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  • 1.
    Aagah, Orod
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Aryannejad, Siavash
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Dynamic analysis of soil-steel composite railway bridges: FE-modeling in Plaxis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A soil-steel composite bridge is a structure comprised of corrugated steel plates, which are joined with bolted connections, enclosed in friction soil material on both sides and on the top. The surrounding friction soil material, or backfill, is applied in sequential steps, each step involving compaction of the soil, which is a necessity for the construction to accumulate the required bearing capacity. Soil-steel composite bridges are an attractive option as compared with other more customary bridge types, owing to the lower construction time and building cost involved. This is particularly true in cases where gaps in the form of minor watercourses, roads or railways must be bridged.

    The objective of this master thesis is the modelling of an existing soil-steel composite railway bridge in Märsta, Sweden with the finite element software Plaxis. A 3D model is created and calibrated for crown deflection against measurement data collected by the Division of Structural Engineering and Bridges of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Once the 3D model is calibrated for deflection, two 2D models with different properties are created in much the same way. In model 1, the full axle load is used and the soil stiffness varied, and in model 2 the soil stiffness acquired in the 3D model is used and the external load varied. The results are compared to measurement data. In 2D model 1 an efficient width of 1,46 m for the soil stiffness is used in combination with the full axle load, and in 2D model 2 an efficient width of 2,85 m is used for the external load, in combination with the soil stiffness acquired in the 3D model.

    Aside from this, parametric studies are performed in order to analyse the effect of certain input parameters upon output results, and in order to analyse influence line lengths.

    Recreating the accelerations and stresses in the existing bridge using finite element models is complicated, and the results reflect this. Below are shown the discrepancies between model results and measurement data for the pipe crown. The scatter in the measurement data has not been taken into consideration for this; these specific numbers are valid only for one particular train passage.

    For crown deflection, the 3D model shows a discrepancy of 4%, 2D model 1 5% and 2D model 2 8% compared with measurement data. For crown acceleration, in the same order, the discrepancy with measurements is 1%, 71% and 21% for maximum acceleration, and 46%, 35% and 28% for minimum acceleration. For maximum crown tensile stress, the discrepancy is 95%, 263% and 13%. For maximum crown compressive stress, the discrepancy is 70%, 16% and 46%.

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  • 2.
    Aagah, Orod
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Kardan, Caesar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ett tillgängligt och användarvänligt boende: Anpassningsmöjligheter för människor med rörelsehinder och nedsatt rörelseförmåga2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we have theoretically built a house designed for people with impaired mobility. The

    essay begins with an introduction in which the purpose of the work, the methodology and the

    depth-research part is presented. Then the layout that explains how we intend to adapt the house

    for the demands detailed in the depth-research part is presented. In the same chapter various

    structural components, such as different floors and walls, are specified.

    In the selection of materials we have taken into account the criteria of our specialization and

    adaptation to the aesthetic aspects, where we evaluate materials based upon our wishes regarding

    technique and form. There are also other aspects that are important in the selection of materials,

    including that these are adapted to technical traits of the construction elements and installations.

    In a later chapter the technical installations such as ventilation systems, heating systems,

    electricity and sanitation are presented, where both technical and financial aspects are described

    in detail. The economic aspects are also described in connection with calculating the building's

    power and energy requirements and then presented in the section where costs are accounted for.

    Finally, the work is summarized in the section “Conclusion and Discussion” in which we analyze

    all the work, and based on these analyses conclusions are drawn. During the course of work

    regulations such as Boverkets Byggregler (BBR) and other sources were used. These sources are

    presented in the bibliography section. We also received help and guidance from our supervisors

    in various parts of the work, which we are grateful for.

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  • 3.
    Aalto, Jonatan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Neuman, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Comparison of Punching Shear Design Provisions for Flat Slabs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    A new generation of EN 1992-1-1 (2004) also known as Eurocode 2 is under development

    and currently there is a set of proposed provisions regarding section 6.4

    about punching shear, PT1prEN 1992-1-1(2017). It was of interest to compare the

    proposal with the current punching shear design provisions.

    The aim of this master thesis was to compare the punching shear resistance obtained

    in accordance with both design codes. Furthermore the eect of some parameters

    on the resistance was to be compared. It was also of interest to evaluate the userfriendliness

    of the proposal.

    In order to meet the aim, a case study of a real  at slab with drop panels was performed

    together with a parametric study of a pure ctive  at slab. The parametric

    study was performed for inner, edge and corner columns in the cases prestressed,

    without and with shear reinforcement.

    It was concluded that the distance

    av from the column axis to the contra  exural

    location has a big in uence on the punching shear resistance. The factor

    ddg

    considering concrete type and aggregate properties also has a big impact on the resistance.

    The simplied estimation of

    av according to 6.4.3(2) in PT1prEN 1992-1-1

    (2017) may be inaccurate in some cases.

    The length

    b0 of the control perimeter has a larger eect on the resistance in EN

    1992-1-1 (2004) than in PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017).

    In PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017), studs located outside the second row has no impact

    on the resistance.

    The tensioning force in a prestressed  at slab has a larger in uence on the resistance

    in PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017) than in EN 1992-1-1 (2004). Furthermore,

    the reinforcement ratio is increased by the tendons, and thus aect the resistance in

    PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017).

    Clearer provisions for the denition of the support strip

    bs for corners and ends

    of walls are needed in PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017).

    It may be questionable if the reduction of the perimeter for a large supported area in

    accordance with 6.4.2(4) in PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017) underestimates the resistance

    v

    in some cases.

    Considering the work-load with PT1prEN 1992-1-1 (2017), more parameters are

    included. However, they may not require that much eort to obtain.

    Keywords: Punching shear, resistance, concrete,  at slab, design provisions, Eurocode

    2, case study, parametric study, shear reinforcement, prestressed

    vi

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  • 4.
    Abbas, Qaalid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hussein, Abdiwahab
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Studie om framtagning av montageplaner: En granskning av monteringsprocessen för prefabricerat byggande2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens industrier anpassar numera sin tillverkning för att kunna massproducera och dra ner på personal och kostnader. Detta innebär ökad automatisering med större och kraftigare maskiner, utrustning och verktyg. För att garantera säkerheten på arbetsplatsen är det därför viktigt att rätt skyddsanordning och myndighetskrav följs och används. I byggbranschen ställer arbetsmiljöverket krav på branschföretagen gällande arbetsmiljö och särskilda underlag för produktionsarbetet. Denna studie undersöker montageplanen som används vid industriellt byggande som innebär användning av tunga, prefabricerade, element vid husbyggnad.

    Syftet är att studera hur en montageplan planeras, upprättas och implementeras. Studien utförs på uppdrag av In3prenör och omfattar 10 veckors arbete. Författarna har tillhandahållits information kring montageplanen för två projekt som studerats jämsides. Det ena, ett pågående projekt, är Allégården som är ett ROT-projekt av ett vård- och omsorgsboende och det andra, projekt Arlanda, är en nybyggnation av en servicebyggnad. Metoder som använts för att uppnå resultatet har varit en kombination av litteraturstudier, granskning av montageplaner, platsbesök och intervjuer.

