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  • 1.
    Aas, Steffen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Hillestad, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Verdivurdering av næringseiendom - hva brukes av aktørene i markedet?: - Er det behov for en verdivurderingsstandard i det norske markedet? 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Abaris, Nedas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Sjönoce, Firass
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Investors and valuers: Similarities and differences from a behavioural perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an explorative analysis of the commercial real estate actors. The behavioral theory has revealed many flaws in the neo classical assumptions. This includes models of rationality and prescribed behaviors. Research suggests both appraisers and investor act in ways that can be seen as irrational. Appraisers amongst other things anchor to figures that are not part of the valuation theory and investor invest on bases that are not fundamentally sound. Both also exhibit biases, such as confirmation bias and loss aversion. If valuation does not reflect the way market participants behave then they fail to give us a correct market value. We use interviews to try and understand how appraisers try to reflect the market and to understand how investors and other market actors value properties by comparing their use of the DCF-method. Our results suggest that there are many technical differences between how methods are used by different actors and that appraisers have a too close connection with the market actors.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Designing appropriate contracts for achieving efficient winter road and railway maintenance with high performance quality: A survey of the state of practice in Sweden2014Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 399-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - For a long time, the winter maintenance of the Swedish road and railway network had been performed in-house by Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish local authorities i.e. municipalities and Stockholm public transport. During the last 15 years the winter operation and maintenance of these state infrastructures have been performed by public procurement and contracting from independent contractors, where in practice the lowest price is the dominating selection criteria. The aim of this paper is to investigate and identify how these contracts are designed and how satisfied the parties are with the contract and the quality of the performed work during the winter and point our directions for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted by a literature review and followed by semi-structured interviews and electronic questionnaire. Findings - The results of the study which are based on the interviews and the online questionnaire show that there is widespread dissatisfaction with the contracts among both clients and contractors. Practical implications - The article prepares a basis showing how a contract affects the quality of the performed winter road and railway maintenance services. Originality/value - The findings lead to a number of suggestions about how to improve the contracts, e.g. having a separate winter maintenance contract to increase the quality of performed winter maintenance measures, a more partnering-like structure where consultations and adjustment can be made during the contract period. A partnering structure also makes it less important to get all the details right in the contract.

  • 4.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Effective Winter Highway Maintenance through Applicationof Partnering Concept2013Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics (IJEME), ISSN 1756-5154, E-ISSN 1756-5162, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 112-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inmany countries winter road maintenance is outsourced to private contractors. Selecting appropriate contract for performance of winter highway maintenance and implementing it in an efficient way is then very important for both results and costs. Writing contracts concerning winter road maintenance is however difficult as weather conditions are hard to describe in an exact way and as what is rational to do in a certain situation, depends on expected future conditions. Problems during recent harsh winters in Sweden have clearly illustrated this. The study argues, with reference both to theoretical and empirical studies, that a partnering concept can improve efficiency in outsourced winter road maintenance. A detailed model of how partnering can be implemented is presented for winter road maintenance contracts together with systems for information supply such as International Roughness Index –surface unevenness measurement and Road Weather Information System.

  • 5.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services2013Inngår i: Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, ISSN 1835-6354, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 18-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries with severe winters, a major portion of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated to winter road maintenance. Thus it is important to identify an appropriate basis for the remuneration of the entrepreneurs who carry out the maintenance tasks, one that minimises or eliminates disputes and that satisfies both client organisations and contractors. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden for winter road maintenance services and suggest possible improvements. Inadequate reimbursement models lead either to unnecessary cost overruns that affect the client's annual budget or cause cash flow problems for the contractor, which can result in safety issues. To solve the problems associated with paying for just-in-time road maintenance, cold region countries such as Sweden have developed various remuneration models, including some based on what is known as the Weather Index. The study uses a domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of current contract documents, a series of meetings with project managers followed by an international benchmarking investigation. The study identified four winter maintenance remuneration models of which one is based on weather data. The study reveals that the payment model based on weather data statistics is applied only to roads with higher traffic flow and generates the most uncertainty about costs. Possible improvements should include more reliable weather data obtained from weather stations and bonuses related to customer satisfaction.

  • 6.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Public Procurement of Winter Road Maintenance Services Based on EU Procurement Directive: Lessons from Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Investment and Management, ISSN 2328-7721, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 70-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement of road maintenance services, particularly in cold regions is not an easy task in order to satisfy road-users during winter. Road-users’ dissatisfaction, complaint and pressure can usually be considered as major factors for having more accessible and safe roads during winter. These pressures have contributed and led to an increasing critical approach focusing on public procurement of these services after some harsh winters in the recent years in Sweden with traffic disruption and delay as consequence i.e. an increasing focus on the way in which the Swedish state authorities and local governments procure winter road maintenance services. The present study which is part of a larger research project investigating efficient winter road maintenance through procurement, tendering and contract aimed at extending this knowledge base with regard to procurement and socioeconomic factors with focus on the winter maintenance of the Swedish road network. The study reveals that even the Swedish winter road maintenance services are procured and outsourced in accordance with EU directive and public procurement rules transposed into the Swedish act on public procurement, the act has been interpreted in a manner that all the process has led to great dissatisfaction of end-users during winter due to improper bundling of winter related services. The lack of economic motivation in current contracts concerning winter road maintenance in the form of incentives has led to an inefficient performance of winter road measures. The study suggests a number of proposals in order to make forthcoming contracts more effective through proper bundling of winter services and create incentives for contractors to improve the performance of winter road maintenance services.

  • 7.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Use of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) as Assistive Tool for Effective Winter Road Maintenance: Technical andContractual Interactions2012Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering and Technolgy, ISSN 2049-3444, Vol. 2, nr 12, s. 2002-2012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter highway operation and maintenance in the northern periphery is a challenge, a broad and complex area. Understanding about this area and its effect on winter traffic performance is far from complete. During the last forty years since Swedish Transport Administration (former Swedish National Road Administration) began attempting of the use of Road Weather Information System -RWIS on the Swedish road network, the repair and maintenance methods of this assistive tool has dramatically changed. Changing of the methods have been due to the progress and development of the technology within this area i.e. from simple stations that could be connected via telephone network for icy road warning to amore sophisticated and modern internet based technology. The main objective of this study was to investigate and find the importance and effectiveness of using weather data collected from RWIS by road agencies as an assistive tool for effective performance of winter road maintenance, and how these tools are currently maintained without influencing the delay of winter road maintenance.The study also attempts to find possible interactions between technical and contractual issues that may affect winter road maintenance. The method of the study was partly based on a theoretical study by reviewing some internationally published articles and reports in this area and furthermore a domestic questionnaire survey, an internationalbenchmarking and a follow-up study within a selected region in Sweden. The results of the study reveal that even if the weather stations are normally placed on roads where the risk of icy roads is greatest, there are indirect factors which influence the planned maintenance of these tools which subsequenly cause delay of winter road maintenance.

  • 8.
    Abdi, Brittemira
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Is Bitcoin here to stay?- A case study on cryptocurrency, Bitcoin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet pengar har funnits sedan vi började använda varor och råvaror som

    betalningsmedel. I tusentals år har människor tagit för vana att använda pengar till att

    handla med varor och tjänster. Utvecklingen av pengar som ett verktyg för handel

    började med användandet av kakao frön, snäckor och andra föremål som ansågs

    värdefulla, som sen har utvecklats till användningen av ädla metaller, som guld och

    silver. Under de senaste århundradena har vi använt fiat valuta och nu, med utvecklingen

    av Internet, kan vi vara på väg in i nästa steg i utvecklingscykeln av pengar.

    In kommer Bitcoin, som är den första decentraliserade digitala valuta som använder

    kryptering.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka de positiva och negativa aspekterna av

    Bitcoin, och kommer att undersöka hur framtiden ser ut för uppfinningen av denna.

    kryptovaluta.

