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  • 1.
    Ackebo, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Brandt, Anna-Clara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dobraja, Kristine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Isaksson, Sarah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Liebmann, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lindberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lundgren, Monia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Song, Meng
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Zachrisson, Maja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    What is the potential to create a just social-ecological in Fisksätra/Saltsjöbaden?: Report from the Ecosystem support and Environmental Justice course (AG2803)2013Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, 606-619 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 4.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: From Life Cycle Assessment to Complex Systems Modeling2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) products and services continue to grow worldwide. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding increase in electricity use by ICT, as well as direct environmental impacts of the technology. Yet a more complicated picture of ICT’s effects is emerging. Positive indirect effects on environmental sustainability can be seen in substitution and optimization (enabling effects), and negative indirect effects can be seen in additional demand due to efficiency improvements (rebound effects).

    A variety of methods can be employed to model and assess these direct and indirect effects of ICT on environmental sustainability. This doctoral thesis explores methods of modeling and assessing environmental effects of ICT, including electronic media. In a series of five studies, three methods were at times applied in case studies and at others analyzed theoretically. These methods include life cycle assessment (LCA) and complex systems modeling approaches, including System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling.

    The first two studies employ the LCA approach in a case study of an ICT application, namely, the tablet edition of a Swedish design magazine. The use of tablets has skyrocketed in recent years, and this phenomenon has been little studied to date. Potential environmental impacts of the magazine’s tablet edition were assessed and compared with those of the print edition. The tablet edition’s emerging version (which is marked by a low number of readers and low reading time per copy) resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than did the print edition. However, the mature tablet edition (with a higher number of readers and greater reading time per copy) yielded lower impacts per reader in half the ten impact categories assessed.

    While previous studies of electronic media have reported that the main life-cycle contributor to environmental impacts is the use phase (which includes operational electricity use as well as the manufacture of the electronic device), the present study did not support those findings in all scenarios studied in this thesis. Rather, this study found that the number of readers played an important role in determining which life-cycle phase had the greatest impacts. For the emerging version, with few readers, content production was the leading driver of environmental impacts. For the mature version, with a higher number of readers, electronic storage and distribution were the major contributors to environmental impacts. Only when there were many readers but low overall use of the tablet device was the use phase the main contributor to environmental impacts of the tablet edition of the magazine.

    The third study goes beyond direct effects at product- and service-level LCAs, revisiting an SD simulation study originally conducted in 2002 to model indirect environmental effects of ICT in 15 European countries for the period 2000-2020. In the current study, three scenarios of the 2002 study were validated in light of new empirical data from the period 2000–2012. A new scenario was developed to revisit the quantitative and qualitative results of the original study. The results showed, inter alia, that ICT has a stimulating influence on total passenger transport, for it makes it more cost- and time-efficient (rebound effects).

    The modeling mechanism used to represent this rebound effect is further investigated in the fourth study, which discusses the feedback loops used to model two types of rebound effects in passenger transport (direct economic rebound and time rebound). Finally, the role of systems thinking and modeling in conceptualizing and communicating the dynamics of rebound effects is examined.

    The aim of the fifth study was to explore the power of systems modeling and simulation to represent nonlinearities of the complex and dynamic systems examined elsewhere in this thesis. That study reviews previous studies that have compared the SD and AB approaches and models, summarizing their purpose, methodology, and results, based on certain criteria for choosing between SD and AB approaches. The transformation procedure used to develop an AB model for purposes of comparison with an SD model is also explored.

    In conclusion, first-order or direct environmental effects of ICT production, use, and disposal can be assessed employing an LCA method. This method can also be used to assess second-order or enabling effects by comparing ICT applications with conventional alternatives. However, the assessment of enabling effects can benefit from systems modeling methods, which are able to formally describe the drivers of change, as well as the dynamics of complex social, technical, and environmental systems associated with ICT applications. Such systems methods can also be used to model third-order or rebound effects of efficiency improvements by ICT.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B., Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, 449-474 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits a System Dynamics model developed in 2002 with the aim of exploring the future impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on environmental sustainability in the EU, which then consisted of 15 countries. The time horizon of the study was 20 years (2000–2020). We analyze the results in light of empirical data that is now available for 2000–2012. None of the three scenarios that were developed by experts to specify the external factors needed to run the model were realistic from today’s point of view. If the model is re-run with more realistic input data for the first half of the simulation period, however, the main results regarding the impact of ICT remain qualitatively the same; they seem to be relatively robust implications of the causal system structure, as it is represented in the model. Overall, the impacts of ICT for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental burdens for 2020 tend to be slightly stronger if the simulation is based on the empirical data now available.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich.
    Modelling Rebound Effects in System Dynamics2014In: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Environmental Informatics - EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marx Gómez, J., Sonnenschein, M., Vogel, U., Winter, A., Rapp, B., Giesen, N., Germany: BIS Oldenburg, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The induction of demand by increasing the efficiency of a production or consumption process is known as the rebound effect. Feedback loops in System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also for communicating model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be induced through increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two models on environmental effects of passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology. We highlight the feedback mechanisms used to deal with the rebound effect (price, efficiency, and time rebound).

  • 7.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) and University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    System Dynamics vs. agent-based modeling—comparing models and approaches: A literature review and a transformation procedureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems modeling and simulation methods such as System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling have been used to foster a better understanding of the dynamics and complexity of natural, technical, and social systems. System Dynamics provides an aggregate-level perspective, highlighting thinking in feedback loops and employing differential equations to model the causal relations in a system, exploring the system's dynamics by numerically solving the equations. Agent-based modeling, in a bottom-up method, focuses on constituent units (agents) and their interactions to explore the emerging behavior at a system level by means of simulation. Comparing these modeling methods can help us understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to choose the right approach for a given modeling problem. It may also support the analysis of a given system to build multiple models using the different approaches and comparing them, in particular to treat fundamental uncertainties in systems modeling and simulation. In this paper, we review the existing studies comparing the SD and AB approaches and models, investigating the aims, methodology, and results of such comparative studies. We also highlight lessons learned for future model comparisons by examining how the corresponding SD and AB models are built for the purpose of comparison. A procedure for transforming System Dynamics models into agent-based models is presented and discussed using examples from the literature.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, , Department of Informatics, CH-8050 Zürich, Switzerland; Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Using Systems Thinking and System Dynamics Modeling to Understand Rebound Effects2016In: Advances And New Trends In Environmental And Energy Informatics / [ed] Jorge Marx Gómez, Michael Sonnenschein, Andreas Winter, Ute Vogel, Barbara Rapp Nils Giesen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, 237-255 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes leading to an increase of demand for a resource as a consequence of increasing the efficiency of using this resource in production or consumption are known as (direct) rebound effects. Rebound effects at micro and macro levels tend to offset the reduction in resource consumption enabled by progress in efficiency. Systems thinking and modeling instruments such as causal loop diagrams and System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also to communicate model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be invoked by increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two existing models on passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology—with regard to the feedback loops used to conceptualize rebound effects.