    Resultatet visar på att otydliga riktlinjer kring vad som ska inkluderas i montageplanen är det största skälet till att det blir fel på arbetsplatsen. Det har även från intervjuerna påpekats att på grund av den tidspressade situationen och målbilden att undgå förseningar kan det ske misstag som kan få allvarliga konsekvenser. För att förbättra kvaliteten i montageplanerna måste riktlinjer från arbetsmiljöverket och boverket bli tydligare gällande montageplanens innehåll. Det är också viktigt att kritiska moment som kan medföra ökade risker framgår i montageplanen, vidare kan montörer utbildas för att öka deras riskmedvetenhet.

  • 5.
    Abbasi, Mazhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dawit Ghebreigziabher, Kibret
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Objektklassificerad modellering och effektivisering avmängduttag2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of fluent communication in the building industry has caught people’s attention because of

    time-based costs appearing in 2D and 3D modelling and takeoffs. These costs emerge in construction

    when miscommunication takes place between professionals in different projects.

    A research study of the subject has revealed the reason behind the current days’ miscommunication

    issues. The study shows that although the professionals tend to have an efficient way of working, the

    result isn’t very beneficial for the next man. Therefore a conclusion of the issue creates a demand for a

    mutual language in modelling and better softwares for takeoffs.

    This report’s results, with regards to optimization of modeling, has brought to light the use for the

    objectclassificationsystem BIP. These BIP-codes are used for branding objects in models of which the

    branding consists of unique codes. The code of every individual object has the purpose of being

    recognized by every project member and remain the same throughout the project.

    The proposal for the optimization of takeoffs is a software called VICO Office. The software contains

    well-advised methods for the import of models and close to automated takeoffs of these models.

    In conclusion, the study implies that there is sufficient motive to question the old ways of working and

    that light should be shed on new approaches. Technology and the industry face a constant change and

    the efficiency of current methods are never far away.

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  • 6.
    Abbasi, Mozaffer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Analys och implementering av VSL-System i FEM-Design för kontroll av stabiliserande effekt: En undersökning i syfte att fastlägga effekten av VSL-kablar i FEM-Design för att utvärdera dess stabiliserande påverkan.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

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  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

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  • 9.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

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  • 10.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Analysis of underground concrete pipelines subjected to seismic high-frequency loads2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried pipelines are tubular structures that are used for transportation of important liquid materials and gas in order to provide safety for human life. During an earthquake, imposed loads from soil deformations on concrete pipelines may cause severe damages, possibly causing disturbance in vital systems, such as cooling of nuclear power facilities. The high level of safety has caused a demand for reliable seismic analyses, also for structures built in the regions that have not traditionally been considered as highly seismically active. The focus in this study is on areas with seismic and geological conditions corresponding to those in Sweden and Northern Europe. Earthquakes in Sweden for regions with hard rock dominated by high-frequency ground vibrations, Propagation of such high-frequency waves through the rock mass and soil medium affect underground structures such as pipelines.

    The aim of this project is investigating parameters that affect response of buried pipelines due to high-frequency seismic excitations. The main focus of the study is on reinforced concrete pipelines. Steel pipelines are also studied for comparison purposes. The effects of water mass, burial depth, soil layer thickness and non-uniform ground thickness caused by inclined bedrock are studied. The results are compared to those obtained for low-frequency earthquakes and the relationship between strong ground motion parameters and pipelines response is investigated. It is shown that, especially for high frequency earthquake excitations, non-uniform ground thickness due to inclined bedrock significantly increase stresses in the pipelines. For the conditions studied, it is clear that high-frequency seismic excitation is less likely to cause damage to buried concrete pipelines. However, the main conclusion is that seismic analysis is motivated also for pipelines in high-frequency earthquake areas since local variation in the ground conditions can have a significant effect on the safety.

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  • 11.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Initial study on seismic analyses of concrete and embankment dams in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Numerical modelling considerations for analysis of concrete hydraulic structures subjected to high-frequency seismic loads2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete hydraulic structures are of great importance in today's society. When situated in areas with hard bedrock, these structures may become extra vulnerable to seismic excitations as these here are dominated by high-frequency vibrations which can have disastrous consequences for slender structures. The aim of this thesis was to investigate special considerations that must be made when conducting analyses of such hydraulic structures during high-frequency excitations. Underground and on the ground structures were investigated separately. Underground concrete pipelines and concrete buttress dams were selected for the study because their behaviour when exposed to seismic excitations is dominated by their stiffness. The most effective models and modelling methods for the seismic analyses of such structures were implemented and evaluated. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models were developed for the dynamic analysis of underground concrete pipelines loaded by seismic waves propagating from bedrock through soil. The interaction between the bedrock and the surrounding soil was investigated with respect to rock geometry and soil properties. The surface of dam foundations is commonly irregular, resulting in nonuniform motions at the dam-foundation interface. The free-field modelling methods for concrete dam foundations were adapted in order to accurately describe the propagation of earthquake vibrations from the source to the ground surface. The implementation of a threedimensional FE model for concrete buttress dams was investigated. Two different methods for free-field modelling are presented, which can be implemented independently of the software used. The seismic loads are applied as effective earthquake forces at non-reflecting boundaries. In the first method, the free-field motions at the non-reflecting boundaries are determined by the so-called domain reduction method using the direct FE calculation. In the second method, the free-field motions are analytically determined based on the onedimensional wave propagation theory. The results are also compared with the massless foundation modelling approach, in which the topographical amplifications are neglected. It was demonstrated that a two-dimensional model can effectively account for pipeline behaviour. The most important aspect of the models is the ability to capture bending deformations, as segmented structures such as pipelines are vulnerable in this respect. Nonuniform bedrock reduces the safety of concrete pipeline, especially because of bending deformations in the pipe and joints. The massless method gave unreliable results for analyses of dams, especially for high-frequency excitations. The analytical method was also unreliable in estimating the non-linear behaviour of the dams. But, a new time domain deconvolution method was developed to transform the earthquake motion from the foundation surface to the corresponding input motion at depth. It wasfound that free-field modelling of foundations using the direct FE method can accurately capture the topographic amplifications of the seismic excitations. It was shown that a three-dimensional model is required for seismic evaluation of concrete buttress dams. The topographic amplification of high-frequency waves at the surface of canyons had a significant effect on the response of this type of dam. 

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  • 13.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Nordström, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures. Sweco.
    Analysis of load and response on large hydropower draft tube structures2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a reaction turbine, the runner outlet is connected to a diffuser which is called the draft tube. Large hydropower units with large effect and large discharge normally require large dimensions on the waterways. In some large-scale facilities, the total width of the draft tube is so large there is a need for a supporting centre wall in the draft tube. In the Swedish hydropower business, there are several cases where damages or cracks have been reported in the contact between the roof and the supporting centre wall. The most likely reason for cracking between wall and roof is when refilling the draft tube after it has been drained for inspection. A too quick refilling will give an upwards lifting force on the roof that can be larger than the capacity in the joint. There are still uncertainties regarding the risk for a long-term scenario where any operational pattern could give continued crack propagation.

