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  • 1.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The theory practice gap in regional (transport) planning2016In: RSA Annual Conference Graz 2016, Regional Studies Association , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Observing dynamic behavioural responses due to the extension of a tram line by using panel survey2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 86, 78-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a four-wave panel survey of individuals' trips and psychological attributes collected among residents along a new tram line extension in the city of Stockholm, Sweden, this study aims to investigate factors that determine the individuals' learning and decision-making processes in using a new transport option. This includes investigating which group of travellers have used the new tram extension earlier than others, and integrated the tram extension as a part of their daily travel patterns. This paper also describes the design and construction of the four-wave panel data collection, which was collected from two weeks before and up to seven months after the opening of the new option. Descriptive analysis shows that within a seven-month period, 79% of the respondents tried the new tram extension but only 14.9% of them adopted the new option as their daily travel mode. During the observed period, about 49.3% of the respondents migrated between travel modes for non-discretionary trips. Further multivariate analysis shows that middle-income travellers and travellers who owned car(s) used the new tram extension earlier than others. The effect of past experience on the current use of the tram extension on a day-to-day basis was also examined by using a mixed logit model with panel data. The purpose of the model is to examine whether individuals' daily experiences with the new tram extension that result from repeated previous choices would affect their decisions to maintain using the new option in subsequent waves.

  • 3.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Aronsson, Martin
    Disaggregation in Bundle Methods: Application to the Train Timetabling Problem2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bundle methods are often used to solve dual problems that arise from Lagrangian relaxations of large scale optimization problems. An example of such problems is the train timetabling problem. This paper focuses on solving a dual problem that arises from Lagrangian relaxation of a train timetabling optimization program. The dual problem is solved using bundle methods. We formulate and compare the performances of two different bundle methods: the aggregate method, which is a standard method, and a new, disaggregate, method which is proposed here. The two methods were tested on realistic train timetabling scenarios from the Iron Ore railway line. The numerical results show that the new disaggregate approach generally yields faster convergence than the standard aggregate approach.

  • 4.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

  • 5. Almroth, Andreas
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Canella, Olivier
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to more precisely represent the consequences of congestion mitigation policies in urban transport systems calls for replacement of the static equilibrium assignment by DTA in the integrated travel demand and traffic assignment models. Despite of the availability of DTA models and despite of the conceptual clarity of how such integration should take place, only few operational model systems have been developed for large-scale applications. We report on replacement of the static traffic assignment by two different DTAs in the four stage demand model for the Greater Stockholm region: the macroscopic analytic Visum DUE and microscopic simulation Transmodeler. First results show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal striking difference between using macroscopic and microscopic assignment package. However, given the clear trend to microscopic modeling and simulation on the travel demand side, the use of micro-simulation-based DTA package appears more natural from system integration perspective.

  • 6. Al-Mudhaffar, Azhar
    et al.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Bång, Karl-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Bus stop and bus terminal capacity2016In: TRANSPORT RESEARCH ARENA TRA2016, Elsevier, 2016, 1762-1771 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm is growing fast leading to an increased demand for public transport services and facilities. This has subsequently led to challenges to provide suitable bus terminals. The Municipalities are keen to provide good public transport but have difficulties providing the needed space. There is also a lack of knowledge in this problem area. A comprehensive study is therefore undertaken including literature review, field studies and modeling of the capacity of different types of bus stops and bus terminals. In order to understand and evaluate the capacity of the bus terminals, the starting point is the capacity of loading areas for which there is presently no approved Swedish methodology. A model of capacity based on bus dwell time described by HCM2000 has therefore been used. This model does not consider the bus arrival distribution; therefore it has been applied with a correction factor to better reflect conditions in large cities. Results from performed trials show that this correction factor is reduced at higher dwell time. The calculation of loading areas capacity is the basis for the calculation of bus stop capacity in bus terminals. However, terminal factors such as scheduling and design of the terminals must be taken into account. The procedure for estimating the maximum number of bus departures is also handled in the study. In the long term deeper analysis will be required, e.g. the need for safety zone behind the reversing buses and the demand for dedicated places for layover parking. Socio-economic analyzes of congestion and longer detours because of the increasingly smaller bus terminals should also be raised in these discussions.

