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  • 1.
    ABDOUSSI, Sarah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Project Finance in the Energy FieldCase Study: A wind Power Project in a Moroccan-like environment2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies, governments and NGOs are involved in designing and planning the future energy landscape of countries. Engineers and scientists contribute highly to this planning through bringing innovative, efficient and reliable technical solutions. Their know-how is used during the project development, the EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) phase as well as during the Operation and Maintenance stage.

    However, a successful energy plan depends on many other parameters such as the legal side, the political background of the country, the financing methods, the funding, the environmental aspects and the social acceptance.

    This Master Thesis Project focuses on the financing side of energy projects, which is a key point to properly manage competitive and viable projects. The strong link between the financing and the political background will be shortly commented throughout the report.

    In the first part of the report, the focus is put on the Project Finance. All along the report, the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with examples taken from the EDF EN projects, mainly in the Middle East and North African area. The second part deals with the risks associated to power projects. Commercial and political risks are listed and the main mitigation tools are explained. The third part of the report is dedicated to basic business models for energy projects. A simplified economical and financial model is described in detail and run for a wind farm project in a Moroccan-like environment. A sensitivity analysis (fourth part) concludes the report through analyzing: - the impact of technological choices on the internal return on investment will be studied - the impact of the financial parameters on the project structure.

  • 2.
    Almulla, Youssef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries 2040 energy scenario for electricity generation and water desalination.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Judicious modeling of an energy system can help provide insights as to how elements of the energy system might be configured in the longer term. The current and future electricity and water desalination systems of each GCC country were represented using a full-cost based optimization tool called MESSAGE and the following scenarios were examined:

    1. The business as usual scenario (BAU): current energy system is extended into the future without any changes. The energy system structure and characteristics are kept the same. The fuel prices are also kept at the current subsidized levels.

    2 - The netback-pricing scenario: all fuel costs are increased to the international market price. The freed amount of fuel is assumed to be available for export to the international market. Moreover, this scenario examines different carbon tax options of 0, 20,30 ,40 and 50 dollars per kilo tons of CO2 emissions.

    3 - The Nuclear hub scenario: examines the idea of a “nuclear hub” state for the GCC region that can have all the “know-how” and logistics to provide sufficient nuclear energy for the GCC through the Interconnection Grid “GCCIG”.

    Results shows that fossil fuels will continue to play an important role in a least cost future for the region. This is due, in no small part, to the cheap natural gas resources in the GCC. Despite the high renewable energy technologies potential, their penetration – given the study assumptions - proved to be important, but limited in the GCC. On the other hand, nuclear energy shows clear economic potential. 

  • 3.
    AlShaaibi, Sultan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Tecnalia.
    Transition towards Low-Carbon Energy System for the Basque Country, Study of Scenarios for 2050 Master2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    TECNALIA Research & Innovation is the first privately funded applied research centre in Spain and one of the leading such centres in Europe. A renowned technological agent in the development of innovative and sustainable solutions for the energy and environmental challenges of industry and society, TECNALIA addresses the complex challenges of energy supply chain and energy systems.

    Contributing to these efforts, the project builds a model of the energy system in Basque Country, which is characterized by (1) high representation of industry; the most energy intensive sector (about 45% in the energy demand ) (2) the high consumption of fossil fuels (about 83% of Basque energy use in 2010).

    These challenges (and others) along with the compliance with EU targets to reduce GHGs emissions, to promote renewables and implement measures for energy savings and efficient use of energy, are key drivers to simulate different policy-based scenarios to study and analyze the impact of these measures over different time frames.

    The aim of this thesis is prepare energy scenarios for the Basque Country for 2050, taking into account different low-carbon pathways and integrating a life-cycle perspective which includes not only the impact during the use and operation phase of energy systems, but also the impacts during the other life cycle phases (manufacturing, installation, end of life).

  • 4. Aoun, M. -C
    et al.
    Pešut, D.
    Matosović, M.
    Bošnjak, R.
    Deane, P.
    Glynn, J.
    Gallachóir, B. Ó
    Nagy, S.
    Badouard, T.
    Desbrosses, N.
    Taliotis, Constantinos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    de Boncourt, M.
    Keramidas, K.
    Gas Security of Supply in the European Union2017In: Europe's Energy Transition: Insights for Policy Making, Elsevier, 2017, p. 67-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU remains widely dependent on external gas supplies, with imports representing 70% of its consumption in 2013. Member States have different import profiles with divergent levels of dependency on Russian imports. Several European Member States rely heavily on Russian supplies, which shows that the EU gas supply security needs to be examined both from an internal and international perspective. Since the 2009 crisis between Russia and Ukraine, the EU has adopted several legislative tools to strengthen EU gas security of supply. The third legislative package, the security of supply Regulation (EU) 994/2010 and the Energy Infrastructure package identifying Projects of Common Interest have significantly improved the ability of the EU to face import disruptions. However, several countries remain particularly vulnerable to the occurrence of disruption. When considering national production, storage, and the diversity of suppliers, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania seem to be at risk. Romania, Poland, and Hungary also import the bulk of their gas from Russia, but have either domestic production or significant storage capacity.

  • 5.
    Avgerinopoulos, Georgios
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Strategic energy systems analysis:Possible pathways for the transition of electricity sector inTanzania2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the concept of the evolution of electricity sector in Tanzania.Electrification of Africa has raised large discussion and thus, nine scenarios based ondifferent production pathways and demand projections are formulated. The studyconsiders both grid based centralized electricity and decentralized power production.The main differentiation is between a centralized electricity system and decentralizedpower that are closer to demand. A model is created using three modeling tools(Answer-OSeMOSYS, LEAP and MESSAGE) and the results are presented andcompared. Finally, different funding options for electricity expansion projects inTanzania are explored in order to investigate the feasibility of the scenarios as well asa geopolitical analysis is carried out.

  • 6.
    Ayuso, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Cooperation Strategies to Support Research, Development and Demonstration of Renewable Energy Technologies within the Innovation Policy Frameworks in the Latin America and the Caribbean Region2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IRENA is an intergovernmental organization mandated with the promotion, increased adoption and the sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy. IRENA serves as the principal platform for international cooperation, center of excellence, and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy.

    As part of this mandate, IRENA seeks to stimulate the Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) of Renewable Energy Technologies (RET). Hence, fostering cooperation and strengthening innovation instruments are key focus areas of the Agency’s Programme of Work for 2013. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region has been selected as a region of focus for this effort.

    This thesis addresses IRENA’s efforts in reinforcing current cooperation mechanisms in LAC. The project seeks to identify initiatives, drivers and opportunities of cooperation in LAC, and supports IRENA’s role as a promoter of RD&D in RET. It analyses existing gaps in cooperation to provide strategies to overcome barriers to innovation.

  • 7. Bauer, N.
    et al.
    Hilaire, J.
    Brecha, R. J.
    Edmonds, J.
    Jiang, K.
    Kriegler, E.
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Int Inst Appl Syst Anal IIASA, Austria.
    Sferra, F.
    Assessing global fossil fuel availability in a scenario framework2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 580-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses global, long-term economic availability of coal, oil and gas within the Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSP) scenario framework considering alternative assumptions as to highly uncertain future developments of technology, policy and the economy. Diverse sets of trajectories are formulated varying the challenges to mitigation and adaptation of climate change. The potential CO2 emissions from fossil fuels make it a crucial element subject to deep uncertainties. The analysis is based on a well-established dataset of cost-quantity combinations that assumes favorable techno-economic developments, but ignores additional constraints on the extraction sector. This study significantly extends the analysis by specifying alternative assumptions for the fossil fuel sector consistent with the SSP scenario families and applying these filters (mark-ups and scaling factors) to the original dataset, thus resulting in alternative cumulative fossil fuel availability curves. In a Middle-of-the-Road scenario, low cost fossil fuels embody carbon consistent with a RCP6.0 emission profile, if all the CO2 were emitted freely during the 21st century. In scenarios with high challenges to mitigation, the assumed embodied carbon in low-cost fossil fuels can trigger a RCP8.5 scenario; low mitigation challenges scenarios are still consistent with a RCP4.5 scenario.