  • 9.
    Abedini, Pegah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Lag 2010:879 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag: Hur den implementerats av aktörerna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Den första januari 2011 trädde lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i kraft. Dess ändamål var att jämställa konkurrensen sinsemellan de privata fastighetsägarna och de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadaktiebolagen. Lagen yrkade främst på att de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen skulle agera mer affärsmässigt för att konkurrensen inte skulle snedvridas. Kommunen som ägare var bland annat tvungen att ställa tydligare krav på bolagen genom att ta ut marknadsmässiga borgensavgifter och låneräntor samt ställa marknadsmässiga avkastningskrav.

    Frågan är nu hur de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen agerat utifrån dessa nya förutsättningar sedan lagen trädde i kraft den 1 januari 2011. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur den nya lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har implementerats av aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden. Målet med uppsatsen är att klarlägga konsekvenserna av lagen för aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden, tydliggöra dess implikationer för beslutsfattare i de kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen samt kunna ge kommunerna bättre underlag i besluten rörande sina bolag.

    Metod:

    Enkätstudie där vd:ar från allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har tillfrågats angående bolagets och kommunens agerande och inställning sedan lagen ikraftträdde.

    Avgränsning:

    Enkätstudien har avgränsats till att omfatta vd:ar på kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i Sverige, rörande händelser som inträffat sedan den 1 januari 2011. Vd:ar på bolag belägna i Stockholms Län, Uppsala län, Södermanlands Län, Östergötlands Län, Jönköpings Län samt Västra Götalands Län har medverkat i enkäten.

    Resultat och slutsats:

    De kommunala allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolagen instämmer allmänt i att de agerar mer affärsmässigt sedan den nya lagen introducerades. Avkastningskraven i ägardirektiven har setts över, och de kommunala borgens– och ränteavgifterna har generellt sett ökat sedan lagen trädde i kraft.

  • 10.
    Abela,, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Davidsson, Rasmus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Flexibility in the Office Market – A casestudy of the serviced office space ofGarnisonen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The market for serviced office space has gone from previously solely consisting of premises in poor

    locations and of poor standards to presently consisting of a wide spectrum of properties ranging in

    location, standard and level of service. As the demand for flexibility increases in society, the serviced

    office space has become an increasingly greater part of the total office market and an important

    complement to the ordinary office market, in order to stimulate growth for smaller companies.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the demand for serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm is shaped and how important different factors are for businesses when choosing serviced

    office space. With this in mind we will then form a recommendation for how the serviced office space

    “Garnisonen” should be positioned on the market.

    To answer these questions a case study of Garnisonen serviced office space was conducted. Data has

    been collected through interviews, surveys and a literature review.

    Through our work we found that tenants that chose serviced office spaces in B-locations in Stockholm

    put the highest value in flexibility, simplicity, and the possibility to lease a fully functional office with

    only a few places.

    The physical environment isn’t the primary factor for success of serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm. One of the most important factors for success, and to achieve tenant satisfaction, of serviced

    office space is to create a platform for networking between different companies and to create a social

    place where the companies can meet, which furthers their collective growth.

  • 11.
    Abela, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Qattan, Nessrin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Transaktioner på den kommersiella fastighetsmarknaden 2011: Trender och fallstudier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga några av de största transaktionerna på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden under 2011. Detta år har kännetecknats av lägre transaktionsvolym än föregående år, bland annat på grund av ett osäkrare ekonomiskt läge.

    Teorin har sin utgångspunkt i vilka aktörer som finns på marknaden och vilken roll konsulten, utländska investerare och banker spelar samt hur utvecklingen av fastighetstransaktions marknaden i Sverige sett ut fram tills idag. Kartläggningen har gjorts på sätt att försöka få med de flesta typer av aktörer och utreda varje transaktion för sig samt ge en närmare analys av dessa.

    Kartläggningen visar att de största transaktionerna i Sverige under 2011 gjordes av både noterade och onoterade fastighetsbolag på köpsidan, samt onoterade fastighetsbolag på säljsidan.

    Att döma av fjolårets utveckling marknadsmässigt pekar en hel del på att den kraftiga tillväxten i Sverige kommer att leda till mer arbetstillfällen, med fallande vakanser och stigande hyror som konsekvens på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden.

  • 12.
    Abrahmsén, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Westerberg, Clas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Segmentering av kontorshotell i Stockholm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för delade arbetsplatser har fått se en snabb tillväxt under senare år. Delvis kan detta förklaras med den ansenliga tillväxten av informationsteknologier. Dessa har till viss del förändrat hur vi lever, men fundamentalt förändrat hur och var vi önskar arbeta. För kontorsmarknaden har detta kommit att ge upphov till en efterfrågan på ökad flexibilitet.Syftet var att undersöka vilka aktörer som erbjuder delade arbetsytor inom kontors-hotell, var de valt att lokalisera sina kontorshotell och vilka kunder de har. Sekundärt har arbetet undersökt marknadssegmenteringen av verksamheter på olika kontorshotell, samt korrelationen mellan verksamhetsområde och digital representation. Dessutom har diskussion förts kring vilka typer av företag som skulle gynnas av lokalisering i kontorsho-tell framför traditionellt kontor. Eftersökning visade att det finns flertalet aktörer inom kontorshotell i Stockholm. Bland annat är dessa aktörerna A-E som studerades närma-re. Dessa har lokaliserat majoriteten av sina kontorshotell centralt och har en mängd olika hyresgäster. Undersökningen av marknadssegmentering och digital representation gjordes genom analys av dataset med information kring 500 av dessa hyresgäster.Resultatet visade på en marknadssegmentering där liknande verksamheter bildat kluster inom vissa kontorshotell e.g. inom finans, kommunikation media, etc. Detta kan förklaras av att respektive kontorshotell tilltalar olika kundsegment, men också av att liknande verksamheter bildar kluster genom agglomerationsfördelar. Den digital representationen visar tydligt på att vissa verksamheter är överrepresenterade. Främst gäller detta ak-törer som framhåller en tydlig profil, exempelvis inom digital innovation eller kreativt skapande. Digital representation tenderar också att vara viktigare för verksamheter med en större kundkrets. Mindre verksamheter som arbetar i enskilda kunders intresse har en lägre representation, vilket kan förklaras med att dessa drar nytta av social infrastruktur och agglomerationsfördelar som uppkommer i och med klusterbildning. Av dessa resultat framgår det att företag som är i behov av att nätverka med andra företag inom samma verksamhetsområde kan gynnas av lokalisering i kontorshotell.

  • 13. Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Sjoberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sampietro, D.
    Contribution of satellite altimetry in modelling Moho density contrast in oceanic areas2019Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 33-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of the oceanic Moho (or crust-mantle) density contrast derived from seismic acquisitions suffers from severe lack of data in large parts of the oceans, where have not yet been sufficiently covered by such data. In order to overcome this limitation, gravitational field models obtained by means of satellite altimetry missions can be proficiently exploited, as they provide global uniform information with a sufficient accuracy and resolution for such a task. In this article, we estimate a new Moho density contrast model named MDC2018, using the marine gravity field from satellite altimetry in combination with a seismic-based crustal model and Earth's topographic/bathymetric data. The solution is based on the theory leading to Vening Meinesz-Moritz's isostatic model. The study results in a high-accuracy Moho density contrast model with a resolution of 1° × 1° in oceanic areas. The numerical investigations show that the estimated density contrast ranges from 14.2 to 599.7 kg/m 3 with a global average of 293 kg/m 3 . In order to evaluate the accuracy of the MDC2018 model, the result was compared with some published global models, revealing that our altimetric model is able to image rather reliable information in most of the oceanic areas. However, the differences between this model and the published results are most notable along the coastal and polar zones, which are most likely due to that the quality and coverage of the satellite altimetry data are worsened in these regions.

