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  • 1. Adler, J
    et al.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Pagakis, S
    Parmryd, I
    Noise and colocalization in fluorescence microscopy: solving a problem2008In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 22, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bagampadde, Umaru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Kiggundu, B. M.
    Influence of truck load channelization on stripping in asphalt mixtures2007In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 21, no 8, 1628-1635 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of load channelization on stripping was investigated using cores and block samples from a heavily loaded highway. The original 80/100 asphalt (virgin and RTFOT aged) was characterized using conventional methods. Stripping of mixtures was measured using ASTM D1664 and that of cores using visual diametral plane rating and loss in indirect tensile strength due to soaking. The pore saturation and air voids were found to be influenced by ground water level and wheel track location across traffic lanes. Stripping was rated higher in the wheel paths than between wheel paths, especially in shallow water table areas where it was observed to be 82% higher, implying possible dependency of stripping on channelization. To enhance resistance to moisture damage, it is recommended that Hot Mix Asphalt surfaces in areas with shallow water tables be designed to a more favorable refusal density.

  • 3.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Adjacency Matrices and Descriptions of Air Voids in 3D2010Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Atmospheric correction, and light scattering with 2DSOS2008Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Documentation of developed Image Segmentation and Methodology2010Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bergholm, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Micrometeorology and Road Conditions: a model of dependencies for identifying critical conditions in a predictive fashion2009Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Foreword2010In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, ISSN 0361-1981, no 2141, VII-VIII p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Nanotechnology in Cement and Concrete VOLUME 2 Foreword2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2142, IX-X p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Birgisson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Montepara, A.
    Romeo, E.
    Roncella, R.
    Tebaldi, G.
    Roque, R.
    The use of digital image correlation for accurate determination of fracture energy density in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)2008In: PAVEMENT CRACKING: MECHANISMS, MODELING, DETECTION, TESTING AND CASE HISTORIES / [ed] AlQadi IL, Scarpas T, Loizos A, BOCA RATON: CRC PRESS-TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP , 2008, 811-820 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the conditions governing the initiation and propagation of cracks in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of HMA cracking mechanisms. According to the "HMA Fracture Mechanics" pavement cracking model recently developed at the University of Florida, fundamental tensile failure limits of mixtures (fracture energy density and tensile strength) are identified as key parameters in defining the cracking resistance of HMA mixes. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, developed for the purpose of investigating the cracking behavior of HMA mixtures, has been applied to accurately determine fundamental tensile failure limits of SBS polymer modified mixes. The effect of modification on crack localization and crack growth was also investigated. One unmodified and four SBS polymer modified HMA mixes were tested performing both the Superpave IDT test and the Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) test. Tensile failure limits and cracking behavior of two of these mixes (the unmodified and a heavily SBS linear modified) were evaluated also from the Three Point Bending Beam (3PB) test. Full field strain maps indicate that the addition of SBS polymers in mixtures leads to more homogeneous stress states during tensile loading condition, resulting in high strains strongly localized up to the location of impending fracture.

  • 10.
    Birgisson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Montepara, Antonio
    Romeo, Elena
    Roncella, Riccardo
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Tebaldi, Gabriele
    An optical strain measurement system for asphalt mixtures2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 42, no 4, 427-441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the conditions governing the initiation and propagation of cracks in hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of HMA cracking mechanisms. Traditional strain measurement sensors have proved to be not completely adequate in the sense that they do not provide pointwise measurements, thus not pinpointing the location of crack initiation, and not accounting for non-uniform strain distributions. This paper presents a digital image correlation (DIC) system for non-contact and full strain field measurements, conceived for the purpose of investigating the cracking behavior of HMA mixtures. The whole system was developed so as to account for the special nature of typical HMA testing configurations. An image matching technique (least squares matching) was employed for providing matches with sub-pixel accuracy. The performance of the method was investigated by several tests. The DIC system was shown to overcome the shortcomings of traditional on-specimen strain measurement devices achieving satisfactory accuracy compared to strain gauges.

  • 11.
    Birgisson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Montepara, Antonio
    Romeo, Elena
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Tebaldi, Gabriele
    Influence of Mixture Properties on Fracture Mechanisms in Asphalt Mixtures2010In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 11, 61-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a research study aimed at providing insight into key mechanisms and mixture properties that influence fracture in asphalt concrete. The experimental analysis was based on the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Fracture Mechanics visco-elastic crack growth law. HMA cracking mechanism was investigated using multiple laboratory test configurations on both unmodified and polymer modified mixtures. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was employed to more accurately capture localized or non-uniform stress distributions in asphalt mixtures and as a tool for detecting first fracture. Crack initiation and crack growth were predicted effectively using a Displacement Discontinuity (DD) boundary element method.

