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  • 1.
    Berg Villner, Lena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History of Architecture.
    "I cannot copy Gorbusier's entire life" - Architecture, history and architectural history (Walter Gropius)2008In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 77, no 1-2, 96-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The essay focuses on modernism and its - problematic - relation to its historical heritage, taking a starting-point in Walter Gropius' declaration for the Bauhaus. Two main strategies, still present, could be discerned as strategies for architectural schools during the following decades; on the one hand to concentrate on the building and its temporal and societal context, starting in the nineteenth century, thus postponing the confrontation with the dangerous and obsolete past; on the other to concentrate on architectural methods and principles, rather than form. History as a model is discussed from three examples from early Swedish modernism, adopting differing approaches, from an interest in architectural qualities as light in Backstrorm and Reinius' Villa Engkvist, to the use of architectural form as pattern in Artur von Schmalensee's own villa.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Anna Ingemark Milos: Stockholms stadsbibliotek och Moderna museet. En analys av arkitekturkritik i svensk press2011In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 61, 93-94 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Architectural Education and the Formation of Architects2012In: Endast webpublicering, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural education has many features in common with art education. Still, in most countries, architecture departments are acting as one-faculty universities, although they might be parts of large organisations; their autonomy partly secures a privileged and secluded, almost monastic character of the department. This means that architectural education has a great impact on the formation of architects. Furthermore, the knowledge of architecture is more or less based on the values implemented during the early years of an architect’s training. Thus, practice, research and education become closely knit together into a systematic relation. Reyner Banham was probably the first historian to acknowledge architectural education as an important factor in the development of modern architecture. In his Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (1960), Banham introduced what might be seen as a hermeneutical triangle, identifying academy, arts & crafts and polytechnics as the main traditions in modern architecture. However, these traditions were received, combined and synthesized in different ways in each country and at each particular school. This explains why both curriculum and pedagogy are seemingly alike in an international comparison, although there might be important differences between the schools, difficult to analyse and acknowledge. A detailed study of the formation of architects from within the profession, taking into account the combined relations of education, research and professional practice does not exist at the moment, although the interest in architectural education is currently resulting in books, projects, seminars and networks of different kinds.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bernadottegalleriet på Stockholms slott. Arkivhistorisk förundersökning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar det nuvarande Bernadottegalleriets historia på Stockholms slott, från den ombyggnad av slottets norra länga som påbörjades 1692 till aktuella konserveringsarbeten 2008. Framställningen baseras dels på arkivmaterial och tryckta källor, dels på iakttagelser i det befintliga rummet. De många omvandlingar som rummet genomgått speglar en förändring från kunglig bostadsvåning till konstgalleri och musealt minnesrum.

  • 5.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Beyond the Reflective Practitioner: Architecture and the Epistemological Turn2013In: Rethinking the Social in Architecture: The Reader / [ed] Staffan Lundgren, Stockholm: Architecture in Effect: Rethinking the Social in Architecture, KTH School of Architecture , 2013, 15-17 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline of the welfare state is often connected with a change in attitudes towards politics, technology and environmental consciousness. However, this change may also be connected with new attitudes towards science. As science philosophers like Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn questioned the accumulation of research through positivism and linear models, this critique undermined the epistemological foundations of social engineering and thus the legitimacy of the welfare state.

    This paper will discuss the epistemological turn that took place in architecture during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, focusing on the relationship between architectural practice and education while analysing some of the texts that appeared during this period. The body of these texts are of American origin, but their impact goes far beyond the development in the United States. As an example, Sweden fits perfectly into the discourse introduced in American architecture.

    A dominating feature of this discourse was the rise of professional practice in architecture. The introduction of a new epistemology is evident already in the early 1960s, when Stanford Anderson took Popper’s theory on conjecture and refutation as his departure. During the 1970s, modern science remained an inspiration for architectural scholars like Colin Rowe, who drew on Popper’s critique of utopia while criticising Kuhn’s paradigm theory on the structure of scientific revolutions.

    By the late 1970s, the importance of investigating the social foundations of professional practice was confirmed by Spiro Kostof’s influential anthology on The Architect (1977). This book started a new research tradition, which reached its peak more than a decade later, when Dana Cuff published her important book Architecture: The Story of Practice (1991). Cuff also took the opportunity to criticise the profession, proposing possible areas for future change. 

    In the field of education, this rethinking of the social in architecture found its philosopher in Donald Schön, who devoted himself to an epistemology of practice. His starting point was the crisis of confidence experienced in many schools of architecture during the 1970s. In his seminal work, The Reflective Practitioner (1983), Schön observed how professionals act in social situations. Strengthening the legitimacy of his arguments with references to both Popper and Kuhn, he also secured a place for architectural practice in modern science.

    However, Schön did not choose actual professional practices for his study but pedagogical situations in design studios at different American schools of architecture. Thus, the design studio became the norm not just for architectural education but for professional practice as well. Highly influential among educators, Schön’s contribution cannot be overestimated. Through the reflective practitioner, the sense of crisis of the 1970s could be replaced by a newly born professional pride.

    Today, the rapid development of information technology calls for a new reform in architectural education. In Sweden, the balance between design studio and classroom pedagogy seems to be developing in favour of classroom courses. Thus, the recent heyday of the design studio seems to be over for now, but the question of architectural epistemology still remains to be answered.

  • 6.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bilden av Tessin2008In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 77, no 1-2, 72-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the image of the Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728), one of the main characters in the history of Swedish architecture. The image of Tessin was established by Swedish art historians at the beginning of the Twentieth century, partly as a parallel to other architects of a national reputation, notably Christopher Wren and Karl Friedrich Schinkel. The article concentrates on the image established by the Swedish art historian Ragnar Josephson in creating his monumental monograph Tessin, published in two volumes 1930-31. However, alternative images of Tessin, established by Josephson's contemporary colleagues, are used as comparative references. The article also offers a brief outline of the earlier periods of research on Tessin, and eventually emphasizes the importance of further research in the field of architectural historiography.