  • 14.
    Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Univ West HV, Div Math Comp & Surveying Engn, SE-46186 Trollhattan, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. Univ West HV, Div Math Comp & Surveying Engn, SE-46186 Trollhattan, Sweden..
    Recovering Moho constituents from satellite altimetry and gravimetric data for Europe and surroundings2019Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 291-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, we present a local Moho model, named MOHV19, including Moho depth and Moho density contrast (or shortly Moho constituents) with corresponding uncertainties, which are mapped from altimetric and gravimetric data (DSNSC08) in addition to seismic tomographic (CRUST1.0) and Earth topographic data (Earth2014) to a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz' theory of isostasy. The MOHV19 model covers the area of entire European plate along with the surrounding oceans, bounded by latitudes (30 degrees N-82 degrees N) and longitudes (40 degrees W-70 degrees E). The article aims to interpret the Moho model resulted via altimetric and gravimetric information from the geological and geophysical perspectives along with investigating the relation between the Moho depth and Moho density contrast. Our numerical results show that estimated Moho depths range from 7.5 to 57.9 km with continental and oceanic averages of 41.3 +/- 4.9 km and 21.6 +/- 9.2 km, respectively, and an overall average of 30.9 +/- 12.3 km. The estimated Moho density contrast ranges from 60.2 to 565.8 kg/m(3), with averages of 421.8 +/- 57.9 and 284.4 +/- 62.9 kg/m(3) for continental and oceanic regions, respectively, with a total average of 350.3 +/- 91.5 kg/m(3). In most areas, estimated uncertainties in the Moho constituents are less than 3 km and 40 kg/m(3), respectively, but they reach to much more significant values under Iceland, parts of Gulf of Bothnia and along the Kvitoya Island. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by MOHV19 and those derived by CRUST1.0, MDN07, GRAD09 and MD19 models shows that MOHV19 agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The RMS difference between the Moho density contrasts estimated by MOHV19 and CRUST1.0 models is 49.45 kg/m(3).

  • 15.
    Adam, Achamyeleh Gashu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Fastighetsvetenskap. Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia .
    Informal settlements in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: An institutional analysis2014Inngår i: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 43, s. 90-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Peri-urban land which has been used predominantly for agricultural purposes and held by local farmers is a target area for informal settlements in Ethiopia. An increasing number of people try to solve their housing needs by getting a plot of land informally in the transitional peri-urban areas. The purpose of this study is to explore the principal actors involved in the informal conversion of peri-urban agricultural land into urban built-up property. This study is also aimed at demonstrating the role of non-state institutions in facilitating informal acquisition and development of peri-urban plots. Both questionnaire and document analysis were the main sources of data for this study. The result of this study indicated that traditional social institutions played a significant role in processing peri-urban informal settlements and stabilizing land related conflicts by social sanction measures. The study has also found out that the process of acquiring a plot of land from peri-urban areas passes through its own stages which mainly start with identifying a plot for sale and ends with the confirmation of traditional letter of agreement signed by transacting parties without legal ground to do so.

  • 16.
    Adam, Achamyeleh Gashu
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande. Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia .
    Land readjustment as an alternative land development tool for peri-urban areas of Ethiopia2015Inngår i: Property Management, ISSN 0263-7472, E-ISSN 1758-731X, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 36-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The rapid urban population growth in Ethiopia is causing an increasing demand for urban land, which primarily tends to be supplied by expropriation of peri-urban land. The process of urban development in Ethiopia is largely criticized for forced displacement and disruption of the peri-urban local community. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to introduce how Ethiopia’s urban development system could be built on the participatory and inclusive approaches of land acquisition. Design/methodology/approach – The study has employed questionnaire survey results, focus group discussion with panel of experts and previous research reports to examine the peri-urban situations and then to show why an alternative land development approach is needed to be introduced in the urban land development system of Ethiopia. Desk review on land readjustment was also made to explore best lessons from other countries applicable to the peri-urban contexts of Ethiopia. Findings – This study has explored that land readjustment is potentially an appropriate land development tool to alleviate peri-urban land development limitations in Ethiopia. Practical implications – Researchers, policy makers and government bodies that are interested in peri-urban land would appreciate and consider implementing the adapted land readjustment model as an alternative land development tool. Consequently, the local peri-urban landholders’ rights would be protected and maintained in the process of urbanization. Originality/value – Although land readjustment has the potential to achieve participatory peri-urban land development, awareness of the method in the Ethiopian urban land development system is inadequate. This study contributes to fill this gap and create an insight into the basic conditions for the adaption of the tool.

  • 17.
    Aden, Ayub
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Uzun, Serhat
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Fler, mindre och billigare bostäder: En opinionsundersökning på om SBUF:s förslag med avsteg från regler kan leda tillAffordable Housing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska bostadskrisens utveckling berör hela bostadsmarknaden men främst deresurssvaga hushållen. Anledningen till detta fenomen är att samhällsklyftorna i landet harökat som ett resultat av att inkomstfördelningen i Sverige har förändrats. Glappet mellan derika och de resurssvaga har ökat, men även hushållsställning i de svenska hushållen harförändrats från stora till mindre hushåll. Det finns således ett behov av boende som bemöterde mest grundläggande kraven för en resurssvag individ som är rimliga att hyra ur ettekonomiskt perspektiv. Detta har lett till en efterfrågan för ett bostadssystem som kan bemötabehovet som finns hos dessa resurssvaga grupper. I andra länder kallas detta system förAffordable Housing, men finns inte i Sverige i samma utsträckning. Syftet med denna rapportvar att undersöka hur svenska byggbranschen utvecklingsfond (SBUF) förslag på alternativabostadslösningar, med avsteg från byggregler kan leda till ett sådant bostadssystem.En opinionsundersökning som grundar sig på SBUF:s förslag, utfördes genom enenkätundersökning. För att vidare komplettera denna undersökning har intervjuer medämneskunniga gjorts. Resultatet tyder på att det finns en marknad för bostadslösningar likt deSBUF presenterat, då merparterna av respondenterna i enkätundersökningen ställer sigpositiva till förslagen. Mer specifikt de grupper som har låga inkomster och osäkraboendeformer som andrahandskontrakt och inneboende. Resultatet visar även att detta förslagpotentiellt hade kunnat sänka byggkostnaden genom ett mer flexibelt bostadsbyggande. Islutändan handlar det om hur detta system är motiverat ur ett socioekonomiskt perspektiv, ochhur det på bästa möjliga sätt ska introduceras in i det svenska bostadssystemet. Resultatet somdras ifrån intervjuerna med de ämneskunniga innebär att ett sådant system bör genomföras påett sätt som motverkar segregation. Att förmedla bostäder med alternativa bostadslösningartill resurssvaga kan leda till en kontroversiell diskussion om lägre boendestandard för dessagrupper, men en diskussion som behöver tas. Slutsatsen som kan dras är att SBUF:s förslagkan vara en väg att gå för att inrätta ett system som Affordable Housing, och att det potentielltkan bemöta det behovet av bostad som finns hos dessa resurssvaga hushåll.

