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  • 1.
    Alessandro, Magny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Pdungsilp, Aumnad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Optimization of Energy Supply Systems for a Sustainable District in Stockholm Using Genetic Algorithms2014In: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Buildings Conference 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ankaräng, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Värmelaster i laboratorium: Undersökning av laboratorieutrustnings värmeavgivning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggnader med laboratorier är ofta mer utrustningstunga och därmed blir de större förbrukare av energi än vanliga kontorsbyggnader. Med stor mängd utrustning och med utrustning som dessutom kan ha en hög effektförbrukning kommer det stora värmelaster till rummet som behöver kylas bort och detta behov av kyla måste fastställas under projekteringsfasen av ett byggprojekt. En utmaning som man ställs inför vid projektering av kylsystem är att göra en bedömning för hur stora de interna värmelasterna är från den elektroniska utrustningen som finns i rummen. I många fall gör man en bedömning genom att använda schablonvärden för de interna lasterna då det tidigt i projektet inte är fastlagt vad för typ av utrustning som kommer att placeras i rummen och i vilken utsträckning utrustningen kommer att användas. Denna uppskattning av interna värmelaster blir i många fall felaktigt bedömd. Vid projektering av laboratorier är utmaningen ännu större då byggprojekt med laboratorier är få vilket innebär att det finns mindre erfarenhet och kunskap att kunna göra en välgrundad bedömning. Detta leder till att laboratorier i många fall har system för kyla som är överdimensionerade vilket leder till onödigt höga investeringskostnader, ineffektiva installationer och högre driftkostnader.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att ge bättre underlag för framtida projekteringar av laboratorier genom att undersöka hur väl utrustningstillverkarnas angivelser för märkeffekten stämmer överens med den verkliga effektförbrukningen. Arbetet har även försökt visa på hur ofta och i vilken omfattning utrustningen används genom att studera en utvald laboratoriebyggnad vid Karolinska Institutet. Detta har gjorts genom att anta att all effekt som utrustningen förbrukar omvandlas till värme och tillförs till rummet. Genom detta antagande har värmeavgivningen kunnat bestämmas genom att mäta och logga elförbrukningen under en veckas tid med hjälp av en eleffektsmätare.

    I detta arbete gjordes det mätningar på åtta stycken utrustningstyper och resultatet i arbetet visar att användningsdiversiteten för all utrustning som det gjordes mätningar på är 43 %. Delar man upp utrustningen utefter märkeffekt över och under 1000 W blir användningsdiversiteten 4 % för det förstnämnda samt 53 % för det sistnämnda. Ismaskinen och skakinkubator hade 65 % av den totala förbrukningen under mätperioderna och var med det de överlägset största förbrukarna i mätningarna. Av de utrustningar som har intermittent användningsmönster var det de mikrobiologiska säkerhetsbänkarna samt skakinkubatorn som hade mest tid i aktivt läge.

    Jämför man med mätdata som finns för laboratorieutrustning på Labs21 Wiki-sida hade utrustning med märkeffekt över 1000 W en genomsnittlig användningsdiversitet som var 50 % och utrustning med märkeffekt under 1000 W en genomsnittlig användningsdiversitet som var 74 %.

    Som slutsatserna i detta arbete visar finns det stort utrymme för en förbättrad och mer precis projektering av ett laboratoriums värmelaster. Med en mer precis projektering kommer det dock nya utmaningar såsom riskhantering om ett system istället blir underdimensionerat och möjligheterna för framtida förändringar av ett laboratoriums utrustningar minskar. Fördelarna med ett mer precist kylsystem är många där det finns stor besparingspotential både ekonomiskt och miljömässigt.

  • 3.
    Azar, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Hassanie, Samer H.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Calibrating symphonies2016In: CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress / [ed] Heiselberg, Per Kvols, Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, 2016, Vol. 6, 225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the general topic of calibrating initial Building Energy Performance Simulationmodels, iBEPS. We build upon a recently published paper entitled “Narrowing the Gap- A Framework for Connecting and Auto-Tuning a Design BPS Model to a Physical Building”to outline a methodology for calibrating iBEPS models. We highlight common trends and pitfallsencountered in iBEPS calibration studies, and propose strategies and a methodology for overcomingthese obstacles. The methodology is implemented and tested on IEA Annex 58 single housingmodel.

  • 4.
    Emili, Antonella
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Assessing the Thermal Performance of Glazed Curtain Wall Systems: S+G Project Case Study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement of curtain wall thermal performances and the optimisation of the issues connected with this technology can lead to a sensible reduction of the energy consumption of the building as well as to an increase level of occupant comfort and longer durability of the façade.

    The aim of this work is to improve the curtain wall technology especially as far as the connection between the glass and the frame is concerned, since it is the part that mainly affects the performances of the whole façade. This project focuses on the different aspects of the thermal performance of curtain wall systems in order to achieve a higher thermal performance, meeting the objectives of lowering energy demand, improving durability and enhancing indoor comfort.

    In order to develop new high performance curtain wall connections and to test their level of performance compared with the state of the art ones, two methods were deployed: a numerical and an experimental one. FEM analysis was performed with the software THERM (LBNL) analysing the profile of surface temperatures and the U-values of the details. In the FEM analysis, different materials and geometries were studied. The experimental characterisation of the thermal energy performance of the studied design options was performed by means of thermometric measurements in a climatic cell. The purpose of the experimental analysis was the verification of the effective improvement of the performance in the new details and the comparison with the simulation, aiming at the validation of the simulation model.

  • 5.
    Erlendsson, Örn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Daylight Optimization - A Parametric Study of Atrium Design: Early Stage Design Guidelines of Atria for Optimization of Daylight Autonomy2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the design of atria for daylighting in large scale buildings. Athree dimensional test building with a central atrium was constructed and various parameters of the atrium altered. The impact of these changes was studied through computer simulations of annual daylight distribution by implementing state of theart software. Daylight autonomy is simulated for an annual climate file for Stockholm, Sweden.

    In the thesis, notion is made of basic daylighting concepts, the importance of bringing daylight into buildings is argued, and the daylighting criteria of three environmental certification tools introduced.

    Furthermore, a detailed comparison is made on several well known daylight simulation tools. A newly developed, state of the art, daylight simulation tool called Honeybee, is used in the simulation process. The tool utilizes the calculation engines of wellknown daylight simulation software Radiance and Daysim, which apply backward ray-tracing to reach accurate results. Honeybee is coupled to the graphical algorithmeditor Grasshopper for Rhinoceros 3D, which allows for an efficient way of parametric modelling. The comparison of five different daylight simulation tools showed that Honeybee outweighs the capabilities of many of them by offering a wast range of simulation capabilities and also giving the user exceptional control of result data within multiple zones of the test building.

    The results of the daylight study have been compiled into a document which purpose is to serve as early stage design guidelines of atria for architects.

    Many factors have been shown through simulation to have a dramatic impact on daylighton an annual basis, and several suggestions have been made on how to maximize the quantity of daylight within buildings containing atria.

  • 6.
    Garcia, Jose Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Characterization of greywater heat exchangers and the potential of implementation for energy savings2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for up to 32% of the total energy use in different countries. Directives from the European Union have pointed out the importance of increasing energy efficiency in buildings. New regulation in countries like Sweden establishes that new buildings should fulfill regulations of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB), opening an opportunity for new technologies to achieve these goals. Almost 80-90% of the energy in domestic hot water use is wasted from different applications with almost no use and with a lot of potential energy to be recovered.