  • 8. Bazilian, M.
    et al.
    Miller, M.
    Detchon, R.
    Liebreich, M.
    Blyth, W.
    Futch, M.
    Modi, V.
    Jones, L.
    Barkett, B.
    Howells, M.
    MacGill, I.
    Kammen, D. M.
    Mai, T.
    Wittenstein, M.
    Aggarwal, S.
    O'Malley, M.
    Carvallo, J. P.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Pugh, G.
    Weston, R.
    Arent, D. J.
    Accelerating the global transformation to 21st century power systems2013In: Electricity Journal, ISSN 1040-6190, E-ISSN 1873-6874, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nations and regions need to share lessons about the best ways to create enabling policies, regulations, and markets that get the most social benefit out of power systems and incent the necessary investments.

  • 9.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Chattopadhyay, D.
    Considering power system planning in fragile and conflict states2016In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 32, p. 110-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional methods of energy planning are likely to provide results that may be inappropriate in fragile and conflict-prone countries. The risks of violence and damage, or significant delays and cancellations in infrastructure development, are rife in these states. Thus, least-cost planning processes must explicitly address the inherent risks. While there are numerous statistical methods for dealing with decision making under uncertainty, few of them have been applied to power system planning and tailored for these situations. We present a general theoretical framing of the issue and illustrate application of a very simple method to a case study of the Republic of South Sudan. We find that, in general, the resilience aspects, combined with modular and incremental benefits of distributed generation technologies and systems, emerge as attractive options if the various risks of infrastructure development are included in modelling techniques.

  • 10. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Hobbs, Benjamin F.
    Blyth, Will
    MacGill, Iain
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Interactions between energy security and climate change: A focus on developing countries2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 3750-3756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We briefly consider the tensions between climate change and energy security policy imperatives, and highlight some concepts that may bring additional clarity to decision-making at the nexus of the two areas. We focus on developing countries and use the case of the Medupi supercritical coal plant in South Africa. The justification for the plant's construction stemmed from an Integrated Resource Planning process informed by South Africa's national utility. Often, as in the case of South Africa, there are tensions not easily captured in quantitative algorithms between, inter alia, a lack of access to electricity by millions of people (and associated welfare losses) and greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation. It is difficult to identify any formal processes that have prioritised climate change considerations over those of energy access. Thus, it becomes imperative to have a clear understanding of the consequences of this reality when considering power system expansion. We find that the processes often employed do not provide an entirely satisfactory precedent for future planning analyses, and the justifications do not adequately reflect the complexity of the decision space. Finally, we highlight some options by which these tools might be enhanced in areas including explicit and formal consideration of risk.

  • 11. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Nussbaumer, Patrick
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    Brew-Hammond, Abeeku
    Foster, Vivien
    Pachauri, Shonali
    Williams, Eric
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Niyongabo, Philippe
    Musaba, Lawrence
    Gallachoir, Brian O.
    Radka, Mark
    Kammen, Daniel M.
    Energy access scenarios to 2030 for the power sector in sub-Saharan Africa2012In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach a goal of universal access to modern energy services in Africa by 2030, consideration of various electricity sector pathways is required to help inform policy-makers and investors, and help guide power system design. To that end, and building on existing tools and analysis, we present several 'high-level', transparent, and economy-wide scenarios for the sub-Saharan African power sector to 2030. We construct these simple scenarios against the backdrop of historical trends and various interpretations of universal access. They are designed to provide the international community with an indication of the overall scale of the effort required - one aspect of the many inputs required. We find that most existing projections, using typical long-term forecasting methods for power planning, show roughly a threefold increase in installed generation capacity occurring by 2030, but more than a tenfold increase would likely be required to provide for full access - even at relatively modest levels of electricity consumption. This equates to approximately a 13% average annual growth rate, compared to a historical one (in the last two decades) of 1.7%.

  • 12. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rice, Andrew
    Rotich, Juliana
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    DeCarolis, Joseph
    Macmillan, Stuart
    Brooks, Cameron
    Bauer, Florian
    Liebreich, Michael
    Open source software and crowdsourcing for energy analysis2012In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 49, p. 149-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informed energy decision making requires effective software, high-quality input data, and a suitably trained user community. Developing these resources can be expensive and time consuming. Even when data and tools are intended for public re-use they often come with technical, legal, economic and social barriers that make them difficult to adopt, adapt and combine for use in new contexts. We focus on the promise of open, publically accessible software and data as well as crowdsourcing techniques to develop robust energy analysis tools that can deliver crucial, policy-relevant insight, particularly in developing countries, where planning resources are highly constrained-and the need to adapt these resources and methods to the local context is high. We survey existing research, which argues that these techniques can produce high-quality results, and also explore the potential role that linked, open data can play in both supporting the modelling process and in enhancing public engagement with energy issues.

  • 13. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 7896-7906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 14.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Vienna, Austria.
    Welsch, Manuel
    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, Austria.
    Divan, Deepak
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.
    Elzinga, David
    International Energy Agency, Paris, France.
    Strbac, Goran
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Jones, Lawrence
    ALSTOM Grid, Washington DC, USA.
    Keane, Andrew
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Gielen, Dolf
    International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Balijepalli, V. S. K. Murthy
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India.
    Brew-Hammond, Abeeku
    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Yumkella, Kandeh
    United Nations Industrial Development Organisation.
    Smart and Just Grids: Opportunities for sub-Saharan Africa2011Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Berndtsson, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Open Geospatial Data for Energy Planning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in energy planning and by private sector practitioners. Through qualitative interviews with 49 leading practitioners in the public and private sector, this thesis establishes the data of most importance, current open access data sources for energy access along with the information currently lacking from open data sources. The interviews revealed grid infrastructure, population density, renewable power potential and energy expenditure to be the most sought after data for both practitioners’ groups. However, it was evident that the private sector had a stronger focus on land, water resource and climate data determining the renewable power potential for a specific area of interest, while the public sector focused on socioeconomic indicators and energy expenditure. A following data aggregation and analysis of the most desired datasets showed that a majority of the needed datasets were available with the exception of energy expenditure.

    A least-cost option electrification model developed by KTH-dESA has proven to be a powerful tool in assessing the cost of nationwide electrification. This thesis compares the average least-cost option electrification cost for each region in Tanzania with a projected average income. The comparison showed that the average household cost for least-cost option electrification as a share of projected household income varies between regions. The average share per household in the western regions of Tanzania were significantly higher compared to households in the central and eastern regions. The comparison was combined with the geographical location of donor-supported energy development projects showing that majority of the projects were located in the central parts of Tanzania and not targeting the most vulnerable households in regions furthest away from the national grid. In order to successfully introduce electricity nationwide in Tanzania, more support needs to be provided to the poorest regions. 

    Open data aggregation and coordination are the key to expand the support from GIS for energy access. Even though multiple data sources have been identified, they are scattered and leads to data being collected again. Coordinated efforts aimed to provide means to share aggregated updated and freely accessible data can help reduce high transaction costs, helping to alleviate energy poverty. 

  • 16.
    Bouklas, Stavros
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF DECARBONISATION SCENARIOS FOR MULTI-SECTORAL MODELLING FRAMEWORKS2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Boulkaid, Youssef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Ecole Centrale de Lille.
    Quantifying the Potential Impact of Improved Stoves in Nyeri County, Kenya2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy poverty is defined as the lack of access of households in developing countries to modern energy sources, and their consequent reliance on solid biomass fuels for cooking. So-called “Improved stoves” have been promoted by various public and private actors since the 1970s to tackle various environmental and health challenges associated with biomass use.