  • 18.
    Adler, Isabella
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Martinsson, Klara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Är det långsiktigt ekonomiskt gynnsamt att rusta upp närområden i miljonprogram?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kandidatuppsats har vi undersökt vår frågeställning ifall det är långsiktigt ekonomiskgynnsamt att rusta upp och renovera närområden i miljonprogram med utgångspunkt ifaktorer inom social hållbarhet. Detta har gjorts genom en kvalitativ analys baserad påintervjuer av fastighetsägare och byggbolag samt tidigare studier och teoretiskautgångspunkter. Till dessa valdes viktiga faktorer ut. För att kunna svara på vår frågeställningbehövdes de faktorer som fåtts från teoretiska utgångspunkter, tidigare studier samt intervjuerdelas upp i kategorier. Dessa valdes ut ifrån Östgötamodellen och sattes som grund, mednågra mindre justeringar. Östgötamodellens sista kategori byttes ut från “Kön, ålder och arv”till “Transparens och delaktighet”. De faktorer som inte kunde tilldelas en kategori sattes som“Icke tilldelad”.Efter indelningen i kategorier analyserades likheter och skillnader i fokus och vid jämförelsenmellan teoretiska utgångspunkter, intervjuer och tidigare studier kunde ett glapp mellanfastighetsägare och byggbolagens beslutsfattande organ uppfattas. Detta skulle kunna vara enanledning till varför social hållbarhet inte legat i fokus och inte prioriterats tidigare. Dockskulle detta behöva utvärderas mer för att kunna säkerställas.För att få företagen att satsa på sociala investeringar och upprustning av närområdet kringmiljonprogram, i större utsträckning, behövs långsiktigt ekonomiskt gynnsamhet bevisas.Först då kan det finnas intresse från företagens beslutande organ att även titta på den socialahållbarhetens kategorier vid avgörandet i huruvida ett projekt borde genomföras eller inte.Detta är svårt att visa på idag då många av projekten som skulle kunna generera denna typ avdata i framtiden är i startgropen, och resultat från projekten har helt enkelt inte utvärderats än.

  • 19.
    Adolfsson, Angelica
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Köpcentrumförvaltning -Mjuka värdens påverkan på avkastningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 20.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Krav på tillgänglighetsanpassning vid renovering: Ett diskussionsinlägg2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Agholme, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Hammar, Caroline
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    The Effect of Attefall-houses – Can Attefall-houses assist to solve the housing shortage?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, there is a great shortage of supply on the housing market and many newly

    established on the market find it hard to find a home. During 2014 the Planning and building

    act was changed, allowing for a new kind of small buildings, so called Attefall-houses, of up to 25 sqm to be built without building permit on single family housing units. This thesis evaluates the impact that Attefall-houses have on the housing shortage in Stockholm and how these houses could be property tax assessed.

    As a part of this, the profitability when those are let out have been calculated and whether they have a potential to become more popular has been investigated. Comparisons with foreign renting markets with a more widespread secondary market have furthermore been carried out.

    The thesis is limited towards Attefall-houses classified as residential. Few Attefall-houses have been built and are available for rent. Since the number of transactions pertaining to single family housing units with Attefall-houses was insufficient, market values have been estimated by studying the attitude of market actors, by an income based approach and by a cost approach. In order to get a more perspicuous view of the profitability, repayment times on those let out have been calculated.

    The value an Attefall-house entails on a single family housing unit has been estimated to

    between 200 000 SEK and 300 000 SEK. The repayment times when the Attefall-houses are

    let out and then are sold at this value vary between 5 and 12 years with the current  egislation, depending on financing and municipality. If all rental income had been tax-free, the repayment times would vary between 4 and 7 years instead. If the Attefall-house, on the other hand, is reformed into a tenant ownership unit, the sales prices vary between 1 500 000 and 2 100 000 SEK. According to this, Attefall-houses have the potential to be a profitable investment. A couple of problems and misleading incentives when building and renting them have, however, been found.

    A property with an Attefall-house will get two property tax assessment fees after 15 years. In

    addition, the rental income is taxable, which creates trouble for the property owner but also for the taxation authorities. It is also more economically profitable to re-form the Attefall-houses into tenant-ownership units rather than to keep them as complementary buildings. If the house is re-formed into a tenant ownership unit it is less of a clear alternative for newly established on the market hence not as good complement to the exiting property market as if the owners rent out the dwelling. The process when the houses are built is, furthermore, not as easy as it sounds since the municipality requires detailed documents and the buildings have to meet tough building standards to be allowed to be let out. The processing time before starting decision can be given also varies a lot between different municipalities.

    There are also a lot of ambiguities and grey areas that have been found. It is not clear when

    letting of Attefall-houses should be classified as a business rather than a private activity and it is also not clear on which market value maximum rent and property tax assessment should be based.

    Possibilities for a good investment and economic benefits exist but to make the Attefall-houses more popular, misleading incentives should be removed and incentives for renting should instead be created. The legislation should also be clarified to lower the risk for property owners.

    At the end, time is needed for Attefall-houses to become an established alternative on the

    residential market.

  • 22.
    Agrest, Inna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Skatt på finansiella transaktioner - En studie över hur Sverige kan komma att påverkas av skatt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idén att beskatta marknader har funnits i decennier och målen är desamma i dag som de var för 80 år sedan. Nämligen att:

     Harmonisera existerande regleringar genom minska antalet nationella beskattningsmetoder,

     Stabilisera marknader genom att minska volatiliten och

     Få in intäkter

    Skatte intäkterna ska sedan användas till att finansiera något annat som man önskar att finansiera i samhället.

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur skatten kan komma att påverka Sverige och presenterar bland annat att skatten som elva länder i EU kommer att införa från och med januari 2014 kommer inte bara att påverka de elva länder, utan även övriga länder inom EU som också kommer att få ökade kostnader, trots att de inte tänker implementera skatten. För Sveriges del riskerar skatten att påverkar våra pensioner, hur vi investerar, var vi investerar med mera.

  • 23.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Jansson, Anton
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Corporate Hybrid Bonds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and has become a well-accepted, as well as a fairly standardized, source of financing for many well-established corporations around the world. Yet, we have seen very few issues in Sweden and no issues by Swedish real estate companies.

    Corporate hybrid bonds could in a rather simplified manner be explained as a subordinated bond with some equity characteristics. Examples of such equity characteristics are perpetual maturity (or at least very long), coupon deferability and the fact that it due to its subordination provides significant loss absorption. Yet, it also holds typical debt-like characteristics such as regular coupon payments and seniority to equity.

    The outcome of this research has shown that issuing corporate hybrid bonds could be beneficial to a firm. Coupon payments are, unlike dividend payments to holders of preference shares but alike interest payments on a standard bank loan, tax deductible. Other probable advantages with corporate hybrid bonds are; a stronger credit profile (which potentially could improve the (shadow)credit-rating and thus also the terms of other sources of finance), a diversified investment base as well as diversification from a capital structure perspective.

    However, despite the many advantages, numerous obstacles remain. The main shortcoming highlighted among potential issuers is the high pricing of the instrument in relation to other alternatives. Moreover, the lack of Swedish investors investing in hybrid bonds, the assumingly poor liquidity of the product along with the high denomination (piece price) due to regulatory legislations make up for topics of concern among both potential investors and issuers. Although, considering the many benefits, we believe that the weaknesses can be overseen and that there is a potential future use for the product in event of further expansion and acquisition or if the access to capital markets is limited. After all, all good things take time.

  • 24.
    Ahlbäck, Moa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Integrerade arbetsmetoder med Virtual Design and Construction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) introducerades tidigt på 2000-talet för att främja ett arbete med datorbaserade modeller samt involvering av produktionsplanering i designfasen. VDC är ett koncept som idag har anammats inom många bygg- och konsultföretag för att utveckla arbetet med Building Information Model (BIM), innovationer och samverkan inom byggprojekt. Konceptet VDC förändras ständigt och omdefinieras av enskilda individer och företag. Det här resulterar i att det råder en begreppsförvirring hur VDC ska definieras och hur arbete med VDC ska genomföras. Vidare tenderar många byggprojekt att vara fragmenterade med projektmedlemmar som främst fokuserar på sitt eget teknikområde. För att minska fragmentering mellan projektmedlemmar kan integrerade arbetsmetoder tillämpas. Syftet med examensarbetet är därför dels att undersöka innebörden av VDC som koncept och även hur VDC kan stimulera integrerade arbetsmetoder. Ämnet utforskas kvalitativt med vetenskaplig litteratur och intervjustudie. Den vetenskapliga litteraturen definierar konceptuellt VDC och två integrerade arbetsmetoder Integrated Concurrent Engineering (ICE) och Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). Varvid intervjustudien inkluderar respondenter från byggsektorn vars reflektioner om det studerade ämnet presenteras. Studien är geografiskt avgränsad till Sverige.  I resultatet påvisas den rådande tvetydigheten huruvida VDC definieras. För att undvika begreppsförvirring kan det vara behövligt med en gemensam definition av VDC i byggbranschen och även nationella riktlinjer vilka beskriver hur arbete med VDC ska utföras. Vidare kan VDC stimulera ett integrerat arbetssätt genom en ökad samhörighet inom byggprojekt med bland annat gemensamma formuleringar av projektmål och gemensam problemlösning mellan projektmedlemmar. 