    Vattenfall Hydropower has made an installation with pressure and strain sensors in one of their facilities with a centre wall supported draft tube and a cavity between the roof and the rock cavern. The aim of the project is to get a better understanding on the behaviour of the roof and centre wall during different operational events by evaluating measurements from the draft tube and investigating possible load cases that can create continued crack propagation during operation. In this regard, in this project, the measurements are analysed to discover the different operational patterns and the corresponding effect on applied pressure on draft tube central wall and roof and structure response. A simplified finite element model of the draft tube is demonstrated and the response from the structure due to extracted load patterns is compared with the measurements.

    One-year measurements of the unit operation indicated that unit operates over the whole range with many start/stops. Three major types of operation were: normal operation (working in daytime and downtime at night), continuous operation with no stop and start-stop events with sharp start/stop in the morning and afternoon. The analysis of pressure measurements indicated that the fluid motion in the straight diffuser is turbulent and possibly influenced by vortex formation under the runner. Therefore, the pressure on the right side of the central wall was higher than on the left side.

    The quality of the strain measurements showed to be of insufficient quality and lack of information regarding the set-up. This has given questions on the possibility to get reliable results in the evaluation. Nevertheless, an evaluation has been performed. The evaluation of strain measurements demonstrated higher strain values at the upstream side of the central wall and roof. Moreover, the strain on underside of the roof was higher than on the central wall. Sudden fluctuation during continuous operation and sequence of start/stop were the cases that in long-term may cause damage to the structure due to fatigue problems. The results from finite element model indicated high tensile strength at the upstream side of the straight diffuser, in contact between the roof and the central wall where a crack has been detected in the real structure.

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  • 14.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Analysis of buried reinforced concrete pipelines subjected to seismic waves2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Seismic response of large diameter buried concrete pipelines subjected to high frequency earthquake excitations2020In: Int. J. Structural Engineering, ISSN 1758-7328, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 307-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried pipelines are tubular structures that cross large areas with different geological conditions. During an earthquake, imposed loads from soil deformations on pipelines may cause drastic damages. In this study two dimensional finite element models of pipelines and surrounding soils are usedfor simulation of seismic waves that propagate from the bedrock through thesoil. The models describe both longitudinal and transverse cross-sections ofpipelines and the soil-pipe interaction is described as a nonlinear behaviour.The effects of uniform ground with different burial depth and soil layer thickness, soil stiffness and non-uniform ground on the seismic response of reinforced concrete pipelines is studied. Two earthquakes, with high and low frequency contents, are employed for the dynamic analysis. The results show asignificant effect on the response due to non-uniform ground caused by inclined bedrock, especially for high frequency earthquake excitations.

  • 16.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Seismic response of buried concrete pipelines subjected to highfrequency earthquakesIn: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried pipelines are tubular structures that cross large areas with different geological conditions. During an earthquake, imposed loads from soil deformations on concrete pipelines may cause severe damages. In this study, the use of two-dimensional finite element models of pipelines and surrounding soil for simulation of seismic waves that propagate from the bedrock through the soil are demonstrated. The models describe both longitudinal and transverse cross-sections of pipelines and the soil-pipe interaction is modelled as a nonlinear behaviour. The effects of uniform ground with different burial depths, soil layer thickness, soil stiffness and bedrock geometry on the seismic response of reinforced concrete pipelines is studied. Two earthquakes, with high and low frequency contents, are employed for the dynamic analysis. The results show that there is a much smaller risk of damage from high-frequency earthquakes, but that there is a significant effect on the response due to possible irregular ground with inclined bedrock.

  • 17.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Analysis of shallowly buried reinforced concrete pipelines subjected to earthquake loads2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, no 51, p. 111-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried reinforced concrete pipelines are widelyused in e.g. water and wastewater systems. Failure of these infrastructures mayresult in drastic effects and recently they have been brought into focus asvital components in safety systems for nuclear power installations. The highlevel of safety has here lead to a demand for reliable earthquake risk analyses.In this paper, methods are compared and the use of seismic design loadsdemonstrated. FE analysis in 2D of soil-pipe interaction under seismic wavepropagation is performed. The performance of concrete pipes subjected toseismic waves with different frequency content is evaluated with respect todifferent soil condition but also water mass effect.

  • 18.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Implementation of free-field modelling of foundations for large dam structures exposed to high-frequency vibrationsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Nordström, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Nonlinear Behaviour of Concrete Buttress Dams under High-Frequency Excitations Taking into Account Topographical Amplifications2021In: Shock and Vibration, ISSN 1070-9622, E-ISSN 1875-9203, Vol. 2021, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete buttress dams could potentially be susceptible to high-frequency vibrations, especially in the cross-stream direction, due to their slender design. Previous studies have mainly focused on low-frequency vibrations in stream direction using a simplified foundation model with the massless method, which does not consider topographic amplifications. This paper therefore investigates the nonlinear behaviour of concrete buttress dams subjected to high-frequency excitations, considering cross-stream vibrations. For comparison, the effect of low-frequency excitations is also investigated. The influence of the irregular topography of the foundation surface on the amplification of seismic waves at the foundation surface and thus in the dam is considered by a rigorous method based on the domain-reduction method using the direct finite element method. The sensitivity of the calculated response of the dam to the free-field modelling approach is investigated by comparing the result with analyses using an analytical method based on one-dimensional wave propagation theory and a massless approach. Available deconvolution software is based on the one-dimensional shear wave propagation to transform the earthquake motion from the foundation surface to the corresponding input motion at depth. Here, a new deconvolution method for both shear and pressure wave propagation is developed based on an iterative time-domain procedure using a one-dimensional finite element column. The examples presented showed that topographic amplifications of high-frequency excitations have a significant impact on the response of this type of dam. Cross-stream vibrations reduced the safety of the dam due to the opening of the joints and the increasing stresses. The foundation modelling approach had a significant impact on the calculated response of the dam. The massless method produced unreliable results, especially for high-frequency excitations. The free-field modelling with the analytical method led to unreliable joint openings. It is therefore recommended to use an accurate approach for foundation modelling, especially in cases where nonlinearity is considered.

  • 20. Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.
    et al.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Renkel, C.
    Artificial intelligence models to generate visualized bedrock level: a case study in Sweden2020In: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, ISSN 2363-6203, E-ISSN 2363-6211, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 1509-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the spatial distribution of bedrock level (BL) as the lower boundary of soil layers is associated with many uncertainties. Increasing our knowledge about the spatial variability of BL through high resolution and more accurate predictive models is an important challenge for the design of safe and economical geostructures. In this paper, the efficiency and predictability of different artificial intelligence (AI)-based models in generating improved 3D spatial distributions of the BL for an area in Stockholm, Sweden, were explored. Multilayer percepterons, generalized feed-forward neural network (GFFN), radial based function, and support vector regression (SVR) were developed and compared to ordinary kriging geostatistical technique. Analysis of the improvement in progress using confusion matrixes showed that the GFFN and SVR provided closer results to realities. The ranking of performance accuracy using different statistical errors and precision/recall curves also demonstrated the superiority and robustness of the GFFN and SVR compared to the other models. The results indicated that in the absence of measured data the AI models are flexible and efficient tools in creating more accurate spatial 3D models. Analyses of confidence intervals and prediction intervals confirmed that the developed AI models can overcome the associated uncertainties and provide appropriate prediction at any point in the subsurface of the study area. 