    The present work studied the characteristics of greywater heat exchanger as a solution to recuperate heat from greywater to increase efficiency in buildings. This study explored the fluid mechanics involved in the vertical greywater heat exchangers, analyzing the falling film effect present in drain pipes and the effects of the secondary flow generated in the external helical coil. A heat transfer model from a theoretical approach was proposed and validated. In addition, this study explored the different variables influencing the economic feasibility of the technology and an economic analysis was performed. A theoretical comparison between a greywater heat exchanger application and a reference case without it was evaluated highlighting the importance of all the variables involved in the potential of implementation of the technology. The technology shows big potential in households with high water consumptions, especially with electric boilers.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Techno-economic analysis of three HVAC retrofitting options2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for around 40% of the total final energy consumption, the building stock is an important area of focus on the way to reaching the energy goals set for the European Union. The relatively small share of new buildings makes renovation of existing buildings possibly the most feasible way of improving the overall energy performance of the building stock. This of course involves improvements on the climate shell, for example by additional insulation or change of window glazing, but also installation of new heating systems, to increase the energy efficiency and to fit the new heat load after renovation. In the choice of systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), it is important to consider their performance for space heating as well as for domestic hot water (DHW), especially for a renovated house where the DHW share of the total heating consumption is larger.

    The present study treats the retrofitting of a generic single family house, which was defined as a reference building in a European energy renovation project. Three HVAC retrofitting options were compared from a techno-economic point of view: A) Air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR), B) Exhaust air heat pump (EAHP) with low-temperature ventilation radiators, and C) Gas boiler and ventilation with MVHR. The systems were simulated for houses with two levels of heating demand and four different locations: Stockholm, Gdansk, Stuttgart and London. They were then evaluated by means of life cycle cost (LCC) and primary energy consumption. Dynamic simulations were done in TRNSYS 17.

    In most cases, system C with gas boiler and MVHR was found to be the cheapest retrofitting option from a life cycle perspective. The advantage over the heat pump systems was particularly clear for a house in Germany, due to the large discrepancy between national prices of natural gas and electricity. In Sweden, where the price difference is much smaller, the heat pump systems had almost as low or even lower life cycle costs than the gas boiler system. Considering the limited availability of natural gas in Sweden, systems A and B would be the better options. From a primary energy point of view system A was the best option throughout, while system B often had the highest primary energy consumption. The limited capacity of the EAHP forced it to use more auxiliary heating than the other systems did, which lowered its COP. The AWHP managed the DHW load better due to a higher capacity, but had a lower COP than the EAHP in space heating mode. Systems A and C were notably favoured by the air heat recovery, which significantly reduced the heating demand.

    It was also seen that the DHW share of the total heating consumption was, as expected, larger for the house with the lower space heating demand. This confirms the supposition that it is important to include DHW in the study of HVAC systems for retrofitting.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    University of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, 512-519 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

  • 9.
    Hai, Lu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Energy Quality Management for Building Clusters and Districts Using a Multi-Objective Optimization Approach2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As society develops, energy needs and the warnings of global warming have become main areas of focus in many areas of human life. One such aspect, the building sector, needs to take responsibility for a significant portion of energy use. Researchers need to concentrate on applying innovative methods for controlling the growth of energy use. Apart from improving energy efficiency by reducing energy use and improving the match between energy supply and demand, energy quality issues have become a key topic of interest. Energy quality management (EQM) is a technique that aims to optimally utilize the exergy content of various renewable energy sources. The evaluation of the optimum energy systems for specific districts is an essential part of EQM.

    The optimum energy system must follow the concept of “sustainability.” In other words, the optimization process should select the most suitable energy systems, which fulfill various sustainable requirements such as high energy/exergy performance, low environmental impacts and economic cost, as well as acceptable system reliability. A common approach to dealing with complex criteria involves multi-objective optimization, whereby multi-objective optimization is applied in the context of EQM of building clusters and districts (BCDs). In the present thesis, a multi-objective optimization process is proposed that applies a genetic algorithm (GA) to address non-linear optimization problems. Subsequently, four case studies are used to analyze how the multi-objective optimization process supports EQM of BCDs. Detailed information about these cases is provided below:

    1. Basic case (UK): This case is used to investigate the application possibility of the approach in BCD energy system design and to analyze the optimal scenario changes, along with variations of optimization objective combinations. This approach is proven to be time-effective

    2. Case 1 (Norway): The use of renewable energy sources can be highly intermittent and dependent on local climatic conditions; therefore, energy system reliability is a key parameter be considered for the renewable energy systems. This section defines system reliability as a constraint function and analyzes the system changes caused by the varying reliability constraints. According to the case, system reliability has been proven to be one of the most important objectives for the optimization of renewable energy systems.

    3. Case 2 (China): In this section, the approach is applied in order to search for the optimal hybrid system candidates for a net-zero exergy district (NZEXD) in China. Economic analysis is included in this case study. Through the optimization process, the proposed approach is proven to be flexible and capable of evaluating distinct types of energy scenarios with different objective functions. Moreover, the approach is able to solve practical issues, such as identifying the most feasible options to the stepwise energy system transition for a specific case.

    4. Case 3 (China): This section makes two major contributions. The first is to test the expansibility of inserting additional objectives into the approach; a parametric study is then applied to investigate the effects of different energy parameters. The second contribution is the conclusion that the optimum energy systems might vary significantly, depending on certain parameters.

    According to the analyses in these case studies, the multi-objective optimization approach is capable of being a tool for future BCDs’ energy system design. It should also be noted that the findings from the case studies – especially the parametric study – might provide some interesting research topics for future work.

  • 10.
    Hassanie, Samer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    A Systematic Approach to Integrated Building Performance Assessment and Visualisation2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a holistic approach to building-performance assessment without limiting it to energy use (usually expressed in kWh/m2/year), but rather include more parameters that represent the following aspects: Economic, environmental, and quality of service provided to the occupant/client. If it can be shown that buildings can be operated not only in an energy-efficient way, but also in a way that takes into consideration the needs of the occupants, a case could be built that a higher quality of indoor environment does not necessarily mean a higher economic impact. It is also important to show that having access to high-quality building-performance data leads to high-quality analysis and visualisation, and consequently to a chance to detect faults and improve building operation. To answer these questions, a large office building in Stockholm, Sweden was used as a case study. The building was equipped with energy meters and 1,700 sensor points, uniformly distributed over the occupied areas, that measured room temperature, duct temperature, occupancy presence/absence and supply airflow, in addition to other states. The data was processed using RStudio, and various types of visualisation plots were used, including carpet plots, masked scatter plots, bar plots, line graphs, and boxplots. The data pointed to some interesting results. First, just knowing the energy use is not sufficient for understanding the quality of the service provided to the occupants. Second, performing a thorough analysis of room unit data can detect faults. Third, using carpet plots for energy-data visualisation is effective for energy-use pattern recognition. Finally, visualising the building performance parameters in a parallel coordinate plot is a more informative representation of integrated building performance compared to the energy performance certificates typically used today. 

  • 11.
    Hassanie, Samer H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Azar, Marc
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Occupant Presence Modeling Using Random Forests2016In: YRSB16 – iiSBE Forum of Young Researchers in Sustainable Building 2016 / [ed] Julie Železná, Petr Hájek, Jan Tywoniak, Antonín Lupíšek, Kateřina Sojková, Czech Technical University in Prague , 2016, 188-195 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hassanie, Samer H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    A Holistic Approach to Building Performance: A Case Study of an Office Building in Sweden2016In: CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress / [ed] Heiselberg, Per Kvols, Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering , 2016, Vol. 6, 246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increase of building certification systems worldwide, the evaluation of building performance has been standardized. These certifications provide some points for indoor air quality and thermal comfort in reference to standards like ASHRAE 55 and ISO 7730. However, the assessment is performed taking into account whether the design fulfils the requirements of the standards, in addition to measurements and a survey of the occupants’ thermal comfort (Miljobyggnad Gold). In fact, this only ensures that the requirements are met at the time of the inspection and little is known about the building’s performance after the inspection.In order to analyze the thermal comfort of occupants, a lot of studies have been done applying either the rational or adaptive approach. The rational approach is based on a heat balance model of the human body, while the adaptive approach concentrates on what happens outside controlled environments taking into account the humans’ interaction with their surroundings.This paper presents a new methodology to assess building performance in a holistic manner. The key parameters that are considered include the energy use, the occupants’ thermal comfort, the environmental impact and the corresponding cost. An office building located in Stockholm, Sweden is used as a case study. The energy use is measured through installed energy meters, whereas the thermal comfort is assessed using the degree hours criteria, described in standard EN 15251 (2007).The results allow a better understanding of the correlation between the amount of used energy (kWh per square meter) and the quality of the delivered service. Moreover a long term monitoring of the building leads to a better understanding of how the building should be operated and in some instances to energy savings without compromising on the quality.