  • 12.
    Birgisson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Taylor, Peter
    Armaghani, Jamshid
    Shah, Surendra P.
    American Road Map for Research for Nanotechnology-Based Concrete Materials2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2142, 130-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behavior of concrete materials depends to a large extent on structural elements and phenomena that are effective on micro- and nanoscales. The nanomodification of concrete materials has the potential to open up new uses and classes of concrete materials, with wide-ranging implications for the concrete transportation infrastructure. The development of nanotechnology-based concrete materials will require a multidisciplinary approach, consisting of teams of civil engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists. To help develop nanotechnology-based concrete materials, a concentrated effort was undertaken in the United States to develop a national road map for research in this area. This effort included two National Science Foundation (NSF) workshops held in August 2006 and September 2007. In addition to NSF, the Portland Cement Association, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Florida Concrete and Products Association, the Army Corps of Engineers, TRB, and the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures sponsored this effort. The road map for nanotechnology-based concrete materials charts a path beginning with current nanotechnology capabilities to advanced materials and systems. The road map details key milestones and step-by-step short-term, intermediate, and long-term courses of development that must take place to reach these key milestones. The road map also serves as a tool to identify the gap between the basic concrete materials of today and the potential of nanosystems and nanomaterials interacting in concrete nano-houses, nano-bridges, and nano-pavements. The national road map for nanotechnology-based concrete is described and discussed.

  • 13.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Tasdemir, Yüksel
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Environmental friendly wax modified mastic asphalt2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastic asphalt products (Gussasphalt) require high working temperatures, and harder requirements concerning bitumen fumes and carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, the need of a new means of producing and placing mastic asphalt at lower temperatures is particularly large. One way of reducing asphalt mixture temperature is by using special flow improving additives like wax. This technique has successively been tried for polymer modified mastic asphalt used for bridge decks and parking areas in Sweden. However, there still are uncertainties about possible negative impact on crack susceptibility at lower temperatures due to wax additives.In this study, 4% montan wax (Asphaltan A) was used for one particular polymer modified mastic asphalt product. Type and amount of wax additive was selected based on results from earlier studies. The impact on binder, binder/filler mixtures and mastic asphalt from production was tested in the laboratory, focusing on low temperature performance. The bending beam rheometer (BBR) was used for determining low temperature creep compliance and the tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST) for determining fracture temperatures. Binder properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional tests (softening point, penetration, elastic recovery, breaking point, viscosity and storage stability). Aging was performed using the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) at 200°C.As expected, the addition of wax to the polymer modified binder showed a viscosity reduction at higher temperatures, corresponding to a similar positive effect of more than 10°C on production and laying temperature for the mastic asphalt. DMA and BBR results showed some increase in stiffness and a more elastic response of the wax modified binder at medium and low temperatures. The TSRST fracture temperature was 5 °C higher for the mastic asphalt containing wax, indicating however no dramatic negative impact on crack susceptibility.

  • 14. Charlier, R
    et al.
    Hornych, P
    Srsen, M
    Hermansson, A
    Bjarnason, G
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Pavsic, P
    Water Influence on Bearing Capacity and Pavement Performance: Field Observations2009In: Water in Road Structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, 175-192 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a mechanical behaviour study, i.e. the bearing capacity as a function of the moisture degree. The field point of view is expressed and the chapter summarises a number of observations on road behaviour, in relation to variations of moisture. First, the road structure is recalled with respect to the mechanical analysis point of view. Then some observations on field under temperate climate, humid, are given. In a second step, the specific case of frost and thawing are discussed.

  • 15. Charlier, R
    et al.
    Laloui, L
    Brencic, M
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Hansson, K
    Hornych, P
    Modelling Coupled Mechanics, Moisture and Heat in Pavement Structures2009In: Water in Road Structures: movement, drainage and effects / [ed] Andrew Dawson, Springer, 2009, 243-281 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different physical problems have been analysed in the preceding {chapters}: they relate to water transfer, to heat transfer, to pollutant transfer and to mechanical equilibrium. All these problems are governed by differential equations and boundary conditions but analytical solutions are, in general, unobtainable because of the complex interaction of the various aspects which are always present in real-world situations. In such circumstances, numerical modelling can give a valuable alternative methodology for solving such highly coupled problems. The first part of this chapter is dedicated to a brief statement of the finite element method for highly coupled phenomena. In the second part, a number of numerical simulations are summarised as an illustration of what could be done with modern tools. The chapter shows that it is possible to achieve realistic results although, at present, some simplification is often required to do so.

  • 16.
    Du, Guangli
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Implementation of the SuperPave IDT analysis procedure2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cracking is one of the most severe distress modes of asphaltpavements. Thus characterising the fracture resistance properties of asphaltmixtures is the key issue for improving the performance relatedmixture design. The present master thesis project addresses the implementationof the theoretical framework, which is used to characterise thefracture resistance of mixtures based on the SuperPave indirect tensiletest (IDT). An open source Matlab-based software for analysing resilientmodulus, Poisson’s ratio, creep parameters and fracture resistance parametershas been developed. The software analyses the the IDT results, toestimate mixture’s fracture resistance based on hot mix asphalt FractureMechanics. Predictions form the field specimens concerning the fractureresistance obtained from IDT are compared with observed field performance.