  • 9.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 10.
    Ahmadi, Leila
    et al.
    Energy, Mining and Environment, National Research Council Canada.
    Young, Steven B.
    School of Environment, Enterprise and Development|, University of Waterloo.
    Fowler, Michael
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Fraser, Roydon A.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A cascaded life cycle: reuse of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery packs in energy storage systems2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs recovered from end-of-life electric vehicles (EV) present potential technological, economic and environmental opportunities for improving energy systems and material efficiency. Battery packs can be reused in stationary applications as part of a “smart grid”, for example to provide energy storage systems (ESS) for load leveling, residential or commercial power. Previous work on EV battery reuse has demonstrated technical viability and shown energy efficiency benefits in energy storage systems modeled under commercial scenarios. The current analysis performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on a Li-ion battery pack used in an EV and then reused in a stationary ESS.

    Methods

    A complex functional unit is used to combine energy delivered by the battery pack from the mobility function and the stationary ESS. Various scenarios of cascaded “EV mobility plus reuse in stationary clean electric power scenarios” are contrasted with “conventional system mobility with internal combustion engine vehicles plus natural gas peaking power.” Eight years are assumed for first use; with 10 years for reuse in the stationary application. Operational scenarios and environmental data are based on real time-of-day and time-of-year power use. Additional data from LCA databases are utilized. Ontario, Canada, is used as the geographic baseline; analysis includes sensitivity to the electricity mix and battery degradation. Seven environmental categories are assessed using ReCiPe.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicate that the manufacturing phase of the Li-ion battery will still dominate environmental impacts across the extended life cycle of the pack (first use in vehicle plus reuse in stationary application). For most impact categories, the cascaded use system appears significantly beneficial compared to the conventional system. By consuming clean energy sources for both use and reuse, global and local environmental stress reductions can be supported. Greenhouse gas advantages of vehicle electrification can be doubled by extending the life of the EV batteries, and enabling better use of off-peak low-cost clean electricity or intermittent renewable capacity. However, questions remain concerning implications of long-duration use of raw material resources employed before potential recycling.

    Conclusions

    Li-ion battery packs present opportunities for powering both mobility and stationary applications in the necessary transition to cleaner energy. Battery state-of-health is a considerable determinant in the life cycle performance of a Li-ion battery pack. The use of a complex functional unit was demonstrated in studying a component system with multiple uses in a cascaded application.

  • 11. Ahtiainen, Heini
    et al.
    Artell, Janne
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Baltic Sea nutrient reductions: What should we aim for?2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 145, 9-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient load reductions are needed to improve the state of the Baltic Sea, but it is still under debate how they should be implemented. In this paper, we use data from an environmental valuation study conducted in all nine Baltic Sea states to investigate public preferences of relevance to three of the involved decision-dimensions: First, the roles of nitrogen versus phosphorus reductions causing different eutrophication effects; second, the role of time – the lag between actions to reduce nutrient loads and perceived improvements; and third; the spatial dimension and the roles of actions targeting the coastal and open sea environment and different sub-basins. Our findings indicate that respondents view and value the Baltic Sea environment as a whole, and are not focussed only on their local sea area, or a particular aspect of water quality. We argue that public preferences concerning these three perspectives should be one of the factors guiding marine policy. This requires considering the entire range of eutrophication effects, in coastal and open sea areas, and including long-term and short-term measures.

  • 12.
    Albarède, Manon
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    How to facilitate the implementation of Industrial Ecology?: Development of a grid analysis framework to assess a territory's potential based on case studies in South Korea, Japan, China, Great-Britain and Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Enabling socio-technical transitions – electric vehicles and high voltage electricity grids as focal points of low emission futures2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today humankind is facing numerous sustainability challenges that require us to question CO2 intensive practices like those present in the transport and energy sector. To meet those challenges, many countries have adopted ambitious climate targets. Achieving such targets requires an understanding of the wider socio-technical context of transitions. The aim of this licentiate thesis is therefore to analyse such socio-technical transitions towards low-emission futures enabled by the electrification of passenger cars and high voltage grid development.

    A combination of different transitions theories (for ex. Multi-level perspective and Technological innovation systems) and institutional theory has been used. To reach the aim paper I analyses the climate impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and policy measures to achieve a breakthrough scenario for EVs. The results show that a mixture of short and long term policies are needed that take into account the technology development stage and behavioural aspects of EV adopters. Paper II addresses the need to include the high voltage transmission grid and its planning procedures as a central part of debates on transitions. Therefore the opportunities, challenges and reasons for conflict in the established regime are studied. The results show that in order to achieve a sustainable grid development regime, it is necessary to spend time on achieving legitimacy and social sustainability. The third paper uses semi-structured expert interviews and focuses on innovation dynamics for EV adoption. By focusing on dynamics instead of single policy measures, it is possible to grasp interactions within a niche, but also in between a niche, regime and landscape. The results show that strong initial technology legitimacy was needed to start substantial innovation dynamics. This could be further strengthened with a strong and broad coalition of actors. Both those factors led, if present, to an improved variety and match of policy instruments.

    As such this thesis has shown that transitions are not just about technology or policy instruments as such but about the dynamics and processes needed to enable them. This can be relevant in other transitions that otherwise may underestimate the importance of these components.

