevance to pitch range and timbre of the voice.

  • 45.
    Sandberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindblom, Bjorn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Jan Gauffin: In memorium2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 258-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Schalling, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, J.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bulukin Wilén, F.
    Södersten, M.
    Effects of tactile biofeedback by a portable voice accumulator on voice intensity in speakers with Parkinson’s disease2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 729-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study the effects of biofeedback on voice sound level (SL) in subjects with reduced voice SL, secondary to Parkinson disease (PD), using a portable voice accumulator. Study Design: Prospective intervention study. Methods: Voice SL, phonation time, and level of background noise were registered with a portable voice accumulator during three consecutive registration periods. Six subjects with reduced voice SL secondary to PD participated. Biofeedback, in the form of a vibration signal when voice SL went below an individually set threshold level, was administered during the second registration period only. Mean voice SL was calculated for registration periods with and without feedback. Data on phonation time and level of background noise was also collected. Field registrations with the portable voice accumulator were also compared with registrations made in a recording studio. In addition, subjects were asked about subjective experiences of using the portable voice accumulator for up to 15 days. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in voice SL during the period when biofeedback of voice SL was administered. Subjects reported that using the portable voice accumulator was a positive experience. Several participants wished to continue using the device. In general, subjects handled the device independently with no major problems and did not report any negative experiences. Conclusions: Although this study was a first trial including six subjects with reduced voice SL secondary to PD, the findings indicate that biofeedback of voice SL administered via a portable voice accumulator may be a useful treatment tool for this group of patients and that further studies are needed.

  • 47.
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Investigation of the relationship between electroglottogram waveform, fundamental frequency, and sound pressure level using clustering2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it has been shown in previous research (Orlikoff, 1991; Henrich et al, 2005; Kuang et al, 2014; Awan, 2015) that there exists a relationship between the electroglottogram (EGG) waveform and the acoustic signal, this relationship is still not fully understood. To investigate this relationship, the EGG and acoustic signals were measured for four male amateur choir singers who each produced eight consecutive tones of increasing and decreasing vocal intensity. The EGG signals were processed cycle-synchronously to obtain the discrete Fourier transform, and the data were used as an input to a clustering algorithm. The acoustic signal was analyzed in terms of sound pressure level (dB SPL) and fundamental frequency (f(o)) of vibration, and the results of both EGG and acoustic analysis were depicted on a two-dimensional plane with f(o) on the x-axis and SPL on the y-axis. All the subjects were seen to have a weak, near-sinusoidal EGG waveform in their lowest SPL range, whereas increase in SPL coincided with progressive enrichment in harmonic content of the EGG waveforms. The results of the clustering were additionally used to classify waveforms across subjects to enable inter-subject comparisons and assessment of individual strategies of exploring the f(o)-SPL dimensions. In these male subjects, the EGG waveform shape appeared to vary with SPL and to remain essentially constant with f(o) over one octave.

  • 48.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Articulatory Configuration and Pitch in a Classically Trained Soprano Singer2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest that singers modify articulation to avoid that the pitch frequency F0 exceeds the normal value of the first formant F1(Normal). Using magnetic resonance imaging at a rate of 5 frames/s, articulation was analyzed in a professional soprano singing an ascending triad pattern from C4 to G5 (262-784 Hz) on the vowels /i, e, u, o, a/. Lip and jaw opening and tongue dorsum height were measured and analyzed as function of pitch. Four or five semitones below the pitch where F0 = F1(Normal) the tongue dorsum height was reduced in /i, e, u, a/, whereas in /o/ the lip opening was widened and in /a/ also the jaw opening was widened. At higher pitches, the jaw opening was widened in all vowels. These articulatory maneuvers are likely to raise F1 in these vowels.

  • 49.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Flow Glottogram and Subglottal Pressure Relationship in Singers and Untrained Voices2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines results from three earlier investigations of the glottal voice source during phonation at varying degrees of vocal loudness (1) in five classically trained baritone singers (Sundberg et al., 1999), (2) in 15 female and 14 male untrained voices (Sundberg et al., 2005), and (3) in voices rated as hyperfunctional by an expert panel (Millgard et al., 2015). Voice source data were obtained by inverse filtering. Associated subglottal pressures were estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. Five flow glottogram parameters, (1) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), (2) peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, (3) level difference between the first and the second harmonics of the voice source, (4) closed quotient, and (5) normalized amplitude quotient, were averaged across the singer subjects and related to associated MFDR values. Strong, quantitative relations, expressed as equations, are found between subglottal pressure and MFDR and between MFDR and each of the other flow glottogram parameters. The values for the untrained voices, as well as those for the voices rated as hyperfunctional, deviate systematically from the values derived from the equations.

  • 50.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Batter-Huppmann, Julia
    When does a sung tone start?2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the consonant is mostly considered as the start of a syllable in phonetics and orthography, musicians generally agree that the vowel onset in singing should be synchronized with the beat. As a test of this assumption, the current investigation analyzes the time interval between vowel onsets and piano accompaniment onsets in a set of songs performed by international vocal artists and published on commercial CD recordings. The results show that, most commonly, the accompanists synchronized their tones with the singers' vowel onsets. Nevertheless, examples of lead and lag were found, probably made for expressive purposes. The lead and lag varied greatly between songs, being smallest in a song performed in a fast tempo and longest in a song performed in a slow tempo.

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