  • 25.
    Ahlgren, Max
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Goldmann, Jacob
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    The Internationalization of Swedish SMEs: how does internationalization affect individual firm’s capital and credit risk structure?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis we examine how the level of internationalization, i.e. a firm’s relative exposure to foreign sales, affects individual SMEs in Sweden. Since it is conducted using a data sample with Swedish SMEs its applicability in other countries may vary. The aspects concerned in which the internationalization affects the firm’s structure is limited to the areas of capital structure, credit risk and the factors affecting credit risk. Altman’s Z-score model is employed to approximate a firm’s credit risk and the debt ratio represents the firm’s capital structure. The purpose of the thesis is to increase the knowledge and provide insights on how internationalization affects SMEs in general and in Sweden in particular. Knowledge on how internationalization affects firms is scarce and by this thesis we have extended the known area of the topic and shed light on this relatively unexplored SME aspect. Our hope is that by highlighting differences (and similarities) in credit risk attributes of high and low internationalized firms SMEs this will improve their financial transparency and ease their attracting and access to external sources of capital. To examine the effects of internationalization on Swedish SMEs we have employed statistical techniques, most importantly regression analysis.

    Our study has not only implications for academics, but for all parts that has any interest in efficient credit scoring models and to understand credit risk characteristics and how internationalization affects SMEs. Banks, policy makers and credit rating agencies are constantly pursuing improvements in the efficiency and accuracy of quantifying credit risk by developing credit-scoring models. Banks because they want to minimize credit losses and maximize profitability and policy makers to secure a viable business environment for companies to nurture economic growth, employment, innovation and the country’s competitiveness. The SME segment has received extra attention lately due to the financing barriers they are facing.

    Our results are contradictory to some earlier research in the area and in line with other. This implies that the characteristics and relationship of SMEs credit risk and internationalization changes over time and/or differs between countries, perhaps even between regions within national borders. For example we arrived at the conclusion that our basic model indicates a positive relationship between internationalization and credit risk, in line with both Rugman (2009) and Caves (2007). Our analysis shows no significant difference in the firm’s capital structure depending on the internationalization, although younger companies tended to have a higher level of internationalization. This finding is contradictory to the research conducted by Burgman (2009) and the reports carried out by the European Commission whose report reaches the conclusion that older firms had a higher level of international exposure. 

  • 26.
    Ahlinder, William
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Grass, Emil
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Construction Management: Risker och möjligheter för byggherrar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn har länge använt vedertagna och traditionella genomförandeformer där bristen av förändring varit stor. Under de senaste årtiondena har emellertid flera alternativa former av processmetoder och organisationsuppbyggnader vuxit i omfattning inom den svenska byggsektorn. Detta har medfört att valet av genomförandeform har blivit allt mer komplext, där beställare gynnas av att ha goda kunskaper om olika sätt att bedriva byggprojekt. Byggherrar eftersträvar att bedriva byggprojekt med låg risk samtidigt som de ska vara kostnadseffektiva, ha kort byggtid och hålla hög kvalité. Hur väl ett byggprojekt lyckas beror till stor del på de beslut som fattas tidigt i byggprocessen. Såväl möjligheterna till riskminimering som till ändringar avtar med tiden efter att projektet initierats. Därför är ett av de viktigaste besluten för byggherrar valet av genomförandeform. En av de alternativa genomförandeformerna som ökat i användning på den svenska bygg- och fastighetsmarknaden är Construction Management (CM). Därmed har beställare fått ytterligare ett alternativ att utvärdera inför valet av rätt genomförandeform. Under utvärderingen ställs beställaren inför många olika frågor gällande vilka risker och möjligheter varje genomförandeform innebär. Denna studie undersöker vilka egenskaper CM har i avseende risker och möjligheter i relation till andra genomförandeformer samt till vilka typer av projekt som CM passar bra att användas. Vidare undersöks vilka kunskaper aktörer inom den svenska byggbranschen har om CM. Syftet med studien är att öka kunskaperna om genomförandeformen och ge förlag till förändringar i sättet som CM-projekt bedrivs.  Studien utförs med en kvalitativ metod där flertalet olika aktörer från bygg- och fastighetsbranschen intervjuas. Resultatet grundas på vilka uppfattningar, erfarenheter och reflektioner om CM som framförts av de medverkande respondenterna. Resultatet från studien visar att CM kan användas inom alla typer av byggprojekt, där fördelarna med genomförandeformen utnyttjas bäst vid komplicerade projekt med hög risknivå. Användandet av genomförandeformen kan leda till kortare byggtider, lägre pris och ge beställare möjligheter till kostnadseffektiva förändringar. Samtidigt förflyttas ett stort ansvars- och risktagande till beställaren i relation till andra valmöjligheter. Studien visar dock att aktörer inom branschen gör skillnad på kontraktsmässiga risknivåer och de risknivåer som baseras på erfarenheter av faktiska utfall med CM-projekt. Beställarens övergripande risktagande vid CM-projekt i relation till andra valmöjligheter är därmed svårt att värdera enligt de intervjuade respondenterna.Ett flertal möjliga förändringar i sättet att bedriva CM-projekt kan genomföras för att bättre möta beställares behov och därmed öka efterfrågan på genomförandeformen. Främst handlar förändringarna om att omarbeta kontrakten mellan konsulter och beställare i syfte att förflytta en del av projektriskerna till den organisation som leder byggprojektet. Därtill kan alternativa ersättningsformer för konsulter och ändringar gällande hanteringen av garantiärenden minska beställares farhågor vid CM-projekt.

  • 27.
    Ahlvar, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Berg, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Investment companies as an investment – Could a person without experience from investments bee helped by the active ownership of investment companies?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we have been studying the development of investment companies that is traded at

    Mid Cap and Large Cap at the Stockholm stock market. We took out five investment companies at random from the mentioned markets above. We used these companies as benchmarking for the study. To measure the development we looked at the change in the stock price and the total yield over the given time period, we then compared these to three random portfolios of 8 stocks each and the index called Six-Return index. All the companies in the random portfolios have another type of owner structure and lack Investment Company as a big owner. Those companies have a more divided ownership. In the essay we also look at the yield with consideration to the

    risk that is taken in the given investment in forms of Sharpe ratio and standard deviation for each portfolio. To get some extra insight we have interviewed Investor AB and Investment AB

    Latour. Both companies are leading investment companies in Sweden. The time period for the essay is 10 years and is stretching from 2004-01-01 until 2014-01-01.

    The results from the paper are that investment companies in general had a higher yield then the index and portfolios that was used as comparison. The results for the investment companies are better in terms of change in stock price and in yield but also with the consideration of the risk. The explanation of the results lies in several variables where the active ownership of the investment companies is the major part of the explanation and net asset discount together with the high dividend is another part. With these result investment companies is supposedly a very good investment for t

    hose that can’t beat the market, which would mean a great deal of all

    investors.

  • 28.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Market orientation and public housing companies in the Swedish declining market2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis consists of three papers with the particular topic in public housing. They discuss how the public housing companies manage the transition to higher economic demands meeting increased customer and market requirements. These studies focus specifically on how the public housing company deal with market challenges associated with the decision to demolish, maintain and/or new construction. Market-oriented perspective can be a tool for the public housing companies to achieve better customer value and enhance economic development. Although the market orientation concept has contributed to valuable improvements in research, the thesis assumes that it is necessary to distinguish between that the public housing companies operate market-oriented to meet customer requirements and their focus on innovation.