  • 14.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050: Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.1.R Institutional grid review.2013Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Albrecht, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    System innovation dynamics around electric vehicles. The cases of Norway, Denmark and Sweden.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the comparison of electric car innovation patterns in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Doing so, it takes a closer look at what the most essential dynamics in the systems were over time and what enabled those dynamics. The main research aim is to contribute to a wider understanding of why Norway is so much ahead of Sweden and Denmark in electric car adoption. The purpose is also to adopt a perspective that goes beyond a mere focus on economic policy instruments. In order to do so different theory elements are combined in a framework. These elements stem from the transition theory literature field, especially the technological innovation system (TIS) and the multi-level perspective (MLP). This combination allows analysing the development behind a dynamic, not just when it comes to an innovation itself but also with regards to the established regime. The data is gathered through analysis of existing documents and data as well as a series of 27 expert interviews conducted in the three case countries. The findings suggest that there are important differences in transition patterns that can account for the electric vehicle (EV) diffusion situation we can find nowadays in the three Nordic countries. An important stepping stone was the need for a very strong legitimacy of the original EV vision that is also anchored in a coordinated, sector overarching coalition of actors that thinks strategically and long term. Moreover some general beneficial dynamics could be identified across the countries in question. In Norway these beneficial dynamics can be summarised as a systems motor, in Denmark as a failed entrepreneurial motor that shifted towards a constrained municipal motor and in Sweden as a loosely, coordinated and weaker version of a systems motor.

  • 16.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios.2013In: Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets / [ed] Qiuwei Wu, John Wiley & Sons, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines current policy drivers of battery electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs, the current and anticipated impacts on carbon emissions, as well as what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation system and market development around such vehicles in the future. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry and expert estimates of how the systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part elaborates two simple scenarios of EV development in the EU: one breakthrough expansion scenario and one incremental expansion scenario. Building on that is an analysis of the climate impacts of the two scenarios, given different assumptions relating to, for example, electricity production as well as EV penetration in the fleet. The third part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable the breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments.

  • 17.
    Albrecht, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nilsson, Måns
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nordic power road map 2050:Strategic choices towards carbon neutrality. D4.2.R Policy and Institutional Review Electric Vehicles (EV).2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines policy drivers of electric vehicles (EVs), and what potential role policy can play in enhancing the innovation and market development of EVs. We start with a policy review of key targets in the Nordic countries and the EU, up to 2030, and discuss to what extent they are consistent with industry, government and expert estimates of how the EV innovation systems can grow. On the basis of this, the second part examines what policy drivers might be needed to enable a breakthrough scenario, using a technological innovation systems (TIS) perspective to describe the needed processes, drivers and developments in policy and technology.

  • 18.
    Alfredsson, Eva C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Prospects for economic growth in the 21st century: A survey covering mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented perspectives2017In: Economic Issues, ISSN 1363-7029, Vol. 22, 65-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of economic growth for the current economy, business and societal planning there are few long-term growth projections undertaken. There is, however, a vivid debate on what is called the 'new normal' - secular stagnation - which is undertaken within academic disciplines. This overview covers mainstream, heterodox and scientifically oriented economic perspectives on the prospects for economic growth in the 21st century. The survey shows that existing long-term projections and scenarios indicate growth rates ranging from around half a percentage point less than during the last two decades (projected by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD), to dramatically lower growth rates). Differences stem from different perspectives on the determinants of economic growth and the potential for improvements in productivity. Headwinds are: an aging population, especially in OECD countries; resource constraints, including energy; increasing environmental costs in particular due to the consequences of climate change; overaccumulation; increasing income differences; and declining social capital. One conclusion is that policymaking based on the assumption that economic growth will continue at pre-crisis levels is unwise and risky.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Hållbarhetsstyrning i renoveringsprocessens senare skede: Uppföljning & förvaltning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadssektorn svarar för en betydande del av landets totala miljöpåverkan, men det finns stor potential till förbättringar. Sektorn står inför ett omfattande renoveringsbehov, vilket skapar goda förutsättningar för sociala och miljöförbättrande åtgärder. För att lyckas krävs det bland annat strukturerade arbetsmetoder med väl uppsatta miljö- och hållbarhetsmål som följs genom hela renoveringsprocessen. Ett kritiskt läge är processens slutskede när renoveringsåtgärderna är färdigställda och byggnaden lämnas över till förvaltaren. Syftet med denna studie är därför att dels utvärdera hur dagens hållbarhetsstyrning fungerar i renoveringsprocessens sista skeden, samt att ge förslag på metoder som säkerställer att hållbarhetsfrågor och hållbarhetsmål följs upp och fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt håller över tid.

    Intervjuer med elva företagsrepresentanter från nio fastighetsbolag och två representanter från en bransch- och intresseorganisation tillsammans med litteraturstudier är de metoder som använts i studien.

    Resultatet visar att det finns brister i dagens hållbarhetsstyrning vid överlämning, uppföljning, erfarenhetsåterföring och förvaltning. Det handlar främst om att projektspecifika miljömål inte fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt att rutiner för erfarenhetsåterföring och uppföljning är bristfälliga. Det finns omständigheter och svårigheter som står i vägen för en ambitiösare hållbarhetsstyrning i renoveringsprocessens slutskede. Dessa är identifierade som tekniska, sociala, ekonomiska, administrativa, organisatoriska och psykologiska barriärer. Dock finns det förbättringsmöjligheter för att minimera eller få kontroll över dessa hinder, vilka främst handlar om nya metoder och bättre strukturer.

    Utifrån studiens resultat och slutsatser har en hållbarhetsmanual skapats för att underlätta för berörda aktörer att prioritera och styra hållbarhetsarbetet i renoveringsprocessens slutskede på ett bra sätt där hållbarhetsmål följs upp och fortskrider in i förvaltningen samt håller över tid. 

  • 20.
    Angelstam, Mikael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A Future in Sustainable Development: Backcasting the SDGs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 the 17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by 193 member states of the United Nations. The SDGs are highly ambitious and their underlying processes are interconnected by causal relationships. Work towards fulfilling them therefore requires considering how solutions for one goal will impacts others. In this study target-oriented backcasting is applied to examine set goals in the future, as well as to determine the current state and trends of development. This is done in an effort to determine conflicts between targets and resource limitations of future development. The findings suggest that the current paradigm of giving GDP growth highest societal priority, leads to a causal relationship where development occurs at the expense of sustainability at the global level. In order to overcome this, the fulfilment of the SDGs has to be given higher priority than the size and growth rate of the GDP.

  • 21.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nu finns chansen att riva upp beslutet om förbifarten2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2014-09-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Elbilar och förnybara bränslen räcker inte.2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of ICT: Present and Future2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT is developing rapidly and is playing an increasingly important role in society. High expectations are placed on ICT in relation to sustainable development. In order to provide basis for decision-making and ensure that ICT is used in the best possible way for enabling sustainable development, the sustainability impacts of ICT need to be studied.