  • 17.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Evaluation of Dust Suppressants for Gravel Roads: Methods Development and Efficiency Studies2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 75 percent (300 000 km) of the total Swedish road network and 20 percent(20 000 km) of the national road network consists of gravel roads. One of the most significantproblems associated with gravel roads is traffic-generated dust emission, which contributes tothe deterioration of the road surface and acts as a major source of particulate matter releasedinto the atmosphere, thereby involving public economics, road safety, human health, andenvironmental quality. In order to bind the fine granular material, which is prone to rise into theair, dust suppressants are applied on roads on a yearly basis.

    Methods for evaluating the efficiency of dust suppressants will facilitate in the selection of themost appropriate product and its optimal application rate. For example, methods forsupervision of residual dust suppressant concentration are valuable tools for estimatinglongevity and optimal application rates, and, consequently, effectiveness of different products.

    Application of the proper dust suppressant to a gravel road ensures road safety and ridingcomfort as well as creating a cleaner and healthier environment for residents in buildingsadjacent to the road. It also reduces the need and cost for vehicle repair, road maintenanceactivities, and aggregate supplementation.

    Both field-based and laboratory research were performed to evaluate the efficiency of varioussuppressants and the influence such factors as product concentration, leaching, and fine materialcontent have on the efficiency of different products. Within the field-based research, a newlydeveloped mobile methodology was used to measure dust emission on numerous test sectionstreated with various dust suppressants. In general, all dust suppressants tested, except apolysaccharide (sugar) and products, which form a brittle surface crust, i.e. lignosulphonate andbitumen emulsion, showed acceptable dust reduction.

    Test sections treated with a magnesium- or calcium chloride solution were the most effectivelydust suppressed. The application of solutions instead of a solid salts achieves a more uniformproduct distribution and, therefore, probably a more efficient performance. By applying acalcium- or magnesium chloride solution instead of traditionally used solids, the cost for annualdust control, as well as the environmental impact from the release of these chemicals in theenvironment, can be reduced by 50 percent.

    A significant problem when using dust suppressants is their tendency to leach during rainfalldue to their soluble properties. Residual chloride could be detected in the gravel wearing courseover a longer period of time than lignosulphonate and, therefore, showed more effective longtermperformance. Optimal percentages of fine material for minimal lignosulphonate andchloride leaching were found to be 15 percent by weight and 10-16 percent by weight,respectively. Ions of calcium chloride seemed to initiate flocculation of clay particles, therebypreventing them from leaching. Still, the fine material in gravel wearing courses has to be replenished regularly as indicated by studies of the longevity of fine material. Loss up to80 percent was found after two years.

    Toxicity tests show that dust suppressant application for dust control purposes, at traditionallyused application rates, does not constitute a threat to sensitive aquatic life. Tests on subsoilwater samples indicated elevated chloride levels, which possibly could cause corrosion to pipes,but not high enough to flavour drinking water.

  • 18.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Gravel Roads and Dust Suppression2009In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 10, no 3, 439-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper deals with the field of dust generation on gravel roads, dust suppressant performance and evaluation techniques. By applying the proper dust suppressant, matching the gravel road condition specific to the site, dust emission can be reduced, thereby providing a healthier ambient air environment, increasing road safety and ride comfort while reducing the need and cost of vehicle repair, road maintenance activities, and aggregate replacement. By applying the proper application rate of the dust suppressant, the cost of annual dust control as well as the environmental impact can be significantly reduced. Suitable measuring techniques for evaluating dust suppressant efficiency will facilitate the choice of the most appropriate dust suppressant and its optimal application rate.

  • 19.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Ekblad, Jonas
    NCC Roads AB.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna Högskolan.
    Methods for Quantification of Lignosulphonate and Chloride in Gravel Wearing Courses2010In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 11, no 1, 171-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to oxidation, breakdown, and leaching, dust suppressants will be lost from the gravel road surface. Methods for residual dust suppressant concentration supervision are a valuable tool for estimating life-length and optimal application rates, and, hence, efficiency of different products. The objective of this study was to identify methods for quantitative analyses of lignosulphonate and chloride, develop and adapt the methods for application on a gravel matrix, and validate the methods using samples collected in-situ. Results strongly suggest that the reliability and repeatability of the developed methods (23% for lignosulphonate and 30% for chloride, respectively) are acceptable for determination of relative variations in residual concentrations of dust suppressed gravel wearing courses.