    Impact studies of such projects are usually based on on-site surveys about the stoves’ use, and thus are extremely site-specific, and difficultly generalizable. This thesis project aims to introduce a novel approach to impact assessment of improved cooking stoves on both local energy needs and deforestation in the area.

    This approach will base most of its figures and assumptions on calculated energy needs rather than survey reports. This will result in a highly flexible energy model, which can be used and adapted to help decision and policy makers in their function.

    The area of Nyeri County, Kenya, where the author completed a one-month field study, is used throughout the thesis as a case study in order to validate the model.

  • 18.
    Brinkerink, Maarten
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Shivakumar, Abhishek
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    SYSTEM DYNAMICS WITHIN TYPICAL DAYS OF A HIGH VARIABLE 2030 EUROPEAN POWER SYSTEMIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of variability in electricity generation on future high variable European power systems is a subject of extensive research within the current scientific literature. The common approach in these studies, regarding the assessment of the impact of the variability and related balancing assets, is by showing yearly aggregates (or longer) of results based on a variety of indicators. Although significant, these studies often lack in temporal details. This paper therefore focuses on the dynamics between load, generation, marginal cost and assets for balancing the generation variability, within a variety of typical days in a fully-integrated European power market. This is done by assessments of daily snapshots based on an hourly time resolution. The assessments underline the necessity of balancing assets, both during peaks as well as during lows in the output of variable generators. Interconnection capacity, electricity storage and demand response (DR) applications all contribute to renewables integration and to optimized utilization of cost-efficient generation capacity throughout the European power system. Important load flows from and towards load centers with high capacities of variable renewables are identified, as well as a significant role for transit countries with high interconnection capacities between these load centers. Despite the importance of electricity storage, it is shown that the traditional utilization of centralized electricity storage fleets becomes less viable with increasing penetration of variable renewables. A potential high CO2 price in the future European power market (€70-€75/MWh) can become a determining factor in the system dynamics. Large

  • 19.
    Broad, Oliver
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    North African Power Pool: Least Cost Energy Supply Model for Multiple Scenario Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is, and has always been, at the very centre of the development of human societies. This simple statement now comes as no surprise to a vast majority of people to the extent that access to and use of energy in the western world is considered as a given. Ever present, energy provides services that we take for granted from straightforward transportation through to clothing, building, food supply etc. This commodity is such a fundamental pillar to our way of life and global stability that it is often an important focus of governmental efforts worldwide. Nevertheless many parts of the developing world, specifically throughout the African continent, lack the knowledge and the resources to lay economically sound and technically efficient plans for developing their energy systems.

    As part of a larger effort for modelling the African continent and its energy system as a whole, this work focuses on the study of the North African Power Pool and it’s possible scenarios for future development. By representing the current system using a cost based optimisation tool called MESSAGE, the goal is to study the various pathways to meeting future national demand and their implications in terms of technological investment. Conducted collaboratively between KTHs’ Department of Energy Systems Analysis (DESA) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), this work has a multiple focus.

    First to reveal the trends that will take form when considering current cost and technological performance data. Through populating the model structure with the relevant public domain technological data and running iterations through to 2050 based on historical system capacity knowledge, the optimisation process draws the “natural” development pathway for each country and the region as a whole while providing the basis for scenario comparison.

    Second, to study economically viable penetration levels of renewable technologies within these future energy systems. Using a small range of scenarios that modify the boundaries of the solution space for the optimisation process (e.g. progressive introduction of a CO2 tax) multiple pathway options are revealed and compared to the baseline scenario. Specific interest is given the economic feasibility of each solution and the assumptions that they translate in multiple areas such as e.g. policy making.

    Finally, to point out the advantages of a regional grid with increased trade able to smooth consumption peaks by making more efficient use of each country’s individual resources. Managed through scenario description, this point refers to achieving such feats as an integrated Mediterranean grid that would empower large resource displacements such as the one at the heart of the DESERTEC project.

    Extra added value is also achieved through supplying a final modelling package: an open source dataset as well as a functional model that can empower local governments to conduct their own analyses of the situation.

  • 20. Brouwer, F.
    et al.
    Avgerinopoulos, Georgios
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Fazekas, D.
    Laspidou, C.
    Mercure, J. -F
    Pollitt, H.
    Ramos, Eunice Pereira
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Energy modelling and the Nexus concept2018In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 19, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nexus concept is the interconnection between the resources energy, water, food, land and climate. Such interconnections enable to address trade-offs and seek for synergies among them. Several policy areas (e.g. bio-based economy, circular economy) increasingly consider the Nexus concept. Ignoring synergies and trade-offs between energy and natural flows, can generate misleading modelling outcomes. Several modelling tools are available to address energy and the Nexus. Based on six such models, this paper aims to support the design and testing of coherent strategies for sustainable development. Model improvements would be achieved by comparing model outcomes and including a common baseline.

  • 21. Chattopadhyay, D.
    et al.
    Bazilian, Morgan D.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Columbia University, United States .
    Lilienthal, P.
    More power, less cost: Transitioning up the solar energy ladder from home systems to mini-grids2015In: Electricity Journal, ISSN 1040-6190, E-ISSN 1873-6874, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing access to electricity for the roughly 3 billion people who currently have no access or limited access to reliable service is a fundamental social and economic development challenge. A significant part of this population lives far away from the power grid, mostly in rural areas, where mini-grids could go far in meeting this enormous demand.

  • 22. Chattopadhyay, D.
    et al.
    Spyrou, E.
    Mukhi, N.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Vogt-Schilb, A.
    Building climate resilience into power systems plans: Reflections on potential ways forward for Bangladesh2016In: Electricity Journal, ISSN 1040-6190, E-ISSN 1873-6874, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consideration of climate resilience in power system planning and operations by utilities around the world is very limited to date. This article assimilates some of the initial thoughts developed as part of a World Bank project on climate resilience for Bangladesh. It briefly reflects on the current literature, and focuses on the specific flooding risks faced in Bangladesh to illuminate the way forward to enhance planning practices.

  • 23.
    Chen, Xiaoxiao
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    The Concept of “Best Practice” Applied to Energy Access Interventions: Developing and Testing a Framework2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The poor in rural areas of developing countries continue to face the challenges of energy poverty. Lack of energy access and its impact on health, education and income, remain a significant cause of poverty. While many energy access projects and programmes have been implemented in developing countries, there have been varying levels of performances of expanding energy access to the rural poor.

    In this thesis, proposed Expanding Energy Access Intervention (EEAI) framework is an initial attempt to identify and encourage the concept of "Best Practice" for characterizing and evaluating different interventions aimed at expanding access to modern energy services.

    The main study addresses two challenges: the absence of a universally accepted definition of "Best Practice" on expanding energy access interventions; and the difficulty of measuring energy access interventions in a composite manner. To overcome these challenges, an in-depth parameterized evaluation method has been suggested to provide decision makers a tool to track progress on the performances of expanding energy access interventions.

    The potential framework builds upon a five-dimensional pentagon to address multiple interactions and to calculate trade-offs so as to illustrate the "Best Practice" concept. The study is rooted in the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development Energy Access Knowledge Base (GEAKB), contains two sections: non-Chinese cases and Chinese cases. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of EEAI, a composite index along with the concept of the "Best Practice" is employed.

    Through multi criteria analysis, observations from case studies are used to reflect different aspects of the "Best Practice" concept in different scopes. Two of the selected practices qualify as the "best" by fulfilling the requirements (have the minimum gap between the ideal pentagon) used in the identification and application processes. Computed scores of interventions from case studies indicate the framework and approach are feasible and fit the conclusions of existing references.