  • 7.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bilden av Tessin och den nationella arkitekturen2013In: Konsten och det nationella: Essäer om konsthistoria i Europa 1850–1950 / [ed] Martin Olin, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademien , 2013, 210-223 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the image of the Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728), one of the main characters in the history of Swedish architecture. The image of Tessin was established by Swedish art historians at the beginning of the Twentieth century, partly as a parallel to other architects of a national reputation, notably Christopher Wren and Karl Friedrich Schinkel. The essay concentrates on the image established by the Swedish art historian Ragnar Josephson in creating his monumental monograph Tessin, published in two volumes 1930-31. However, alternative images of Tessin, established by Josephson's contemporary colleagues, are used as comparative references. The essay also offers a brief outline of the national paradigm in architecture, established at the turn of the century 1900 in collaboration between architects and art historians.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bilden av Tessin: om behovet av historiografisk forskning2007In: Arkitekturhistorisk forskning – igår, idag, imorgon: Rapport från kollokvium 1–2 februari 2007 / [ed] Hall, Thomas; Wistrand, Lotta von Liewen, Stockholm: Endast webpublicering , 2007, 19-20 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen annan svensk arkitekt har ägnats så omfattande forskningsinsatser som Nicodemus Tessin den yngre (1654–1728). I egenskap av överintendent och arkitekt till Stockholms slott har Tessin betraktats som grundläggare av den akademiska traditionen och arkitektyrket i Sverige. Intresset är än idag relativt stort, även för internationella förhållanden. Det framgick inte minst i samband med det symposium som anordnades på Nationalmuseum hösten 2002.

    Bilden av Tessin etablerades framförallt under det tidiga 1900-talet, med ambitionen att knyta arkitekturen till den svenska historien och den nationella självbilden. Tessin utgör med andra ord en intressant parallell till andra nationellt betydelsefulla arkitekter, med exempel som Christopher Wren och Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

    Den grundläggande forskningsinsatsen kring Tessin utfördes under 1920-talet av konst- och arkitekturhistorikern Ragnar Josephson (1891–1966). Sammantaget resulterade Josephsons arbete i ett tjugotal artiklar och böcker. Höjdpunkten var den stora monografin Tessin, som publicerades i två volymer åren 1930–31. Det är ett av de klassiska arbetena i svensk arkitekturhistorieskrivning, och det är fortfarande läsvärt, tack vare Josephsons inlevelsefulla och välformulerade text.

    Det är lätt att bli imponerad av Josephsons insats. Men det finns också skäl att ställa sig kritisk. Slutsatserna är retoriskt formulerade, och såväl källkritik som akribi lämnar en del övrigt att önska. Framförallt saknas en översikt över tidigare forskning. Presentationen omfattar därför en kort resumé av den äldre bilden av Tessin.

    Intresset för Tessin var inte nytt när Ragnar Josephson inledde sitt arbete åren kring 1920. Tessin hade själv lämnat efter sig ett stort material, som var avsett att bilda utgångspunkt för en uppskattande levnadsbeskrivning. Inom Överintendentsämbetet bidrog minnet av Tessin till en stark tradition, som ännu var levande vid mitten av 1800-talet. Vid denna tid publice- rade Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe sin märkliga krönika Huset Tessin under enväldet och frihetstiden (1847–49). Det handlar snarast om en historisk roman, men Ragnar Josephson använde sig av Crusenstolpes noter och kommentarer.

    Den första översikten över ”Svenska byggnadskonsten” publicerades av Christofer Eichhorn 1871 i form av ett tillägg till den svenska översättningen av Wilhelm Lübkes bok Arkitekturens historia. Eichhorn hyllade Tessin i panegyriska formuleringar, som snarast hör hemma i en hyllningsskrift. En mer kritisk bild av Tessin utvecklades först kring sekelskiftet 1900, samtidigt som den nationella arkitekturhistorieskrivningen etablerades. Gustaf Upmark behandlade Tessin i sitt pionjärarbete Svensk byggnadskonst, som publicerades på svenska 1904. Här introducerade Upmark en tolkning som skulle bli seglivad och följa Tessinforskningen ända fram till vår egen tid. Tessin var enligt Upmark en ”eklektisk natur”.

    Till de äldre Tessinforskare som i likhet med Upmark kom att ställas i skuggan av Ragnar Josephson hörde framförallt Osvald Sirén. Redan 1910 publicerade Sirén en uppsats om Tessins studieresor i Ord och Bild, där Tessin framställdes i positiva ordalag. Siréns värdering av Tessin speglar ganska väl uppfattningen i den svenska arkitektkåren åren kring 1910. Men bland konsthistoriker kom Tessins arkitektur att betraktas med tveksamhet. Tessins byggnader var skickligt sammansatta av intryck och studier i Rom. Men byggnaderna uppfattades inte som originella, och Tessin själv framstod inte som den stora konstnärliga personligheten.

    En av de konsthistoriker som övervägde att skriva en monografi om Tessin var Gregor Paulsson. Hans intresse svalnade vid upptäckten att Tessin var en ”eklektiker”, men genom Ragnar Josephsons insats fick han senare tillfälle att revidera sin uppfattning. I sin självbiografi framhåller Paulsson att Tessins osjälvständiga arbetssätt uppvägdes av hans förmåga att skapa ”en miljö för enväldet”.

    Ragnar Josephsons insats innebar med andra ord att Tessin framställdes som gestaltare av en specifik tidsanda. Detta synsätt hade sin motsvarighet i samtida arkitektur- och konst- teori, där Josephson tillämpade en kombination av konstvetenskapliga och kulturhistoriska angreppssätt. Själv refererade han framförallt till internationella forskarkolleger, såsom Jacob Burckhardt, Alois Riegl och Heinrich Wölfflin.

    Den nya bilden av Tessin fick stort genomslag bland arkitekter och kritiker. Men Josephsons forskarkolleger lät sig inte självklart övertygas om att Tessin var en genial gestaltare av det karolinska enväldet. När Henrik Cornell och Andreas Lindblom under 1940-talet publicerade sina parallella översikter över den svenska konst- och arkitekturhistorien utelämnade de medvetet Ragnar Josephsons tolkning. Istället förmedlade de bilden av Tessin som osjälv ständig eklektiker.

    I viss mån ansluter även de senaste årens forskningsinsatser till de olika uppfattningar om Tessin som etablerades för närmare 100 år sedan. Men syftet här är inte att ge en heltäckande redogörelse för bilden av Tessin. Avsikten är snarare att betona behovet av historiografisk forskning.

    Att studera historieskrivningens historia kan beskrivas som ett försök att medvetandegöra och problematisera de bilder eller berättelser som har etablerats av tidigare forskare. Historieskrivningen utgår inte bara från odiskutabla fakta utan också från personliga värderingar och övergripande ideologier. Även om de ideologiska skiljelinjerna inte är desamma som tidigare präglas vi omedvetet av äldre forskningsinsatser.