  • 20.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna Högskolan .
    Impact of fine materials content on the transport of dust suppressants in gravel road wearing courses2011In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 23, no 8, 1163-1170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant problem when dust-suppressing agents are used on gravel roads is that they tend to leach during rainfall. The purpose of this study is to illustrate this problem by using laboratory studies and studies in situ. Both capillary rise and leaching of suppressants were examined by using cylinders filled with wearing course material. Chloride was more prone than lignosulphonate to transport upwards by means of capillary rise, and therefore, it showed a more effective performance over a longer period of time. Optimal percentages of fine material for minimal lignosulphonate and chloride leaching were found to be 15% by weight and 10-15% by weight, respectively. Ions of calcium chloride seemed to flocculate clay particles, which probably prevents them from leaching. To study the in situ longevity of fine material in general, calcium carbonate, mesa, was used as a marker. The fine material in gravel wearing courses must be replenished regularly. Mesa loss was up to 80% after 1 year.

  • 21.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna Högskolan.
    Monitoring of dust emission on gravel roads: Development of a mobile methodology and examination of horizontal diffusion2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 4, 889-896 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic-generated fugitive dust on gravel roads impairs visibility and deposits on the adjacent environment. Particulate matter smaller than 10 mu m in diameter (PM10) is also associated with human health problems. Dust emission strength depends on the composition of granular material, road moisture, relative humidity, local Climate (precipitation, wind velocity, etc.), and vehicle characteristics.

    The objectives of this study Were to develop a reliable and rapid mobile methodology to measure dust concentrations on gravel roads, evaluate the precision and repeatability of the methodology and correspondence with the currently used Visual assessment technique. Downwind horizontal diffusion was studied to evaluate the risk of exceeding the maximum allowed particulate matter concentration in ambient air near gravel roads according to European Council Directive [European Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Official Journal of the European Communities. L163/41.].

    A TSI DustTrak Aerosol Monitor was mounted on an estate car travelling along test sections treated with various dust suppressants. Measured PM10 concentrations were compared to Visual assessments performed at the same time. Airborne particles were collected in filters Mounted behind the vehicle to compare the whole dust fraction with the PM10 concentration. For measuring the horizontal diffusion, DustTraks were placed at Various distances downwind of a dusty road section.

    The mobile methodology was vehicle and speed dependent but not driver dependent with pre-specified driving behaviours. A high linear correlation between PM10 of different vehicles makes relative measurements of dust concentrations possible. The methodology gives continuous data series, mobility, and easy handling and provides fast, reliable and inexpensive measurements for estimating road conditions to make road maintenance more efficient.

    Good correlations between measured PM10-values, visually assessed dust generation and dust collected in filters were obtained. PM10 seems to be correlated to the whole dust fraction that impairs visibility on gravel roads.

    A decay in PM10 concentration as a function of distance from the road was observed. Measured particles principally did not travel further than 45 m from the road. The risk of exceeding the PM10 concentration stated in the EC-directive seems small.

  • 22.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    How does wax influence asphalt in cold climate?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture performance2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Influence of waxes on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture performance2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis consists of a literature review, presented in two papers, and another six papers describing experimental studies of the influence of different kinds of wax and polyphosporic acid on bitumen and asphalt concrete mixture properties.

    The literature review should give an extensive description of the field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. Effects of wax in crude oil, bitumen and asphalt concrete as well as test methods for studying these effects are described. Theories behind possible mechanisms are also discussed, and commercial wax as additive to bitumen for different purposes included.

    The experimental parts comprise laboratory studies involving totally five 160/220 penetration base bitumens from different sources, two isolated bitumen waxes, five commercial waxes and one polyphosphoric acid. Asphalt concrete slabs, containing base or modified bitumen were prepared and tested. Binder properties were evaluated using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer, as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point, viscosity, and Fraass breaking point. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC-FID) were used for chemical characterization. The binders were aged by means of the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure ageing vessel (PAV) in combination. Asphalt concrete properties were evaluated at low temperatures using the tensile strain restrained specimen test (TSRST) and creep test at -25°C. Dynamic creep testing was performed at 40°C, as well as complex modulus tests between 0 and 20°C.

    Binder test results indicated that the magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself, type of crystallizing fraction in the bitumen and/or type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to a non-waxy 160/220 penetration grade bitumen, showed no or positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures (decrease in stiffness) as well as medium and high temperatures (increase in complex modulus and decrease in phase angle). However, the corresponding positive effects could not be shown in dynamic creep testing (at 40°C) of asphalt concrete mixtures containing these modified binders. Adding FT-paraffin decreased the physical hardening index for all bitumens. Also polyethylene wax and montan wax showed this effect for some bitumens. Slack wax showed a large increasing effect on physical hardening, and polyphosphoric acid none or a minor negative effect. No correlation between physical hardening index (PHI) and wax content by DSC was found in this study, involving both natural bitumen wax and commercial wax.

    Addition of the commercial waxes used showed no or marginally positive influence on bitumen ageing properties for the bitumens and test conditions used. Comparing asphalt mixture test results to the corresponding binder test results, the effects on asphalt mixtures from adding commercial wax or polyphosphoric acid were less evident. Significant binder physical hardening by BBR could not be confirmed by TSRST.