    This thesis aims to provide new knowledge on the environmental impacts related to ICT, to explore the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability, and discuss ways of assessing environmental impacts of ICT. In order to fulfill the aim a literature review of existing LCA studies of ICT was done, an LCA case study of printed and online media was performed, a methodological framework for sustainability assessment of scenarios was developed and then applied for environmental assessment of future ICT societies.

    The results show that manufacturing and use phase are the life cycle stages contributing the most to the ICT environmental impacts. For online newspapers online distribution and content production may give significant contribution to the overall impact. User behavior was observed to be crucial for the results of comparisons of ICT solutions with their traditional counterparts.

    The following key issues were concluded to influence the environmental risks and opportunities in future ICT societies: energy mix, economic conditions, life styles, technology, and environmental ambitions, incentives and regulation. The potential of ICT for sustainability is affected by these key issues.

    A new methodological framework (SAFS) was developed for the assessment of future scenarios (societal level). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for assessment on a product level. Application of both methods, their benefits, drawbacks, and challenges of assessment were discussed. Both types of assessments were concluded to be important to support decision-making.

  • 24.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    LCA of ICT solutions: environmental impacts and challenges of assessment2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is playing an important role in modern society, contributing to economic growth and affecting society and people’s lifestyles. There are high expectations on ICT to contribute to sustainable development, e.g. through greenhouse gas emissions reductions. ICT solutions (ICT products and services) are often perceived as having low or no environmental impacts compared with conventional alternatives. In order to determine the potential of ICT to reduce environmental impacts, environmental assessments of ICT solutions compared with other alternatives are needed. A number of studies have already assessed the environmental impacts of individual ICT solutions and the ICT sector. However, more research is needed, covering different types of impacts (primary, secondary, rebound, etc.) in a variety of impact categories (e.g. climate change, ozone depletion, eutrophication, human and ecotoxicity, etc.). The findings then need to be systematised in order to identify hot-spots and draw generic conclusions. As the area is rather new and fast-developing, assessment methods need to be critically appraised in order to identify challenges and developments necessary for high quality assessments.

    This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge on the direct life cycle environmental impacts of ICT solutions and to investigate and analyse the challenges of applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool for environmental assessment of ICT solutions. Two research questions: “What life cycle environmental impacts and their causes can be identified for ICT solutions?” and “What are the methodological challenges of assessing the ICT solutions using LCA?” were analysed by reviewing published LCAs on ICT solutions and conducting a case study of online and printed newspapers. The literature review helped identify hotspots in the life cycle of ICT solutions, draw generic conclusions concerning environmental impacts and their causes, and identify major challenges to LCA application. The case study assessed the environmental impacts of traditional and new media solutions and provided information on methodological challenges.

    The results show that impacts other than climate change potential and energy use are not well-studied in the ICT sector, creating a risk of possible sub-optimisation and problem shifting. Manufacturing and the use phase are concluded to be the most environmentally intense life cycle stages of ICT products in many studies. However, transportation and end-of-life treatment should not be omitted in the assessments, although their impacts appear lower, as uncertainty and lack of data might be a reason for underestimations.

    As ICT is under constant and rapid development, environmental assessment of ICT solutions faces challenges regarding e.g. data quality and availability; choice of data type; methodological choices (e.g. choice of functional unit, scope definition and allocation); and assumptions on user behaviour. These affect the final results and thus need to be carefully considered by LCA practitioners.

    The outcomes of this thesis can benefit practitioners and decision-makers, improving knowledge on the environmental impacts of ICT solutions and challenges in applying LCA for assessment of ICT solutions, and providing improved grounds for more informed decision-making. Areas for further research regarding methodology development and filling knowledge gaps are also identified.

  • 25.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Stenmarck, Asa
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 26.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios – SAFS2017In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 63, 23-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address current challenges regarding sustainable development and support planning for this form of development, new learning about different possible futures and their potential sustainability implications is needed. One way of facilitating this learning is by combining the futures studies and sustainability assessment (SA) research fields. This paper presents the sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS), a method developed for assessing the environmental and social risks and opportunities of future scenarios, provides guidelines for its application and demonstrates how the framework can be applied. SAFS suggests assessing environmental and social aspects using a consumption perspective and a life cycle approach, and provides qualitative results. SAFS does not suggest any modelling using precise data, but instead offers guidelines on how to carry out a qualitative assessment, where both the process of assessing and the outcome of the assessment are valuable and can be used as a basis for discussion. The benefits, drawbacks and potential challenges of applying SAFS are also discussed in the paper. SAFS uses systems thinking looking at future societies as a whole, considering both environmental and social consequences. This encourages researchers and decision-makers to consider the whole picture, and not just individual elements, when considering different futures.

  • 27.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sustainability Assessment Framework for Scenarios - SAFSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Asa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has an influence on all societal sectors and can have both positive and negative consequences. To support ICT for sustainability (ICT4S), we need to learn when and how ICT can enable sustainable development. It is important to take into account all types of potential impacts environmental and social, direct and indirect. Looking at future ICT societies and their potential environmental and social implications is of special interest, as this can provide valuable knowledge for planning and policy-making today to enable ICT4S. A methodological framework for environmental and social assessment of future ICT societies with a consumption perspective was developed as a part of a joint project with researchers at KTH, ICT industry, municipality and county. The overall goal of the project was to develop five different future scenarios for Swedish ICT societies and to assess the risks and opportunities for environmental and social consequences in those scenarios. This paper presents the framework for environmental and social assessment of future scenarios and discusses the challenges experienced and lessons learned in the process of the framework development. The framework is aimed to deal with a broad and complex object and scope of assessment, the inherent uncertainty and data restrictions of future scenarios, and is applying qualitative analysis.