  • 7. Ames, Alicia
    et al.
    Mateo-Babiano, Iderlina B.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Transport Workers' Perspective on Indigenous Transport and Climate Change Adaptation2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, no 2451, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential role of indigenous transport for increasing the adaptive capacity of selected cities in developing Asia. Indigenous transport drivers were surveyed face-to-face in Bandung, Indonesia, and in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to gain an understanding of how transport workers, specifically drivers-operators, characterize transport modes considered as indigenous and perceive their potential role in increasing the adaptive capacity of these cities. The main finding was that indigenous transport modes in the two cities in the case study had evolved to fit a niche market influenced by differing urban scales and divergent demographic and geographic characteristics. Thus, the experiences and the perceptions of transport workers on indigenous transport were highly contextualized in relation to service and route characteristics. Operating conditions for drivers were indicative of the regulatory status of indigenous transport modes in the informal landscape. This analysis contributes to an increased understanding of the role and the operation of indigenous transport modes within the transport system. The analysis also contributes policy-relevant insights to improve an understanding of the potential role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation, as well as to increase awareness and to anticipate a shift to a more environmentally sustainable transport mode.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Bustad, Tohmmy
    Trafikverket.
    Henrik, Tengstrand
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Green Train: concept and technology overview2014In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, 2-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green Train (in Swedish, Gröna Tåget) is a research, development and demonstrationprogramme with the overall objective to define an economical, flexible and environmentallyfriendly train concept. The objective is also to develop technology for futurehigh-speed trains for the northern European market, particularly for Scandinavia. Mostof the technology developed is also applicable to other world markets, as well as toslower trains. The programme has covered many important areas, including economy,capacity and market aspects, conceptual design, traveller attractiveness and interiors,travel time, energy efficiency and noise, winter performance, track friendliness and carbody tilt, aerodynamics, electric propulsion and current collection. The programme hasconducted fundamental analysis and research on the different issues as well as designand testing of new technologies. A number of crucial technologies have undergoneperformance and type testing both in lab and on a test train. Experience feedback wasachieved in commercial train service during the period 2006−2013 including harshwinters. This paper summarises a great deal of research and development that has beenperformed in the Green Train programme.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Parking Policy under Strategic InteractionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I  examine   the   effect   on   parking   policy   of   strategic   interaction   between jurisdictions. To do this I use an inventory scheme and an analytical model basedon Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supplyhas a downward effect on prices, that resource flow competition implies that thecompetitive prices are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of thesupply procedures makes this effect incongruous), that road investments lowersparking prices and that municipality’ park-and-ride policies often leads to the fullbenefits of public transport investments not being attained.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Policy Analysis for Different Types of Decision-Making Situations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to contribute to decision support for policy makers in the transport sector. In order to frame the papers and to relate them to the broad field of “policy analysis”, I have structured the papers around a simple framework with three decision levels: responsibility, policy gap, and policy measure. The thesis contains five papers.

    “Transaction and transition costs during the deregulation of the Swedish Railway market” is a paper in the transaction cost school. We studied the costs associated with the shift from monopoly to competition in the Swedish railway market, and we found that the change resulted in comparatively small transaction costs, but that transition and misalignment costs seem to be larger. 

    In “Parking policy under strategic interaction”, I examined the effect of strategic interaction between jurisdictions using an analytical model based on Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supply in most municipalities has a strong downward effect on municipal parking fees and that resource flow competition implies that the fees are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of the supply procedures makes this effect incongruous).

    In “Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport”, we followed up the Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 and tried to explain the deviations. We found that the forecasts during the last decades have overestimated car traffic, and that this is due to input errors. The potential problem of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes seems to have been limited.

    In “The kilometer tax and Swedish industry - effects on sectors and regions”, we estimated factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry and used these to analyze the effects of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles. We found that the kilometer tax leads to factor substitution in that it decreases transport demand and increases labor demand. The effects on output are less pronounced.  

    In “The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock”, we used a model of the rental, asset, and construction markets. We quality-assured our assumptions and our results through interviews with market actors. In our example suburb, we found that parking norms reduced the housing stock by 1.2% and increased rents by 2.4%. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, 101-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

  • 12.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, 113-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

  • 13.
    Aslam, Amer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Vuxna nybörjarcyklisters cykelanvändning efter genomförd cykelkurs: En explorativ studie om effekten av utbildning på cykelanvändning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

       

       

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       

        !

  • 14. Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, 195-205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 15.
    Bastian, Anne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car in Sweden?2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors in explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. 