  • 25.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on polymer modified mastic asphalt performance2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4TH EURASPHALT AND EUROBITUME CONGRESS, 2010, no Paper No. 401-014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wax additives in polymer modified coarse aggregate mastic asphalt in Europe is reviewed. Commercial wax such as FT-paraffin and montan wax are typical so-called bitumen flow improvers, which are used for asphalt pavements and mastic asphalt to reduce the mixing temperature and thereby energy consumption and emissions. Workability may be improved as well. These waxes differ a great deal from natural bitumen wax with respect to molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. They have high congealing points around 100degreesC and higher melting areas than natural wax in bitumen. Results are presented from an ongoing joint Swedish project about wax as flow improver in polymer modified bitumen for mastic asphalt production. Wax modification should not have any noticeable negative impact on the performance of mastic asphalt products at medium and lower temperatures. The project involves laboratory testing of wax and polymer modified binders and mastic asphalt mixtures, as well as field studies. Effects of adding two commercial waxes to one polymer modified bitumen are presented in this paper. The results show that both waxes have a flow improving/viscosity depressant impact on the polymer bitumen at higher temperatures, indicating a possible lower laying temperature for the mastic asphalt if modified with such waxes. Moreover, there is a stiffening effect at medium and high temperatures (below laying temperature), indicating a certain positive effect on stability. Concerning low temperature performance, there was a negative impact on crack susceptibility at low temperatures, which was larger with the addition of FT-paraffin than the addition of montan wax. For the covering abstract see ITRD E157233

  • 26.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Influence of waxes on polymer modified mastic asphalt performance2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Polymer modified bitumen for airfields: Pristina Airport2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airfield pavements are exposed to special conditions such as the effects of runway and aircraft deicing chemicals, which may result in accelerated deterioration of the pavement. Aircraft safety may be jeopardised through stones loosening from the pavement, causing damage to aircraft engines. Accelerated deterioration of the pavement also shortens pavement life, resulting in increased capital costs. Special requirements therefore are needed for airfield pavements and binders used in such pavements. In Sweden, polymer modified bitumen frequently is used for asphalt concrete pavements on civil airfields. Special requirements specifications based on climatic conditions have been developed for such binders to ensure good performance as well as good resistance to deicing chemicals. Within a project run by Swedavia, renovation was carried out since spring 2004 at Pristina airport in Kosovo. The selection of bitumen is based on climatic conditions in the Kosovo area and Swedish experience of polymer modified binders for airfields since 1998. For the wearing course, the selected binder will be polymer modified bitumen fulfilling the requirements of PG (Performance Grade) 76-22 according to SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) with certain additional tests and requirements. In this paper, Swedish experience of polymer modified binders for airfields is summarized and the binder design for Pristina airport discussed. For the covering abstract see ITRD E139491.

  • 28.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Swedish experience of modified binders and asphalt mixtures2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Edwards, Ylva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Vad är vax i bitumen och asfalt?2007Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Experience of adding wax to bitumen and asphalt mixture products2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Wax in bitumen: Part 1: Classifications and General Aspects2005In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 6, no 3, 281-309 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wax in bitumen has for a long time been of great interest, particularly regarding effects on bitumen quality and methods for determining wax content. Opinions about wax in bitumen have varied over the years and sometimes been contradictory. The findings of a literature study are presented in two companion papers. The main intention of the study was to give an extensive description ofthe field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. In this paper, classifications and general aspects on effects of wax in crude oil and bitumen are described. Theories behind possible mechanisms are also discussed, and commercial wax as additive to bitumen for different purposes described. Effects of wax are influenced by chemical composition and rheological properties of the bitumen, amount of wax in the bitumen as well as chemical composition and crystalline structure of the wax. The effect of wax on bitumen is linked to its crystallinity and melting properties. The temperature range of application as well as the definition of wax in bitumen is also of great importance. The presence of large wax crystals (macrocrystalline wax) in bitumen is considered to be most problematic. However, waxes in bitumen generally are microcrystalline and/or amorphous and can contain branched, alicyclic and aromatic components with heteroatoms, which renders crystallization considerably more difficult.

  • 32.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Wax in bitumen: Part II: Characterization and Effects2005In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 6, no 4, 439-468 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of different methods for isolating and characterizing wax in bitumen, as well as for determination of wax content, have been used over the years. The methods used for determining wax content all give different results for one and the same bitumen, which has caused problems for many years. Through different types of phase transition, wax in bitumen influences bitumen properties to a larger or minor extent. In some cases, such an influence may give rise to negative effects like increased sensitivity to cracking or plastic deformation in asphalt concrete pavements. In other cases, wax may even show positive effects on bitumen, such as increased stiffness at higher temperatures, leading to improved resistance to rutting. This paper is the second of two companion papers discussing the field of knowledge concerning wax in bitumen. In the first paper, classifications and general aspects on effects of wax in crude oil and bitumen are described.