    Arkitekturhistorieämnet kan numera betraktas som väletablerat, men den växande mängden av forskningsresultat har inneburit nya svårigheter. Som forskare brottas vi alla med generella problem, som rör värderingen av tidigare resultat. För att orientera sig i det stora materialet är det helt enkelt nödvändigt med övergripande studier av tidigare forskning.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Det moderna monumentet: Stadsbiblioteket och den historiska värderingen2011In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 62, 8-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the historical reception of modern public buildings, advocating further research in this field in order to understand the role of monuments in the canon of modern architecture. Sweden’s most referred building in an international context, the Stockholm Public Library, serves here as a case study. Paradoxically, the library is still not officially listed, although most experts would agree on its importance, but this is not unusual with modern monuments of the 20th Century. On the contrary, modern public buildings constitute a mere fraction of Sweden’s built heritage, managed by the National Property Board.

    Ever since Stockholm Public Library was completed in 1928, its reception has continuously changed over the years, both for ideological reasons and in response to practical demands. Originally, the monumental character of the building was partly criticised, while its rational organisation was generally acknowledged. From a Swedish perspective, the library was overshadowed by the Stockholm Exhibition of 1930. Thus, in the national historiography of Swedish architecture, the library has been interpreted as the final monument of Nordic classicism. However, from an international point of view, the library was included in the canon of modern architecture during the late 1970s. Its Post-Modern fame climaxed in 1985, in connection with the centenary of the architect, Gunnar Asplund.

    More recently, in 2006–07, after the decline of the Post-Modern movement, the library was reappraised in an international competition for its enlargement. Following the competition, the plan for the extension was heavily criticised, both nationally and internationally, and the project was finally abandoned. The article holds that, given better knowledge of the library's international status, this reaction would have been foreseeable. In other words, analyses of the historical reception might serve to indicate possible examples of conflict in future heritage practice.

  • 10.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    En färgstark debatt2013In: Kulturvärden, ISSN 1104-845x, no 1, 16-16 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den aktuella fasadrestaureringen på Stockholms slott innebär att också färgfrågan aktualiseras. De senaste undersökningarna visar att dagens brunaktiga kulör är resultatet av en kraftig smutsning och nedbrytning, som inte gör tidigare restaureringsinsatser rättvisa. Men insikten att slottets färg har skiftat i olika nyanser bidrar också till att det nu är svårare att framhålla en enskild epok i slottets historia. Färgen kan inte heller skiljas från de material som byggnaden faktiskt består av. Puts och sten bildar tillsammans den färgverkan som slottet förmedlar.

  • 11.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Puts- och färgsättningshistorik2012In: Stockholms slott: Långsiktigt underhåll av fasader: Program för puts / [ed] Heymowski, Andreas; Myrin, Malin, Stockholm: Statens fastighetsverk , 2012, 1-30 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Restaureringen av Stockholms slotts fasader2015In: Kungliga Slotten, 20-20 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De kungliga slotten förvaltas av Statens fastighetsverk, som årligen utför större och mindre restaureringsarbeten i avsikt att underhålla och anpassa slotten till aktuella behov. Det största restaureringsarbetet genomförs för närvarande på Stockholms slott, där arbetet med fasaderna inleddes 2010 och beräknas pågå de närmaste tjugo åren. Av praktiska skäl, och för att undvika att hela slottet täcks av byggnadsställningar, är arbetet indelat i etapper. Det huvudsakliga arbetet utgörs av stenbyten, men i samband med stenarbetena krävs även putslagningar. Det har därför visat sig lämpligt att putsa om fasaderna i takt med att de olika etapperna genomförs.

  • 13.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Restaureringshistorisk översikt2009In: Förstudie. Stockholms slotts fasader. Långsiktigt underhåll av sten / [ed] Hammar, Torun; Thörner, Linda, Stockholm: Statens fastighetsverk , 2009, 15-33 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholms slott ger i kraft av sin enhetliga yttre gestalt intryck av att ha tillkommit under en begränsad period. Men i själva verket är slottet resultatet av en lång byggnadsprocess. En översikt över de senaste trehundra årens försök att vidmakthålla fasaderna på Stockholms slott visar på motsvarande sätt att såväl skador som underhållsinsatser har varit ständigt återkommande.

    Ur kulturhistorisk synvinkel är slottets fasader alltså resultatet av många olika insatser från olika perioder. De numera frilagda stenarbetena är inte bara ett vittnesbörd om det förra sekelskiftets restaureringsideologi, de förstärker också bilden av slottet som hantverksprodukt. Den genomfärgade putsen är i sin tur anpassad till den anslutande stenen, med avsikt att ge ett enhetligt intryck även i tider av bristande underhåll. Fasaderna kan med andra ord betraktas som en konstnärlig helhetslösning, där estetiska och kulturhistoriska faktorer balanseras av faktorer som rör underhåll, material och teknik.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Restaureringshistorisk översikt [sammanfattning]2009In: Sammanfattning. Förstudie. Stockholms slotts fasader / [ed] Torun Hammar, Linda Thörner, Stockholm: Statens fastighetsverk , 2009, 7-9 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholms slott ger i kraft av sin enhetliga yttre gestalt intryck av att ha tillkommit under en begränsad period. Men i själva verket är slottet resultatet av en lång byggnadsprocess. En översikt över de senaste trehundra årens försök att vidmakthålla fasaderna på Stockholms slott visar på motsvarande sätt att såväl skador som underhållsinsatser har varit ständigt återkommande.

    Ur kulturhistorisk synvinkel är slottets fasader alltså resultatet av många olika insatser från olika perioder. De numera frilagda stenarbetena är inte bara ett vittnesbörd om det förra sekelskiftets restaureringsideologi, de förstärker också bilden av slottet som hantverksprodukt. Den genomfärgade putsen är i sin tur anpassad till den anslutande stenen, med avsikt att ge ett enhetligt intryck även i tider av bristande underhåll. Fasaderna kan med andra ord betraktas som en konstnärlig helhetslösning, där estetiska och kulturhistoriska faktorer balanseras av faktorer som rör underhåll, material och teknik.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Skyddat enligt lag: Vad ska staten äga?2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nätverket för Arkitektur och kulturmiljö inom Samverkansforum för statliga byggherrar och förvaltare arrangerade hösten 2013 en serie om tre seminarier, som belyste den aktuella frågan om statens roll för skyddet av kulturhistoriskt värdefulla miljöer. Seminarieserien ägde rum i statligt ägda kulturmiljöer i Stockholm med syftet att bredda kunskapsunderlaget och öka intresset för statens ägande, byggande och reglerande av arkitektur och kulturmiljö. Frågor om statens ägande borde intressera en vidare krets än de aktuella myndigheterna. Vilken är statens roll som fastighetsägare, och vilket ansvar har staten för kulturarvet? Vilka urvalskriterier är aktuella, och hur påverkar de synen på kulturarvet?