  • 29.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lessons learned: Review of LCAs for ICT products and services2014In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, no 2, 211-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of information and communication technology (ICT) is often expected to result in decreased environmental impacts. Several studies have, however, also addressed the possibilities of negative impacts. It is therefore important to assess environmental impacts of ICT products and services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for assessing the potential impacts of a product or service over the whole life-cycle, i.e. from raw material acquisition to waste management via production and use phases. The aim of this paper is to review LCA studies of ICT products and services, including a few Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) studies. Many of the studies have considered consumer products, such as computers and TVs. Other consumer products, such as game consoles and TV peripherals, as well as business products, e.g. related to networks, are however more rarely assessed. Manufacturing and use phase have the highest impact in the life cycle. Use phase seems to be the predominant in energy consumption and global warming for some ICT products but for others, especially energy efficient, low weight products, manufacturing may dominate. Rapid technological development is stressed by several authors as a source of variability of results, impacting the production processes and suppliers as well as the content and energy performance of the actual devices. In the future, conducting LCA on ICT, the research community needs to consider the limitations found in the studies conducted so far. It encompasses, among others, the need to address a broad spectrum of environmental impacts, including human and ecotoxicological impacts; modeling actual e-waste management, covering informal management when relevant; and considering user behavior in a realistic way, accounting for rebound and other indirect effects.

  • 30.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Future ICT Societies – Environmental Opportunities and ChallengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Media content provided on different platforms –Environmental performance of online and printed versions of Alma Medianewspapers.2014In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 3, no 1, 7-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental Assessment of E-media Solutions Challenges Experienced in Case Studies of Alma Media Newspapers2014In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 CONFERENCE ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY, Atlantis Press , 2014, 11-19 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid and continuous development of information and communication technology (ICT) in society today is providing new means for various societal activities. To facilitate that new ICT solutions reduce environmental impacts and bring social improvements the potential impacts of those new solutions should be assessed. One way of making environmental assessments is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents and discusses challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results of an LCA of traditional media products and of new ICT solutions for media products, based on case studies of three newspapers in their printed and online versions. The case studies revealed the complexity in assessment and comparison of online and printed newspapers due to differences in functions and characteristics, choice and availability of data (specific and generic data, data gaps and quality), methodological choices (functional unit, allocation, scope) and assumptions on reader profile. Often no single answer can be given regarding the best option from an environmental perspective, leading to challenges in communicating the results to different stakeholders. A particular challenge is how to combine easily communicated messages with robust, transparent background information.

  • 33.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental assessment of new media solutions: challenges experienced in case studies of Alma Media newspapers.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Cederberg, Christel
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sörme, Louise
    Palm, Viveka
    Stamyr, Kristin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Molander, Sverker
    The Zinc Paradox – a Problem for USETox-based indicators of national chemical footprint2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the immense problem of chemical pollution worldwide, there is a great need for methods that can be used to calculate indicators of chemical footprints. Such indicators can be calculated for products and services using life cycle assessment (LCA), but also for whole nations. Indicators of natio- nal chemical footprints may include emissions within the nation’s borders only, or also emissions related to consumption (thus having a life cycle perspective). A limited number of studies (< 5) have attempted to calculate indicators of national chemical footprints using the USEtox consensus model for toxicity impact assessment in LCA. One of these is our calculation of indicators of a national chemical footprint for Sweden. Two other studies have made similar assessments for Europe. Using the national perspective of these studies enables a rough validation of USEtox results, since the indicators of national chemiABSTRACTS 62 63 cal footprint based on USEtox can be compared to non-LCA toxicity assessments done on national levels. Such validations are not possible for LCA studies of single products. Notably, the results of existing assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints, including our Swedish study, all pinpoint zinc as the dominating substance. Zinc typically accounts for >50% of the toxicity impacts for both ecotoxicity and human toxicity. For ecotoxicity, this is not unreasonable considering the notable toxicity of zinc to aquatic organisms. For human toxicity, this result is more surprising. Zinc is an essential trace element for humans that many take as a dietary supplement to prevent zinc deficiency. Non-LCA sources describe zinc as “relatively harmless” to human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) does not list zinc among the top ten chemicals of major public health concern, although there are other metals on the list (mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic). These contradictory claims about zinc’s health impact seem to constitute a paradox. We present a review of existing studies assessing indicators of national chemical footprints, and of toxicological research related to zinc. We further discuss potential causes of this zinc paradox, as well as implications for assessments of indicators of national chemical footprints with USEtox.

  • 35.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Turesson, Anders
    Swedish Ministry of Environment and Energy.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Miljöpolitikens spelplan: Rapport från Miljöforskningsberedningen2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Gothenburg University.
    JohanssonStenman, Olof
    Gothenburg University.
    Ledin, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Smith, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Vahter, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Inrätta ett miljöpolitiskt råd direkt under statsministern2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2014-10-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Balian, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Greenhouse gas Reduction in Infrastructure Projects: With a case study of California High-Speed Rail2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Infrastructure projects are today major contributors to global warming. However, various strategies for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are available, as described in sustainability assessment schemes and performed in infrastructure projects.

    Beyond the choice of methodology, greenhouse gas reduction represents an important challenge, namely to engage involved actors. The establishment of a common sustainability policy, reflected in procurement requirements could be a solution. However, often in subject of complications such as misunderstandings or increased cost.

    Impres, a research project aiming to streamline the process of greenhouse gas reduction in the infrastructure sector, conducts case studies around the world in which useful methods and examples are assimilated. In cooperation with Impres, the present report includes the case study of California High-Speed Rail (CHSR).

    The aim of this report is to compare strategies for greenhouse gas reduction of sustainability assessment schemes for infrastructure projects, and evaluate the feasibility as procurement requirements. Furthermore, to identify corresponding processes of greenhouse gas reduction in the case study of CHSR, as well as revealing important factors towards realization.

    The course of work involves a study of the schemes Envision, BREEAM Infrastructure, CEEQUAL, IS Rating System as well as the standard PAS 2080. Regarding the case study, the sustainability policy, procurement requirements and project reports are the main used sources. Moreover, qualitative interviews with involved actors have been performed in California. Finally, to create a comparative matrix for greenhouse gas reduction processes, standards ISO and PAS 2080 have been reviewed.

    The results show that greenhouse gas criteria of the studied schemes not are mandatory to perform in anyone but PAS 2080. Which means that further requisites might be needed in order for the schemes to be useful as procurement requirements. Furthermore, the outlining of processes reveals a weakness in the setting of a greenhouse gas reference point, and while every scheme includes a greenhouse gas quantity assessment, there is a difference in the priority of reduction.

    Regarding CHSR, an exclaimed policy goal is to perform climate neutral construction. While procurement requirements are limited to quantification of emitted greenhouse gases and the use of effective construction machinery, which is insufficient to meet the goal. Nevertheless, the Authority in charge is performing CO2 compensating measures, such as planting trees.