  • 13.
    Hassanie, Samer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Long-term performance assessment of autonomous demand controlled ventilation units: A case study of an office building in SwedenIn: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Fluid and Climate Technology.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Cleaner energy scenarios for building clusters in campus areas based on the Rational Exergy Management Model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 155, 72-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles based on the quality of energy, namely exergy, can assist in attaining a more efficient and cleaner energy supply structure. This paper analyzes two building clusters in campus areas based on a stepwise approach with four steps according to the Rational Exergy Management Model. The clusters involve 8 buildings at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology and those in the Albano district that is a former industrial site and will become a joint campus area in Stockholm. The energy supply for the campus and urban vicinity includes a combined heat and power plant with district heating and cooling. In this context, the energy and exergy profiles of the building clusters are compared. The level of exergy match in the energy system is analyzed. Four scenarios are then devised, which involve energy savings and different shares of various supply options. These include a new biofuel unit, seawater heat pumps, large scale aquifer thermal energy storage, heat supply from solar collectors, and electricity and heat from photovoltaic thermal arrays. The present case and four scenarios are found to have exergy matches that range between 0.49 and 0.81. The scenarios indicate that savings of 16 GWh energy, 9.6 GWh exergy, and 2663 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions are possible. The paper contributes to exergy based analyzes for campus areas and concludes with the prospect of using campus areas as pioneering case studies for advancing the transition to cleaner energy scenarios.

  • 15. Kilkis, Siir
    et al.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Cleaner energy supply structures for campus building clustersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of building clusters based on energy and the quality of energy (exergy) is a

    key aspect for determining steps towards cleaner energy supply structures. This paper

    compares two building clusters based on an integrated approach that involves building and

    energy system level analyses. The first cluster involves 8 buildings with diverse energy profiles

    at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus, including faculty buildings, laboratories, and

    a data center with waste heat recovery. The second cluster involves planned buildings in the

    Albano district in the vicinity of the KTH campus that will be a joint area with lecture buildings

    and accommodation for 3 universities in Stockholm. The present energy supply structure for

    the campus and the surrounding urban area includes a local combined heat and power (CHP)

    plant. The comparison of the building clusters involve analyses based on the Rational Exergy

    Management Model. Four scenarios, which involve different shares for the existing CHP units,

    new biofuel CHP unit, seawater heat pumps, peak load boilers, electric boilers, large scale

    aquifer thermal energy storage, heat supply from solar collectors, and electricity and heat from

    photovoltaic thermal arrays are devised for comparison. The scenarios have at most an exergy

    match of 0.81. The paper concludes with useful results that are in line with the aims of IEA

    Annex 64 on Optimised Performance of Energy Supply Systems with Exergy Principles.

  • 16.
    Korpar Malmström, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    En god natts sömn och återvunnen energi: Modellering av avloppsvärmeväxling på ett stockholmshotell och spa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As buildings have become more energy efficient, the energy demand for preparation of domestic hot water stands out as an increasing part of the operational cost and carbon footprint of a building. Most of the heat in the water is used for a short time and then discharged to the main sewer line. Clarion Hotel Stockholm is an example of such a building, with many showers, bathtubs and a spa.

    The hotel business is growing around the world and its customers demand comfortable stays. A parallel trend is a more environmentally aware tourism and business travel. Hotels show a great potential for energy savings, while still offering comfortable accommodation. In this master's thesis a case study evaluates the possibilities for heat recovery from the wastewater of Clarion Hotel Stockholm. Three types of heat exchangers were modelled in the system dynamic modelling environment STELLA: a horizontal, a vertical and a shower heat exchanger. Recovered heat was used for pre-heating of the incoming water for domestic hot water preparation. The flows of heat through the hotel's tap water and wastewater systems were schematically modelled using system dynamic modelling, which provides a foundation for the development of mathematical models and further research into the area. The first results point to possible reductions of the heating demand for domestic hot water preparation at Clarion Hotel Stockholm.

  • 17.
    Lapioli, Simone
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Energy retrofit of an office building in Stockholm: feasibility analysis of an EWIS2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy retrofit of existing buildings has always been a challenging task to accomplish. The example of the Swecohuset building, proves how an integrated approach design between architectural and energetic aspects as well as the use of well-known and efficient technologies are key aspects to achieve the energy-saving goal. This work, in the first part describes the Swecohuset retrofit process, along with the reasons behind the choices which have led to the current result of a reduction by 2/3 of the energy need for space conditioning purposes. Then, in the second part, after a brief focus on the passive aspects which characterize the current energy performance of the building, it is carried out a feasibility analysis of an EWIS (external wall insulation system) by studying its interaction with a complex system as an optimization problem, with the main purpose of understanding the basis of the BPO and explore further building potentialities.

  • 18.
    Larek, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Tran, Jimmy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Inverkan av värmesystem på termisk komfort i ett flerbostadshus med hänsyn till energianvändning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor climate plays a crucial role in human health and well-being when people are indoors for nearly half their life. There are several aspects to how one should achieve good indoor climate, but the more significant aspects are both good air quality and thermal comfort. Simultaneously one must regard that the reduction of energy has an important role in today’s development. While trying to reduce energy consumption in order to facilitate the environmental load, it raises the questions whether the thermal comfort is affected by this. 

    The purpose of the report will lie in the identification of a heating system for a given apartment building in the Stockholm area, with a focus on thermal comfort and energy use. The evaluation is based on various types of impacts from various systems that have been computed in IDA ICE. A reference case for an apartment building was used as a basis and was modeled according to architectural and constructional drawings while input data was used according to Sveby. It will also include the environmental certifications used in Sweden and specify their requirements regarding the thermal comfort, and each focus area as various environmental certifications have different assessment criteria’s.

    During this study it was found that we rarely take into account the thermal comfort in the same way we do with the energy consumption. It has also been found that in cases where the requirements for the thermal comfort exist, it is often insufficiently defined to provide one with a good perception of comfort. The requirements do, in other words, not take into account how well a building performs during a whole year but instead focuses on one instantaneous value. For the simulation a sensitivity analysis was made that revealed the importance and necessity of a clear standard for undefined variables to express the people’s assessment of thermal comfort. After the simulation part, the energy calculations were examined according to a review template from WSP Systems. This provided a basis for fair consideration.

    From the obtained results it was shown that floor heating and increasing the setpoint to 22 °C gave an increased thermal comfort but at the same time an increase in energy use. An HVAC system with a heat exchanger and radiators resulted in reduced energy use by about a third from the reference case and a slight increase in current thermal comfort. It also proved that the choice of an HVAC system with heat exchanger produced the highest annual energy savings. However one must take into account installation costs for different types of systems as opposed to when the setpoint is increased to 22 °C. Thus it becomes a cost issue and a critical parameter for selecting among these three types of solutions.