     

    This thesis shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

     

    Swedish National Travel Survey data from 1978 to 2011 reveals that reductions in per adult driving mainly occurred among urban men. Urban men of all income groups reduced their driving for both commuting and non-commuting trips in conjunction with rising gasoline prices, which may have contributed to this development. We find that driving among those socio-demographic groups, who have better opportunities to reduce their driving, and driving for discretionary rather than commute purposes is being reduced over time. Sweden is ranked among the most gender-equal countries in the world; yet we find a substantial remaining gender gap in the share of adults driving a car on an average day, even when controlling for other socio-economic differences.

     

  • 16.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Börjesson, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, 386-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car? Drivers of  the recent decline in Swedish car use2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use.  This paper shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 18.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, Vol. 42, 94-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 19.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, 236-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 20.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Maria, Börjesson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car for urban Swedish men?2014In: Proceedings of Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART),September 10, 2014 – September 12, 2014, Leeds, UK, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study long-term trends in regional car travel demand within and across socio-demographic groups in Sweden, using cross-sectional data from National Travel Surveys, spanning the period from 1978 to 2011. We find that the reduction in per-adult driving in Sweden mainly occurs among urban men. Urban men of all income groups reduced their driving for both commuting and non-commuting trips in conjunction with rising gasoline prices, which may have contributed to this development. We find that driving among those socio-demographic groups, who have better opportunities to reduce their driving, and driving for discretionary rather than commute purposes is being reduced over time. Sweden is ranked among the most gender-equal countries in the world; yet we find a substantial remaining gender gap in the share of adults driving a car on an average day, even when controlling for other socio-economic differences.

     

  • 21.
    Belaieff, Vera
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Uttran station: En studie om hur en ny pendeltågsstation påverkar resenärerna och restiden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling is a big part of people’s everyday life. In the urban area of Stockholm, the public transport of mostly busses and various types of trains are popular and the traffic is driven by AB Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, SL. The choice between SL and other traveling types is determining by factors such as available stations and reasonable traveling time.

    SL has a method to analyse the generalised travel cost called KRESU. In this thesis, the KRESU-method and methods to analyse the availability are used and applied on the area Uttran. Uttran is located between Stockholm and Södertälje and the rail where the commuter trains passes extends right through the area. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects on the availability and travelling times from the area of Uttran to Stockholm and Södertälje.

    The result includes the impact of the traveling time in the different directions and also how many passengers that are affected. The conclusion involves a discussion of the result and submit suggestions for further studies.

  • 22. Bergh, Torsten
    et al.
    Nordqvist, Karin
    Stromgren, Per
    Davidsson, Fredrik
    Bång, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Capacity issues in Sweden - applications and research2016In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENHANCING HIGHWAY PERFORMANCE (ISEHP), (7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FREEWAY AND TOLLWAY OPERATIONS), Elsevier, 2016, 36-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the Swedish trunk road system and present objectives, guidelines concerning capacity and level of service Procedures to assess these issues in the feasibility and design procedure are also described. An important goal in Sweden is investments and speed limit changes over a 10 year time scale to decrease the C02-exposure. The long term speed limit overview with the objective to require median barriers at speed limits over 80 kph with results so far is presented. By now over 50 % of the former traffic load over 80 kph is decreased to 80 kph. Some 2,700 km have been retrofitted to 2+1 median barrier roads with speed limit mainly 100 kph. An overview is also given of the updated Swedish Highway Capacity Manual with new chapters especially on jam densities, entry lanes, weaving areas and traffic signals. Some interesting research projects are also briefly covered. These are 2+1 median barrier roads, capacities at motorway work zones, speed harmonisation with variable speed limits on motorways to increase capacity, ramp metering and Drive Me (autonomous driving full scale tests).