  • 33.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Energy saving and environmental friendly wax concept for polymer modified mastic asphalt2010In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 43, 123-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the addition of commercial wax as flow improver in polymer modified bitumen intended for use in mastic asphalt pavements under Nordic climatic conditions. Different aspects are dealt with. The aim of the project is to make mastic asphalt used in Sweden today (for bridges, parking decks etc.) more environment friendly and easier to handle. However, wax modification must not have any noticeable negative impact on the performance of mastic asphalt at medium and lower temperatures. The project involves laboratory testing of wax and polymer modified binder mixtures as well as mastic asphalt mixtures. Effects of adding two commercial waxes to one polymer modified bitumen have been studied. The results show that both waxes have a flow improving/viscosity depressant impact on the polymer modified bitumen at higher temperatures, indicating a possible lower laying temperature for the mastic asphalt if modified with such waxes. Moreover, there is a stiffening effect at medium and high temperatures (below placing temperature), indicating a certain positive effect on stability. Concerning low temperature performance, there are results indicating some negative impact on crack susceptibility at low temperatures, more by the addition of one of the waxes than by addition of the other. However, it could be concluded that using up to at least 4% of either wax additive will improve workability for the mastic asphalt product under investigation making it possible to lower working temperatures without seriously affecting its good performance in any negative way.

  • 34.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Effects of commercial waxes on asphalt concrete mixtures performance at low and medium temperatures2006In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 45, no 1, 31-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Influence of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid on bitumen and asphalt concrete performance at low and medium temperatures2006In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 39, no 7, 725-737 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of adding four types of commercial wax and one polyphosphoric acid to a non-waxy bitumen was investigated with regard to binder and asphalt concrete mixture performance. Binder properties were determined using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer, force ductilometer and various conventional test methods. Asphalt concrete performance was investigated using tensile stress restrained specimen test (TSRST), creep test at -25 degrees C, dynamic creep test at 40 degrees C and complex modulus test at 0, 10 and 20 degrees C. Totally eleven binders and eight asphalt mixtures were investigated.

    TSRST fracture temperatures of the asphalt mixtures were marginally influenced by the addition of any of the additives, and significant physical hardening of the binders, observed by BBR testing, could not be established using TSRST. Also in creep testing of asphalt mixtures at -25 degrees C, recorded effects were less pronounced compared to binder testing.

    In dynamic creep testing, the smallest permanent strains were recorded for the asphalt mixtures containing FT-paraffin or montan wax, indicating better resistance to rutting. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid to the non-waxy bitumen used, showed considerable positive stiffening effects on the binder at medium and higher temperatures. However, this increase in stiffness could not be shown in dynamic creep testing (at 40 degrees C) of asphalt concrete mixtures containing these additives.

  • 36.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Influence of commercial waxes on bitumen aging properties2005In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 19, no 6, 2519-2525 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging properties of wax-modified 160/220 bitumens and the influence of wax on these properties were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), bending beam rheometer (BBR) analysis, force ductility testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography (TLC-FID). The binders were aged by means of the rolling thin-film oven test (RTFOT) and a pressure aging vessel (PAV). It was observed that aging resulted in oxidation of the bitumen (increase in carbonyl absorbance and in resin and/or asphaltene content by TLC-FID.) Changes in rheological properties of aged wax-modified binders depended on the base bitumen as well as on the type and amount of wax additive. Aging increased the complex modulus as well as elasticity, indicated by a decrease in phase angle at medium temperatures. For the polyethylene wax (PW)-modified binders, originally showing a large decrease in phase angle at higher temperature, this decrease was markedly reduced by aging, indicating network damage. Results and aging indexes obtained in this study indicate no or marginally positive influence of wax on bitumen aging properties.

  • 37.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220: High and medium temperature performance2007In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 21, no 10, 1899-1908 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Force Ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with effects at medium and high in-service temperatures likely to affect the rutting performance of an asphalt concrete pavement. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen theology depend on the bitumen as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid especially to a non-waxy bitumen, showed considerable positive effects on the theological behaviour at medium and higher temperatures.

  • 38.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Tasdemir, Yuksel
    Yozgat Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Erciyes University, Yozgat, Turkey.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220: low temperature performance2006In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 85, no 7-8, 989-997 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with low-temperature effects, which could influence the thermal cracking resistance of asphalt concrete pavements. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to nonwaxy 160/220-penetration grade bitumen, showed positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures.