  • 19.
    Lu, Hai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    A study of the design criteria affecting energy demand in new building clusters using fuzzy AHP2013In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 955-963 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of concern regarding the total energy consumption in new building clusters/urban districts (BCDs) has increased recently. Rising living standards have led to a significant increase in building energy consumption over the past few decades. Therefore, along with sustainability requirements, it is essential to establish an effective and precise energy demand model for new building clusters/districts. In principle, energy demand in building clusters is hard to plan and pre-calculate because a number of design criteria influence energy performance. Establishing such a model would require a decision-making base, and the present study proposes two methods for achieving this objective. The study uses general survey aims to collect and identify the design criteria that affect the energy demand model and to evaluate the priorities of each criterion using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method. Four main criteria - location, building design, government and cluster design - are established, along with a total of 13 secondary criteria. The results show that the use of the AHP method can accurately guide the energy demand model and automatically rank significant criteria. The method can provide the weighting value for each criterion as well as the relative ranking for the energy demand building model. According to the sustainability concept, one crucial benefit is an improvement in the energy performance of building clusters/urban districts and a reduction in energy consumption. Another advantage of this methodology is that it can provide accurate energy input for future energy supply system optimisation.

  • 20.
    Lu, Hai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. Electric Power Research Institute, Yunnan Electric Power and Research Institute (Group), Kunming, China .
    Yu, Z.
    Alanne, K.
    Zhang, L.
    Fan, L.
    Xu, X.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Transition path towards hybrid systems in China: Obtaining net-zero exergy district using a multi-objective optimization method2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 85, 524-535 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid energy system including both off-site and distributed energy sources, energy conversion technologies and operation methods, is a necessary step on a transition path towards a sustainable energy system. The challenge is to identify such a combination of design options that result in minimum life cycle cost (LCC) and maximum exergy efficiency (EE) at each phase of the transition path. In this paper, a time-effective multi-objective optimization method based on genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed for the transition path problem. The proposed model makes use of a fitness function approach to reduce the model into one objective function and to reduce the computational time. In a case study, the model is applied to a potential net-zero exergy district (NZEXD) in Hangzhou, China. Here, three possible hybrid energy scenarios and three preference treatment strategies are analyzed. The study suggests that the proposed approach is workable for the identification of the most feasible options to be gradually integrated in an NZEXD in a multi-stage process. In the Hangzhou case, with the reduction of investments in distributed energy components and escalating market prices of fossil fuels, distributed energy system (DES) may have more feasibility in the near future.

  • 21.
    Lu, Hai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Low and Medium Grade Energy (Tianjin University), China.
    Yu, Zitao
    Alanne, Kari
    Xu, Xu
    Fan, Liwu
    Yu, Han
    Zhang, Liang
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Parametric analysis of energy quality management for district in China using multi-objective optimization approach2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, 636-646 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing energy demands and global warming, energy quality management (EQM) for districts has been getting importance over the last few decades. The evaluation of the optimum energy systems for specific districts is an essential part of EQM. This paper presents a deep analysis of the optimum energy systems for a district sited in China. A multi-objective optimization approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed for the analysis. The optimization process aims to search for the suitable 3E (minimum economic cost and environmental burden as well as maximum efficiency) energy systems. Here, life cycle CO2 equivalent (LCCO2), life cycle cost (LCC) and exergy efficiency (EE) are set as optimization objectives. Then, the optimum energy systems for the Chinese case are presented. The final work is to investigate the effects of different energy parameters. The results show the optimum energy systems might vary significantly depending on some parameters.

  • 22.
    Ma, Chenwen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Retrofitting a Single-family Home with Increased Use of Renewable Energy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for up to 40% of the total energy use in the world. Directives from the European Union have pointed out the significance of increasing the energy efficiency in buildings. New regulation in countries like Sweden has established that new buildings should fulfil regulations of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB), providing the opportunity for renewable energy technologies to achieve these goals. In this paper, the retrofitting potential of renewable energy technologies for a single-family home in Sweden was investigated.The present work studied the characteristics of several renewable energy technologies and their applications for a single-family home in Sweden, including biomass, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, heat pump, and small-scale wind turbine. Three renewable energy technologies (solar thermal, heat pump and small-scale wind turbine) and one renovation method (window) were selected to investigate. The analysis was made of the current energy use and the potential energy (and cost) savings from each retrofitting of these facilities by means of simulation models using IDA ICE software. The study results show that the proposed renewable energy technologies are technically feasible and economically viable as a source of alternative renewable energy in order to produce clean energy and reduce electricity bills for an electric-heated single-family home located in Sweden. Moreover, the combined retrofitting scheme consist of solar thermal system and window renovation was also proposed and explored. As a result the energy performance of the single-family home would satisfy the nearly-zero energy building requirements and thermal comfort could be maintained at an acceptable level.

  • 23.
    Macdonald, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
    Granroth, Marko
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Multidisciplinary AEC Education Utilising BIM / PLIM Tools and Processes2013In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 2013, 663-674 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry worldwide is moving towards more collaborative working practices, aided by building information modelling (BIM) tools and processes. BIM could be more accurately described as Project Lifecycle Information Management (PLIM). Many firms are claiming to be ‘doing BIM’, but are just scraping the surface in terms of the benefits that can be leveraged from true integrated, collaborative design and construction. New graduates, trained in collaboration and PLIM techniques will be the best people to drive positive change, but current educational models do not tend to provide these skills. This paper describes current worldwide educational trends in collaborative multidisciplinary education, and a proposed framework to assist academics in implementing changes to AEC curricula. 

  • 24.
    Maggiore, Pierpaolo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Energy retrofit of an office building in Stockholm: energy performance analysis of the cooling system2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing attention towards energy efficiency issues has triggered an important process involving the renovation of existing buildings and, at the same time, the creation of recognized certifications assuring the quality of the projects. In line with this trend, the Sweco headquarters, an office building characterized by 24700 m2 of floor area and located in Stockholm, was totally retrofitted in 2012 and obtained the Gold rating after being assessed with the Miljöbyggnad certification procedure. The HVAC system was a key element of the retrofit project since one of the final aims was to combine high indoor environment standards with efficient system performances. However, even if the quality of the design is certified, it is possible that, under real operating conditions, complex systems behave differently from the expectations and adjustments are necessary to correct the emerged gap. To achieve this goal, it is essential to identify the points of weakness of the system by carrying out an energy performance analysis, which is the core of this project. In fact, after providing an overview of the building and the retrofit, this work focuses on the analysis of the cooling system installed in the Sweco building and proves the importance of adopting a step-by-step approach to the problem. Therefore, an increasing level of detail characterizes each step of the analysis, whose final aim is to highlight potential aspects to be improved and create a baseline to test possible solutions.

  • 25.
    Magny, Alessandro Antoine Andrea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Optimization of Energy Systems for a Sustainable District in Stockholm Using Genetic Algorithms: The case of Albano2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimization tools using genetic algorithms (GAs) are being increasingly used for improving building performances and sustainability. However, few research studies focus on district-scale solutions. In the present project, a multi-objective optimization method using genetic algorithms was applied in order to help decision makers find the optimal energy mix of a district energy system in the preliminary design phase.

     

    A case study consisting of the new campus Albano in Stockholm (comprising lecture buildings and student residences) was used for the analysis. A wide range of energy systems was included as a design variable: wind turbines, solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells, ground-source heat pumps, biomass boilers, combined cooling, heating and power, district heating and district cooling. The energy provided by the chosen technologies and the district energy balances are simulated on an annual basis using a steady-state method with an hourly resolution.

     

    Three objectives functions were to be minimized: (1) the life-cycle costs; (2) the greenhouse gas emissions; and (3) the annual non-renewable primary energy consumption of the district. The optimization process was implemented on MOBO, a multi-objective optimization tool based on genetic algorithms.

     

    The findings include understanding the trade-offs among the three objectives and a selection of alternatives of energy supply systems to be further investigated in the detailed design phase.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Energirelevanta aspekter inom miljöklassificeringssystemen LEED och BREEAM2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna rapport är att granska skillnaden mellan energikategorierna i miljöcertifieringssystemen LEED och BREEAM. Eftersom amerikanska LEED bygger på det brittiska BREEAM finns det många aspekter som liknar varandra. BREEAM utgår ifrån de nationella standarderna i första hand. Om sådana inte finns är det de europeiska som används. Klassningen av byggnaden visar hur bra byggnaden är jämfört med de krav som finns nationellt. Dessa är i sin tur anpassade till förutsättningarna som finns i landet.