  • 16.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Stockholm Public Library: Designing a Path to Knowledge2009In: Erik Gunnar Asplund. Le radici della modernità / [ed] Luca Ortelli & Luciano Motta, Venezia: Scuola di dottorato, Università IUAV di Venezia , 2009, 15-15 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The opening of Stockholm Public Library in 1928 was the last step in a long series of considerations, since the idea originated in Sweden at the turn of the century 1900. At that time there were numerous libraries in Stockholm, each organised to meet the demands of people from different classes. However, the contemporary development towards extended civic rights called for cooperation, and a special committee launched an official proposal for a central library in 1912.

    When Gunnar Asplund joined the committee as architect in 1918, the design of the building was already subject to study by expert librarians. Thus, Asplund's work focused on a synthesis of existing ideas rather than personal invention. Asplund's assignment was to create an overall design, which combined a both functional and symbolic approach. Among Asplund's colleagues in the committee, the idea of public libraries was presented as emanating from the French revolution. Accordingly, Stockholm Public Library has been interpreted as "revolutionary architecture" in the tradition of Ledoux and Boullée. However, since such projects did not appear in popular publication until early 1930:s, Asplund's design seems to be based on other sources.

    As a part of his preliminary work for the committee, Asplund travelled to the United States in 1920, visiting modern public libraries. During his visit, Asplund was also introduced to American examples of revolutionary architecture, based on French sources. Paradoxically, American public buildings offered a vivid experience, consisting of actual buildings rather than mere projects.

    In the official report, published by the committee in 1921, Asplund analysed the results of his American studies in connection with his contemporary project for the library. His programme is easily summarised; since common knowledge was to be found mostly in books, it must be the aim to supply the citizens with the books they want at short hand. The path to knowledge should thus be designed as the easiest way to find a certain book, without great effort and hesitation.

    For security reasons the path to knowledge had better be thoroughly organised. Asplund took advantage of this fact, leading the visitor through a veritable "rite of passage", combining both the functional and symbolic demands of the library. However, since public libraries were expected to be modest in character, Asplund's symbolic approach was rather criticised from a social perspective.

    Eventually, to understand Asplund's design, it is important to note that the library was to meet the demands of people from all ages and classes. To secure the status of the library among the citizens, it was equally important to attract more demanding visitors. This called for a monumental approach, based on a rather traditional view of society. In fact, far from being a worker's initiative, Stockholm Public Library was in many ways a conservative project.

  • 17.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Stockholms konserthusannex. Arkitekturhistorisk konsekvensanalys2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten behandlar inledningsvis tillkomsten av Stockholms konserthus med betoning på frågor som aktualiseras av en föreslagen tilbyggnad mot Oxtorgsgatan. Därefter behandlas tillkomsten av Hötorgscity och dess relation till Konserthuset. Det avslutande avsnittet utgör en sammanfattande analys, där de kulturhistoriska konsekvenserna diskuteras. 

  • 18.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Stockholms slott under 1900-talet2006In: Vårdprogram. Stockholms slott. En kunskapsöversikt / [ed] Anders Bodin, Stockholm: Statens fastighetsverk , 2006, 62-106 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Stormaktstidens fästningsstäder. I gränsbygden mellan Sverige och Danmark2008In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, no 56, 8-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the origin of the 17th century fortified towns in the former borderlands between Sweden and Denmark, with special emphasis on Kristianstad, Kalmar and Karlskrona. These towns, established between 1614 and 1680, mirror contemporary developments in architecture, urban planning and fortifications engineering. They also point to the interaction between military, commercial and prestige-related requirements.

    On starting point here is the notion of the ideal fortified town as being characterised by deliberate partnership between military fortifications and civilian settlement. Even the private houses were regulated, and the public buildings played an important role in giving the towns a symbolic and becoming outward appearance. This is an important reason for the fortified towns including some of the foremost buildings of the age in Sweden and Denmark.

    The article also discusses the relationship between different professions, such as architects and engineers. Previous research has often highlighted the architects at the expense of the engineers. Well-known architect names – Tessin for exemple – have been associated with town plans and individual buildings without the source material warranting any such assumptions. In other words, previous research is open to further development and revision in a number of fields relating to the interaction of military and civilian architecture during the 17th century.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Treasures From the Archive: Der Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen2010In: KTHA #1 / [ed] Anstey, Tim; et al., Stockholm: KTH Arkitekturskolan , 2010, 34-35 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since its foundation in 1877, the School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm has been susceptible to international theory. The archive and the library at the present School of Architecture contain numerous examples; in this section we intend to present material as part of a continous project to acknowledge the history and theory of architectural education.

    The starting point is a book that plays an important part in the history of early modern architecture in Sweden. Following the publication of "Der Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen" in 1889, the Austrian architect Camillo Sitte was particularly well received in Sweden and became one of the most influential theorists in the field of architecture and urban planning.

    The Swedish reception of Sitte is closely connected to the architect Per Hallman (1869–1941), who promoted Sitte's ideas in his practice as an urban planner. Hallman introduced Sitte's ideas in a lecture in Stockholm as early as 1895, clearly inspired by a close reading of "Der Städtebau". His own copy of the first edition still exists in the Library of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology. As a PhD-student, I found this worn-out, fragile book almost fifteeen years ago, marked with Hallman's personal ex libris and generously filled with notes in the margins.

    Hallman's comments on Sitte's text make for fascinating reading, especially since Hallman also had the opportunity to use Sitte's ideas in his practice as a teacher. As the leading Swedish practitioner in his field, Hallman was appointed the first Associate Professor in Urban Planning at the Royal Institute of Technology in 1897, although a permanent position was not granted until 1914. Besides his work as an urban planner, he stayed on as a teacher until 1934, when Sitte's ideas on planning had long lost its significance. However, his influence can still be traced in different ways.