  • 21. Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.
    et al.
    Shan, Chunling
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    A Novel Approach to Uncertainty Quantification in Groundwater Table Modeling by Automated Predictive Deep Learning2022In: Natural Resources Research, ISSN 1520-7439, E-ISSN 1573-8981, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 1351-1373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an important benchmark to assess the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) and particularly deep learning ensembled-based models. However, the ability for UQ using current AI-based methods is not only limited in terms of computational resources but it also requires changes to topology and optimization processes, as well as multiple performances to monitor model instabilities. From both geo-engineering and societal perspectives, a predictive groundwater table (GWT) model presents an important challenge, where a lack of UQ limits the validity of findings and may undermine science-based decisions. To overcome and address these limitations, a novel ensemble, an automated random deactivating connective weights approach (ARDCW), is presented and applied to retrieved geographical locations of GWT data from a geo-engineering project in Stockholm, Sweden. In this approach, the UQ was achieved via a combination of several derived ensembles from a fixed optimum topology subjected to randomly switched off weights, which allow predictability with one forward pass. The process was developed and programmed to provide trackable performance in a specific task and access to a wide variety of different internal characteristics and libraries. A comparison of performance with Monte Carlo dropout and quantile regression using computer vision and control task metrics showed significant progress in the ARDCW. This approach does not require changes in the optimization process and can be applied to already trained topologies in a way that outperforms other models. 

  • 22.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. Islamic Azad University.
    An Optimized Artificial Neural Network Structure to Predict Clay Sensitivity in a High Landslide Prone Area Using Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) Data: A Case Study in Southwest of Sweden2016In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in various aspects of geotechnical engineering problems such as site characterization due to have difficulty to solve or interrupt through conventional approaches has demonstrated some degree of success. In the current paper a developed and optimized five layer feed-forward back-propagation neural network with 4-4-4-3-1 topology, network error of 0.00201 and R2 = 0.941 under the conjugate gradient descent ANN training algorithm was introduce to predict the clay sensitivity parameter in a specified area in southwest of Sweden. The close relation of this parameter to occurred landslides in Sweden was the main reason why this study is focused on. For this purpose, the information of 70 piezocone penetration test (CPTu) points was used to model the variations of clay sensitivity and the influences of direct or indirect related parameters to CPTu has been taken into account and discussed in detail. Applied operation process to find the optimized ANN model using various training algorithms as well as different activation functions was the main advantage of this paper. The performance and feasibility of proposed optimized model has been examined and evaluated using various statistical and analytical criteria as well as regression analyses and then compared to in situ field tests and laboratory investigation results. The sensitivity analysis of this study showed that the depth and pore pressure are the two most and cone tip resistance is the least effective factor on prediction of clay sensitivity.

  • 23.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics. College of Civil Engineering, Roudehen branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    CPT-SPT correlations using artificial neural network approach: A Case Study in Sweden2015In: Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, E-ISSN 1089-3032, Vol. 20, no 28, p. 13439-13460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between Standard and Cone Penetration Tests (SPT and CPT) as two of the most used in-situ geotechnical tests is of practical interest in engineering designs. In this paper, new SPT-CPT correlations for southwest of Sweden are proposed and developed using an artificial neural networks (ANNs) approach. The influences of soil type, depth, cone tip resistance, sleeve friction, friction ratio and porewater pressure on obtained correlations has been taken into account in optimized ANN models to represent more comprehensive and accurate correlation functions. Moreover, the effect of particle mean grain size and fine content were investigated and discussed using graph analyses. The validation of ANN based correlations were tested using several statistical criteria and then compared to existing correlations in literature to quantify the uncertainty of the correlations. Using the sensitivity analyses, the most and least effective factors on CPT-SPT predictions were recognized and discussed. The results indicate the ability of ANN as an attractive alternative method regarding to conventional statistical analyses to develop CPT-SPT relations.

  • 24.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Updated relations for the uniaxial compressive strength of marlstones based on P-wave velocity and point load index test2016In: INNOVATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE SOLUTIONS, ISSN 2364-4176, Vol. 1, no 1, article id UNSP 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are many proposed relations for different rock types to predict the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) as a function of P-wave velocity (V-P) and point load index (Is), only a few of them are focused on marlstones. However, these studies have limitations in applicability since they are mainly based on local studies. In this paper, an attempt is therefore made to present updated relations for two previous proposed correlations for marlstones in Iran. The modification process is executed through multivariate regression analysis techniques using a provided comprehensive database for marlstones in Iran, including UCS, V-P and Is from publications and validated relevant sources comprising 119 datasets. The accuracy, appropriateness and applicability of the obtained modifications were tested by means of different statistical criteria and graph analyses. The conducted comparison between updated and previous proposed relations highlighted better applicability in the prediction of UCS using the updated correlations introduced in this study. However, the derived updated predictive models are dependent on rock types and test conditions, as they are in this study.

  • 25.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran Johan Lundberg AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Renkel, Crister
    Johan Lundberg AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Correction to: Artificial intelligence models to generate visualized bedrock level: a case study in Sweden (Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, (2020), 6, 3, (1509-1528), 10.1007/s40808-020-00767-0)2020In: Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, ISSN 2363-6203, E-ISSN 2363-6211, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the original version of this article, unfortunately a character of the Journal no in the reference 10 has been published incorrectly.

  • 26.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Naderi, Shima
    Modified correlations to predict the shear wave velocity using piezocone penetration test data and geotechnical parameters: a case study in the southwest of Sweden2016In: INNOVATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE SOLUTIONS, ISSN 2364-4176, Vol. 1, no 1, article id UNSP 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shear wave velocity (VS) is an important geotechnical characteristic for determining dynamic soil properties. When no direct measurements are available, V-S can be estimated based on correlations with common in situ tests, such as the piezocone penetration test (CPTu). In the current paper, three modified equations to predict the V-S of soft clays based on a comprehensive provided CPTu database and related geotechnical parameters for southwest of Sweden were presented. The performance of the obtained relations were examined and investigated by several statistical criteria as well as graph analyses. The best performance was observed by implementing of corrected cone tip resistance (q(t)) and pore pressure ratio (B-q) which directly can be found from CPTu data. The introduced modifications were developed and validated for available soft clays of the studied area in southwest of Sweden, and thus, their applicability for proper prediction in other areas with different characteristics should be controlled. However, the used method as a suitable tool can be employed to investigate.