    LEED grundar sig istället på kraven som beskrivs utifrån den amerikanska standarden ASHRAE. Dessa krav är inte anpassade till svenska eller europeiska standarder vilket gör det svårt att jämföra rakt av. Detta innebär att kraven som ställs i ASHRAE och LEED är olika svåra att uppfylla då förutsättningarna i länderna är olika. Till exempel tillhör Sverige klimatzon 6, tillsammans med Chile, Ryssland, Kanada och de nordliga delarna i USA. Detta ger olika utgångspunkter för att klara kriterierna då de naturliga förutsättningarna skiljer sig i olika länder.

    För att bedöma om en byggnad är energieffektiv behövs någon typ av verktyg för att verifiera byggnaden. För svenska företag som vill visa att de är miljömedvetna och vill ha låga energikostnader behövs någon typ av märkning av byggnaden. Även utländska företag på svenska marknaden letar efter byggnader med bra energieffektivitet som har ett intyg på att byggnaden följer hårda miljö- och byggnationskrav. Det är då en stor fördel att använda stora internationella system som exempelvis LEED och BREEAM som intygar att byggnaden uppfyller de hårda kraven som finns i systemen. Det indikeras med olika certifieringsnivåer beroende på hur väl byggnaden uppfyller kraven.

    Dessa miljöcertifieringssystem används för att påvisa att byggnaden uppfyller höga krav, men även för att öka eller behålla värdet på byggnaden jämfört med andra likvärdiga byggnader som inte är certifierade. Detta är påtagligt för byggnader med hyresgäster som har som företagspolicy att hyra byggnader med en viss nivå av ett miljöcertifieringssystem eller bara är intresserade att hyra byggnader med låga energikostnader. Om byggnaden inte skulle vara certifierad minskar andelen potentiella hyresgäster och priserna pressas och byggnaden riskerar att stå outhyrd en tid vilket kostar stora summor i stora byggnader.

    Respektive systems energikategori anses viktigast i båda systemen och det är framförallt reduceringen av energianvändningen som spelar en avgörande roll, även användandet av förnyelsebar energi är en viktig del. Generellt i båda systemen sker liknande ställningstaganden i de flesta frågorna för att reducera byggnaders påverkan av miljön, genom olika förbättringsåtgärder. Sporren för att göra byggnaden bättre är att minska miljöpåverkan, sänka driftkostnaden, öka trivseln, förbättra driften och att uppnå en hög certifieringsnivå.

    Generellt fås en uppfattning av att BREEAM är enklare att använda än LEED, eftersom den utgår från kraven i BBR. Båda systemen räknar ut en procentuell förbättring eller anger att uppställda värden uppfyllts. Exempelvis räknas reduceringen av koldioxid och energieffektivisering ut procentuellt. I LEED ska även ASHRAE användas utöver BBR och beräknar energieffektivisering utifrån reducering av kostnaden i dollar jämfört med referensbyggnaden.

  • 27. Olivero, E.
    et al.
    Onillon, E.
    Beguery, P.
    Brunet, R.
    Marat, S.
    Azar, Marc
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    On key parameters influencing building energy performance2015In: 14th International Conference of IBPSA - Building Simulation 2015, BS 2015, Conference Proceedings, International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2015, 480-487 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the methodology used for selecting the most influential parameters on the energy performance of a building, using limited computing power. Detailed building energy performance models development and their manual calibration are depicted. Novel interfaces for the connection of a detailed building simulation software with advanced analytics are then presented. After a first screening of the parameters by domain experts, two techniques are deployed on the models to reduce the number of parameters to be considered in an automatic calibration process: boundaries check and Morris method. The methodology is applied on two non-residential buildings. Finally, the study results are presented, providing deep insight on the buildings energy performance and thus setting the basis for automatic model calibration and faults detection.

  • 28.
    Pdungsilp, Aumnad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Alessandro, Magny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Energy system and service optimization for building clusters of new urban development: Applying multi-objective genetic algorithmsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Pdungsilp, Aumnad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Ngo, Tuan
    University of Melbourne.
    A Framework for Integrated Energy Systems, Infrastructure, and Services Optimization with Visualization and Simulation Platform for Low-carbon Precincts2013In: Proceedings of the International Symposium for Next Generation Infrastructure, 1 - 3 October 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy informatics can be enhanced to support decision-making, communication and benchmarking of the energy performance both in design and operational phases. To enable engineers, developers and policy-makers to better understand the implications of energy systems and services, computer-generated visualization is a powerful tool to inform a range of technological options and to analyze the effects of energy system strategies. Visualization increases the transparency of results and the understanding of interactions between users and energy systems. This paper presents a novel conceptual framework for integrating energy systems, infrastructure and services optimization with a visualization and simulation platform. It focuses on the development of a tool for low-carbon energy systems and high quality energy services at precinct scale. The paper describes the vision and architectural design for the integrated framework. It is expected to serve as a next generation approach to managing energy services, carbon emissions and efficient resource use in the built environment. This will help to deliver new environmentally sustainable infrastructure and achieve carbon neutrality in urban development.

  • 30.
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Modeling urban energy flows at macro and district levels: towards a sustainable urban metabolism2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban sustainability is a growing importance in the built environment research. Urban areas play a key role in planning for sustainable city development. Urbanization has implications for future energy systems and energy-related emissions. The new built environment requires systems that are cost-efficient and have more efficient utilization of energy with a low environmental impact. This can be analyzed and designed with efficient tools for current and future energy systems. The objectives of this dissertation are to examine and analyze the metabolic flows of urban areas, and to develop a methodology for optimization of energy systems and services for the urban district. The dissertation is comprised of two phases and eight appended publications.

    In the first phase of this dissertation, the research is emphasized on an in-depth understanding of the complex dynamics of energy utilization in large urban areas. An integrated approach applied in this phase includes the energetic urban metabolism, the long-term energy systems modeling using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) system, and the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) approach. The urban metabolism approach has been employed to analyze the urban energy flows at macro level. The LEAP model and MCDM approach have been used to develop and evaluate energy scenarios in both demand and supply sides.

    In the second phase, the research recognizes the lack of tools that applicable for district energy systems analysis. This phase concentrates on the important role of the district level in urban energy systems. Research methods include the Multi-Objective Optimization using Genetic Algorithms, the carbon budget approach, and the case study method. Research in the second phase is mainly focused on the development of tool for energy systems and services at the district level.

  • 31.
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    A proposal of urban district carbon budgets for sustainable urban development projects2013In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 947-954 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and carbon emissions are key issues for policy-makers and research communities worldwide. Climate change mitigation poses many challenges for all levels of society. Energy-related carbon emissions in urban areas have received a great deal of attention. This paper builds on the principle that urban areas are major sources of emissions and play an important role in the carbon cycle. Urban development can serve as a cornerstone for achieving transition towards a sustainable city. This paper proposes and describes a framework for carbon budgets with a focus on urban district level. The urban district carbon budget is a mechanism for embedding long-term total emission restrictions into the urban economy. This paper proposes a proposal of urban district carbon budgets in an effort to provide the figure for emission allowances that can be emitted in a given amount of time. The paper presents a design framework of urban district carbon budgets and discusses the scope and scale of carbon budget allocation approaches. It also examines the emission reduction potential and co-benefits of the proposal.