    One of the most prestigious precincts in Stockholm, planned by Hallman in 1907-08, is the mountainous area adjacent to the present School of Architecture. In this context, Hallman solved the problems introduced by the terrain through an ingenious use of Sitte's methods of irregular planning. It is evident that this situation was taken into account in the design process of the present building for the School of Architecture, which was completed in 1970.

    A decade earlier, an architectural critic, Thomas Paulsson, had acknowledged Hallman's work in a thesis, concentrating on the forgotten values of earlier planning policies. The urban planning at the turn of the century 1900 could thus be incorporated in the urban appraisal in architectural theory during the 1960s. Later on, architect Göran Sidenbladh, fornerly responsible for the reconstruction of the central parts of Stockholm, even published a Swedish translation of "Der Städtebau".

    Following the critique towards the city's earlier policy, Sidenbladh's translation may be interpreted as a late memento. Although Sitte's irregular method is no longer the answer to the questions of urban planning, "Der Städtebau" still holds a prominent position in the history and theory of early modern architecture in Sweden.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Treasures from the Archive: Spektrum2011In: KTHA #2 / [ed] Andersson, Johan; et al., Stockholm: KTH Arkitekturskolan , 2011, 22-25 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of modern architecture, avant-garde periodicals have played an important part in implementing new theoretical perspectives. Swedish architecture is no exception, although "Spektrum", the first generally acknowledged avant-garde periodical in Sweden, started with literature as its main object. "Spektrum" was founded in 1931 by the Russian immigrant Josef Riwkin. The first editors were the writer, Karin Boye, together with the literary critic, Erik Mesterton, later joined by poet Gunnar Ekelöf.

    Economic difficulties, following the Kreuger affair in spring 1932, forced the publisher to reorient towards architecture, thus attracting advertisers from the building industry. The first issue on architecture was called "Arkitektur och samhälle" (Architecture and Society) and was in fact identical with the last issue of "Spektrum". During the next three years, "Arkitektur och samhälle" took a radical position in promoting modern architecture. Later on, it gradually changed its position, eventually advocating reactionary ideas, paradoxically contrary to those promoted in the first issues.

    The Library of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology contains a single copy of the first issue of "Arkitektur och samhälle". Unfortunately, as this issue was originally spiral bound, cover and title page are missing. The cover was extremely fragile, made from Salubra wallpaper, of the collection designed by Le Corbusier. Furthermore, a photographic composition by El Lissitzky was printed on the cover, which is documented in the Royal Library and the Museum of Architecture in Stockholm.

    Editor of this first issue was architect Sven Markelius, most probably cooperating with his fiancé, Viola Wahlstedt, a professional journalist, who had previously been a co-editor of "Spektrum". Markelius invited a prestigious group of writers: architects, art historians, and critics from his personal network. Although Alvar Aalto and Gregor Paulsson were among the contributors, the only text later acknowledged was written by Gotthard Johansson, at that time an influential critic, strongly promoting modern architecture or "functionalism"– the notion that he preferred to use.

    In his article, "Är funktionalismen en stil?" (Is Functionalism a Style?), Gotthard Johansson took the chance of criticising a contemporary approach to architecture, advocated by art historian Heinrich Wölfflin and later further developed by Wölfflin's disciples Sigfried Giedion and Nikolaus Pevsner. Wölfflin's approach was based on perception and a new concept of space, which priviliged formal qualities and neglected cultural and historical aspects. In Sweden, this approach had recently been acknowledged by Gunnar Asplund, in his inaugural lecture as professor of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology in 1931.

    Thus, Gotthard Johansson's aim was to contribute to an ideological debate, and he strongly opposed the idea that architecture was the product of formal qualities. From his point of view, no formal approaches were sufficient, no matter if they were based on psychology or on philosophy. Instead, he advocated a cultural approach to architecture, based partly on the use of material and technique, partly on the practical use of the actual building. Eventually, he exclaimed that functionalism demanded a new science of architectural history, focusing on architecture as a cultural phenomenon.

    Later on, these ideas played an important part in the foundation of architectural research on housing and planning in Sweden. In 1939, Gotthard Johansson took charge of the first official housing research programme, initiated by the Swedish Society of Arts and Crafts, together with the National Association of Swedish Architects. That marked the beginning of an era of architectural research, strongly influencing architectural practice and education. However, by that time, "Spektrum" had long lost its significance for an avant-garde that was already well established in society.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Folkhemmets museum: Byggnader och rum för kulturhistoriska samlingar2005Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det tidiga 1900-talet kom de kulturhistoriska museerna att få en framträdande roll i samhällsbygget. Nu formades en bild av Sverige som en nation med lång och särpräglad utvecklingshistoria. Museerna engagerades i uppgiften att skapa en modern, nationell identitet.

    Vid museibyggnadernas gestaltning spelade de historiska monumenten en viktig roll. Vasaslotten bidrog i restaurerat skick till den historiska stämning som förknippades med museets uppgift, och de fick även en avgörande betydelse vid utformningen av de nya museerna. Efter funktionalismens genombrott förlorade monumenten sin roll som självklara förebilder. Nu skulle byggnaderna rymma funktionella arbetsplatser och utställningslokaler, men kravet på representativitet kvarstod. De museer som byggdes under 1930-talet kom därför att förena de motstridiga kraven på rationalitet och monumentalitet.

  • 23.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    KI Arkitektur och kunskapsmiljö: Tävlingen/Etableringen/Förnyelsen2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities, like many other institutions in today’s society, are to such an extent connected to their buildings that activity and built structures can be difficult to separate from each other. What we can begin to see is how people have always used building to establish and maintain both societal functions and more everyday customs and practices. Activities that manage to establish themselves in built form become a natural and supportive part of our material reality, whereas activities that do not may have problems surviving. In our times, characterized by continuous change, established solutions can also be in the way of new development and hinder us from seeing how the built environment could be designed in a different way.

    Seen from this perspective, KI – Karolinska Institutet – constitutes an interesting example between consciously shaped environment and highly qualified academic activity. Karolinska Institutet is since long one of Swedens most creative knowledge environments. The institute’s buildings have come to over a long period of time and is characterized by high ambitions, where different ideas of the conditions of knowledge production have governed both the overall plan and the design of individual buildings. By clarifying these ideas, and simultaneously investigating how the built result works, we hope to contribute not only to the understanding of the development of Karolinska Institutet, but to e more general knowledge of the relation between architecture and knowledge environment as well.