    Paper I develops market/innovation types and then investigates how public housing companies adapt to these types. It was found that economic conditions in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies, causing them to act innovatively and create superior customer value by innovations. The study confirms that the implementation of market and innovation orientation contributes to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions impair implementation in declining markets.

    Paper II addresses how public housing companies in declining markets act based on the concept of market intelligence. This study suggested and tested whether there is a positive link between collecting customer information, disseminating it in the organization, and responding to customer needs, and whether this link has an impact on strategic performance. The result shows that weak links exist in the process; the efficiency of intelligence distribution in public housing companies is affected mainly by their responsiveness to customer needs.

    Paper III also addresses the public housing companies’ market strategies in declining markets. This study, based on a market-strategic perspective, compares how public housing companies act in relation to customer wants compared to the private housing market. The result shows that public housing companies are more engaged in carrying out new construction, renovation, and reconstruction, as well as taking more social responsibility compared to the private sector. In particular, their concern for the customers’ social needs is evident.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies:: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 31.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Gävle.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018Inngår i: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 400-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and compare sustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of new legislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’ way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative study was conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The results show that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than private housing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interaction process, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies to improve their market knowledge and profit.

  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bygg- och fastighetsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017Inngår i: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, Vol. 15, nr 15, s. 457-473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them to strategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performance on economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 34.
    Ahmarinejad, Pegah
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Fastighetsobligationer – Prissättningen av säkerställda kontra icke-säkerställda obligationer på en växande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 35.
    Ahmetasevic, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Shamoun, Helena
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    The Incorporation of the Tenant into the Public Construction Project: Through the three parameters of communication; Organisational culture, power and trust2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Public construction projects set the standards for new procedures and perspectives within the industry. A way of improving procedures is through communication and the inclusion of all involved parties. It is therefore the purpose of this report to investigate how communication through organisational culture, power and trust can affect the incorporation of the tenant in the construction process. Two case studies, both having public future tenants and public clients, were chosen to enable the investigation of the three parameters of communication, organisational culture, power and trust. The empirics showed that the tenant was often excluded from the construction process due to their differing cultural background. The results also showed that the tenant was considered to have lower status which was exploited at times. In addition, it was found that although opportunistic behaviour was present in the construction project, it was a greater internal issue within the tenant organisation. In the conclusion the authors recommend construction management to evaluate the consequences of incorporating the tenant in the construction meetings as it could lead to less construction errors. They further recommend the public organisations to oversee their distribution of resources in order to avoid opportunistic behaviour.

  • 36.
    Ahnlén, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Automatic Detection of Low Passability Terrain Features in the Scandinavian Mountains2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, much focus have been put on replacing time consuming manual mappingand classification tasks with automatic methods, having minimal human interaction. Now it ispossible to quickly classify land cover and terrain features covering large areas to a digital formatand with a high accuracy. This can be achieved using nothing but remote sensing techniques,which provide a far more sustainable process and product. Still, some terrain features do not havean established methodology for high quality automatic mapping.The Scandinavian Mountains contain several terrain features with low passability, such asmires, shrub and stony ground. It would be of interest to anyone passing the land to avoid theseareas. However, they are not sufficiently mapped in current map products.The aim of this thesis was to find a methodology to classify and map these terrain featuresin the Scandinavian Mountains with high accuracy and minimal human interaction, using remotesensing techniques. The study area chosen for the analysis is a large valley and mountain sidesouth-east of the small town Abisko in northern Sweden, which contain clearly visible samplesof the targeted terrain features. The methodology was based on training a Fuzzy Logic classifierusing labeled training samples and descriptors derived from ortophotos, LiDAR data and currentmap products, chosen to separate the classes from each other by their characteristics. Firstly,a set of candidate descriptors were chosen, from which the final descriptors were obtained byimplementing a Fisher score filter. Secondly a Fuzzy Inference System was constructed usinglabeled training data from the descriptors, created by the user. Finally the entire study area wasclassified pixel-by-pixel by using the trained classifier and a majority filter was used to cluster theoutputs. The result was validated by visual inspection, comparison to the current map productsand by constructing Confusion Matrices, both for the training data and validation samples as wellas for the clustered- and non-clustered results.The results showed that

  • 37.
    Ajne, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Peterhoff, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Digitalisering inom den Svenska Fastighetsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    PropTech har kommit att bli ett världsomspännande fenomen inom fastighetsmarknaden. Digitaliseringens egenskaper gynnar hela spannet av ägare, investerare och hyresgäster. Kostnadseffektivisering, tidsoptimering och förnyandet av stereotypa processer är några av anledningarna till detta. I Sverige har intresset ökat kraftigt under den senaste tre årsperioden, men fastighetsbranschen är trögrörlig och det är först nu fastighetsbolagen börjar inse värdet av att tillämpa den nya tekniken. Syftet med rapporten är att få en marknadsbild av hur den svenska fastighetsbranschen ser på PropTech och digitalisering, samt undersöka hur bolagen ser på framtiden för det aktuella ämnet. Frågeställningen besvaras med hjälp av expertintervjuer som även ligger till grund för analysen. Uppfattningen om digitaliseringens betydelse varierar beroende på ägarstukturen och avkastningskrav, samtidigt står det klart att fastighetsägarens roll kommer att förändras i framtiden.

  • 38.
    Aldenlov, Jens
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Soderholm, Peter
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance - a literature review2017Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH NORDIC CONFERENCE ON CONSTRUCTION ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION / [ed] Buser, M Lindahl, G Raisanen, C, POLYTEKNISK FORLAG , 2017, s. 10-21Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs? The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with risk management is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often the main cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs. The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a more sustainable railway system.

  • 39.
    Alekhtyar, Mumena
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Building Information Modelling and Virtual Design and Construction: Differentiations and interaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decade BIM technology products have been providing the construction industry with various tools that can be used in all construction phases and aspects with a wide set of potentials that range from visualization to simulation, scheduling and cost estimation (Kam , et al., 2016). As a result, the term BIM started to have new interpretation from a process- oriented perspective beside the product-oriented interpretation. These different interpretations and definitions of BIM creates an ambiguity regarding BIM. The ambiguity about what is BIM takes another direction when the term “Virtual Design and Constructions” VDC is used as synonym of BIM as well in many situations. VDC is defined as the use of integrated multi-disciplinary performance models of design-construction projects to support explicit and public business objectives (Kunz & Fischer, 2012). This study is an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the differences between BIM and VDC and how BIM and VDC interact and affect each other. As a result, a timeline for both terms was created based on a historical analysis for the emergence of both terms. Furthermore, more differences between VDC and BIM were located through literature reviews and empirics and this mapping was used to find how each term affects the other.   The study was conducted in Tyréns Swedish consultancy company and it covered two infrastructure projects where VDC is used. 

  • 40.
    Alemu, Belachew Yirsaw
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Expropriation, Valuation and Compensation in Ethiopia2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the expropriation, valuation and compensation process are carried out in Ethiopia when privately held land and attached real properties are taken for public and private investment purposes. The study  examines three case studies, inquiring whether the process of expropriation and valuation are transparent and  justified or not and the compensation paid is fair and reasonable from an international perspective. A valid with  theoretical background, the study examines practical problems that faced expropriatees and searches for possible theoretical explanations. The study also assesses whether there is a gap between the laws and the practice undertake on the ground.