  • 32.
    Phdungsilp, Aumnad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Martinac, Ivo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Distributed energy resource systems towards carbon-neutral urban development: A review and applicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Pálsson, Daði Snær
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Hybrid Ventilation: Simulation of Natural Airflow in a Hybrid Ventilation System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the possibilities of using hybrid ventilation in an office building in Stockholm. The focus is on simulating the natural airflow to find out for which conditions it is sufficient. The thesis is done at White Arkitekter AB in cooperation and under the supervision of environmental specialists working there. A literature study is carried out to study what has been done before in Sweden as well as in other countries. Computer simulations are used to simulate the airflow to examine the conditions and architecture. A synthetic computer model representing a realistic office building is built up as a starting point. The ventilation method for the natural ventilation part is to take air in through the fa\c{c}ade and use the stack effects in an atrium for natural ventilation. By altering the architecture and the sizes of the openings according to the results from the simulations the building is dimensioned and formed to cope with the rules and requirements about the indoor air quality in workplaces. The simulations are done with a multi zone energy performance simulation tool that can simulate airflows and indoor air climate conditions in the zones as well as the energy consumption. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are then used to more closely simulate the conditions within the zones. The results from those simulations suggest that the natural ventilation as a part of a hybrid ventilation works for all the floors of the building for up to 10$\,^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$. The computational fluid dynamics simulations showed that the thermal comfort of all the occupants is fulfilled for these conditions but there is a risk of occupants experiencing draught because of to high velocities in the air especially for the colder outdoor temperatures. For the higher outdoor temperatures the airflow needs to be enforced to ensure sufficient conditions for the occupants and for the colder temperatures mechanical ventilation is needed to decrease heat losses and avoid the risk of draught.

  • 34.
    Ren, Juan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    High-Performance Building Design and Decision-Making Support for Architects in the Early Design Phases2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the design decision making process from an architect’s point of view, a related literature review, theoretical analyses, and inductive inferences, this thesis proposes a new interpretation of high-performance building (HPB), translates/maps criteria issues related to building environmental assessment (BEA) tools for key design decision making elements, and identifies sources of inspiration for HPB designs. This thesis intends to propose an integrated conceptual model for the design of HPBs to provide direct knowledge-based decision making support to architects in the early design phase. Studies on key design decision making elements, sources of inspiration, and building information modeling are integrated into this genesis of conceptual design.

    The concept of the HPB proposed in this thesis emphasizes comprehensive sustainable building performance in environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects. The concept takes the view that HPBs should be aesthetically attractive, socio-culturally adapted, safe, healthy, and comfortable, and should operate at a high level of environmental, resource, and economic efficiency throughout their life cycle. This thesis discusses the topics of the necessity, benefits, and design principles of HPBs.

    An analysis of the characteristics of BEA tools and HPB design decision making revealed their relationship: the consequence of goals and the mismatch of practices. BEA tools provide the basic information (such as framework, content, evaluation methods, and processes) related to decision making to promote a holistic HPB design at a practical level. However, given the mismatch of practices between BEA tools and HPB design decision making, most such tools are still used for testing and verifying the design results and do not consider the design decision making process. Existing BEA tools primarily guide or indirectly affect the design work but, in practice, play a limited role in directly helping architects make early decisions regarding HPB design.

    First, for a detailed comparison, this thesis identified the common criteria issues for the three existing BEA tools: SBTool 2012 (maximum version), LEED NC-v3, and the Chinese Evaluation Standard for Green Building (ESGB). A total of 51 common/similar criteria issues were identified and such issues were found to be primarily allocated in the energy and resources, indoor environmental quality, environmental loads, and site areas. SBTool 2012 contains the widest range and most comprehensive criteria issues of building performance, whereas the LEED NC-v3 and ESGB frameworks poorly cover social- and economic-related issues. Second, this thesis separated the criteria into whether they relate to decision making factors or building performance factors. Third, this thesis mapped HPB criteria issues into HPB

    design decision making elements.

    This thesis establishes a framework for key design decision elements for Chinese residential buildings by selecting a residential building type in China as a case study for the mapping approach application. The optimum criteria issues for Chinese residential buildings contain 10 primary criteria issues and 35 sub-criteria issues that cover aspects within the entire sustainable performance range and that correspond to key design decision making elements in this framework.

    This thesis also proposes two fundamental support approaches to creative design for HPBs: rational technical support and irrational divergent inspirational support. Based on practical design examples, three major types of irrational sources of inspiration in an architect’s design for HPBs have been identified: previous empirics, nature objects and phenomena, and advanced science and technologies.

    Finally, a new integrated conceptual model to support an architect’s early design decisions is established based on the BIM platform. The model contains two main aspects of the work: an initial building information model and an optimal building information model for HPBs during the early design stage. This conceptual model is presented as a generic approach that can be customized for different designers and project conditions. The model can also be used as a framework for providing knowledge-based creative support for decision making related to HPB design.

    In summary, this thesis intends to provide both a theoretical base and feasible measures for better HPB design and references for developing design decision making support tools for architects to use during the early HPB design process.

  • 35.
    Ren, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Liu, Yu
    Northwestern Polytechnical University.
    Zheng, Gang
    Xi'an University of Science and Technology.
    Interpretation of Transparency in the Design of Green Office Buildings2013In: Civil, materials and environmental sciences, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2013, Vol. 742, 131-135 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green buildings have caught increasing attention in the global context. For green office building (GOB), the design should satisfy both the natural and working environmental considerations. Noticing that while a wide range of eco-technologies have been applied in existing GOBs, comparatively less than enough attentions have been put on the art performance of such buildings, this paper introduces and discusses how transparency, as an important visual language in modern architecture, can be used as a tool to bridge and emphasize the inseparable connection between art and technology in the architectural design area. The purpose of this paper is not only to explore and discuss new concepts regarding design of GOBs, but also to provide references for sustainable design in a larger perspective.

  • 36.
    Ren, Juan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Liu, Yu
    Northwestern Polytechnical University.
    Zheng, Gang
    Xi'an University of Science and Technology.
    The BIM-based Early Design Decision-making Support for Green Office Building2012In: Huazhong Architecture, ISSN 1003-739X, Vol. 12, 45-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a booming technological revolution that is anticipated to greatly increase the productivity of the building industry. As a shared building information resource, BIM can provide important support for design decision-making during the whole building life cycle. This paper selects office building as a research prototype, and proposes a BIM-based early design decision-making concept model for the design of green office buildings. The model proposes to combine building environmental assessment tools and BIM software in estimating the potential environmental performance of green office buildings at design stage. It is expected to be a new approach for providing architects with accurate, effective and fast design decision-making support with the purpose to effectively improve the green office building design.

  • 37.
    Sahraoui, Emir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. WSP.
    Dagsljusfaktorer vid Miljöcertifiering av Byggnader -En jämförelse mellan beräkningar och mätningar.: Daylight factors in the Environmental Certification of buildings-A comparison between Calculations and Measurements.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Sattari, Amir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Investigations of Flow Patterns in Ventilated Rooms Using Particle Image Velocimetry: Applications in a Scaled Room with Rapidly Varying Inflow and over a Wall-Mounted Radiator2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces and describes a new experimental setup for examining the effects of pulsating inflow to a ventilated enclosure. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that a pulsating inflow has potential to improve ventilation quality by reducing the stagnation zones through enhanced mixing. The experimental setup, which was a small-scale, two-dimensional (2D), water-filled room model, was successfully designed and manufactured to be able to capture two-dimensional velocity vectors of the entire field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Using in-house software, it was possible to conclude that for an increase in pulsation frequency or alternatively in the flow rate, the stagnation zones were reduced in size, the distribution of vortices became more homogeneous over the considered domain, and the number of vortices in all scales had increased. Considering the occupied region, the stagnation zones were moved away in a favorable direction from a mixing point of view. In addition, statistical analysis unveiled that in the far-field occupied region of the room model, stronger eddies were developed that we could expect to give rise to improved mixing. As a fundamental experimental study performed in a 2D, small-scale room model with water as operating fluid, we can logically conclude that the positive effect of enhanced mixing through increasing the flow rate could equally be accomplished through applying a pulsating inflow.