  • 27.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    JohanLundberg AB.
    Shan, Chunling
    Tyréns.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Visualisering av bergtopografi med artificiell intelligens2022In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 44-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rumslig fördelning av djup till berggrunden (DTB) är en viktig ochutmanande fråga i många geotekniska tillämpningar. På grund av att DTBassocieras med säkerhet och ekonomi i jord- och bergkonstruktionerkan generering av mer precisa modeller vara av avgörande betydelse.Med hjälp av resultat från Jb-sonderingar för ett infrastrukturprojekt iStockholm har vi skapat en optimerad visualiserad 3D -prediktiv DTBmodellvia en automatiserad artificiell intelligent datormetod (AI) ochjämfört den med den metod som ofta används, det geostatistiskaverktyget Ordinary Kriging (OK).

  • 28.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    Johan Lundberg AB, S-75450 Uppsala, Sweden.;Tyrens, Div Rock Engn, S-11886 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shan, Chunling
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics. Tyrens, Div Rock Engn, S-11886 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Normalizing Large Scale Sensor-Based MWD Data: An Automated Method toward A Unified Database2024In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 24, no 4, article id 1209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of geo-infrastructures and specifically tunneling projects, analyzing the large-scale sensor-based measurement-while-drilling (MWD) data plays a pivotal role in assessing rock engineering conditions. However, handling the big MWD data due to multiform stacking is a time-consuming and challenging task. Extracting valuable insights and improving the accuracy of geoengineering interpretations from MWD data necessitates a combination of domain expertise and data science skills in an iterative process. To address these challenges and efficiently normalize and filter out noisy data, an automated processing approach integrating the stepwise technique, mode, and percentile gate bands for both single and peer group-based holes was developed. Subsequently, the mathematical concept of a novel normalizing index for classifying such big datasets was also presented. The visualized results from different geo-infrastructure datasets in Sweden indicated that outliers and noisy data can more efficiently be eliminated using single hole-based normalizing. Additionally, a relational unified PostgreSQL database was created to store and automatically transfer the processed and raw MWD as well as real time grouting data that offers a cost effective and efficient data extraction tool. The generated database is expected to facilitate in-depth investigations and enable application of the artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict rock quality conditions and design appropriate support systems based on MWD data.

  • 29.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Kartering av skredbenägenhet medartificiell intelligens2018In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Landslide susceptibility hazard map in southwest Sweden using artificial neural network2019In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 183, article id UNSP 104225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landslides as major geo-hazards in Sweden adversely impact on nearby environments and socio-economics. In this paper, a landslide susceptibility map using a proposed subdivision approach for a large area in southwest Sweden has been produced. The map has been generated by means of an artificial neural network (ANN) model developed using fourteen causative factors extracted from topographic and geomorphologic, geological, land use, hydrology and hydrogeology characteristics. The landslide inventory map includes 242 events identified from different validated resources and interpreted aerial photographs. The weights of the causative factors employed were analyzed and verified using accepted mathematical criteria, sensitivity analysis, previous studies, and actual landslides. The high accuracy achieved using the ANN model demonstrates a consistent criterion for future landslide susceptibility zonation. Comparisons with earlier susceptibility assessments in the area show the model to be a cost-effective and potentially vital tool for urban planners in developing cities and municipalities.

  • 31.
    Abbaszadeh Shahri, Abbas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Spross, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Storskalig kartering av skredbenägenhet i västra Götaland med artificiell intelligens2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Abd Ullah Alhamo, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Alahmad, Hussain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Småhusprojekt och fördjupning: Fördjupning: Reducering av U-värdet i ett fönster2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Abdali, Yasser
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Holm, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    En jämförelse mellan Tekla Structures och Civil 3D i krökta betongkonstruktioner2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the construction industry, there is a lot of discussion around BIM (Building InformationModelling). There is a need to move away from customized 2D-drawings and instead focus oninformative models which can be used throughout the whole cycle of construction. This developmenthas been ongoing within house construction, but this approach is harder to implement within thefacility sector.The difficulty in implementing a more BIM-oriented approach within construction is partly due tosoftware currently not being fully developed to create informative and reliable models of constructionswith complex geometries, such as bridges.Since Trafikverket, the largest construction developer within Sweden, has started to place a largerdemand on 3D there is a need for both technology and human resource to develop.The aim of this dissertation is to present a case study investigating the suitability of the software TeklaStructure and AutoCAD Civil 3D to perform a 3D-model of a double-curved bridge. The two pieces ofsoftware will be contrasted in a final comparison whereby both pros and cons will be presented.The study has made it clear that BIM is not just about creating an informative model, but it is alsoabout an approach which has the ability to completely change the construction sector to work morecollaboratively and effectively.The comparison between the two relevant software in this study shows that they both have strengthsand weaknesses and are suitable for our purpose. However, they differ in how detailed models theycan create and how well they have the ability to work with BIM to a greater extent.

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  • 34.
    Abdalnour, Jemy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Abdirahman, Mohamed Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kritiska vippningslaster för kompositbalkar/lättbalkar av trä2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has focused on the calculation of critical loads for lateral torsional buckling forthree selected wood-based composite beams with varying heights based on the availableMasonite Beams standard range. The main objective has been to investigate and compare ahand calculation model with the recommended method in Eurocode 5, as well as comparethem with results from finite element analysis.In this study, two instability phenomena have been addressed, namely lateral torsionalbuckling and flexural column buckling. The reason for addressing flexural columnbuckling is that the Eurocode method is based on a simplified flexural column bucklingmodel to facilitate the calculation of the moment carrying capacity regarding lateraltorsional buckling for I-beams subjected to bending.The hand calculation model used in this study is based on classical stability theory. Itis applied to a cross-section that differs moderately from the actual cross-section, whichin turn underestimates the load-bearing capacity. As lightweight beams are composed oftwo different wood-based materials, the cross-section has been transformed to a fictitiouscross-section to facilitate the hand calculation. In the pursuit of more realistic results, afinite element model has been established, and two analyses based on this model havebeen performed.The beams are assumed to be supported at the ends under forked conditions, which meansthat they are free to deflect vertically and laterally but the rotation about the beam axis isfixed. They have been examined for three load cases, namely constant bending moment,point load at the midpoint, and uniformly distributed load.By comparing the results obtained from the hand calculation and the Eurocode method,this study concludes that the Eurocode method significantly underestimates the momentcapacity and is applicable to braced beams. However, the hand calculation overestimatesthe moment capacity, as evident 