    The study reveals that expropriation as a concept and a land policy tool has economic and political justification and acceptance in Ethiopia. Similar to other developing countries, Ethiopia has faced enormous economic and social problems. The question of housing and other real estate construction for high population pressure, the development and investment questions, poor public utility facilities and other public interests are some of the problems that need the intervention of both the Federal and Regional governments. In order to facilitate these needs of the society, the Federal government, the City Administrations and/or Regional governments have been using “expropriation” as a meaningful and useful management tool. However,  the field survey result  reveals that different compensation standards among government institutions, inadequate compensation standards for loss of land use rights, lack of professional and certified property valuers, lack of reliable and up to date data and nontransparent expropriation and valuation procedures are some of the main problems that impend the proper and equitable implementation of expropriation, valuation and compensation in the country in general and the study areas in particular.

    Another emerging issue is how the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws are applied. It is evident that the application of and adherence to legal provisions with consistency, transparency and objectivity; by the acquiring authorities in ensuring that fairness is done, seems to be quite crucial. On the other hand, non-adherence to such laws brings numerous implementation problems in such programs. Whereas the affected expropriatees need “fair treatment and compensation” the government wants to pay a “manageable compensation” so, this thesis argues for a reasonable compensation to be established by striking a balance between these two view points.

    This study ends up by proposing that both the Federal and Regional governments should revise the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws in such a way that it would define and protect property rights for the vulnerable groups both in urban and rural areas and where and when these rights are acquired “reasonable compensation” must be paid.

     

     

     

  • 41.
    Alexandrie Valo, Emilia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Housing for asylum-seekers and new citizens, an investment perspective on different kinds of solutions in relation to economic integration2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The number of refugees worldwide has reached record levels in recent years. Sweden experienced a sharp increase of refugees in 2015 that lead to a shortage of accommodations. The study aims to explore how the Real Estate companies view different accommodation solutions for asylum seekers and new citizens and how they view factors related to the housing with an impact on economic integration. The study is qualitative and based on interviews with the Swedish Migration Agency, and representatives of municipal and private property companies.

    The result is that construction of new apartments is a challenge for many municipal housing companies and several actors view long-term demand of apartments as uncertain in areas where demand has increased due to immigration. Regarding existing stock there is a lack of economic incentives to set aside apartments particularly for asylum-seekers and new citizens.

    There is a resistance among several actors to invest in housing particularly for asylum-seekers or new citizens. The private Real Estate companies focused on community properties does not think that housin particularly for asylum-seekers or new citizens is included in their strategy. There are municipal actors that have chosen to invest in this kind of housing. For construction of housing for asylum-seekers or new citizens to be attractive for investors it is necessary in negotiations to achieve a relatively high rent and long contractual period. It is also necessary that the location and characteristics of the housing provide good chances of alternative use once the contract expires.

    Regarding factors with an impact on the possibilities of economic integration the actors involvement vary. In general the municipal housing companies takes great responsibility not only for providing housing but also for creating a good living environment and in some cases even employment

  • 42.
    Algstedt, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Skoglund, Hilda
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Risker på en föränderlig nyproduktionsmarknad ur tre perspektiv: byggherrar, kommuner och bostadsköpare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Since the financial crisis in 2008 housing prices in the greater Stockholm region have beenrising by an average of 8 percent per year and therefor municipalities, developers andbuyers of new production housing have been able to make high profit. This has lead to astrong optimism and a high risk propensity among several parties. Since august 2017 thehousing market have turned and housing prices have declined. The reasons are believed tobe an overproduction of expensive new housing, media’s negative view on the newproduction market and tightened amortization requirements. The immediate effect was a biguncertainty regarding the market for new housing and cautious residential consumers. Thehousing developers reports low sales the first quarter of 2018 and some developers areforced to return land allocations to the municipalities.This degree project aims to describe the risk that occurs in the process of developing newhousing. It will be done through a qualitative interview study which aims to closer examinethe municipalities and developers view on the housing market, the risks that occur in thedeveloping process and their risk management strategies. The purpose of the report is alsoto identify the risks that are imposed on buyers of new housing, which is done throughinterviews with developers and new production brokers.The study shows that developers and municipalities are facing a difficult time when it comesto making agreements in today's uncertain housing market and the distrust between theparties can be derived from adverse selection. Due to the development monopoly manymunicipalities benefits a strong negotiation position. At the same time the participatingmunicipalities are in a difficult situation due to their agreement with the state and theStockholm County Council regarding 64 000 new homes by the year of 2030.The degree project emphasizes the possibility that by adjusting an existing price indexformula, land prices will be more closely linked to housing prices. The purpose of thisformula in a market fall is to allow a larger proportion of housing prices to be deducted fromthe land price for the developers and that in a market upturn the municipality will be able totake a larger cut of the higher housing prices. The ambition is that this will facilitatenegotiations between the municipality and the developer and make the developers moreresistant in a changing new production market.

  • 43.
    Ali, Ali
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Räntefria finansieringsmodeller vid köp av bostadsrätter: Ett möjligt scenario i Sverige?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of interest-free financing options in Sweden and a failed attempt to implement

    Islamic banking in the country, has contributed to many Muslims today have limited

    opportunities to purchase condominiums, villas or similar accommodations. The reason for

    this is the condemnation of charging interest in the belief of Islam.

    In this essay, three interest-free financing models invented by the author will be presented.

    The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate how the announced financing models are

    perceived by various people from different categories. Then on the basis of respondents'

    views determine what or which models are the most realistic scenario. All models consist of a

    financier whose purpose is to buy on the behalf of the stakeholders’ and resell for a higher

    price. The financing models can be briefly described as follows:

    • Model 1 - Acquisitions of single condominium funded by an intermediary who buys

    and then sells on to the prospect of interest-free installments.

    • Model 2 - Formation of the condominium association in order to acquire land and

    build house in order to sell to stakeholders of interest-free loans with an interest-free

    installment plan.

    • Model 3 - Acquisition of newly built condominium project to then sell on to the

    stakeholders of interest-free mortgage with an interest-free payment plan.

    A qualitative study will be the basis of empirical data regarding the perception of the

    financing models. A number of people from various construction companies, researchers and

    potential investors have been interviewed, to give their opinions on the models. Furthermore,

    an investment calculation regarding the profitability of model 3 been conducted.

    Based on the respondents and the report it is possible to conclude that model 2 is the most

    realistic scenario. Thus Model 1 is regarded a possible realistic scenario, however, Model 3

    was excluded by the majority of respondents.

    Furthermore, it was found that an investment by the procedure of Model 3, with a yield

  • 44.
    Ali, Ali Abdulsalam
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Räntefria finansieringsmodeller vid köp avbostadsrätter: Ett möjligt scenario i Sverige?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The lack of interest-free financing options in Sweden and a failed attempt to implementIslamic banking in the country, has contributed to many Muslims today have limitedopportunities to purchase condominiums, villas or similar accommodations. The reason forthis is the condemnation of charging interest in the belief of Islam.In this essay, three interest-free financing models invented by the author will be presented.The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate how the announced financing models areperceived by various people from different categories. Then on the basis of respondents'views determine what or which models are the most realistic scenario. All models consist of afinancier whose purpose is to buy on the behalf of the stakeholders’ and resell for a higherprice. The financing models can be briefly described as follows:• Model 1 - Acquisitions of single condominium funded by an intermediary who buysand then sells on to the prospect of interest-free installments.• Model 2 - Formation of the condominium association in order to acquire land andbuild house in order to sell to stakeholders of interest-free loans with an interest-freeinstallment plan.• Model 3 - Acquisition of newly built condominium project to then sell on to thestakeholders of interest-free mortgage with an interest-free payment plan.A qualitative study will be the basis of empirical data regarding the perception of thefinancing models. A number of people from various construction companies, researchers andpotential investors have been interviewed, to give their opinions on the models. Furthermore,an investment calculation regarding the profitability of model 3 been conducted.Based on the respondents and the report it is possible to conclude that model 2 is the mostrealistic scenario. Thus Model 1 is regarded a possible realistic scenario, however, Model 3was excluded by the majority of respondents.Furthermore, it was found that an investment by the procedure of Model 3, with a yield of4.5%, resulted a net present value as large as one-third of the initial investment.