    The EEAI framework allows users to synthesize various information and data quickly, effectively and efficiently. Meanwhile, it could be used as a valuable guideline to promote the "Best Practice" concept for energy access project planning and implementation. The framework also provides a possible involvement for everyone to have transparent discussions. This study will be of value to police-makers and development practitioners in the fields of expanding access to modern energy services.

  • 24.
    Colen Ladeia Torrens, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Bridging the gap between resource use and Planetary Boundaries2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Impacts of human agency have become a major driver in the Earth System, with magnitude comparable to that of natural occurring global processes. Several earth system processes are under substantial pressure.  These human induced pressures are likely to increase, potentially leading to undesirable changes at planetary scale. In that context, the Planetary Boundaries concept has been put forward aiming at defining a “safe operating space” for future endurance of humanity: relevant processes were identified with associated boundaries that, if respected, would avoid large-scale or irreversible change. The present study explores how human driven resource use relates to the Planetary Boundaries concept, through a water-food-energy-climate nexus perspective. It aims at identifying alternatives for the consideration of biophysical constraints in ways resources are modelled, and it presents an account of the current elements that hinder the integration of new constraints. The study found that existing Integrated Assessment Models and conceptual models for exploring Climate-Land-Energy-Water Strategies present important contributions, but further integration is necessary. Furthermore, decision-making support tools in these models were designed to assess mitigation options for climate, but cannot yet be used for multi-goal or multi-constraints studies. Scenario studies were found to be an important and yet underappreciated tool for such integration. The study identified novel techniques for scenario construction that could be applied in this context – they can allow the construction of sets of scenarios to bridge across scales or to connect separate modelling communities. The study suggests that for bridging the current gaps that exist between concepts it is necessary to develop an active interface across research communities involved in global change research, integrated assessment and resource modelling communities. These interfaces need to allow the co-development of concepts, the sharing of data and the confrontation of different perspectives on the shared challenge of exploring potential pathways for sustainability. 

  • 25.
    de Strasser, Lucia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Modeling   the   energy-­‐water   nexus   in   Lake   Tana,    Ethiopia   using   LEAP   and   WEAP2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    De Strasser, Lucia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Lipponen, Annukka
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Mentis, Dimitris
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Gordon, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Water-Food-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus in transboundary river basins2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    de Strasser, Lucia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lipponen, Annukka
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Stec, Stephen
    Brethaut, Christian
    A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Dekker, Tobias Dylan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. International Water Management Institute.
    Solarizing Indian agriculture by deploying solar irrigation pumps2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solar Irrigation Pumps (SIPs) are used to pump (ground and surface) water to irrigate farm lands. In a country with a historical mismatch of energy supply and demand, and almost 120 million families dependent on earnings from agriculture (Prachi Salve, 2014), SIPs offer great prospects. Unlike electric and diesel pumps – dominating the market till today – SIPs have almost zero marginal costs. This leads to extra crop production at negligible costs and also generation of electricity when not being used for pumping. Due to almost zero emissions, it simultaneously addresses the issue of climate change hence bringing prosperity to the population at all levels.SIPs are a new phenomenon in India and due to the comparatively1 high capital costs, SIPs require subsidies to make them affordable for a farmer. Support in the form of subsidies has been given to around 15,000 farms in the whole country. By introducing solar pumps on a subsidy scheme in 2009-2010, Rajasthan has become the pioneer state of India. Since then numerous solar pumps have been deployed and farmers have gained experience with their usage. These farmers appear to be happy with the functioning of the pumps; 95% of the farmers, who gained enough knowledge to answer the question, say that the pump works better than their diesel or electric pump. A surprising finding is that the project cost per pump is getting higher while the pumps are getting cheaper. This means that the government is using more money to run the project. To find the reasons for the rising project costs and to find a way to decrease them, further research is needed. If the project cost could be decreased more pumps could be supplied with the same amount of subsidy.It was also found that the SIPs were not successful in replacing the electric and diesel pumps. The diesel and electric pumps had more horse power (hp) so were able to pump more water resulting in irrigation of more land in the same amount of time. Farmers expressed they could fully switch to SIPs when more powerful pumps were supplied.Because the present SIPs are off grid systems, it is not possible to sell the excess electricity that is not needed for pumping water. Because there are no marginal costs, there is no incentive for switching off the machines either. The consequence is excessive pumping of water leading to groundwater depletion. An important improvement would be to connect these pumps to the electricity grid. The possibility to earn some money with delivering energy would probably be a good reason to stop needless pumping.The subsidy program that was in place in Rajasthan had an 86% capital subsidy (the farmer had to pay only 14% of the price of SIP). With the available money only 10,000 pumps per year could be supplied (Dr. Dinesh Kumar Goyal, 2013). When the subsidy per pump is decreased more pumps could be deployed and it was shown that even with a lower subsidy getting a SIP will still be attractive.One of the points of improvement for a quick roll out of SIPs might be found in the way these pumps are financed. Pumps have a high capital cost and are currently financed by 70-90% capital subsidies of the government. The amount of total subsidy is limited and so with a high percentage of subsidy a small amount of pumps are deployed by this subsidy. These subsidies could be dramatically reduced when a loan/lease product would be put in place. Without a bank loan farmers are unable to pay the major part of the capital cost of the pump. Offering a bank loan is a win-win situation for the farmers and the people of India, represented by the government. With these pumps farmers are able to sell electricity to the grid and earn extra income or they can sell water to other farmers for a price below the price of current diesel pumping. With this income they could pay off the loan in 7 years and earn a reasonable income. The people of India will not only benefit by having to pay less for subsidies, they will also benefit from less greenhouse gas emissions as solar has almost zero emissions compared to mainly coal based electricity pumps and diesel pumps.SIPs supplying electricity can have a big effect on grid stability. Hence, in chapter 6 the question of grid stability was raised. Under what conditions can the Indian grid deal with a large amount of electricity injected from SIPs. India currently has 70% of the electricity produced from coal power plants while 3% comes from Nuclear power plants (Trading Economics, 2011a). These sources have a response time of several hours which is not quick enough to respond to fluctuations in the demand of energy by for example households, or a change in production by other sources, for example solar. The present sources should be partly replaced by quick response sources like the renewable sources and gas turbines. Currently 6% of the installed capacity is a gas power plant (Central Electricity Authority, 2015) but this percentage should be increased. Also other solutions should be implemented, such as developing storage of energy and more interconnections between grids of states and other countries.Since the idea is that SIPs would not use electricity from the grid anymore unlike electric pumps, 25% of electricity currently used from the grid by agriculture will be less. The current electric pumps only get electricity for certain hours a day and are used to balance the grid, only at times of low electricity use of other users, farmers will get electricity. When the electric pumps are replaced by SIPs that do not use electricity from the grid the balancing function that the electric pumps currently fulfil will no longer be present. Having no experience with SIPs connected to the grid so far, it will be difficult for the state load dispatch centres, which manage the grid, to schedule the expected load. Hence, pilots should be set up to find out how these pumps are used throughout the day so that in the future these loads can be predicted. In Gujarat the solar installed capacity could easily be a fivefold without having to invest in extra capacity of quick responsive sources, since enough installed capacity of gas turbines is already in place but currently not used. Extra investment would be needed in the grid in order to be able to transmit so much electricity over the grid from the (distributed) solar plants.Solar irrigation pumps, when implemented correctly, can not only lead to much cheaper irrigation for farmers but also less groundwater depletion and a source of extra income. Solar pumps can lead the way to more prosperity for the Indian people, but new guidelines and plans have to be made by the government to realise this potential. Without policy changes as described in this thesis SIPs benefit a small number of lucky farmers at the expense of the larger whole (wasting public money and groundwater).