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  • 35.
    Abdalnour, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Saliba, Milad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Drop-weight impact tests on reinforced concrete beams2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis aimed to investigate the behaviour of reinforced concrete beams under dynamic loading conditions, specifically focusing on understanding shear failure. The study was conducted with KTH Royal Institute of Technology, the Swedish Fortifications Agency, and Tyréns. The research built upon previous studies and aimed to contribute to understanding dynamically loaded concrete structures.The thesis included a literature study to explore the fundamental concepts of dynamics, impulse loading, and the response of RC structures under dynamic and static loading. The experimental part involved manufacturing and testing 27 reinforced concrete (RC) beams with varying amounts of transverse reinforcement and load positions, where 18 were tested dynamically, and the rest were tested statically. The findings contribute to understanding structural response and failure mechanisms in such beams, considering three main factors: load position, shear reinforcement, and loading characteristics. In addition, essential data, such as reaction forces, beam displacements, and crack patterns, were measured using load cells, accelerometers, and high-speed cameras.The findings of the study revealed several important insights. The load's position significantly affected the beams' acceleration, with further load positions activating both shear and flexural modes simultaneously. Beams with different shear reinforcement configurations exhibited similar behaviour and the presence of weaker cross-sections due to insufficient bonding between steel and concrete. The study also demonstrated that dynamic loading increased the beams' load capacity compared to static loading, attributed to the strain rate effect and inertia forces. The crack patterns and residual eigenfrequency differed between dynamic and static loading conditions, with dynamic loading resulting in less extensive cracking and reduced residual stiffness.The use of a fiberboard provided cushioning effects, as its removal during testing resulted in a shorted load duration and the formation of the cracks in the beams. In addition, anchoring the flexural reinforcement significantly increased the stiffness of the beams, leading to an earlier rebound and a more robust impact response.

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  • 36.
    Abdalnour, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Zahid, Yasir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Småhusprojekt och fördjupning: Fördjupning: Kvalitativ jämförelse mellan trä och betong2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Abdelwahab, Kemal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Farah Mohamed, Abdirizag
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Spricktillväxt i stålkonstruktioner på grund av utmattning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Steel bridges estimated service life is determined by the fatigue strength of the steel, since fatigue is one of the main reasons for limiting the service life. In Sweden there is a number of bridges that approach the end of their service life, while the need of increasing the capacity and demands on bridges grows. The majority of these bridges is in need of reparation. On the other hand, it is not possible either from a financial- or environmental perspective to replace all bridges, and therefore the bridges that are most critical needs priority. In the case of fatigue design calculation of steel bridges, the entire stress range is taken into account, regardless of whether the stresses are in tension or pressure. A crack propagates only at tensile stresses, which means that pressure should not really be considered in the design calculations. This means that some steel bridges could have a longer life span than the traditional design calculation gives. The stress intensity factor K is used within the fracture mechanism to predict the stress intensity near crack tip, and is applied to linear elastic materials. The finite element program Abaqus was used when the bridge detail was modeled and analyzed. The bridge detail represents a beam with a welded connection plate, which is exposed to traffic load at the bridge and a temperature load to simulate residual stresses. The detail represents the problem of fatigue in steel structural parts. The motive for this study is that no cracks have been found during inspections of similar details, despite the fact that some steel bridges theoretically have consumed their longevity. The study is conducted with a more advanced model than usually created for assessment of fatigue, with the purpose of modeling the reality more correctly. The results show how the residual stresses cause tensile stresses, which leads to crack propagation in the model. At a crack length of 9,5 mm, the stresses change from tension to compression, and then the crack growth ceases. The results also indicate that fatigue cracking can grow in steel structural parts that are mainly exposed to compressive nominal stresses, if tensile residual stresses appear at the connection plate.

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  • 38.
    Abdi, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ntzimanis, Dimitirios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Numerical simulations of pore pressure on concrete buttress dams2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uplift pressure is one of the most dominant forces on a dam structure. Difference in head water and tail water creates a hydraulic gradient resulting an upward oriented pressure called uplift pressure, which reduces the dam safety against sliding. However, there are great uncertainties determining the actual magnitude and distribution of the uplift pressure. Therefore, finite element methods were used in order to study the pore pressure in greater extent to increase the knowledge about the field measurements. 

     

    In this MSc report, the pore pressure in the rock foundation at monolith M42 in Storfinnforsen hydropower dam has been investigated. The aim of the project is to study the realistic pore pressure distributions and its magnitude underneath the dam. The aim is also to compare and find correlation between the numerical results and field measurements as well as the analytical results based on guidelines for dam safety. 

     

    Pore pressure in rock foundations can be influenced by many factors such as, the presence of drainage, grout curtain and rock fractures. Therefore, several numerical models have been developed containing different combinations based on these factors. Numerical results were then compared to both field measurements and analytical results. Furthermore, the uplift pressure from the best calibrated model and models representing critical states of the dam are used to calculate stability safety factor against sliding. The finite element program Abaqus is used to perform all the numerical pore pressure analyses. Field measurements is obtained from two pore pressure sensors installed underneath the dam and analytical results are calculated based on guidelines for dam safety. Based on the results from the case study, comparison of the numerical pore pressure with the field measurements showed that the drains have the largest impact on the pore pressure compared to the parameters. Models without drains have showed significantly larger pore pressure than the field measurements. When drains are in operation, considering empty drains underestimate the pore pressure while water filled drains slightly overestimated the pore pressure. 

     

    The influence of grout curtain varies if the effect of drains are included or not. Considering fractured rock foundation, the grout curtain showed large reduction of the pore pressure in the analyses without drains. If drains are in operation, this reduction becomes quite small. Moreover, all the numerical analyses showed that the uplift pressure in the rock fracture are lower than what is defined in the design guideline (RIDAS, 2020). 

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  • 39.
    Abdi Yussuf, Yusuf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jalal Ibrahim, Zand
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    FRP:s användning inom brokonstruktioner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, most bridges in Sweden are made with concrete or steel. These bridges are often associated with high costs, which often depend on maintenance and repair. FRP, which stands for Fiber Reinforced Polymer, is a relatively new material in load-bearing structures but is a well- established material in the context of reinforcement. In Europe and in particular the Netherlands, there are several bridges built in FRP. But due to a lack of norms and regulations to lean against, there is rarely any kind of FRP bridge construction in Sweden. The aim of this thesis is to examine existing norms and study how the material FRP is used in the reinforcement and construction of bridges. Furthermore, this thesis also aims to investigate the properties of FRP as building material and compare it with conventional materials such as steel and concrete. FRP, also called fiber-composite, is a composite material that can be assembled in several different ways. Through various materials that are combined and different manufacturing processes used, one can thus provide individual designs for the material. The benefits of FRP are many, but generally it has good strength, good durability while having a low weight. This results in that within bridge construction, it gives the structure a reduced self-weight, which in turn facilitates a variety of things. This thesis shows that FRP materials have advantageous properties and in some situations can be more favorable to use than steel or concrete. However, as previously pointed out, there are no specific Eurocodes for this material. However we are sure that the introduction of a new Eurocode and encouragement from authorities will undoubtedly increase the use of FRP in bridge construction.