  • 45.
    Ali, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Jeng, Michelle
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Flexibla hyresförhållanden på lager- och logistikfastighetsmarknaden: En kvalitativ studie om e-handelns påverkan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Den efterfrågan som e-handeln driver på idag går stick i stäv med oss fastighetsägare. Då de har ett temporärt behov av något som ska stå väldigt länge.”

    - Matthias Kettelhoit, NREP

    I takt med digitaliseringens framfart har detaljhandeln på senare tid genomgått stora förändringar, där framförallt förändrade konsumentbeteenden varit drivkraften till att detaljhandelsaktörer tvingats anpassa sina affärsmodeller. Vidare har nya trender vuxit fram inom detaljhandeln och antalet e-handelsbolag ökat kraftigt. Detta gör att det ställs nya krav på fastighetsägare, inte minst på hyresmarknaden inom lager- och logistiksegmentet, där de traditionellt sett långa hyresavtalen nu utmanas av hyresgästers efterfrågan på flexibla hyresförhållanden. Syftet med denna studie var att utreda hur fastighetsägare kan möta denna efterfrågan. Den metod som låg till grund för genomförandet av studien var en kvalitativ metod, där semistrukturerade intervjuer hölls med fastighetsägare, e-handelsaktörer samt en tredjepartslogistiker. Studien visade på att e-handeln är drivkraften till att moderna lager och flexibla hyresförhållanden eftersöks av hyresgäster. Den slutsats som kunde dras är att det skiljer sig mellan stora och små e-handelsaktörer i vilken typ av flexibilitet som eftersöks. För att fastighetsägare ska kunna möta efterfrågan på flexibilitet från större e-handelsaktörer blir erbjudandet av expansionsmöjligheter ytterst avgörande. Dessutom är, av denna studie att döma, den noterade efterfrågan på korta hyresavtal en reaktion på bristen på ytflexibilitet inom segmentet. Vidare kan det komma att krävas en implementering av nya hyresmodeller för att fastighetsägare bättre ska kunna möta nystartade och små e-handelsaktörers efterfrågan på flexibilitet. I denna studie lyftes en omsättningsbaserad hyresmodell fram, vilken skulle kunna implementeras av fastighetsägare som ett försök i att kunna attrahera denna målgrupp och på så vis kunna erhålla större marknadsandelar av e-handeln.

  • 46.
    Alias, Klara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Hur en introduktion vid nyanställning kan bli ännu bättre2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 47.
    Alinder, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Bank och finans.
    Finansinspektionens regelverk för ersättningssystem inom finansbranschen: En granskande studie av regleringens effekter på den finansiella industrin2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ersättningssystems utformning och de anställda och ledningens beteende är sedan länge känt. I efterdyningarna av den senaste finanskrisen har det funnits stort medialt fokus på de enorma bonusar som betalats ut till anställda på banker som sedan tvingats söka statligt stöd.

    För att både minska de risker som är förknippade med vissa typer av rörliga ersättningssystem och för att tillgodose den allmänna opinionen har EU valt att inkludera reglering av rörlig ersättning som en del av regleringen av finansiell verksamhet. Detta beslut resulterade för den svenska marknadens del i regelverket FFFS 2009:6 där Finansinspektionen redogjorde för föreskrifter och allmänna råd gällande rörlig ersättning i finansiella företag. För att tillgodose de uppdaterade EU-direktiven utformades en uppdaterad version av regelverket, FFFS 2011:1, som är ett bindande regelverk i form av endast föreskrifter.

    Reaktionerna från finansbranschen har till stora delar varit negativa. Många anser att regleringen är ett spel för galleriet med en väldigt liten reell verkan på att stävja företagens risktagande och öka den finansiella stabiliteten. Politiker, makthavare och allmänheten är dock rörande överens om att förändringar inom företagens rörliga ersättningssystem måste ske för att främja en långsiktigt hållbar utveckling och undvika kostsamma statliga räddningspaket till systemviktiga institutioner i kristider.

    I denna uppsats redogör vi för teorier bakom de finansiella risker som rörliga ersättningssystem utgör. Vidare beskriver vi bakgrunden till föreskrifterna för rörlig ersättning på både nationell och internationell nivå och redogör för regelverkets utformning. Slutligen presenterar vi tankar från berörda företag som vi intervjuat och analyserar effekterna av regleringen.

    De totala effekterna av regleringen är än så länge oklara men redan nu kan vi se förändringar i företags ersättningssystem i form av ökad fast ersättning samt förändringar i ersättningspolicys med ett ökat fokus på ickefinansiella kriterier. De praktiska effekterna för branschens arbetssätt är dock ytterst diffusa och vi ställer oss frågande till hur gynnsamma dessa nya regler kommer vara för den svenska marknaden på sikt.

  • 48.
    Alizadeh Amirbeigi, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    A study of optimizing the Processing time for Building permits: Study Case: Tyresö municipality2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There are rules in urban development and the construction industry, which encourages organizations to work according to standards and approved codes. For example: it is required by law for all property owners to apply and obtain a permit in order to carry out an action in construction building. Often, the permit process takes a great deal of time to process.

     

    Currently, there is a lack of constructional project for residential buildings in Stockholm region, and there is critique toward the municipalities for having a long processing time for reviewing building permits. This study is about ways to optimize the processing time for building permits. As a first step, it was important to study parameters, which maximizes the quality and efficiency. Since, time is often one of the restricted factors in urban development, optimizing the processing time issuing a construction permit can be one of the quality elements in service oriented business organizations like a municipality.

     

    This study aims to analyze the building permit processing time, and investigate different factors that have influence on it. The case for this was Tyresö municipality, a municipality with approximately 45 000 inhabitants in the south east of the Stockholm region. Required information has been developed based on interviews with the municipality's personnel and professional construction developer who have applied for building permit in Tyresö region. In addition, previous reports, statistics, and cases from the municipality archive have been used to identify important concepts as empirical material.

     

    Long processing time is a current existing problem in many municipalities. A service oriented organization like a municipality should try to increase clients’ satisfaction by a continual and proper communication with public. The municipality can identify the costumer needs and expectations and improve the quality efficiency by communication. Optimizing of processing time in the building permit cases is one of the issues of process optimization that can increase customer satisfaction. Using Total Quality Management strategy in the organization, help the municipality to optimize the processing time continuously. It means quality improvement and leads to long term costumer satisfaction. Since functional team develops solutions to problems in TQM style it often shortens the time taken to produce services. The focus of this management style is on importance of the relationship between costumer and organization and it is directly linked to their communication.

     

    By service guarantee as a tool, municipality which is a politically governed organization makes assurance for public as its costumer to provide community services with proper quality. A well defined service Guarantee has been contributed the improving quality of the services. It helps the planning and building department of municipality to increase the costumer satisfaction and attract more building developer to invest in the municipality region.

  • 49.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Optimization of Deformation Monitoring Networks using Finite Element Strain Analysis2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 12, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i.e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  • 50.
    Allan Fred, Onyango
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Interaction between Lean Construction and BIM : How effectiveness in production can be improved if lean and BIM are combined in the design phase A literature review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Construction industry has had a relatively low increase in the efficiency rates over the recent years. Two developments of Lean construction and Building Information Modelling(BIM) have been introduced that have each shown improvements in the efficiency rates in construction. These two individual concepts of Lean and BIM have been applied each independent of the other and because of their similarities and overlapping benefits, it is thought that them being applied together improves the efficiency in a greater way than them being applied individually. This study looks at the synergy that is possible due to the overlapping benefits in applying Lean Construction and BIM. The study is a Literature review aimed at understanding Lean and BIM and their overlaps. The Literature looks at past research studies that have investigated this area. The clear look at these studies shows that when the two concepts are combined, then that collaboration leads to a more integrated process in construction that in turn yields higher efficiency rates.

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