  • 29.
    Dereix, Florian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Adaptation of emission factors for the Tunisian carbon footprint tool2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Tunisia, the National Agency for the Environment is encouraging the creation of a carbon footprint method specifically adapted to the Tunisian context. In cooperation with the French National Agency for the Environment, the adaptation of the French carbon footprint method is realised and has to go along with an adaptation of the emission factors. In this framework, this master thesis aims at presenting the emission factors adaptation process led to adapt the accounting tool.

    First, a literature review enables to present the main notions useful to understand the precise definition of emission factor. Then, a preliminary study of the main carbon footprint tools is presented so as to identify the main characteristics of a carbon footprint method. A comparison is then done to present the differences which can occur between the previous methods.

    Finally, for each category of emission factor, the adaptation process is presented showing three different ways to adapt emission factors: a replacing of the data in the calculations, an adaptation based on local studies and a more difficult adaptation requiring to develop a new method.

  • 30. Dhakouani, A.
    et al.
    Gardumi, Francesco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Znouda, E.
    Bouden, C.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Long-term optimisation model of the Tunisian power system2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 550-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity mix in Tunisia mainly relied on conventional energy sources for over 50 years. Recently, due to fossil fuel prices oscillations and national reserves shortage, the need arose for restructuring the energy supply system. Targeting the integration of renewable energies could be a plan for satisfying the increasing demand and the supply independence. However, several macroeconomic conditions and policies present barriers for the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), despite their abundance, availability and environmental benefits. This paper presents a long-term model of Tunisia electricity system, based on OSeMOSYS (Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem), aimed at unveiling potential benefits of increasing RES in electricity production. The paper first investigates peculiarities of Tunisia electricity system, arguing the necessity to include them in the electricity system model. Then, it explains the choice of OSeMOSYS and brought modifications, including peculiar system characteristics. Finally, the model is applied to two scenarios, a Business As Usual case and a 30% RES target in electricity production case, for time horizon 2010–2030. Results demonstrate the importance of system features detailed modelling. Specifically, they show that targeting RES state-invested integration in the electricity mix may allow higher energy independence to be reached, without increasing significantly system costs.

  • 31.
    Edfeldt, Erica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Andersson, Sanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Electric Road Systems for Trucks2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increased use of electricity in vehicles is considered an alternative to decrease the usage of fossil fuels. For private cars, plug-in electric vehicles using batteries are continuously being improved. However, the battery technology of today is not sufficient for trucks if they are to use only electricity. The battery technology is not sufficient to be able to supply the truck with enough propulsion energy to perform an entire drive. However, the hybrid drive technology enables a power recovery and charges the battery when the vehicle applies its brakes. The fuel usage can thereby be decreased through the energy recovery. This master thesis examines the potential of electric road systems, ERSs, which enables a continuous electricity supply to the vehicle when in motion. Similar technologies as an ERS has been used for a long time for trams, trolleybuses and trains, and historically there have also existed cases of electric truck systems. In this thesis the potential for ERSs is examined from the haulage contractor companies’ perspective, which would be users of this system. The potential is in regard to the energy usage per km, the CO2 emissions per km and the cost per km for an ERS vehicle (a hybrid vehicle using an ERS) compared to a hybrid vehicle and to a conventional vehicle. The cost per km includes energy cost, cost for using the ERS infrastructure and the additional vehicle cost.

    The method used in this study was first to create a broad picture of the concept of ERSs through reading articles, reports, web pages and through conducting interviews with stakeholders within the ERS market. The second part of the method was to create a technology model and an economic model. The models investigate the potential for ERSs through three different cases: a Distribution Case, a Long-Haulage Case and a Mining Case. For all three cases, the energy usage, the cost and the CO2 emissions per km for using a conventional vehicle, a hybrid vehicle and ERS vehicle were generated. Four alternative future scenarios were also tested, in which factors such as energy costs and infrastructure costs were varied.

    The results show the energy usage, the CO2 emissions and the profitability from the haulage contractor companies’ perspective. The results show that ERSs are not profitable for the Distribution Case in any of the tested scenarios. For the Long-Haulage Case, however, it is profitable in four out of the five tested scenarios. The Mining Case shows mixed profitability results, many times being just above or just below profitable. The energy usage decreased for all the cases and scenarios. Because of this, in combination with the relatively clean electricity production in Sweden, the decrease in CO2 emissions is very large. The

    3

    conclusions from this thesis are therefore that long-haulage routes show great potential for using ERSs, mining cases have some potential for using ERSs and if distribution routes are to use ERSs this would be only for lowered fossil fuel usage and environmental purposes. 

  • 32.
    Engström, R. E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Destouni, G.
    Bhatt, V.
    Bazilian, M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 31, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water and energy systems are crucial for sustainably meeting basic service demands in cities. This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations. Results indicate that interventions motivated primarily by water management goals can considerably reduce energy use and contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, energy efficiency interventions can considerably reduce water use in addition to lowering emissions. However, interventions yielding the greatest reductions in energy use and emissions are not necessarily the most water conserving ones, and vice versa. Useful further research, expanding the present analysis should consider a broader set of resource interactions, towards a full climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) nexus approach. Overall, assessing the impacts, trade-offs and co-benefits from interventions in one urban resource system on others also holds promise as support for increased resource efficiency through integrated decision making.

  • 33.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Destouni, Georgia
    A nexus view of the multi-functionality of nature based and other urban sustainability solutions: Comparisons for New York City2018In: Land Degradation and Development, ISSN 1085-3278, E-ISSN 1099-145XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an increasingly urban world, developing sustainable cities is crucial for global sustainability. Urban nature-based solutions (NBS), such as green infrastructure, are often promoted for their potential to provide several urban services. These include storm-water mitigation, improving energy efficiency of buildings and carbon emissions mitigation, but few studies have compared the multi-functionality of NBS to conventional urban solutions providing similar services. Fewer yet have acknowledged the indirect resource (specifically Climate, Land, Energy, Water (CLEW) nexus) impacts that these solutions may have. This paper analyses these aspects, employing a simple CLEW nexus accounting framework, and attempts a consistent comparison across different resource systems. The comparison includes direct and indirect impacts of a set of stylized – and diverse – solutions, each with different primary objectives: green roofs, representing a multi-functional urban NBS; permeable pavements targeting mitigation of storm-water flows; window retrofits targeting energy efficiency; and roof-top PV installations targeting CO2 emissions mitigation. The results highlight both the direct and total (CLEW nexus) impacts of green roofs on storm-water retention, energy use, and CO2 emissions. However, also for the studied conventional solutions with primarily a single direct function, CLEW nexus impacts spread across all measured dimensions (energy, water, CO2) to varying degrees. Although the numerical results are indicative and uncertainty needs to be further assessed, we suggest that the development of this type of multi-functional, multi-system assessment can assist urban sustainability planning, with comprehensive and consistent comparison of diverse (NBS and conventional) solutions.    

  • 34.
    Erika, Capobianchi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Fully Renewable Electricity Scenarios forSweden on a Cost Optimal basis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing greenhouse gases to tackle climate change has been widely discussed.Leading climate scientists warn that we immediately have to take action to avoid the dangerouseffects that would be generated if the global temperature rises by 2°C above pre‐industrial levels.Additional anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are accelerating the changes in the Earth’sclimate, therefore reducing carbon footprint is a principal goal of these times. The energy industry isone of the biggest contributor to carbon dioxide emissions. Renewable energy technologies will playa central role in the future electricity system and their business potential in the future energy marketappears in line with a low carbon economy. The present study analyses the evolution of renewableenergy technologies in the electricity and heating market for Sweden on a cost optimal basis. Aniterative process is carried out throughout the research with the help of a modelling framework,OSeMOSYS, and a calculation file based on a comparison with historical data for electricitygeneration. Results show how the Swedish electricity and heating system could be dominatedrespectively by wind and biomass due to the large resource availability.