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  • 40.
    Abdihakim Ali, Mohamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Henriksson, André
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Comparison between high strength steel and conventional steel regarding the overall material usage for a composite bridge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Structural steels are among the most widely used materials in the constructionsector, of which S355 is the steel that is considered being the norm in Europetoday. As the demands on civil engineering structures are increasing today parallelwith the construction sector intending to become a more environmentalfriendly industry, high strength steel (HSS) has become increasingly relevanttoday with the aim of reducing the material usage and facilitate a more sustainableconstruction. HSS is structural steel with a very high yield strength andultimate strength. In this dissertation, structural steels with a yield strengthof 500MPa or above were classified as HSS.In this thesis, the main steel girders of the E4 bridge over the Vapelbäcken,which is a continuous steel-concrete composite highway bridge, were optimizedwith HSS S690 and conventional structural steel S355 in order to investigatehow HSS affects the material usage for the bridge compared to the conventionalsteel. In addition to the above, a cost analysis, modal analysis and a fatigueassessment of bridge were carried out in order to analyse how the mass changedue to HSS affects the material cost of the bridge as well as the bridge’s dynamicproperties and fatigue resistance.The main girders of the bridge were optimized with respect to the ultimatelimit state (ULS). The optimization initiated with a structural analysis of thebridge using the finite element software Abaqus. Design calculations were thenperformed for the girders in accordance with the Eurocodes. Afterwards, thecross-sections of the main girders were optimized. When the optimization wascompleted, a cost analysis, modal analysis and the fatigue assessment wereperformed for the bridge.The optimization showed that HSS significantly reduces the material usagecompared to conventional steel if the optimization takes place with respect tothe ULS. The cost analysis showed that the bridge with optimized main girdersof HSS was the cheapest option, indicating that HSS can be a more economicalalternative than conventional structural steel if the material reduction is largeenough.The large material reduction that HSS entails led to deterioration of the bridge’sother properties. The modal analysis showed that the bridge with optimizedgirders of HSS was had the lowest natural frequency, indicating that the largemass reduction of the bridge due to HSS results in a impairing of the bridge’sdynamic properties since a large mass reduction impairs the stiffness of thestructure which in turn decreases the natural frequency. The fatigue assessmentshowed that the bridge with optimized girders of HSS had the lowestfatigue capacity, which means that the yield strength of the material does nothave an impact on the fatigue capacity and therefore the benefits of HSS cannotbe exploited in cases where fatigue governs the structural design.

  • 41.
    Abdinasser, Ahmed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Tabatabaei, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Samverkan av jord och ovanliggande struktur i FEM-program: En studie av nya jordmodeller I FE-programmet 3D- Structure2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    De senaste åren har det funnits olika företag som har tillverkat avancerade mjukvaror inom byggbranschen. En del av mjukvaror är avsedd att skapa 2D ritningar och 3D modeller. Med hjälp av dessa verktyg har ingenjörer och arkitekter snabbt och enkelt skapat ritningar och modeller för projektering av konstruktioner. Utvecklingen inom detta område kallas BIM. Byggnadsinformationsmodellering, BIM, stödjer design av en byggnad genom alla faser och möjliggör bättre konstruktions-, tillverknings- och inköpsaktiviteter.

    Andra mjukvaror är tilltänkt att förutse hur en struktur reagerar på verkliga laster, vibrationer, värme och andra fysiska effekter. För detta används finita elementmetod, där kommer strukturen analyseras i element för ett noggrannare resultat. En utveckling inom detta område har också skett. Företaget Strusoft AB utvecklar FE-verktyg för analys av struktur. Den senaste nyheten är modul för beräkning av samverkan mellan struktur, grundläggning och undergrunden i form av jord. Modulen kallas 3D-Soil och används enligt Strusoft för modellering och analys av geokonstruktioner.

    I denna rapport redovisas modellering av en struktur och underliggande jord med finit elementanalysprogrammet, FEM-Design som är försett med den nya modulen 3D-Soil för geotekniska beräkningar.

    Målet är att jämföra resultat för moment utifrån samverkanskrafter mellan jord och struktur i FEM-Design med ett annat FEM-program, Lusas. Till skillnad från FEM-Design appliceras jord- och vattentryck som utbredd last i Lusas.

    Resultaten visar att det finns signifikanta skillnader mellan resultaten från analysprogrammen och det finns begränsningar i modelleringsverktyget som behöver utvecklas vidare.

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  • 42.
    Abdu, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ullén, Philip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Dimensionerande vattenförbrukning och dess variationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 2010, approximately 907 million cubic meters of drinking water was withdrawn from municipalities. All of this water must be transported, which is done through water pipes. To dimension these it requires that we know how much water that is to be distributed and it varies among others depending on the time of the day, week and year that the withdrawals occur. In today’s approach of designing new water pipes, amongst other ways, we use typical examples of consumption variations during the day of a similar area. In addition, arbitrary and experiential values of ‘ratio of peak hour to average day’ and ‘ratio of peak hour to average hour’ are used.

    Unfortunately today’s way of dimensioning water pipes has not been ensured due to inadequate detailed data on consumption quantity. The main purpose of this study is to confirm or refute today’s way of dimensioning water pipes.

    To verify this we have with detailed data from Norrvatten been able to see consumption quantity on an hourly basis which helps us assess today’s dimensioning process. By measuring the flow into 13 municipalities and then comparing them against each other regarding population size, distribution over categories of users and more, we have been able to get different dimensioning factors.

    In this report we can conclude that there is a need to update the factors regarding ‘ratio of peak hour to average day’ and ‘ratio of peak hour to average hour’. In order to further study the dimensioning factors, a system must be developed that can measure the precise consumer flow for different consumer categories on a more detailed level.

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  • 43.
    Abdulal, Heba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Chamoun, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Jämförelse av KL-trä och Grön betong för ytterväggar med avseende på LCA och LCC2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impact is a dominant issue in today's society and the construction sector is considered to be one of the industries causing most carbon dioxide emissions. According to the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, the construction and real estate sector accounted for 21% of Sweden's total greenhouse gases in 2018 and this corresponded to 11,8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents.The choice of material plays a significant role in reducing the climate impact and creating sustainable development. In this study two different exterior wall materials are compared from an economic and environmental perspective. The materials that should be compared is a sandwich wall, which is made of green concrete, and a cross laminated timber, CLT wall. The purpose of the study is to find out which of the materials is most advantageous for exterior walls with regard to the environment and economy.

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  • 44.
    Abdulameer, Yessir
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Oskarsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Rätt skevning kan rädda liv: Genom rätt skevning i kurvor ökar trafiksäkerheten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    False curves are a common problem for older roads in Sweden in particular. A curve must beadapted to the skewness, speed, and radius to meet safety and requirements from the SwedishTransport Administration. Road 951 is one of Sweden's most dangerous roads, which according toSVT has several error-prone curves. The curving of the curves is not adapted to speed and radius,they are too narrow and often have poor visibility, which likely can lead to accidents.The purpose of the study is to study skew in different types of curves based on factors such asvelocity, radius, and cross slope. By proper assessment of skew and calculations, a suitable skewshall be proposed from the survey.The method is based on gathered information about skew and what requirements apply especially inSweden, but even in Norway and Denmark. This is done through a literature study and interviewswith road experts. Furthermore, data is collected from route 951 through PMSV3, Strada, field visitsand test runs. Data is analysed and used to build a system that can be used to investigate andcalculate other roads in Stockholm.If these roads were to be built today, they would have another skew that could reduce the risk ofaccidents. With that fact, it can be determined that the 3 curves on route 951 are wrongly dosednow and not safe according to VGU. Based on the results, recommendations are given to allow abank of 7%, increase the minimum bank to -1.5%, introduce north and South bank and carry outNordic co-operation.