  • 23.
    Berglund, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Canella, Olivier
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Integration of dynamic traffic assignment with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Habibi, Shiva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Sundbergh, P.
    Evaluation of the Swedish car fleet model using recent applications2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, 30-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of the car fleet with respect to age, fuel consumption and fuel types plays an important role on environmental effects, oil dependency and energy consumption. In Sweden, a number of different policies have been implemented to support CO2 emission reductions. In order to evaluate effects of different policies, a model for the evolution of the Swedish car fleet was developed in 2006. The model has been used in a number of projects since then, and it is now possible to compare forecasts with actual outcomes. Such evidence is relatively rare, and we think it may be useful to share our experience in this respect.We give a brief overview of the Swedish car fleet model system. Then we describe policies that have been implemented in recent years and the evolution of the Swedish car fleet. We then focus on two projects which enable comparison with actual outcomes, and analyse the differences between forecasts and outcomes. We find that the model has weaknesses in catching car buyers' preferences of new technology. When this is not challenged too much, the model can forecast reasonably well on an aggregate level. We also find that the model is quite sensitive to assumptions on future supply. This is not so much related to the model, but to its use. Depending on the use of the forecasts - be it car sales, emissions or fuel demand - it may be necessary to use different supply scenarios to get an idea of the robustness of the forecast result.

  • 25.
    Blanco Munuera, Luis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Maritime freight transportation and the impact of regulatory changes: A comparison between Spain and Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime freight is a sector of high importance in the field of international trade. During the last decades, maritime freight transportation has been growing progressively, nowa- days,  in order to transport large quantities of materials and save  great distances,  it is     the most used transport system.   The maritime freight transport involves  a large num-   ber of companies, which generates a greater number of jobs and acquires an additional importance for the economy and trade of the country. However, in order to maritime transportation to be in optimal conditions, it must be accompanied by a network of infrastructures and strategic points that allow different companies to carry out their func- tions.

    Nowadays, large quantities of goods are transported through the sea, this is why a regulatory framework is needed to control the various limitations and restrictions that must be imposed at sea. The organization in charge of this work is the so-called SOLAS (Safety of Life At Sea), which is part of the United  Nations  department.  This  organi- zation is responsible, as mentioned above, for safety at sea for ships and goods, it acts according to the current situation and responding to different disasters. As a result of certain accidents, whether navigation or breakage, the last law that has implemented is known  as  Verified  Gross  Mass (VGM).

    This thesis is divided into two parts, the first one analyses the importance of maritime transport for the countries of  Spain  and  Sweden. It  will  show  the  repercussion  it has on the country and its different connections to transport the goods through the country, as well as future trends to move these goods for each country as well. To conclude this part, a comparison will be made between both countries. Secondly, a study will be car- ried out on the effect of the law that was implemented dated back on 1 July 2016, the so-called Verified Gross Mass. A study is carried out in order to assess the challenges and opportunities generated by this law for the different stakeholders involved in maritime transport and how they have been acting in the countries of Spain and Sweden. Hence, fi- nal conclusions can be obtained regarding the conduct of each stakeholder in each country.

    Finally, the importance of road transport as the large transport system will be high- lighted in combination with the maritime transportation in both countries. On the other hand, regulatory changes will make a cooperation between stakeholders in order to reduce the  impact  in  their activity.

  • 26.
    Broman, Emanuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Market dynamics in on-rail competition2017In: 19th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT2016 / [ed] Celikoglu, HB Lav, AH Silgu, MA, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 22, 232-244 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-rail competition is perhaps the most far-reaching form of deregulation of the railways, giving travellers several options on a single line. It aims to lower fairs and raise quality of service, thereby boosting demand and social welfare. Concerns have been raised, however, regarding if effective competition is possible on such a market, allowing two or more operators to be profitable and eliminating through incentives or regulation the purchase by one operator of the others' access rights, thus restoring monopoly. In addition, the effect of competition on total welfare is unclear. The issue of how to regulate the market and conduct capacity allocation in order to maximise welfare is also as yet unanswered. Addressing these issues, the present paper studies a duopoly market through simulations. It builds on the hypothesis that competition occurs between trains with close departure times. Results indicate that total welfare increases significantly when going from profit-maximising monopoly to competition, as consumers make large gains while operators' profits fall. The way the regulator allocates departure slots has significant importance for market outcomes, including prices, frequencies and total welfare. In particular, it is possible to improve welfare by regulating the succession of departures. If trading in access rights is allowed, a would-be monopolist has incentives to buy its competitors' slots for a price they would accept. A monopolist that uses high frequency of departures as a deterrence strategy against competition increases frequency a lot compared to the profit-maximising level.