    Finally, a variety of driving forces, success factors and challenges for realizing greenhouse gas reduction have been identified. For example, personal motivation and legislation as driving forces. Whereas, sustainability as a core mission, experience and communication are seen as success factors, and resistance to transfer sustainability goals to procurement is an exclaimed challenge.

    As a conclusion, sustainability assessment schemes do have certain processes for greenhouse gas reduction in common. However, they present criteria with different degrees of obligation, affecting feasibility as procurement requirements. In CHSR, similar processes are found, where further reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved, especially by an optimized choice of construction materials. In the end, personal motivation seems to be an important factor for introducing and realizing greenhouse gas reduction goals in infrastructure projects.

  • 38. Berggren, C
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Jacobsson, S
    Kågesson, P
    Biltillverkare bör vara öppna kring utsläppen2015In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Berglund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life cycle assessment comparison of CIPP lining and traditional pipe replacement2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the so-called “Miljonprogrammet”, over a million homes were built in Stockholm. As the buildings mature, parts of the buildings reach their technical life times and it is time to renovate them. At a time when the environmental impact of humans is a hot topic, it is appropriate to take the environment into account when deciding upon which restoration method to use. The sewage pipes are one of the important building parts in need of repair. This can be achieved by for example traditional pipe replacement or Cure-In-Place-Pipes (CIPP-lining).The goal of this study is to investigate and compare the environmental impact of traditional pipe replacement versus the use of the relining method CIPP lining by conducting a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA). The methods differ in the way that traditional pipe replacement demolishes the outer layers of the bathrooms and remove the old pipes to replace with new and restore the surface layers while CIPP-lining renovates the pipes from the inside with the use of a flexible liner.The purpose of the study has been to clarify the differences in environmental impacts of the different methods in a clear and easily understood way and thereby also simplify the decision-making process of property owners in need of renovation.With aid of the guidelines in ISO standards 14040 and 14044 a correct methodology has been used to ensure that the level of this work will be as high as possible. In combination with the software SimaPro specifically developed to handle the creation of various forms of life cycle assessments and the ISO standards a complex system been analyzed in detail.The results of the study show that CIPP-lining generally cause less environmental impacts than the traditional pipe replacement method. The analysis of 14 selected impact categories show that CIPP lining is preferable in 13 categories and that the traditional pipe replacement is preferable in 1 category. The sensitivity analysis show that the results change drastically depending on how much of the materials and energy used to demolish and reconstruct the outer layers of the bathroom one chooses to allocate to the new sewer pipes.The results show that the CIPP-lining results are dependent on the consumables and the liner assembly processes while the energy usage of the production process does not have a large impact on the results. For the traditional pipe replacement the results show that the consumable process is clearly the biggest impact while the piping production inflicts the least impact on the result.

  • 40. Blinge, Magnus
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Höijer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Roth, Anders
    Sprei, Frances
    Sterner, Tomas
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Trafikverket på kollisionskurs med klimatmålen2015In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Fuehrer, Paul
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hagbert, Pernilla
    Hornborg, Alf
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Öhlund, Erika
    Därför är ekonomisk tillväxt en risk2016In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 9 marArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42. Brito de Figueiredo, Maria Clea
    et al.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Kroeze, Carolien
    Barros, Viviane da Silva
    de Sousa, Joao Alencar
    Souza de Aragao, Fernando Antonio
    Gondim, Rubens Sonsol
    Potting, Jose
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Reducing the impact of irrigated crops on freshwater availability: the case of Brazilian yellow melons2014In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, no 2, 437-448 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies freshwater consumption throughout the life cycle of Brazilian exported yellow melons and assesses the resulting impact on freshwater availability. Results are used to identify improvement options. Moreover, the study explores the further impact of variations in irrigation volume, yield, and production location. The product system boundary encompasses production of seeds, seedlings, and melon plants; melon packing; disposal of solid farm waste; and farm input and melon transportation to European ports. The primary data in the study were collected from farmers in order to quantify freshwater consumption related to packing and to production of seeds, seedlings, and melons. Open-field melon irrigation was also estimated, considering the region's climate and soil characteristics. Estimated and current water consumptions were compared in order to identify impact reduction opportunities. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate variations in the impact because of changes in melon field irrigation, yield, and farm location. This study shows that the average impact on freshwater availability of 1 kg of exported Brazilian yellow melons is 135 l H2O-e, with a range from 17 to 224 l H2O-e depending on the growing season's production period. Irrigation during plant production accounts for 98 % of this impact. Current melon field water consumption in the Low Jaguaribe and A double dagger u region is at least 39 % higher than necessary, which affects the quality of fruits and yield. The impact of melon production in other world regions on freshwater availability may range from 0.3 l H2O-e/kg in Costa Rica to 466 l H2O-e/kg in the USA. The impact of temporary crops, such as melons, on water availability should be presented in ranges, instead of as an average, since regional consumptive water and water stress variations occur in different growing season periods. Current and estimated water consumption for irrigation may also be compared in order to identify opportunities to achieve optimization and reduce water availability impact.

  • 43. Brito de Figueirêdo, M. C.
    et al.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lopes Serrano, L. A.
    Bezerra, M. A.
    da Silva Barros, V.
    Gondim, R. S.
    Nemecek, T.
    Environmental assessment of tropical perennial crops: The case of the Brazilian cashew2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an original environmental assessment of the Brazilian cashew, a perennial tree cultivated in 30 tropical countries that yields four products: nuts, apples, gum and wood. While economic and agronomic data regarding cashew are available worldwide, the environmental issues related to the main production systems and products commercialized by Brazilian farms have not been discussed consistently. This environmental assessment is important to guide the efforts of researchers and farmers for improving the environmental performance of cashew cropping systems and products. Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental impacts of cashew systems and products, considering multi-cropping systems, agriculture functions and allocation procedures. Two cashew cropping systems are compared: (i) a high-input system, or reference system, developed through 20 years of research, and (ii) a low input system, as defined by a sample of farms practicing multi-cropping systems. Aspects and impacts of these systems are reported via the following production stages: nursery, establishment, and low and full production. Two agriculture functions are adopted to analyze the cropping systems: land management (impacts per hectare) and financial (impact per US$ from total sales receipts). The impacts of cashew products are evaluated using the crop production function (per kilogram of product). The impacts of products are measured using both mass and economic allocation. This study shows that the low and full production stages account for the majority of impact in both cropping systems, but land transformation for the establishment of cashew orchards is the main contributor of climate change. The analysis of multiple agriculture function shows different results for the study of cashew production systems and products. Considering the land management function (impacts per hectare), the low-input system causes less significant environmental impact, when compared to the high-input system, in all categories but toxicity. When the financial function is analyzed (impacts per US$ from total sales receipts from one ha), the low-input system achieves better performance for only eutrophication and water depletion impact categories. The analysis of the crop production function (impacts per kilogram of product) shows that the choice of allocation procedure also affects the results when comparing the impact values of products from different cropping systems. If the choice is for mass allocation, products from the low-input system achieve better environmental performance, but if economic allocation is chosen, products from the high-input system perform equal or better than when produced in the low-input system. From the joint analysis of agriculture functions, the conclusion is that the best option to improve the environmental performance of the Brazilian cashew production is to adjust the high-input system with modifications regarding fertilization and pest management. From this case study, the benefits of considering multi-agriculture functions and accounting for all production stages in the study of perennial crops are highlighted. The importance of developing emission and characterization factors to reduce uncertainty when estimating pollutant loads and evaluating impacts of perennial crops cultivated in tropical regions is also discussed. This study advances the knowledge base on the environmental assessment of perennial crops in general, and on cashew crops specifically.