    In addition, this thesis introduces and describes an experimental setup for study of air flow over a wall-mounted radiator in a mockup of a real room, which has been successfully designed and manufactured. In this experimental study, the airflow over an electric radiator without forced convection, a common room-heating technique, was measured and visualized using the 2D PIV technique. Surface blackening due to particle deposition calls for monitoring in detail the local climate over a heating radiator. One mechanism causing particle deposition is turbophoresis, which occurs when the flow is turbulent. Because turbulence plays a role in particle deposition, it is important to identify where the laminar flow over radiator becomes turbulent. The results from several visualization techniques and PIV measurements indicated that for a room with typical radiator heating, the flow over the radiator became agitated after a dimensionless length, 5.0–6.25, based on the radiator thickness.

    Surface properties are among the influencing factors in particle deposition; therefore, the geometrical properties of different finishing techniques were investigated experimentally using a structured light 3D scanner that revealed differences in roughness among different surface finishing techniques. To investigate the resistance to airflow along the surface and the turbulence generated by the surfaces, we recorded the boundary layer flow over the surfaces in a special flow rig, which revealed that the types of surface finishing methods differed very little in their resistance and therefore their influence on the deposition velocity is probably small. 

  • 39.
    Sattari, Amir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Particle Image Velocimetry Visualization and measurement of Air Flow over a Wall-Mounter RadiatorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Sandberg, Mats
    PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY (PIV) VISUALIZATION OF AIR FLOW OVER A WALL-MOUNTED RADIATOR2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common room heating technique is to use a wall-mounted radiator without forced convection. The cold surrounding air passes adjacent to the warm surfaces of the radiator, gets heated, and the buoyancy difference gives this heated air a momentum to rise along the wall surface (as plume) and finally circulate and get mixed into the whole room. The properties of heated plumes are important for assessing the risk of soiling of the wall surfaces through particle deposition driven by thermophoresis and turbophoresis. It is important to identify where there is a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. With the objective to characterize the plume of heated air flow in the vicinity of wall surface, the airflow over the radiator is visualized and measured using the two-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (2D PIV) technique. The PIV technique yields two-dimensional vector fields of the flow. The resulted vector maps are size and peak validated and post processed using in house developed software to provide the average streamlines. In the near wall PIV measurements there are practical problems; generating a homogeneous global seeding that makes it possible to study both the plume and the surrounding entrainment region, and optical problems due to strong laser reflection from the wall surface which limits the investigation area. These issues are dealt with in the present study. In addition to visualization with PIV, visualization with a CMOS video camera was also conducted.

  • 41.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. KTH/HiG.
    Sandberg, Mats
    HiG.
    PIV Study of Ventilation Quality in Certain Occupied Regions of a Two-Dimensional Room Model with Rapidly Varying Flow Rates2013In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 12, no 2, 187-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of supply jet flows is the most common type of air distribution for general ventilation. Usually the supply flow rate is constant or slowly varying (VAV-systems) to cope with a varying load. A novel air distribution method, with the potential to reduce stagnation and to increase the ventilation efficiency, is to introduce rapid flow variations (pulsations). This paper reports on a fundamental study of this type of air distribution. The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of flow variations on stagnant zones and the levels of the turbulent kinetic energy and the relative turbulence intensity. A small scale room model is used that consists of an enclosure with a ventilation supply at the bottom and an extract at the top of the opposite wall. Water was used as an operating fluid and the model had a design which mainly generated a two-dimensional flow. The size of the model made it possible to investigate the two-dimensional velocity vector field using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method in regions corresponding to occupied regions. Further post processing was conducted from the resulting vector fields. The comparison between cases of constant inflow and pulsated inflow (flow variations with frequency of 0.5 Hz) was conducted for three domains: two belonging to the far-field occupied zone and one belonging to the near-field, downstream of the supply wall jet.            

  • 42.
    Sattari, Amir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Plaster finishes in historical buildings – Measurements of surface structure, roughness parameters and air flow characteristics2013In: Plaster finishes in historical buildings: Measurements of surface structure, roughness parameters and air flow characteristics / [ed] A. Troi, E. Lucchi, 2013, 69-75 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soiling of surfaces in historical buildings by deposition of particles is a common problem.  Minimizing soiling is an important goal for conservation of structures and objects. The surfaces give rise to an interference with the air motions along the surfaces. Properties of surfaces may therefore influence the particle deposition. It is well known that with increasing roughness of the surfaces the particle deposition rate increases. The properties of surfaces in historical buildings are not well documented.  We have investigated samples of surfaces finished by wood float finish, steel float finish and brushed finish. As a reference we have used an MDF board. The geometrical properties of the surfaces have been documented by using the stripe projection method. The resistance to airflow along the surface and the turbulence generated by the surfaces have been investigated by recording the boundary layer flow over the surfaces in a special flow rig. The work reported is part of a project where the process of soiling is studied both in laboratory and in field studies. The air velocity adjacent to the surfaces will be recorded with both PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and hot-wire technique. The temperature gradient close to the walls will be recorded with cold-wire technique.  

  • 43.
    Sattari, Ämir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems. Building Technology, Högskolan Dalarna (Dalarna University), Falun, Sweden.
    Particle image velocimetry visualization and measurement of airflow over a wall-mounted radiator2015In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 14, no 3, 289-302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common room-heating technique involves the use of a wall-mounted radiator without forced convection. The cold surrounding air passes adjacent to the warm surfaces of the radiator where it absorbs heat and gains momentum to rise along the wall surface and finally circulate in the entire room. Understanding the properties of heated airflows is important for several purposes. To understand the flow process it is important to identify where the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs and to quantify the turbulent fluctuations. With the objective to characterize the airflow in the vicinity of wall surfaces, the local climate over the radiator was visualized and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique. The PIV technique yields 2D vector fields of the flow. The resulting vector maps were properly validated and post-processed using in-house software to provide the average streamlines and other statistical information such as standard deviation, average velocity, and covariance of the entire vector field. The results show that, for a room with a typical heating power, the airflow over the radiator becomes agitated after an ordinate of N = 5 - 6.25 over the radiator upper level, in which N is the dimensionless length based on the thickness of the radiator. Practical problems encountered in near-wall PIV measurements include generating a homogeneous global seeding that makes it possible to study both plume and entraining region, as well as optical problems due to near-surface laser reflection that makes the measurement process more complicated.

  • 44.
    Stigeborn, Pontus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Projektering av Solceller: En studie av solcellsteknikens tillämpning i byggbranschen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for photovoltaic solar cells has grown in the building industry as the development of the technology continuously improve its efficiency as well as the manufacturing process resulting in better and cheaper material.

    High carbon dioxide emissions and the fact that the energy resources we depend on today are running out increase the demand on our society to find alternative sustainable solutions. Photovoltaic has a great potential to meet those demands as it enables each property owner to generate his own electricity using renewable energy resources. This does not only provide security for the property owner who can harvest energy from a practically unlimited energy source without any carbon dioxide emissions but also enables our society to move the source of energy production to cities and other areas closer to the user than how it traditionally is placed today. This potential gives rise to two important questions: how photovoltaic affect economics and how it contributes to the environment. For this solution to be attractive it will require to create good conditions with regards to both the economics and the ecological contribution.

    This project is a study about the application of photovoltaic solar cells in the building industry with focus on economy and the process. Two reference projects has been provided for this project, the residence building Norra 2 and the office building Torsplan, to form a result calculus for the two type buildings residential and office.

    The study is based on economic models such as lifecycle cost, internal rate of return, net present value, annuity, payback and Levelized cost of energy. An important part for economics in Sweden is to calculate how much of the produced energy that can be used directly in the building because of the price difference between the used energy and the surplus of energy that are being sent out on the grid. A comparison has therefore been made between profiles of energy usage and instantaneous energy production from the photovoltaic to approximate the viability of the investment. Laws and rules are also being taken into consideration as well as how photovoltaic can provide points in the environmental certification systems LEED, BREEAM, Miljöbyggnad, Svanen and GreenBuilding.