  • 27.
    Bång, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Wahlstedt, Johan
    Linse, Leif
    Methodology for Timing and Impact Analysis of Signalized Intersections2016In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENHANCING HIGHWAY PERFORMANCE (ISEHP), (7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FREEWAY AND TOLLWAY OPERATIONS), Elsevier, 2016, 75-86 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Swedish capacity manual has been developed based on a major research project called METKAP. This paper is focused on the deterministic methods for calculation of signal timing and traffic performance measures for isolated, fixed time signalized intersections documented in the new manual (STA 2013a) and applied in the CAPCAL 4 software (Linse 2013). The use of the methods is mandatory in projects for the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). Special focus has been devoted to the following issues: 1) Modelling of saturation flow for opposed lanes. 2) Impact of short approach and exit lanes. 3) Iterative signal timing process based on critical conflict identification, intergreen and minimum green times. The deterministic methods can also be applied for selection of maximum green time for VA-controlled intersections, and as planning tool for analysis of the traffic performance alternative intersection types, designs. They can also be used to identify "bottleneck intersections" and for determination of minimum cycle time and required green time ratios for coordinated traffic signal systems. Micro simulation can be used as an alternative method, e.g. to model complex, signal control strategies and active priority of public transport vehicles. Need for simulation also arises if adjacent traffic facilities influence the studied system, and for animation purposes. However, micro simulation has important short-comings compared to deterministic methods. Simulation models require validated and detailed input data, e.g. regarding vehicle characteristics, arrival distribution, route choice and driver behavior. It is also difficult to estimate saturation flow, capacity and volume-to-capacity ratio since the simulated queue discharge is normally based on car-following models. Determination of optimal intersection design and signal timing requires a very large number of simulation runs and is therefore very time consuming and costly.

  • 28.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ministern har fel om infrastrukturen: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Finanspolitiska rådet, 2015.: Svensk finanspolitik. Underlagsrapport2015Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 33.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Tågens höghastighetsbanor en dålig affär för samhället: DN debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-01Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kågesson, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ett gigantiskt projekt med oklart syfte: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-04Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Odeck, James
    Welde, Morten
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, 15-24 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 36.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment2015In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 14, 48-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain-loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways by respondents. This may be of particular relevance for choice experiments in the transportation field, where the travel time attribute is central.

  • 37.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hamilton, Carl J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Papaix, Claire
    Factors driving public support for road congestion reduction policies: Congestion charging, free public transport and more roads in Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 78, 452-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an across-the-board survey conducted among residents of Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, we explore the opinions on three policy measures to combat road congestion: congestion charging, free public transport and building more roads. The support for the two latter policies is substantially higher than the support for congestion charging, which is only supported by a majority in Stockholm. Self-interest is important for the formation of the opinion to all three policies. However, fundamental values and general political views, indicated by four attitudinal factors, are even more important in forming opinions towards the three transport policies. Of all attitudinal factors, the one indicating environmental concern most influences the support for all policies. Equity concerns, however, increase the support for free public transport and opposition to taxation increases the support for building more roads. Our results further suggest that the opinions towards free public transport and building more roads can be mapped along the left right political axis, where Environment and Equity are to the left and Pricing and Taxation are to the right. However, the opinion towards congestion charging cuts right through the political spectrum. The impact of the fundamental values and self-interest variables are similar for Stockholm and Helsinki, indicating that even if experience increases the overall support for charging, it does not change the relative strength of different political arguments to any major extent.

  • 38.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Harry, Flam
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Jan-Eric, Nilsson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. VTI.
    Infrastrukturbeslut måste grundas på samhällsekonomiska kalkyler: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-02-17Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Harry, Flam
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Nästan alla stora byggen av järnvägar är olönsamma: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no Jan 28, 2016Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Almstrom, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System analysis and economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Land-use impacts in transport appraisal2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, Vol. 47, 82-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) does not take into account induced demand due to relocation triggered by infrastructure investments. Using an integrated transport and land-use model calibrated for the Stockholm region, we explore whether this has any significant impact on the CBA outcome, and in particular on the relative ranking of rail and road investments. Our results indicate that induced demand has a larger impact on the benefit of rail investments than on the benefit of road investments. The effect on the relative ranking is still limited for two reasons. First, the number of houses that are built over 20 30 years is limited in comparison to the size of the existing housing stock. Second, the location of most of the new houses is not affected by any single infrastructure investment, since the latter has a marginal effect on total accessibility in a city with a mature transport system. A second aim of this paper is to investigate the robustness of the relative CBA ranking of rail and road investments, with respect to the planning policy in the region 25 years ahead. While the results suggest that this ranking is surprisingly robust, there is a tendency that the net benefit of rail investments is more sensitive to the future planning policy than road investments. Our results also underscore that the future land-use planning in the region in general has a considerably stronger impact on accessibility and car use than individual road or rail investments have.