  • 35.
    Flood, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hydropower in Sweden: An investigation of the implications of adding detail to the modelling of hydropower in OSeMOSYS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to generate a deeper understanding of the representation of hydropower in long-term models. This is done by mapping and modelling (cascading) hydropower in Sweden with the Open Source energy MOdelling SYStem (OSeMOSYS). The first part of the thesis builds on a literature review and provides an introduction to hydropower in Sweden. The second part focuses on implementing the storage equations in OSeMOSYS. These are applied by modelling hydropower at various levels of detail to evaluate the result when the depth of detail of the storage modelling is increased. First, a model of Sweden without hydropower storage is modelled. Then, two models were set up which include storage; one with one hydropower storage for all of Sweden, one with nine rivers with storage. Finally, two models considering cascading hydropower with storage were developed; where the first is an expansion of the model with one storage for all of Sweden and the second model examine two rivers more thorough. The remain-ing power system is represented in a stylised fashion, compliant with prevailing long-term energy modelling techniques. The implications of the different levels of detail are compared and discussed. The comparisons show that it is important to consider the lev-el of detail when looking at the short-term effects of long-term energy models.

  • 36.
    Forero, Carlos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France.
    Small/medium scale hydropower implementation in developing countries: A Rwandan case study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small scale hydropower is one of the most cost-effective energy technologies to be considered for electrification in developing countries. The technology is very robust and mature so systems can last up to 50 years with little maintenance. Moreover, it has low environmental impacts and can have a significant benefit if implemented in rural areas for electricity production, either in on or off grid applications.The thesis reviews several small scale hydropower projects, in order to identify potential risks and propose guidelines to help future implementation of this technology in a better way than the one currently done. An on-going project was taken as a case study to identify different elements that have to be present in the planning and future development of small scale hydro projects in developing countries. Technical, managerial, socio-economical and environmental aspects around the project were analyzed within a sustainability framework.

  • 37.
    Fuso Nerini, Francesco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Sustainable Energy Access for All: Initial tools to compare technology options and costs2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents analytical advances to support quantitative insights into national and local policies for achieving energy access goals. The key objective is the creation of an analytical tool to compare technology options for achieving energy access goals and to estimate the cost of reaching those goals. To achieve that objective, the thesis is divided into three interconnected and complementary foci.

    A pillar for such an analytical tool is an effective energy access metric. As the old adage goes: you cannot manage what you cannot measure. Therefore, the first focus of this thesis is on aspects of measuring energy access. In this thesis, energy access is not considered as a binary metric (access or no access) but as a service-oriented metric including information on how energy is used. Measuring the status of both current and future energy access-and-use goals (as well as tracking the progress in between) is crucial for supporting planning and choosing technology approaches. Different metrics are investigated and priority is given to two families of metrics: those useful for tracking the progress of energy access-and-use with available data, and those adequate for supporting future energy planning. In this context, special emphasis is given to one metric for each of these two groups: first to the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI) and second to the World Bank’s Multi-Tier framework. The MEPI is assessed for as wide a set of countries as possible. The index appears effective to evaluate the status and recent trends in energy access-and-use at the national and regional scale with readily available data. For instance, MEPI results show how the intensity of energy poverty consistently decreases over time in all countries considered. Foci two and three of this thesis rely on the Multi-Tier framework. The Multi-Tier framework appears to be effective (and increasingly adopted) for setting energy access targets and evaluating the implications of those targets on technology choices and costs.

    The second focus of this thesis concentrates on a limited set of case studies to gain insights and develop tools for policy support and national energy planning (focus 3). In fact, information from local energy access studies might be scaled up to advise national and regional-scale energy access planning. In this part, three case studies are evaluated. The first is a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) comparing electrification options in the Brazilian Amazon that explores selected techno-economic, environmental, social and institutional criteria. The multi-criteria analysis shows how renewable and hybrid systems present a number of advantages for application in isolated areas of the region compared to the current dominate practice of using diesel generators. Furthermore, the study outputs reveal key drivers to consider when choosing among electrification options. This provides a basis for contextualizing the electrification tool developed in focus three of the thesis. Specifically, techno-economic criteria provide the backbone of the tool while the remaining parameters offer guidelines for its case-by-case implementation. The second study focuses on the cost-comparison of technology approaches for electrification and cooking. A local level energy system optimization model for a rural village in Timor Leste shows that, in the period 2010-2030, achieving the highest tier of electricity access could be as much as 75 times more costly than achieving the lowest tier. In addition, when moving across tiers, least cost solutions shift from stand-alone to mini-grid and finally grid connected options as electricity access increases. On the other hand, regarding cooking, moving from open fires to some of the more modern solutions has the potential to reduce overall costs over the same period. In the case study, the determinants of the costs of electrification projects are identified. These include (i) target level and quality of energy access, (ii) population density, (iii) local grid connection characteristics and (iv) local energy resource availability, fuel type and technology cost. The third case study analyzes the role of productive uses of energy for both local development and energy access. It adds a piece in the energy access puzzle looking both at the role and costs associated with energy in productive activities, and at the potential role of productive activities for powering rural populations up to different tiers of energy access. The analysis develops an analytical framework to assess and support productive uses of energy in agriculture. The resulting framework is then applied to a specific case of sisal production in rural Tanzania. Results from the case study show how combining the planning of energy access with productive uses could result in win-win-win solutions for the local utilities, companies and residents. This case study provides essential insights into how new policy tools may develop, moving beyond simple household use.

    Finally, the third focus area expands and applies insights gained from the previous case study sections to develop generalized, simplified and scalable models. Key outputs from this thesis thus include both a tool and its corresponding guidelines. The first thesis output considers a deliberately simple model for comparing technology options that support electricity access-and-use goals. The second thesis output provides a series of suggestions for using it to inform electrification planning. When given an electricity access target, the tool permits a cost-comparison of technology approaches under a combination of local characteristics such as population density, resource availability, fossil fuel prices and generation technology costs amongst other things. Furthermore, the cases studies developed in focus two of the thesis provides guidelines on how to structure similar tools for cooking energy access and energy for other productive uses. The easily adaptable model is developed in such a way that it might also be used in geo-spatial toolkits, the utility of which is demonstrated in country specific, geographic information system (GIS) based, electrification analyses. These include applications to Nigeria, Ethiopia and India, presented in this dissertation, as well as to the case studies of all 48 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, developed in subsequent work to this dissertation. The applications of the tool show how the strategy for expanding electricity access may vary significantly both between and within given regions of energy-poor countries. 

  • 38.
    Fuso Nerini, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. University College London, United Kingdom.
    Keppo, I.
    Strachan, N.
    Myopic decision making in energy system decarbonisation pathways. A UK case study2017In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 17, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an application on the UK, this paper shows that myopic planning might result in delayed strategic investments and in considerably higher costs for achieving decarbonisation targets compared to estimates done with perfect foresight optimisation energy models. It also suggests that carbon prices obtained from perfect foresight energy models might be under-estimated. The study was performed using a combination of the standard UK Times Model (UKTM), a perfect foresight, bottom-up, technology-rich cost optimisation energy model, and its myopic foresight version: My-UKTM. This also demonstrates that using perfect foresight optimisation models in tandem with their myopic equivalents can provide valuable indications for policy design.