  • 39.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Water in coarse granular materials: Resilient and retentive properties2008In: Adv. Transp. Geotech. - Proc. Int. Conf. Transp. Geotech., 2008, 117-123 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular material is, perhaps the most common construction material used in civil engineering, being an important constituent in road constructions, railways, embankments, foundations, buildings etc. This paper presents results from triaxial testing, at various water contents using constant confining pressure, of two different continuously graded granular materials with maximum particle size 90 mm and 63 mm, respectively. Furthermore, water retention properties of the unbound materials are presented and examples of water distributions in a common construction are shown. From the results presented, it can be concluded that increased water contents cause a reduction in resilient modulus and an increase in strain ratio. The distribution of water content in the vertical direction is highly nonlinear and the degree of saturation in the unbound layers of a road construction depends to a large degree on the level of the water table.

  • 40.
    Erlingsson, Sigurd
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Rutting development in pavements in a HVS test at Sunninge, Sweden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    EVALUATION OF ATTEMPTS FOR EFFICIENT ROAD MAINTENANCE - KNOWLEDGE COMPILATION2010In: BALT J ROAD BRIDGE ENG, ISSN 1822-427X, Vol. 5, no 4, 229-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compile experiences regarding efforts by road authorities to satisfy the needs for efficient maintenance and the results of such efforts. The extent to which maintenance aspects are considered during road planning and design, as a potential for improvement of maintenance efficiency is studied. The study shows that such efforts have in many cases resulted in reduced maintenance costs. However, there are also indications that maintenance standards in some cases have declined, as the focus has been on reduction of the rate of recurring maintenance activities and prioritisation of some maintenance measures, e.g. winter maintenance, over other maintenance measures, e.g. pavement maintenance. The study also shows that efforts towards increased maintenance efficiency have one thing in common - namely that the main focus has been on improving operating practices and maintenance procedures. Road authorities have mostly ignored the improvement potentials that exist during the planning and design process through consideration of the interrelationship between geometrical road design and maintenance.

  • 42.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Improved road design for future maintenance: analysis of road barrier repair costs2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of a road construction over its service life is a function of the design, quality of construction, maintenance strategies and maintenance operations. Unfortunately, designers often neglect a very important aspect which is the possibility to perform future maintenance activities. The focus is mainly on other aspects such as investment costs, traffic safety, aesthetic appearance, regional development and environmental effects.

    This licentiate thesis is a part of a Ph.D. project entitled “Road Design for lower maintenance costs” that aims to examine how the life-cycle costs can be optimized by selection of appropriate geometrical designs for the roads and their components. The result is expected to give a basis for a new method used in the road planning and design process using life-cycle cost analysis with particular emphasis on road maintenance.

    The project started with a review of literature with the intention to study conditions causing increased needs for road maintenance, the efforts made by the road authorities to satisfy those needs and the improvement potential by consideration of maintenance aspects during planning and design.

    An investigation was carried out to identify the problems which obstruct due consideration of maintenance aspects during the road planning and design process. This investigation focused mainly on the road planning and design process at the Swedish Road Administration. However, the road planning and design process in Denmark, Finland and Norway were also roughly evaluated to gain a broader knowledge about the research subject. The investigation was carried out in two phases: data collection and data analysis. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews with expert actors involved in planning, design and maintenance and by a

    review of design-related documents. Data analyses were carried out using a method called “Change Analysis”. This investigation revealed a complex combination of problems which result in inadequate consideration of maintenance aspects. Several urgent needs for changes to eliminate these problems were identified.

    Another study was carried out to develop a model for calculation of the repair costs for damages of different road barrier types and to analyse how factors such as road type, speed limits, barrier types, barrier placement, type of road section, alignment and seasonal effects affect the barrier damages and the associated repair costs. This study was carried out using a method called the “Case Study Research Method”. Data was collected from 1087 barrier repairs in two regional offices of the Swedish Road Administration, the Central Region and the Western Region. A table was established for both regions containing the repair cost per vehicle kilometre for different combinations of barrier types, road types and speed limits. This table can be used by the designers in the calculation of the life-cycle costs for different road barrier types.

  • 43.
    Karim, Hawzheen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Road Design for Future Maintenance Problems and Possibilities2008In: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 134, no 12, 523-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation conducted to identify obstacles that prevent sufficient consideration of future road maintenance needs during the road planning and design phase. The investigation focuses on the road planning and design process within the Swedish Road Administration. For this reason the results are applicable for Nordic conditions concerning road design, maintenance, and climate. However, the results focus on general aspects of the planning and design process and ought to also be valid for other conditions outside the Nordic countries. The investigation was carried out using a method called "change analysis," which consists of complementary steps for the analysis of problems, processes, and goals in order to identify necessary changes. The investigation identified several problems within the road planning and design process related to consulting, knowledge, planning and design activities, regulations, organization structure, and demands from other authorities. The identified problems, activities within the planning and design process, and goals for the process were analyzed. Based on these analyses the investigation identifies the most urgent needs for change in order to eliminate the problems that result in insufficient consideration of maintainability during the planning and design process.