  • 41.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kristofferesson, Ida
    Sweco.
    The gothenburg congestion charge. Effects, design and politics2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 75, 134-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that many effects and adaptation strategies are similar to those found in Stockholm, indicating a high transferability between smaller and larger cities with substantial differences in public transport use. However, there are also important differences regarding some of the effects, the accuracy of the model forecasts and public support arising from different topologies, public transport use, congestion levels and main objectives communicated to the public. Finally, the Gothenburg case suggests that whether congestion charges are introduced or not depends on the support among the political parties, and that this is determined primarily by the prevailing institutional setting and power over revenues, and to a lower extent by the public support, and benefits from congestion reduction.

  • 42.
    Casanueva, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Krishna, Visakh V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jönsson, R.
    NTnet AB, Malmö, Sweden .
    Nelldal, Bo Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Payload optimization of articulated wagons considering train length and vehicle dynamic behaviour2016In: Civil-Comp Proceedings, ISSN 1759-3433, Vol. 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Capacity4Rail EU project aims are improving the competitiveness and reliability of rail freight in order to make it more attractive for modern, more sophisticated market requirements. The work described in this paper, focuses on novel vehicle designs that can account for a higher payload per meter, both from the payload optimization and the vehicle dynamic response point of view. We analyze an articulated spine wagon composed of five car bodies and six bogies, of which four of them are shared between two car bodies. In the work package, there has been an effort to look into the implications of these very long wagons in all aspects of freight operation, and this paper focuses on two of these aspects: the gain in payload by using different configurations, and the analysis of the dynamic response of the running gear. The conclusion is that, from vehicle performance point of view, it is worth exploring the possibility of increasing payload by slightly reducing the dynamic behavior of the system, as the twelve-axle vehicle is much more flexible when it comes to modern multimodal transportation. © Civil-Comp Press, 2016.

  • 43.
    Castellano Cantó, Lorenzo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ladaria Escolano, Enrique
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Technical analysis of the transportation and management of waste system within the Stockholm-Mälaren Region, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

     

      

       

        

      

         

  • 44.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    An Agent-Based Approach for Modeling Real-Time Travel Information in Transit Systems2014In: 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AMBIENT SYSTEMS, NETWORKS AND TECHNOLOGIES (ANT-2014), THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (SEIT-2014), 2014, Vol. 32, 744-749 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time travel information (RTI) systems are rapidly developed and deployed worldwide using the abundance of instantaneous data and dissemination means. This paper presents a framework for a multi-agent simulation model that emulates the generation and dissemination of RTI. The evolution of transit reliability influences both the performance of RTI generation schemes and the potential benefits that such information could yield. An iterative within-day network loading and a day-to-day learning process represent both service provider and service user ability to apply and adapt their strategies based on past performance and predictions. A case study illustrates model capabilities by applying BusMezzo, an agent-based simulation model of vehicles and travellers. The proposed model facilitates the analysis of alternative prediction schemes as well as the impact of their provision on system performance. 

  • 45.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Real-Time Predictions for Light Rail Train Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport operations are subject to inherent uncertainty. Instantaneous vehicle positioning data facilitates the development of prediction schemes that could improve the accuracy and reliability of real-time information (RTI). There is lack of research on RTI for Light rail train (LRT) systems. LRT are characterized by driving regimes that depend on rolling stock and infrastructure specifications. This paper develops and tests two prediction schemes for rail-bound systems which are based on constructing link-specific speed profiles. The prediction schemes are applied for a LRT line in Bergen, Norway. The performance of the currently deployed scheme and alternative schemes is compared using 6 months empirical vehicle positioning data. The results indicate that the proposed methods improve the reliability of the prediction scheme and increase the share of errors smaller than 1 minute to 89%, up to par with metro systems. 