    The work results in a design proposal with photovoltaic solar cells on the reference projects Torsplan and Norra 2 which will be used to analyze the three fundamental questions of the assignment:

    • Does the energy usage in the building affect the optimal direction of the photovoltaic installation
    • How to valuate and find profitability for an investment in photovoltaic solar cells
    • Are solar cells a sustainable solution in today’s society
  • 45.
    Stolt, Fanny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Kv. Cirkusängen: Studie av installationsprojekteringen med fokus på byggnadens Energisignatur2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To fulfill the building codes of Boverket – The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and receive the environmental certificate from SGBC – Swedish Green Building Council there is an interest in energy consumption predictions and energy monitoring. The Swedish real estate company Humlegården has constructed a new headquarter for the banking business Swedbank: kv. Cirkusängen in Sundbyberg, Stockholm, Sweden and Humlegården has an interest in long-term energy management and optimization of the property´s energy system.

    This Master thesis investigates the static and dynamic energy calculations of kv. Cirkusängen focusing on the dynamical model in Indoor Climate and Energy simulation software IDA ICE. The purpose of the thesis is to define the Energy Signature of kv. Cirkusängen to be used as basis for the energy management.

    A building´s Energy Signature can be defined by measured energy consumption and/or by the dynamical model in IDA ICE and can be used for long-term measurement and energy analysis and real-time visualization of consumed energy. The IDA model of kv. Cirkusängen has been modified to investigate the impact of certain parameters on the energy consumption. The aim has been to optimize and create a representative IDA model and thereby create a well-defined Energy Signature. Furthermore, the aim of the thesis is to give a good understanding of how IDA ICE can be used to define the Energy Signature of kv. Cirkusängen.

  • 46.
    Surell, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Mätning och verifiering av energibalansen i ett flerbostadshus2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Residences and locales consume approximately one third of Sweden’s total energy use with almost 60% of that usage going toward heating and warm water. The EU Commissions, in conjunction with national goals and requirements, demand a lower energy use with the goal of decreasing environmental impact in all areas.

    In order to fulfill the requirements of Boverkets byggregler (Swedish Building Regulations, BBR), a building’s energy use should be verified within two years of its first use. According to their definition of energy use, however, only parts of the building’s total energy balance is taken into consideration, which is problematic since the parts not included in BBR’s requirements affect those parts that are.

    The goal of the thesis, therefore, has been to research which specific parameters should be measured and verified in an apartment building in order to attain good feedback regarding the building’s energy balance. Methods used have been literary studies on the subject as well as a case study on an apartment building. In said case study, a follow-up of year 2013’s energy use was made as well as a parameter study for the building. The parameter study was a qualitative sensitivity analysis of the input parameters used in the energy simulation model, which was the same model that had been used to calculate the building’s energy use.

    Using the results attained from the literature and case studies, measuring and verifying several specific parameters has been determined necessary in order to gain useful feedback regarding a building’s energy balance. In order to obtain the needed feedback, the following information is needed:

    • District heating system usage as well as measurement data with a distinction between sub-systems, i.e. ventilation and radiators, are needed.
    • Hot tap water usage.
    • The building’s property energy with a separate log for equipment using high energy.
    • Domestic energy with a separate log for the shared laundry facilities.
    • Operational energy, especially for equipment with a large heat load.
    • Indoor temperature measurement determined by meters that should be strategically installed in the building.
    • The heat recovery efficiency of the heat exchanger/heat pump.
    • Air-tightness of the building envelope.

    Representative climate data for a building’s local district is also needed in addition to the information mentioned above.  This data affects the energy simulation as well as the reference year correction. For example, a difference of seven percent was found in energy use for KV Kållandsö just by changing the climate file used in the simulation. This result proves that there is a need for recommended and detailed climate files used in energy simulations for different locations in Sweden.

    In summary, this thesis project has shown the importance of energy coordination as well as having clear energy contracts in order to fulfill the goals regarding indoor climate and energy use. These are important during the design, building, and the follow-up phases of the building’s energy use. An important task for the energy coordinator is to specify the necessary measurement points and to create a follow-up plan to verify the building’s energy balance. Without sufficient measurement data, there will be uncertainties regarding the building’s energy balance, not to mention that verifying an energy simulation and analyzing why there is a deviating energy use would be very difficult.

  • 47.
    Verma, Anurag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    The effect of an atrium and building orientation on the daylighting and cooling load of an office building.: An early stage study.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is an outcome of a collaborative work between the author and an architect. It aims to answer design questions that were posed in the early stages by the team of a student architect and the author himself relating to the daylighting performance of the building located in Stockholm, Sweden. Two design elements of interest that were to be evaluated were decided: the orientation of the building and the effect of introducing an atrium in the building. Annual daylighting performance simulations were carried out and these two design elements were parametrically varied to see the effect on the daylight distribution inside the building for the given architectural model. For the same design parameters, an energy model was created and simulated to see the effect of these design alteration on the cooling loads of the building. The importance of early stage collaboration between engineers and designers have also been discussed which sets the contextual scene of the thesis.

  • 48.
    Vrettos, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Utvärdering av inomhusklimat och produktivitet – från etablerad praxis till innovativa metoder2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As societies evolve, offices have become the places were the majority of working activities take place. Occupants’ comfort in office buildings has always been a very important issue in the building sector and therefore guidelines regarding indoor comfort standards have been developed throughout the years. Nevertheless, there is a need for investments on new and innovative ideas which will go beyond the existing guidelines and move towards a more sustainable and human oriented office environment.The present thesis aims at promoting this idea of sustainable offices by developing and presenting an innovative technological method which will provide the opportunity to measure the office workers’ perceived comfort in real time. This in its turn will enable the building sector stakeholders to operate office buildings in a more sustainable way in terms of building services provision to their occupants.In order to achieve these objectives, the first part of the thesis is dedicated in describing the basic indoor environmental components of the office environment as well as the possible associations between improved indoor environmental quality and occupants’ health, wellbeing and productivity. The second part aims to provide a detailed presentation of the existing or emerging methods which are currently used in order to predict or directly measure occupants’ perceived comfort in office places while in the same time discussing their current capabilities and limitations. In the final part, our proposed method, which could be used for the purposes of real time perceived comfort measurements, is presented. This proposed method includes four different steps which are separately presented with detailed instructions regarding their proper implementation.

  • 49.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Jansson, Anders
    A pin-on-disc simulation of airborne wear particles from disc brakes2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Wang, Cong
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Service and Energy Systems.
    Optimal Design of District Energy Systems: a Multi-Objective Approach2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to develop a holistic approach to the optimal design of energy systems for building clusters or districts. The emerging Albano university campus, which is planned to be a vivid example of sustainable urban development, is used as a case study through collaboration with the property owners, Akademiska Hus and Svenska Bostäder. The design addresses aspects of energy performance, environmental performance, economic performance, and exergy performance of the energy system. A multi-objective optimization approach is applied to minimize objectives such as non-renewable primary energy consumptions, the greenhouse gas emissions, the life cycle cost, and the net exergy deficit. These objectives reflect both practical requirements and research interest. The optimization results are presented in the form of Pareto fronts, through which decision-makers can understand the options and limitations more clearly and ultimately make better and more informed decisions. Sensitivity analyses show that solutions could be sensitive to certain system parameters. To overcome this, a robust design optimization method is also developed and employed to find robust optimal solutions, which are less sensitive to the variation of system parameters. The influence of different preferences for objectives on the selection of optimal solutions is examined. Energy components of the selected solutions under different preference scenarios are analyzed, which illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of certain energy conversion technologies in the pursuit of various objectives. As optimal solutions depend on the system parameters, a parametric analysis is also conducted to investigate how the composition of optimal solutions varies to the changes of certain parameters. In virtue of the Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM), the planned buildings on the Albano campus are further compared to the existing buildings on KTH campus, based on energy and exergy analysis. Four proposed alternative energy supply scenarios as well as the present case are analyzed. REMM shows that the proposed scenarios have better levels of match between supply and demand of exergy and result in lower avoidable CO2 emissions, which promise cleaner energy structures.

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