  • 44.
    Brolinsson, Hanna
    et al.
    SCB.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    SCB.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Consumption-basedindicators in Swedish environmental policy2012Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Brown, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Better Low-energy Buildings: The Contribution of Environmental Rating Tools and Life-Cycle Approaches2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Brown, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Olsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Screening of globalwarming potential due to material production for renovation measures for 50 % decrease innet energy demand of existing stock of residential buildings in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Managing high environmental performance?: Applying life cycle approaches and environmental certification tools in the building and real estate sectors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is  to demonstrate and critically assess life cycle approaches’ and environmental certification (EC) tools’ potential for supporting decisions for improved environmental performance in the building and real estate sectors.

    Using life cycle approaches, the thesis shows that for new build and renovation cases aiming for low operational energy use that embodied global warming potential (GWP) due to material production can constitute a large portion of a building’s lifetime GWP. Therefore life cycle based information about materials’ embodied GWP needs to be made available to and utilized by design process decision makers.

    It was also shown that applying the Swedish EC tool Miljöbyggnad was useful in highlighting potential positive and negative changes in indoor environmental quality arising from renovation packages aiming at significant operational energy use reduction in existing multifamily buildings. However such renovation packages are not profitable from a property owner perspective. Miljöbyggnad may be useful when designing policy instruments to overcome this.   

    The thesis also showed that EC and related environmental enhancements contribute to achieving property owners’ and tenants’ overall strategic objectives for value creation. For property owners this arises for example through lower energy costs and attracting desirable tenants. For tenants, value creation arises as support for internal and external environmental communication.

    For the further development of life cycle approaches’ and EC tools’ application to buildings and real estate it is important to consider how they can be adapted to consider ‘distance to sustainable’ targets referencing for instance the planetary boundaries approach. It is also interesting to investigate how valuation of buildings and real estate may be performed in a way that expands from the current narrow focus on the economic perspective to also include environmental and social perspectives.

  • 48.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Swedish property owners’experience of added value from environmentally certified non-residential buildings2014In: Proceedings, World Sustainable Building 2014, Barcelona, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Wintzell, Helene
    Mervärden för fastighetsägare vid miljöcertifiering av byggnader – en enkätstudie av fastighetsägare medmiljöcertifierade lokalfastigheter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Wintzell, Helene
    HWz Miljö och Ledarskap AB.
    Miljöcertifiering och mervärden: Vad säger svenska lokalfastighetsägare?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste 5 åren har miljöcertifiering för byggnader i Sverige tagit fart ordentligt. Det inhemska verktyget Miljöbyggnad är klart populärast, men LEED och en svensk BREEAM-version används också mycket. I vissa delar av västvärlden har miljöcertifiering för byggnader varit en företeelse i minst 15 år och erfarenheterna i form av olika mervärden av certifiering har studerats i ett antal forskningsstudier. Forskningen hittills har framför allt utgått ifrån att noggrann värdering av miljöcertifiering och hållbarhetsaspekter generellt är viktig för att rapportera tillgångars värde. Mindre uppmärksamhet har ägnats åt hur miljöcertifieringen kan påverka fastighetsägarföretag från ett bredare värdeskapande perspektiv.

    Det finns i dagsläget tillräckligt många svenska miljöcertifierade byggnader för att kunna undersöka hur mervärde hos svenska fastighetsägare skapas genom miljöcertifiering. Arbetets syfte är därför att visa om och i så fall hur svenska fastighetsägare upplever mervärde från miljöcertifiering utifrån ett brett verksamhetsperspektiv. Arbetet avser också att samla praktiska erfarenheter om mervärde från miljöcertifiering.

    Studien bygger på  en nätbaserad enkät och intervjuer. Enkäten har använts för  att samla information om möjliga mervärden, vilka definierats i förväg av forskargruppen med bas i den befintliga litteraturen. Målgruppen för enkäten var representanter för fastighetsägare med direkt erfarenhet av en svensk miljöcertifierad lokalbyggnad.. Enkäten skickades till representanter för 65 byggnader, och kompletta svar kom in från 31. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer har använts för att få levande exempel på specifika upplevda mervärden samt att ställa följdfrågor kring vilka förutsättningarna eller omständigheterna är/var för att dessa nyttor faktiskt skulle uppkomma alternativt varför de inte uppkommer. 15 personer intervjuades, där varje person hade direkt erfarenhet av en svensk miljöcertifierad lokalbyggnad.

    Intervjuer bekräftar enkätresultat att det klaraste mervärdet utifrån driftkostnads och -intäktsperspektivet är minskade energikostnader. Resultat från enkätundersökningen gällande hyresnivå och försäljningspris stämmer överens med tidigare utländska statistiska studier. Dessa mervärden förväntas öka i framtiden enligt enkätsvaren. Samtidigt visar intervjuer att de mervärdena samt vakansgraden, en annan faktor som styr driftinkomsterna, inte upplevs i klara ekonomiska termer. Snarare talar man om att miljöcertifieringen medför ett mervärde genom att den etablerar byggnaden i en nischmarknad för hyresgäster såväl som för investerare. Denna nischmarknad håller på att utvecklas så att miljöcertifieringen i framtiden kommer att ses som ett hygienkrav snarare än en ”unique selling point” som det har varit för de undersökta tidiga exemplen.