  • 44.
    Karlsson, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Material-related aspects of asphalt recycling-state-of-the-art2006In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 18, no 1, 81-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current knowledge on material-related aspects of asphalt recycling with focus on findings from fundamental studies is summarized. By way of introduction, a general description of different types of asphalt recycling methods is given, after which a more detailed compilation of material-related knowledge is presented. Special attention is given to the binder rejuvenation process at asphalt recycling, that is the restoration of reclaimed binder properties. Studies concerning properties of recycled mixtures are also summarized.

  • 45. Kim, J.
    et al.
    Roque, R.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Integration of thermal fracture in the HMA fracture model2008In: Journal of Asphalt Paving Technologists, ISSN 0270-2932, Vol. 77, 631-661 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field observations indicate that both traffic and thermal stresses affect top-down cracking performance of flexible pavements. Further evaluation of these observations will require the development and use of cracking models that can consider the effect of temperature. A rigorous analytical model was developed to assess the effect of thermal loading conditions and mixture properties on dissipated creep strain energy (DCSE) and cracking. Accumulation of DCSE in a mixture subjected to thermal stresses is much less straightforward than for load-induced stresses, and performance may be affected by the rheological aspects of the mixture other than creep. Appropriate equations were developed to calculate thermal stress development and DCSE accumulation for an asphalt mixture subjected to thermal loading cycles. Calculations performed with the resulting model showed that although top-down cracking performance in Florida was most strongly affected by traffic loading, thermal effects also affected performance. A combined system that incorporates the effect of both load- and temperature-induced damages on top-down cracking was developed and resulted in better correlation between predicted and observed top-down cracking performances.

  • 46. Kim, Sungho
    et al.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Laboratory evaluation for rutting performance based on the DASR porosity of asphalt mixture2008In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 9, no 3, 421-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that gradation characteristics determine whether the aggregate structure in asphalt mixture results in good performance. A recent study indicated that large enough aggregates should engage dominantly to form an aggregate structure that can resist deformation; also, a new approach identified the porosity of the Dominant Aggregate Size Range (DASR) as the key parameter that determines whether or not a particular gradation results in a suitable aggregate structure. This paper presents a laboratory experiment to evaluate the DASR porosity in terms of its ability to identify unsuitable aggregate structures. Fight dense-graded Superpave mixtures were designed using two aggregate types (limestone and granite). For each aggregate hype, mixtures with varying DASR porosity were produced and tested to evaluate laboratory rutting resistance. Test results indicated that the new approach successfully, separated mixtures according to their observed laboratory rutting performance, indicating that DASR porosity can serve as an effective parameter to evaluate aggregate structure.

  • 47. Kim, Sungho
    et al.
    Roque, Reynaldo
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Guarin, Alvaro
    Porosity of the Dominant Aggregate Size Range to Evaluate Coarse Aggregate Structure of Asphalt Mixtures2009In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 21, no 1, 32-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from an evaluation of a new gradation-based framework developed for identifying and assessing the coarse aggregate structure of dense-graded mixtures for resistance to rutting. A theoretical packing-based analysis procedure was used to evaluate the coarse aggregate structure for hot mix asphalt mixtures. This procedure was applied to an extensive range of mixtures. A key feature of this new framework is the concept of the existence of a dominant aggregate size range (DASR). The porosity of the DASR is calculated based on an interaction diagram to evaluate the degree of particle-to-particle interaction of coarse aggregates between contiguous sieve sizes. In addition, an interaction diagram-based criteria for dense-graded Superpave mixtures are determined, as well as criteria for the porosity of the DASR. Based on the field and laboratory-based rutting performance of the mixtures evaluated in this paper, it was concluded that DASR along with the porosity of the DASR may provide a framework for evaluating the gradation of dense graded mixtures for their likely rutting potential.

  • 48.
    Laurell Lyne, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Minerals and their dispersive interaction with bitumen2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Laurell Lyne, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Redelius, Per
    Nynas Bitumen, Nynäs AB, Nynäshamn, Sweden.
    Interaction forces between mineral aggregates and bitumen Calculated using the Hamaker constant2010In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 11, 305-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture damages to bituminous pavements leads to costly repairs. The most serious outcome of the influence of water is the loss of adhesion between binders and aggregates. This is often described as stripping. Adhesion is the ability at a molecular level of materials to stick steadfastly to one another. An alternative way of explaining the adhesion of bitumen to aggregates is presented in this paper using the Hamaker constant, a measure of the van der Waals attraction forces between two materials. The Hamaker constant is significantly lower for water as the intervening medium than for air. For the aggregates and minerals studied, the Lifshitz-van der Waals interactions contribute 65-78 percent of the 'work of adhesion' calculated by the acid-base method. The performance of the aggregates and minerals correlates well to A(total) where resistance to stripping data is available.

  • 50.
    Laurell Lyne, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    Redelius, Per
    Nynas Bitumen, Nynäs AB, Nynäshamn, Sweden.
    Collin, Måns
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway and Railway Engineering (closed 20110301).
    The mechanism of adhesion between aggregates and bitumen in asphaltIn: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 72
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