  • 39.
    Fuso-Nerini, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Dargaville, Roger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis. Columbia Univ, NY USA.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Estimating the cost of energy access: The case of the village of Suro Craic in Timor Leste2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 79, p. 385-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy access targets at national, sub-national, and local levels, are often not specified in great detail - and tend to focus on supply. Another approach to better inform policy and investment might benefit from an indicator that focuses on the services derived from electricity access. To provide support for decision-making, this research investigates the costs of reaching different levels of energy access in rural areas, with a case study of a village in the Ainaro district of Timor Leste. Utilizing the multi-tier definition of energy access proposed in the World Bank's "Global Tracking Framework" for Sustainable Energy for All, we present results both on the cost difference of achieving different tiers of energy access, and on the comparison among selected electrification and cooking options. Results show that in the period 2010-2030 achieving the highest tier of electricity access could be as much as seventy-five times more costly than achieving the lowest one. In addition moving across tiers, least cost solutions shift from stand-alone to mini-grid and finally grid connected options as electricity access increases. Regarding cooking, moving from open fires to some of the more modern solutions has the potential to reduce overall costs over the same period.

  • 40.
    Gardumi, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Shivakumar, Abhishek
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Morrison, Robbie
    Schillerstr 85, D-10627 Berlin, Germany..
    Taliotis, Constantinos
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Broad, Oliver
    UCL, Inst Sustainable Resources, London, England..
    Beltramo, Agnese
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Sridharan, Vignesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hoersch, Jonas
    Frankfurt Inst Adv Studies, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Niet, Taco
    British Columbia Inst Technol, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Almulla, Youssef
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Ramos, Eunice
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Burandt, Thorsten
    Tech Univ Berlin, Workgrp Econ & Infrastruct Policy WIP, Berlin, Germany..
    Balderrama, Gabriela Pena
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Energy Technol, Brinellvagen 68, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pinto de Moura, Gustavo Nikolaus
    Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil..
    Zepeda, Eduardo
    United Nations Dept Econ & Social Affairs, Dev Policy & Anal Div, New York, NY USA..
    Alfstad, Thomas
    United Nations Dept Econ & Social Affairs, Dev Policy & Anal Div, New York, NY USA..
    From the development of an open-source energy modelling tool to its application and the creation of communities of practice: The example of OSeMOSYS2018In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 20, p. 209-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, energy modelling has supported energy planning by offering insights into the dynamics between energy access, resource use, and sustainable development. Especially in recent years, there has been an attempt to strengthen the science-policy interface and increase the involvement of society in energy planning processes. This has, both in the EU and worldwide, led to the development of open-source and transparent energy modelling practices. This paper describes the role of an open-source energy modelling tool in the energy planning process and highlights its importance for society. Specifically, it describes the existence and characteristics of the relationship between developing an open-source, freely available tool and its application, dissemination and use for policy making. Using the example of the Open Source energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS), this work focuses on practices that were established within the community and that made the framework's development and application both relevant and scientifically grounded.

  • 41.
    Garlaschelli, Mattia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Exploring decarbonisation pathways for India’selectricity system using OSeMOSYS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis was developed at KTH-dESA, the division of Energy Systems Analysis of the Royal Institute of Technology of Stockholm, in close collaboration with the research organization Prayas Energy Group (PEG) and the Indian government institution NITI Aayog. The focus of this work, part of a wider project aimed at carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the entire Indian energy system, is placed on the electricity sector of the country, which is modeled from a multi-regional perspective. Through the use of the open-source energy systems modeling software OSeMOSYS, cost-optimal configurations for India’s future electricity mix were developed, thus obtaining valuable insights regarding potential decarbonization pathways for the power sector of the country.

     

    According to the simulation results, India’s future electricity mix will see a much stronger presence of renewable energy sources. In particular, the vast majority of them will be equally represented by utility-scale solar PV and onshore wind, mainly deployed in the resource-endowed Western and Southern Region. Nevertheless, in the upcoming decades, the country’s dependence on coal will remain as well. Notable additions in coal capacity are forecasted to take place in the form of captive power connected to the final Industrial sector, due to the overall economic convenience and sustained electricity outputs allowed by such energy source. On the other hand, only a limited amount of utility-level coal plants is foreseen to be added to the power generating fleet. By means of gradually incrementing the currently implemented coal tax, or substituting it with an equivalent carbon tax, GHG emissions could be reduced by 18-20% compared to the BAU scenario, at a system cost increment per each Mt of CO2eq avoided respectively equal to 3.03 and 3.48 million USD. Both policy measures will, in fact, foster a much larger deployment of renewables, especially of both utility-level and rooftop solar PV.

     

    The results shown in this report, although rather realistic, should not be considered definitive. More effort will, in fact, be needed in order to further increase the level of resolution and site-specificity of part of the input data. Nevertheless, the model developed during this master’s thesis work can serve as a valid and comprehensive foundation for future energy planning initiatives focusing on the Indian electricity sector.

  • 42.
    Giacosa, Matteo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Carbon dioxide abatement options for heavy-duty vehicles and future vehicle fleet scenarios for Finland, Sweden and Norway2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Road transport is responsible for a significant share of the global GHG emissions. In order to address the increasing trend of road vehicle emissions, due to its heavy reliance on oil, Nordic countries have set ambitious goals and policies for the reduction of road transport GHG emissions. Despite the fact that the latest developments in the passenger car segment are leading towards the progressive electrification of the fleet, the decarbonization of heavy-duty vehicle segment presents significant challenges that are yet to be overcome. This study focuses, on the first part, on the regulatory framework of fuel economy standards of road vehicles, highlighting the absence of a European regulation on fuel efficiency for the heavy-duty sector. Energy efficiency technologies can be grouped mainly in vehicle technologies, driveline and powertrain technologies, and alternative fuels. The fuel efficiency of HDVs can be positively improved at different vehicle levels, but the technology benefit and its economic feasibility are heavily dependent on the vehicle type and the operational cycle considered. The electrification pathway has the potential of reducing the carbon emission to a great extent, but the current battery technologies have proven to be not cost efficient for the heavy vehicles, because of the high purchase price and the low range, related to the battery cost and inferior energy density compared to conventional liquid fuels.

     

    A scenario development model has been created in order to estimate and quantify the impact of future developments and emission reduction measures in Finland, Sweden and Norway for the timeframe 2016-2050, with a focus on 2030 results. Two scenarios concerning the powertrain developments of heavy-duty vehicles and buses have been created, a conservative scenario and electric scenario, as well as vehicle efficiency improvements and fuel consumption scenarios. Additional sets of parameters have been estimated as input for the model, such as national transport need and load assumptions. The results highlight the challenges of achieving the national GHG emission reduction targets with the current measures in all three countries. The slow fleet renewal rates and the high forecasted increase of transport need limit the benefits of alternative and more efficient powertrains introduced in the fleet by new vehicles. The heavy-duty transport is expected to maintain its heavy reliance on diesel fuel and hinder the improvements of the light-duty segments. A holistic approach is needed to reduce the GHG emissions from road transport, including more efficient powertrains, higher biofuel shares and progressive electrification.

  • 43.
    Hagberg, Anna-Klara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Davidsson, Sandra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Estimating Investment Needs for the Power Sector in the African Region2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is based on collaboration between the division of Energy System Analysis at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-dESA, and the African Development Bank, AfDB. The work has been carried out both at KTH (Stockholm, Sweden) and at AfDB (Tunis, Tunisia). The KTH-dESA – AfDB collaboration is related to previous projects, for example AIKP, the African Infrastructure Knowledge Program, which in turn is the result of a previous collaboration with the World Bank that led to the comprehensive knowledge program AICD, African Infrastructure Country Diagnostic. As in AIKP, a key part of AICD is to estimate infrastructure investment needs for the power sector.The main objective of this thesis is to create mathematical models of the power sectors in African countries.The output of these models shows, given the parameters used, what investments, power technologies and fuels that gives the lowest net present value for the modelling period (2010-2030 with focus on 2014-2020). The models developed will then be used to populate an Internet application hosted by AfDB. The application was earlier hosted by the World Bank. To develop the models, the free and open source software ANSWER OSeMOSYS is used. The program is developed in order to make long-run optimization models(Howells et al., 2011). Input data to the models was initially supposed to be provided by AfDB. This data was not available in time why temporary data, partly provided from KTH-dESA, is used and the number of countries investigated in this thesis is reduced to four instead of the original 18 countries.The models of the four countries are functional, even though the results of the simulations are not yet final. This is caused by the fact that focus has been put on the creation of the models rather than the results, since the models are to be re-populated with up-to-date data from AfDB. Generally, hydropower and coal STPP are commonly used power sources in the simulation results. The results of Egypt have a large share of technologies fueled by natural gas, which distinguishes the country from the other three. Also the Mauritius result differs, due to a relatively large share of power from off-grid PVs.The remaining objectives of the project, i.e. the completion of two minor country reports and a input data table for AfDB as well as establishing contacts at AfDB, are completed successfully but are not presented in this report.