    Övriga viktiga mervärden enligt intervjuer med stöd av enkätresultat är att miljöcertifieringen underlättar kommunikationen av miljöfrågor i byggprojekt, företagsledning, fastighetsförvaltning och vid marknadsföring. Exempelvis kan man bättre kommunicera mål för miljöarbetet i byggprojekt som i sin tur enligt de intervjuade leder till bättre materialval, en högre kvalité hos byggnaden och bättre dokumentation över inbyggda material. Det senare leder dessutom till en lättare försäljningsprocess enligt en intervju. Studierna visar att miljöcertifieringen har lett till att miljöstyrning blivit en allt mer integrerad del i affärsstrategin vilket har understrukits av att ett flertal kommersiella företag numera har tagit beslut om miljöcertifiering på högst ledningsnivå. I fastighetsförvaltningen har man fått en bättre struktur på miljöarbetet med hjälp av miljöcertifieringen. Slutligen visar intervjuerna flera exempel där miljöcertifieringen har gett mycket positiv marknadsföring, exempelvis med en hög mediesynlighet, en ledande roll i internationella branschnätverk och ett gott rykte bland övriga i branschen.

    Med grund i enkät- och intervjuresultaten kan de uppkomna mervärdena delas in i tre separata men kopplade kategorier som handlar om hur miljöcertifiering skapar mervärden: ”miljösatsningarnas mervärde” syftar till mervärden som uppkommer direkt från en specifik miljösatsning som miljöcertifieringen föreskriver. Ett exempel är lägre energikostnader från en effektiv energianvändning. ”Process mervärde” uppkommer genom miljöcertifieringens struktur och kriterier som underlättar miljö- och kvalitetsstyrningsprocesser för byggprojektledning, fastighetsförvaltning och företagsledning. För det tredje uppkommer ”certifieringsmervärde” genom själva märkningen i sig som grundar sig på certifieringverktygens trovärdighet och kännedomen om certifieringssystemet. Det tydligaste mervärdet här för fastighetsägare är att kunna bemöta krav om en byggnad med en specifik certifiering från önskvärda hyresgäster.

    Utifrån det samlade intervjumaterialet kan man skönja tre typer av inriktningar när fastighetsägare tillämpar miljöcertifiering.  ”Marknadsledare” som kännetecknas av att man framhållersjälva certifieringens mervärden starkt. Mervärde för denna typ uppkommer främst genom konkurrensfördelar av att attrahera önskvärda hyresgäster, vid försäljning och genom varumärkesbyggande. Detta yttrar sig i bibehållna (eller ökade) ränteintäkter, minskad vakansgrad och ökat transaktionsvärde. Enligt intervjustudien är det främst stora privata företag med kontorsfastigheter i storstäder som har denna inriktning. Denna grupp anses vara ledande i den mening att företagsledningarna har fattat beslut om att applicera miljöcertifiering på t.ex. all nybyggnation.

    ”Samhällsledare” är organisationer vars strategiska inriktning påverkas av eventuella politiska krav eller som ett utfall av att man är en offentligägd organisation som förväntas bidra till samhällets mål och intentioner i största allmänhet. Här framhåller man starkt mervärden i form av den förbättrade byggprocess som tillämpningen av certifieringsverktyget ger. Det viktigaste identifierade mervärdesexemplet för denna strategi handlar om en bättre målstyrning som slår igenom i relationer med konsulter m fl. i byggprojekt samt i att kommunicera och etablera miljöarbetet internt.  Enligt intervjuerna leder dessa processförbättringar främst till en byggnad med högre kvalité och bättre kunskap i förvaltningen vad gäller inbyggda material. Typiskt för en sådan organisation är att de är offentligägda och inhyser offentlig verksamhet, exempelvis vård eller utbildning. Denna grupp anses vara ledande i den meningen att man har applicerat miljöcertifieringen mycket medvetet och ibland har man fattat beslut om det på högsta ledningsnivå.

    Den sista strategiska inriktningen bedömer vi inte som lika pådrivande som de två förstnämnda. En grupp kallar vi för ”kompetensutvecklare” och bland de intervjuade organisationerna finns det exempel inom denna grupp som är mer marknadsinriktade och de som är mer samhällsinriktade. Dessa fastighetsägare har gemensamt att de inte (i vår tolkning av intervjusvaren) har så tydligt uttryckta syften vad gäller mervärden från miljöcertifieringen som de inriktningar vi bedömer som pådrivande. En fråga är om det är en avsiktlig strategi för dessa organisationer att låta övriga gå före, eller om vi har intervjuat dessa organisationer medan de bygger upp den interna kompetensen för att vara mera pådrivande vad gäller miljöcertifieringen i en nära framtid. 

    Det ska noteras här att samtliga strategiska indelningar som vi har sett har möjlighet att få ut mervärde från specifika miljösatsningar. Främst av dessa är minskade energikostnader genom energieffektivitet, men det finns också de som kopplas till t.ex. materialval och dagsljus. Beroende på strategisk inriktning kan olika miljöcertifieringar vara mer eller mindre lämpliga för att ut mesta mervärden till lägsta kostnad. ”Marknadsledarna” får i dagsläget störst mervärde från internationella verktyg jämfört med övriga identifierade inriktningar. Frågan är emellertid hur situationen är om några år. Flera intervjuade talar om att miljöcertifiering snart (eller i princip redan är) hygienkrav på kontorsmarknaden i storstadsområden. Detta kan leda till att fler fastighetsägare behöver lära sig och överväga att tillämpa även andra system än Miljöbyggnad ganska snart. Samtidigt finns en risk då tillämpningen av miljöcertifiering blir en viktig affärsstrategisk komponent att verktygen inte styr mot hög miljöprestanda utan mer mot högsta möjliga mervärde. 

    Analysen här har också visat att det finns goda grunder för att etablera kopplingar mellan mervärde som man får från miljöcertifiering och organisationers värdeskapande arbete som avses att ge finansiell nytta på sikt. Dessa kopplingar kommer att vidareutvecklas i det fortsatta projektarbetet. I fortsättningen görs också en enkät och intervjuer med hyresgäster för lokalfastigheter. Dessutom gör vi en fördjupning kring offentliga aktörer.

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