     

  • 24.
    Bodin, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Helgo Zettervalls arkitektur2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Helgo Zettervall (1831–1907) was one of Sweden’s principal architects and design talents. He was professionally active for 40 years, from the late 1850s to the mid-1890s – a period of intensive building activity in Sweden. For the first twenty years of his career, he had his practice in Lund, and in the subsequent twenty years he lived in Stockholm as head of Sweden’s state authority for public buildings. Zettervall was very productive. His portfolio contains 281 projects, of which 160 were executed, ranging from large cathedral restorations with thousands of detailed drawings and large public buildings to porch extensions and smaller residences.

    This dissertation highlights Zettervall’s works by putting them in a context and by analysing their qualitative aspects. Carried out as a historiographical case study, the framework for the dissertation is the architectural monograph. The individual architectural projects are the core of the presentation, assembling and making archive material readily accessible, and the method is leaning towards that of an oeuvre complète raisonné. The method includes three distinct approaches: a factual accounting of documents and drawings, a context-setting frame story that provides the conditions, and an architectural analysis.

    Zettervall belonged to the first generation of architects who could receive a well-planned and broad training in Sweden. All of this training took place against a backdrop of what a specific assignment demanded in terms of responsiveness and understanding. Zettervall developed a special talent for utilizing new construction methods and materials. Each assignment was a challenge to investigate new design principles and new spatial ideas. The investigation shows that every project was unique for Zettervall, and that his various solutions depended on the specific situation, regarding site and program. Zettervall was a distinct pragmatic. Every assignment had its unique conditions, and thus had a unique solution.

  • 25.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Carl von Linnés hus i Uppsala: En återskapad 1700-talsmiljö2007In: Svenska Linnésällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 0375-2038, 137-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the Swedish Linnaeus Society was founded in 1917, one of the main objectives was to restore the entire botanical garden to the shape it had in Linnaeus’ days. The next step would be to turn the professor’s residence into a permanent museum, where furniture, household goods and other items connected to Linnaeus could be exhibited. The project was gradually carried out in the following years, and the Linnaeus Museum was inaugurated in May 1937. The restoration of Linnaeus’ house and the construction of the museum during the 1930s is of considerable interest. The process took place in a time when Swedish 18th century architecture was subject to revaluation, and the restoration and furnishing of Linnaeus’ house can be analyzed from a historiographical point of view. Other significant aspects are contemporary theories of national heritage and museology.

  • 26.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Ett svenskt sjuttonhundratal: Moderna iscensättningar av tre historiska miljöer2008In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 77, no 1-2, 49-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last hundred years, the art and architecture of the Swedish eighteenth century has become a historic ideal, well integrated in the modern national identity. This research project deals with three eighteenth century environments which were restored and arranged as public museums in the 1930: s Skogaholm manor at the open air museum Skansen, Carl Linnaeus's house in Uppsala and the Royal Pavilion at Haga. The main isssue is how these environments were transformed into historic monuments and how the reconstructions relate to contemporary historiography, museology and restoration theories. The research project has been carried out at the School of Architecture, Royal Institue of Technology, Stockholm, and it will be published as a book in 2008.

  • 27.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Historiesyn: ett perspektiv på restaureringshistoriska studier2000In: Nordisk arkitekturforskning, ISSN 1102-5824, Vol. 13, no 1-2, 31-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    How National is a National Canon?: Questions of Heritage Construciton in Swedish Architecture2012In: Nationalism and Architecture / [ed] Raymond Quek, Darren Deane & Sarah Butler, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2012, 233-243 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    How National is a National Heritage?: The Image of Swedish Architecture2010In: Architecture, Design and the Nation: Proceedings of the first Theoretical Currents Conference held at Nottingham Trent University 14–15 September 2010 Nottingham, United Kingdom / [ed] Darren Deane & Raymond Quek, Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University, 2010, 130-135 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Kungens paviljong på Haga: Vägen till ett gustavianskt museum2013In: Konsten och det nationella: Essäer om konsthistoria i Europa 1850–1950 / [ed] Martin Olin, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2013, 270-283 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Nittonhundratalet går till historien: Om etableringen av ett nytt kulturarv2011In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 62, 78-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Sigurd Curman's Restorations: Swedish Heritage in a Modern Context2010In: Future anterior: journal of historic preservation - history, theory & criticism, ISSN 1549-9715, E-ISSN 1934-6026, Vol. VII, no 2, 49-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sigurd Curman (1879-1966) dominated the field of cultural heritage in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century, and his influence remained strong for the rest of the century. His early career included a range of professional roles: architect, civil servant, scholar, and professor of architectural history. In 1923 he was appointed national antiquarian, a post that he held until his retirement in 1946. During these years, Curman built an extensive organization and laid the foundation for modern heritage management. This article focuses on Curman's restorations during the early part of his career at the turn of the twentieth century, when a new paradigm in preservation critical of nineteenth-century practices was emerging. In his restorations of medieval churches Curman introduced a method for dealing with authenticity and historic change designed to create a holistic vision of the past that satisfied both artistic and scientific demands.

  • 33.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Sjuttonhundratalet som svenskt ideal: Moderna rekonstruktioner av historiska miljöer2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilden av det svenska 1700-talets byggnader och inredningar formades på ett målmedvetet sätt under 1900-talets första del. Många av de fragmentariska miljöer som fanns vid seklets början rekonstruerades metodiskt, inte minst med de kulturhistoriska museernas och den akademiska forskningens hjälp. Särskilt 1930-talet innebar ett genombrott för sådana projekt. Forskningsprojektet ”1700-talet som svenskt ideal” undersöker hur historieskrivning, kulturmiljövård och musealisering samverkade i skapandet av ett mycket uppmärksammat svenskt kulturarv. Studiens tre huvudexempel – Skogaholms herrgård på Skansen, Carl von Linnés bostadshus i Uppsala och Gustav III:s paviljong på Haga – speglar olika sidor av den moderna bilden av svenskt 1700-tal.

  • 34.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Skogaholm på Skansen: Iscensättningen av ett svenskt herrgårdshem2007In: Byggnadstraditioner i gränstrakter: Bygningstradisjoner i grensetrakter, Östersund: Jämtlands läns museum , 2007, 241-252 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Edman, Victor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    The Return of the Period Room: Contemporary Installations and Narrative Strategies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By discussing three recent displays of domestic interiors, this paper raises the question whether we are actually witnessing a revival of the period room, although with a different agenda than the traditional one. These examples do not primarily aim at illustrating period style, even if the furnishings as well as the architectural backdrops are still essential parts of the staging. Instead of the art historical discourse that was fundamental to earlier displays of period milieus, recent installations seem to focus on other aspects of full-scale historical representation.