  • 44.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Hans Holger
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Gielen, Dolf
    Roehrl, Alexander
    Bazilian, Morgan
    Sustainable Energy for All - What does it mean for Water and Food Security: Seeking sustainable development CLEWS: Climate-change, Land-use, Energy and Water (CLEW) Strategies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This background note serves to inform the “hot topic” session entitled ‘Sustainable Energy for All – What does it mean for Water and Food Security?’.Energy is vital for human development. This is why the United Nations proclaimed 2012 as the ‘International Year of Sustainable Energy for All’. The goal is to ensure universal access to modern energy services by 2030. Today’s energy production, however, is already putting prohibitive strain on the global environment. In support of worldwide efforts to render energy systems sustainable, the UN has therefore called for two additional targets: to double the rate of improvements in energy efficiency and the share of renewable energy.Besides energy, also food and water need to be universally provided to ensure human wellbeing and enable socio-economic development. Each of these targets is indispensable to improve people’s livelihoods and is a formidable challenge by itself. But taken together, they become an even more daunting task since they interfere with each other – while today human activities are already exceeding planetary limits.The simultaneous expansion of energy, food and water requires a coherent approach based on integrated planning across these sectors. The management in each resource area is often done in isolation - with unforeseen and damaging consequences manifested in related systems. As a starting point, we focus on energy and consequently discuss Energy-Water-Food nexus relations. The beginnings of a ‘framework’ are presented that is useful to conceptualize these interrelations, and then applied to a preliminary case study. In that case study, integrated measures are considered as a means to improve the energy security of a climate-change-vulnerable small island developing state (SIDS). The case study assesses CLEW (Climate, Land-use, Energy and Water) strategies in an integrated manner, and was undertaken by organizations contributing to this special session.

  • 45.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Rogner, Hans Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Young, Charles
    Fischer, Guenther
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    In The CLEW Model – Developing an integrated tool for modelling the interrelated effects of Climate, Land use, Energy, and Water (CLEW)2011In: 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Proceedings, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the prototype of new tool which analyses the Climate-, Land-, Energy- and Water- (CLEW) re-sources and their interactions and implications associated with socio-economic development. The presented CLEW model focuses specifically on the analysis of different energy (technology) options and their impact on other resources – e.g. their contribution to climate change, land use change, and water consumption.The CLEW model systematically quantifies trade-offs associated with actions aimed at meeting development goals (specifically energy, food, and water supply) and their impact on the climate, water and environment. The model quantifies resource use with calculations based on collected data, assumptions and user-defined scenarios. Importantly, the model is not limited to internal or national effects but also includes external changes induced through energy imports or exports and land use change. Exemplary, a first preliminary modelling exercise for the island of Mauritius has shown very strong implications on GHG emissions when switching to locally produced biofuels (bio-ethanol) through induced land-use changes and is presented in the second part of this paper.

  • 46.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Using Micro Hydro Power for Rural Off-grid Village Electrification2012In: World Small Hydropower Development Report 2011, International Centre on Small Hydro Power , 2012Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Segerström, Rebecka Ericsdotter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Howells, Mark I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Young, Charles
    Alfstad, Thomas
    Rogner, Hans-Holger
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) interlinkages in Burkina Faso: An analysis of agricultural intensification and bioenergy production2012In: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 245-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses climate, land, energy and water (CLEW) interactions in Burkina Faso. It shows that integrated assessments of resource use at the national level can provide important insights and benefits, especially for a resource constrained least developed country. Agricultural policy is shown to have strong implications for energy use, whereas energy policies are found to be strongly interrelated with water constraints. Without an integrated and coordinated approach, strategy and policy formulation efforts to increase energy, food and water security could become both incoherent and counter-productive.

  • 48.
    Hollberg, Philipp
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Swarm grids - Innovation in rural electrification2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Access to clean and affordable energy is a prerequisite for human development. In order to achieve access to sustainable energy for all innovation in rural electrification is needed. Decentralized renewable energy technologies in form of Solar Home Systems and Mini-grids possess the potential of electrifying a large number of rural households which cannot be connected to the national grid with local available energy sources. However, the deployment of Mini-grids is facing barriers such as a lack of private investments. By building on already existing SHSs swarm grids can enable households to trade electricity and use their excess electricity to supply additional loads. Swarm grids as an evolutionary bottom-up approach to electrification can overcome some of the obstacles regular Mini-grids face and play a vital role in improving electricity access. As part of this thesis a model has been developed which allows for simulating the electricity flow including line losses in swarm grids of any size on an hourly basis. The model facilitates the gaining of a better understanding for the impact global parameters (e.g. distance between households) have on the feasibility of swarm grids. A field trip to Bangladesh has been undertaken in order to obtain input data for simulating different cases in the model created. The simulations performed indicate that in a swarm grid the generated excess energy of SHSs which so far is wasted can supply the demand of households without SHS as well as commercial loads such as irrigation pumps. Overall the results point towards swarm grids being an innovation with the potential of improving rural electricity access by building on existing infrastructure.

  • 49.
    Howells, Mark
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Welsch, Manuel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Bazilian, Morgan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Segerström, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Alfstad, Thomas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Rogner, Holger
    Fischer, Guenther
    van Velthuizen, Harrij
    Wiberg, David
    Young, Charles
    Roehrl, R. Alexander
    Mueller, Alexander
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Ramma, Indoomatee
    Integrated analysis of climate change, land-use, energy and water strategies2013In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 621-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land, energy and water are our most precious resources, but the manner and extent to which they are exploited contributes to climate change. Meanwhile, the systems that provide these resources are themselves highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Efficient resource management is therefore of great importance, both for mitigation and for adaptation purposes. We postulate that the lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads to inconsistent strategies and inefficient use of resources. We present CLEWs (climate, land-use, energy and water strategies), a new paradigm for resource assessments that we believe can help to remedy some of these shortcomings.

  • 50.
    Howells, Mark I.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Jonsson, Sandra
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Käck, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Lloyd, Philip
    Bennett, Kevin
    Leiman, Tony
    Conradie, Beatrice
    Calabashes for kilowatt-hours: Rural energy and market failure2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2729-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how management and information failures can retard transitions from the traditional use of biomass fuel by low income rural consumers and micro-producers. In general, societies move away from traditional biomass use as economic development takes place. If one accepts the doctrine of revealed preference (built on the initial work of Samuelson, 1938), then these trends imply that such transitions provide net gains in utility. This paper shows how various "failures" entrench existing fuel use patterns-hindering the transition to new fuel use patterns. In order to qualitatively discuss how these transitions may take place, an indicative neo-classical description of consumer and producer behavior is used. Three types fuel-transition "driver" are identified. The effect of information and management failures on these drivers, and thus the energy transition, is discussed. Reference is made to a specific case study in which a partial transition from biomass occurred in response to an intervention to address an environmental management failure (the deforesting of a carbon sink.) It is concluded that interventions to encourage transitions to cleaner sustainable fuel use may need to recognize and address management and information failures in a systematic manner.

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