  • 46.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The robustness value of public transport development plans2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 51, 236-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in transport are increasingly motivated by the need to improve its robustness the capacity to absorb disturbances with a minimal impact on system performance. Nonetheless, there is lack of knowledge on how to assess and quantify the robustness value of new investments. This study investigates the robustness of alternative public transport networks by assessing the consequences of link failures on network performance. A full-scan disruption impact analysis is performed and its implications on passenger's group composition and travel time losses are analysed for a public transport development plan in Stockholm, Sweden. The results suggest that as a result of the development plan, the robustness of the case study network will improve in terms of average performance deterioration as well as worst case scenario for all performance indicators. Neglecting abnormal operations in project appraisal can potentially lead to the underestimation of its benefits. Moreover, the critical links in each network are identified and impact disparity is investigated. The analysis method presented in this study can support the consideration of development plan impacts on network robustness in the strategic planning process. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Delft University, Netherlands.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden Identifying Priority Areas2015In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2538, 86-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and analysing satisfaction with public transport services facilitates service performance monitoring, market analysis, benchmarking and the identification of priority areas. The systematic and regular collection of information concerning satisfaction enables to investigate how passengers’ satisfaction as well as its determinants changes over time. These changes may be driven by changes in service quality or shifts in passengers’ expectations and preferences. This study analyses how satisfaction with public transport and its determinants evolved over time in Sweden in the years 2001-2013. The determinants of satisfaction are identified based on a factor analysis and the estimation of multivariate satisfaction models. The superposition of our findings culminates in a dynamic passenger satisfaction priority map which allows identifying priority areas based on observed trends in satisfaction with service attributes and their respective importance. The deterioration of overall satisfaction with public transport in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time. These two service aspects as well as operation were found key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory. The results of this study are instrumental in supporting service providers in designing measures that will foster satisfaction in the future.

  • 48.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Gkioulou, Zafeira
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Modelling the Impacts of Public Transport Reliability and Travel Information on Passengers’ Waiting Time Uncertainty2017In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport systems are subject to uncertainties related to traffic dynamic, operations, and passenger demand. Passenger waiting time is thus a random variable subject to day-to-day variations and the interaction between vehicle and passenger stochastic arrival processes. While the provision of real-time information could potentially reduce travel uncertainty, its impacts depend on the underlying service reliability, the performance of the prognosis scheme, and its perceived credibility. This paper presents a modeling framework for analyzing passengers’ learning process and adaptation with respect to waiting-time uncertainty and travel information. The model consists of a within-day network loading procedure and a day-to-day learning process, which are implemented in an agent-based simulation model. Each loop of within-day dynamics assigns travelers to paths by simulating the progress of individual travelers and vehicles as well as the generation and dissemination of travel information. The day-to-day learning model updates the accumulated memory of each traveler and updates consequently the credibility attributed to each information source based on the experienced waiting time. A case study in Stockholm demonstrates model capabilities and emphasizes the importance of behavioral adaptation when evaluating alternative measures which aim to improve service reliability.

  • 49.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Hartl, M.
    Modelling public transport on-board congestion: comparing schedule-based and agent-based assignment approaches and their implications2016In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 6, 1209-1224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems are subject to congestion that influences system performance and level of service. The evaluation of measures to relieve congestion requires models that can capture their network effects and passengers' adaptation. In particular, on-board congestion leads to an increase of crowding discomfort and denied boarding and a decrease in service reliability. This study performs a systematic comparison of alternative approaches to modelling on-board congestion in transit networks. In particular, the congestion-related functionalities of a schedule-based model and an agent-based transit assignment model are investigated, by comparing VISUM and BusMezzo, respectively. The theoretical background, modelling principles and implementation details of the alternative models are examined and demonstrated by testing various operational scenarios for an example network. The results suggest that differences in modelling passenger arrival process, choice-set generation and route choice model yield systematically different passenger loads. The schedule-based model is insensitive to a uniform increase in demand or decrease in capacity when caused by either vehicle capacity or service frequency reduction. In contrast, nominal travel times increase in the agent-based model as demand increases or capacity decreases. The marginal increase in travel time increases as the network becomes more saturated. Whilst none of the existing models capture the full range of congestion effects and related behavioural responses, existing models can support different planning decisions.

  • 50.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between the extent of capacity reduction at the line level and its consequences on societal costs by performing a full network scan. This analysis framework is applied to planned temporary disruptions in the rapid public transport network in Stockholm, Sweden. Our results indicate that the network is highly vulnerable since it is characterized by greater negative impacts in a disproportional relation to the increase in the original capacity reduction. The non-linear properties of network effects and route choice result in non-trivial relation which carry implications on disruption management the deployment of mitigation measures.

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