    The first example is an installation at Nordiska museet in Stockholm, an institution whose tradition of displaying historic environments goes back to Artur Hazelius’s early exhibitions in the 1870s. In 2013 the museum opened ‘Folkhemslägenheten’, a small apartment representing the housing program of the Swedish welfare state, thus connecting to a current discussion on modern heritage. The second example is Sven-Harry’s collection in central Stockholm, built in 2011. To house a collection of art and furniture, Sven-Harry Karlsson choose to include a full-scale replica of his former home in the new museum. The setting represents one of the most canonical epochs in Swedish art and architecture – the late 18th century. Despite this, the whole installation rests heavily on the narrative about Karlsson himself. The third example is an installation at The Victoria and Albert museum in London in 2013, designed by the artist duo Michael Elmgreen and Ingar Dragset. The fact that a full-scale domestic interior plays a key role makes it relevant to discuss the exhibit in this context. A synopsis for a film, set in the milieu, is a central part of the interaction with the audience.

    Even if these new installations are housed within museums and rely on traditional displays of period rooms, they transcend the ordinary concept. Rather than isolated rooms they present coherent environments, which makes them related to house museums. Instead of illustrating an art historical canon, they highlight real or fictive human residents, and thus they depend on life stories and other narratives to communicate with the public. By being openly non-authentic replicas, at least regarding their physical frame, these installations avoid the critique that affected the period rooms in the course of the 20th century.

  • 36.
    Edman, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bergström, AndersKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift. Nr 62/20112011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Edman, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Moderna Kulturarv i offentlig miljö2011In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, Vol. 62, 5-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Edman, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Geijer, MiaKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift. Nr 56/20082008Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ferring, Mari
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Den levande väggen: Färg och arkitektur i svenskt 1970-tal2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1970s in Sweden saw a distinct change of attitude concerning colour inarchitecture, from strong primary colours, grey concrete and brick at the beginning of the decade to a lighter, more nuanced palette of pink and yellow towards the end of it. From being a significant token in a broader popular movement with commercial overtones, colour, as the decade went on, increasingly demanded a professional approach. The thesis addresses colour in architecture as a cultural phenomena, amenable to interpretation. In the analysis, colour can consequently be used as a tool for understanding 1970s architecture within a social context.

    The hypothesis is that colour in architecture served a very definite purpose in1970s Swedish society, through its inclusion in the rethink on how good architecture and surroundings should be designed so as to endow them with meaning and significance in peopleʼs lives. In this process the architectural discourse was partly emancipated from the mainstream social discourse, which can be perceived as a deliberate strategy for addressing and controlling new problems and issues.

    The “forgotten sides” of human existence, as they were termed in the 1970s, were seen to be represented in Anthroposophy, which, through its colourful Centre at Järna, offered an architecture of individuality indicating a contrasting alternative to rational, systematised construction. Parts of the anthroposophical discourse were imported into a wider architectural discourse, of which they subsequently became a natural ingredient.

    The debate on architecture in the 1970s was very much concerned with managing the legacy of discussions in previous decades. During the 1960s, good architecture in professional contexts had generally meant design adapted to modes of production, the handling of large volumes, additive vocabulary and modular repetition. The reaction against this way of defining good architecture came out into the open during the 1970s. The focus on colour in the 1970s helped to build a bridge and unleash a new discussion on how architecture and habitats should be designed in order to acquire significance in peopleʼs lives. The choices of colours underlining the expressions of structure, authenticity and collective was gradually replaced by a striving for harmonic space, tradition and individuality.

  • 40.
    Geijer, Mia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Power over Monuments - architects and antikvarier in practical work experience2008In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, Vol. 77, no 1-2, 57-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 1850-2000 the Swedish Renaissance castles, created by the Vasa kings, have been subjected to restorations. These restorations have been carried out by official authorities, representing the bureaucratic organisation managing state-owned real estate in Sweden. During the period an official management body for the built heritage, a legal system and political guidelines for the maintenance have been developed. The field of restoration have been of importance to architects, art historians and conservators of built heritage in their process of professionalisation. The article deals with the changing views on history and art history among these professions, how these changes have influenced the actual restorations and how the aforementioned professions have strived for influence on the field of restoration.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Lotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History of Architecture.
    Medeltidskyrkan i Uppland: restaurering och rumslig förnyelse under 1900-talet2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to illuminate the history of restoration in 20th century Sweden by studying restorations of medieval Uppland churches, in the hope of highlighting the debate and conflicts surrounding the ideologies forming the framework of church restorations and identifying the crucial considerations. It is an attempt to depicting church restorations with the focus of attention on the function of the church interior, but also on ways of achieving a credible design appropriate to the present. Theological and liturgical issues and their connection with usability constitute an important background.

    The study takes as its starting point the architect’s mission as the person in charge of the restoration project. The heritage conservation aspects and issues of principle concerning preservation are present as a basic precondition of every restoration assignment.The study demonstrates the complexity of the design of the various church interiors. The 20th century restorations have been concerned with modernisation, with questions of materials and with the character of the church interiors, but they have also hinged on individual architects and their differing attitudes towards preservation and new design, and on the relation between restoration and spatial renewal.

    This study encompasses the whole of the 20th century, but with special emphasis on the period between about 1920 and 1980. First of all a general count was taken of all major restorations in the province of Uppland. Their time-related character prompted a division of the 20th century into four periods, and one church from each period was chosen for closer study. The four churches chosen were Tensta, Skånela, Knivsta and Orkesta. More examples were then used to illustrate the complexity of the restorations. Studies of the church buildings, in the in-depth studies and in supplementary examples from the province as a whole, were then viewed in relation to overarching issues concerning restoration tradition, values and viewpoints held by the heritage conservation authorities, parochial needs for changes to the church interiors, but also discussions concerning the functional and artistic design of new churches and how those discussions were reflected in the historic churches.

  • 42.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Vällingby och kulturarvet: Att bevara och förnya ett centrum2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this case study is the renewal of Vällingby Centre which took place between 2004 and 2008. With its scale, ambition and content, Vällingby represented something completely new in Swedish urban development when the town district came into being in the early 1950s. The community centre also had an important role to play, it not only had a commercial function it also had a social and cultural function. Despite the fact that community centres appeared in great numbers, few of them remain as they once were. Many have undergone major changes including alterations and, quite often rather careless intervention, both with regard to their interior and exterior. New shop types, consumption patterns and increasingly fierce competition are just some of the factors that have led to the original values contained within this area being on the verge of disappearing.