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  • 45.
    Abdulbaki, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Mammar Chaouche, Abdelah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Användning av flygaska i vattenbyggnadsbetong 2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering Concrete is used as a collective term for concrete structures related to the hydropower plants, dams and heavier plants. With great success, concrete has been used for a very long time for these types of structures. These constructions make high demands on the concrete quality and construction design as they are expected to have a lifetime of a hundred years or more.

     

    In casting such concrete is exposed to a temperature which can lead to cracking of the newly cast structure. Because the temperature rise is the primary cause of cracking, you can use various methods to reduce this. An effective way to reduce the temperature rise is to try to keep the cement content in the concrete as low as possible, because at the adiabatic conditions may say that the total temperature rise is directly proportional to the cement content in the concrete. An effective way to reduce the temperature rise is to use out some fly ash instead of cement. Fly ash is a powder mass obtained in the production of electricity and heat in coal-fired plants and cogeneration plants. Fly ash is a puzzolanic material which means that it reacts with calcium hydroxide and water, and can thus partially replace cement clinker.

     

    The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of how the fly ash affecting hydraulic concrete. By reading this report you will get at first a basic knowledge of what the concrete, hydraulic concrete and fly ash are. Furthermore, the section that dealt with the cracking of the hydraulic concrete, general knowledge followed out causes and remedies. A comparison has been made between a typical water building structural component, with and without fly ash. What has been compared are how the construction affected with and without fly ash on strength, resistance and the risk of cracking. Furthermore, the temperature dot calculations performed with the program HACON. The purpose of the calculations was to show how the different parameters with and without fly ash affects the risk of cracking of a typical hydraulic structures.

     

    The result of the temperature calculations show that you get a lower temperature development in a monolith cast with the fly ash and the construction cements compared to a monolith molded with construction cement without fly ash. With the reduced temperature development arose lower tensions in the flyashmonolith. In the survey carried out in this report, the results show that there is tension that exceeds the tensile strength of the monolith without fly ash and thereby bursting the structure. The monolith examined with fly ash as crackreducing action occurs tensile stresses which are lower than the tensile strength and thus does not crack structure. The results show that the cracking in a typical hydraulic structures can be reduced with fly ash.

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  • 46.
    Abdulhasan Taher, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    BIM Software Capability and Interoperability Analysis: An analytical approach toward structural usage of BIM software (S-BIM)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the structuralanalysis of BIM models. Different commercial software (Autodesk products and Rhinoceros)are presented through modelling and analysis of different structures with varying complexity,section properties, geometry, and material. Beside the commercial software, differentarchitectural and different tools for structural analysis are evaluated (dynamo, grasshopper,add-on tool, direct link, indirect link via IFC).

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  • 47.
    Abdulkadir, Hesho
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Kostov, Andrey Petrov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Studie om energibesparing på OKQ8 i Häggvik samt andra energieffektiviserade byggnader2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report begins with a brief description of some of the most common measures for energy savings in buildings with recess in the solar collectors and photovoltaic panels which lays a solid foundation for our study. Next comes the main part of the study consisting of detailed descriptions of three of the top streamlined Swedish buildings.

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate some of the energy efficiency improvements done on the OKQ8’s gasoline station in Häggvik with a calculate part. Part of the task is to calculate how many photovoltaic cell panels should be installed in order to cover the whole buildings energy need. After that have we calculated the payback time and profitability of some of the installations at the petrol station. We have also studied other energy optimized buildings and compared their specific energy need with that of OKQ8.

  • 48.
    Abdulkhalik, Lauko
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Samuelsson, Paula
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Ekonomiska konsekvenser vid stambyten som berör skyddsrum: -en förtydligande studie av fyra typfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet behandlar stambyten som passerar skyddsrum.Skyddsrum användas som skyddsutrymme för människor vid behov under nödsituationer. Deflesta skyddsrummen byggdes under 1951-1974 och de är i behov av underhåll ochrenovering.På grund av strikta lagar blir alla renoveringar som berör skyddsrum väldigt kostsamma förfastighetsägare.Studien undersöker fyra typfall av renoveringar och reder ut lagar. Förhoppningsvis blir deanvändbart för fastighetsägare för att förstå kostnaderna kring stambyten som berörskyddsrum.

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  • 49.
    Abdulla, Nardien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ali, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Ett modernare sätt att dimensionera: En jämförelse för Huvudstaprojektet, FEM-design eller handberäkning ?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This theses has been conducted in collaboration with Peab where the students had Tomas Schäfer and Peter Jansson as supervisors.

    This report addresses how a specific secondary build up, located in Huvudsta Centrum, could had been designed differently. The original frame was designed with the old BKR construction rules. But at the construction start a new construction standard was applied, the Eurocode. Therefore, the house got decreased in weight to meet the stricter Eurocode requirements.

    The current frame was designed using manual methods, which were compared with the results from the same frame calculated with a computer programme, FEM-Design 3D Structure. The report is based on the know-how of how a designer should proceed to join the production model and the analytical model. This to be able to designed in a BIM environment.

    The difference in results, between the two methods, was about 50% reeducation in purchased steel and about 40% in design-engineer costs. We have estimated a total saving of 141000 SEK for Peab.

  • 50.
    Abdulrahman, Keiwan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Potrus, Fadi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Numerical analysis and model updating of a steel-concrete composite bridge: Parametric study & Statistical evaluation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2006, only 10 years after the steel- concrete composite bridge, Vårby bridge was built, fatigue cracks were found during an inspection. To further investigate the reasons and the potential danger of the cracks, an investigation under the commission of the Swedish Transport Administration was issued in 2009. After the detection of fatigue cracks, several measurements were carried out in order to monitor the static behavior by the use of strain gauges at selected positions along the bridge. The measurements from the strain gauges monitoring the global behavior were then used to calibrate an finite element model.

     

    The present report is part of the research of understanding the behavior of steel-concrete composite bridges. Numerical analysis and model updating have been used in order to understand and determine how different parameters affects the strain range and the global behavior. The numerical analysis and parameter study were performed in the Finite Element software Abaqus and programming language Python. The outcome of the parameter study was then used to perform the model updating by the method of falsification in MATLAB.

     

    The results from the parameter study and the model updating showed that the measured strains could be reached with a wide range of parameter combinations. Even with unreasonable parameter values, the measured strains were obtained. To investigate the reason for this, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed which showed that the strain range is strongly correlated to the Young’s modulus of steel and concrete and also to the connector elasticity, which resembles the studs in the real bridge.

     

    Two different finite element models, with two completely different input parameter values, obtain the same strain range for the global behavior. It is therefore not certain to assume that a model is accurate and valid based on the fact that the predicted strain range from the finite element model is close to the measured strain range since the global behavior of a steel- concrete composite bridge can be modeled by many different sets of parameters.

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    Numerical analysis and model updating of a steel-concrete composite bridge
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