    The entire town of Vällingby was nominated in 1987 by the National Heritage Board as a clear and well preserved example of an ABC city with regard to it structure and the planning ideals of the 1950s. An expression of such conservation ambitions signifies, however, a potential conflict situation with other interested parties and areas of interest, not least when it comes to buildings and environments that are for commercial use.

    The main purpose of this study is to deal with the renewal of Vällingby centre from a cultural heritage perspective. The first chapter will provide a background as to why Vällingby came about and present a picture of post-war town planning and the emergence of Vällingby Centre; while the second chapter will examine the decision-making process behind the renewal, where Välingby's town centre regeneration offers an interesting example of how areas which are classed as being of national interest are dealt with during the planning process.

    Vällingby Centre is an example of one of our modern national interests and of the maintenance and conservation problems post-war developments are associated with. The central parts of the town are also associated with a largely unexplored field of study, despite the increased diversity conservation intentions have received over the past few decades.

  • 43.
    Knauff, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Debatten om Kungstornen2010In: Höga Hus: Samfundet S:t Eriks Årsbok / [ed] Ulf Sörenson, Stockholm: Langenskiöld , 2010, 42-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Knauff, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Den klassicistiska vändningen i det tidiga 1900-talets svenska arkitektur: En studie av Liljevalchs konsthall, Kungstornen och Kanslihuset i Stockholm2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of the thesis consists of a number of statements by prominent representatives of the cultural elite characterising architecture with references to classicism as the modern architecture. In the following years Swedish architecture was dominated by references to classical historical architecture focussing on the ideal of simplicity, which in turn formed a wider conceptual framework of ideas and ideals for architectural creation. The simple reason why the classical historical architecture became something of a role model was that it represented all these new ideals. The main purpose of the thesis is to study how architects made use of the more prominent ideals in the new conceptual framework. A secondary purpose is to describe and analyse the three chosen buildings in detail. A third purpose is to situate these buildings into the broader national context. The buildings under study are Liljevalchs konsthall (Liljevalchs Art Gallery), Kanslihuset (The Government Offices) and Kungstornen (The Towers). They were built at different times between 1910 and 1930. Each building has an obvious connection between the building program and the social changes of the time. In the first chapter the contemporary conceptual framework is presented based on examples from the architectural debate. The most important parts were the opposition to the traditional ideals in combination with the formulating of new ones like simplicity, unity and clarity as well as an orientation towards the historical national architecture and an open attitude towards new techniques. Central to the usage of the basic of elements of the historical architecture was transformation rather than imitation. The common view meant that role models and basic creational elements of the past were regarded as opportunities for new developments. The three following chapters examine the buildings under study. The buildings and their planning processes are described and the application of the historical references and their relations to historical buildings in the environment are analysed in detail. The buildings are further discussed in relation to the broader social trends of the time. The Art Gallery is discussed in view of its connections to the contemporary industrial architecture due to the industrialisation. The analysis of the Government Offices situates the practical and symbolic aspects of the building in the contemporary struggle between the monarchy and the old civil service and the newly established parliamentary democracy. The Towers are discussed in relation to the contemporary discussion of skyscrapers in Europe and in relation to the beginning of commercialism and popular culture.

     

  • 45.
    Knauff, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Ett mörker i vitt2012In: Om femtio år med Arkitekturmuseet / [ed] Malin Zimm, Stockholm: Arkitekturmuseet , 2012, 64-65 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Knauff, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Metropolitan facades and 1920s decoration2015In: Swedish Grace: The forgotten modern / [ed] Peter Elmlund & Johan Mårtelius, Stockholm: Axel and Margaret Ax:son Johnson Foundation , 2015, 90-101 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Knauff, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Skyscrapers and ironic classicism Commercial architecture and architectural ornament in the Kings Towers, Stockholm2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Configuring Academia: Academic entities and spatial identities2012In: Proceedings: Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Margareta Greene, José Reyes & Andrea Castro, 2012, 8147:1-8147:21 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia has a long tradition of structuring itself around academic subjects, often epitomized through architectural manifestations such as individual buildings and whole campi. These materializations serve as sites of research and education, but also serve to describe the university as whole as well as its institutional parts, their definitions and their interrelations. This description goes deeper than simple definition of specific buildings for specific activities or subjects, but rather describes the idea of academic structures and relations between different people in the campi. This paper makes a comparative study of one of the more successful research universities in Stockholm, studying the use of spatial configuration and programming when the main campus was established in the first decade after the second world war, and how it was used in the following large-scale expansion beginning in the 1960s. It shows how, for both pragmatic and ideological reasons, radical shifts in the relation between buildings and academic subjects, as well as academic individuals and the units central to these descriptions, have taken place in the years in-between, and scrutinizes some of the effects coming with such a change.

  • 49.
    Kristina, Knauff
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Perspektiv på tjugotalet2017In: Konsthistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, E-ISSN 1651-2294, SKON 1297326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a point of departure in discussions about (facade)decorations in the early 20th century and with four facades from the Swedish architecture of the 1920s as my examples, I want to formulate a conception of the Swedish architecture of the period 1910–30 that in decoration sees traces of a problematizing of the historic elements and that sees the decoration as part of a negotiation with the present. In a research field that seems to be quite consistent in its approaches to the subject, the period has mostly been approached from a constant set of interpretational frameworks, with classicism as a main theme. I want to explore alternative ways to approach the period, where classicism does not have that prominent role. The discussion of the façade decoration thus also leads into a discussion of how the period has been looked at previously and how the research field could develop. An important point in my argument is the notion of brokenness, which is central for the 1920s. Thus, I look at the façade decorations in the context of contemporary discussions that question the use of historic material in this period. I want to broaden the interpretation of the period by showing that the façade decorations also can be seen as an expression of a distancing and of a broken relation to history. Further, the decorations may have a rather critical than confirming function, a thought expressed in the idea of a Statsuwandel of decoration. All in all this is a perspective that rather acknowledges brokenness than unity and that also sees the architecture of the period 1910–30 closer to the popular culture and the modern city.

  • 50.
    Kristina, Knauff
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    The public face2005Conference paper (Other academic)
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