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  • 1.
    Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Kuester, A.
    Bachmann, J.
    Breitholtz, M.
    Ebert, I.
    Rechenberg, B.
    Ruden, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Reporting and evaluation criteria as means towards a transparent use of ecotoxicity data for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals2011Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, nr 10, s. 2487-2492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecotoxicity data with high reliability and relevance are needed to guarantee the scientific quality of environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. The main advantages of a more structured approach to data evaluation include increased transparency and predictability of the risk assessment process, and the possibility to use non-standard data. In this collaboration, between the research project MistraPharma and the German Federal Environment Agency, a new set of reporting and evaluation criteria is presented and discussed. The new criteria are based on the approaches in the literature and the OECD reporting requirements, and have been further developed to include both reliability and relevance of test data. Intended users are risk assessors and researchers performing ecotoxicological experiments, but the criteria can also be used for education purposes and in the peer-review process for scientific papers. This approach intends to bridge the gap between the regulator and the scientist's needs and way of work.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Personal Autonomy and Informed Consent: Conceptual and Normative Analyses2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is comprised of a “kappa” and two articles. The kappa includes an account of personal autonomy and informed consent, an explanation of how the concepts and articles relate to each other, and a summary in Swedish.

    Article 1 treats one problem with the argument that a patient’s consent to treatment is valid only if it is authentic, i.e., if it is “genuine,” “truly her own,” “not out of character,” or similar. As interventions with a patient’s life and liberties must be justified, the argument presupposes that the authenticity of desires can be reliably determined. If the status of a desire in terms of authenticity cannot be reliably determined, discarding the desire-holder’s treatment decision on the basis that it is inauthentic is morally unjustified. In the article, I argue that no theory of authenticity that is present in the relevant literature can render reliably observable consequences. Therefore, the concept of authenticity, as it is understood in those theories, should not be part of informed consent practices.

    Article 2 discusses the problem of what it is to consent or refuse voluntarily. In it, I argue that voluntariness should be more narrowly understood than what is common. My main point is that a conceptualization of voluntariness should be agent-centered, i.e., take into account the agent’s view of her actions. Among other things, I argue that an action is non-voluntary only if the agent thinks of it as such when being coerced. This notion, which at first look may seem uncontroversial, entails the counterintuitive conclusion that an action can be voluntary although the agent has been manipulated or coerced into doing it. In defense of the notion, I argue that if the agent’s point of view is not considered accordingly, describing her actions as non-voluntary can be alien to how she leads her life. There are other moral concepts available to describe what is wrong with manipulation and coercion, i.e., to make sense of the counterintuitive conclusion. Voluntariness should be reserved to fewer cases than what is commonly assumed.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Reflective Equilibrium DefendedManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflective equilibrium is a method of justification in ethics. In this essay, I account for an argument against reflective equilibrium put forth by Theo van Willigenburg from a position of (weak) foundationalism. I attempt to demonstrate why it is flawed and how reflective equilibrium as a method of justification can withstand the foundationalist critique.

  • 4.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    The Ethics of Immigration2015Ingår i: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5825, E-ISSN 1755-2567, Vol. 81, nr 4, s. 380-384Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Toward an Agent-Centered Theory of VoluntarinessManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of voluntariness is central to informed consent and personal autonomy, yet it has been underexplored by bioethicists. There are various theories intended to explain voluntary choice and action. None is fully agent-centered, in the sense that the conceptualization of voluntariness takes into account the agent’s views of her decisions and actions. An agent-centered theory of voluntariness would promote analytical precision, and foster autonomy in healthcare and research practices. According to the most influential bioethical theory of voluntariness, here called the Voluntariness as Control theory, an action is non-voluntary if the agent is controlled by external influences. The theory is critically discussed from an agent-centered perspective, and a new conceptualization of voluntariness is proposed.

  • 6.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    What Justifies Judgments of Inauthenticity?2018Ingår i: HEC Forum, ISSN 0956-2737, E-ISSN 1572-8498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of authenticity, i.e., being “genuine,” “real,” or “true to oneself,” is sometimes held as critical to a person’s autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents the person from making autonomous decisions or leading an autonomous life. It has been pointed out that authenticity is difficult to observe in others. Therefore, judgments of inauthenticity have been found inadequate to underpin paternalistic interventions, among other things. This article delineates what justifies judgments of inauthenticity. It is argued that for persons who wish to live according to the prevailing social and moral standards and desires that are seriously undesirable according to those standards, it is justified to judge that a desire is inauthentic to the extent that it is due to causal factors that are alien to the person and to the extent that it deviates from the person’s practical identity. The article contributes to a tradition of thinking about authenticity which is known mainly from Frankfurt and Dworkin, and bridges the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and real authenticity-related problems in practical biomedical settings.

  • 7.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    A non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy2018Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Respect for autonomy is a central moral principle in bioethics. The concept of autonomy can be construed in various ways. Under the non-ideal conceptualization proposed by Beauchamp and Childress, everyday choices of generally competent persons are autonomous to the extent that they are intentional and are made with understanding and without controlling influences. It is sometimes suggested that authenticity is important to personal autonomy, so that inauthenticity prevents otherwise autonomous persons from making autonomous decisions. Building from Beauchamp and Childress’s theory, this article develops a non-ideal authenticity-based conceptualization of personal autonomy. Factors that indicate inauthentic decision-making are explicated, and the full concept is defended from three expected objections. The theory is then tested on a paradigm case which has concerned theorists and practitioners for some time, namely the possible inauthenticity of anorexia nervosa patients’ decision-making. It is concluded that the theory seems to be fruitful in analyses of the degree of autonomy of patients’ decision-making, and that it succeeds in providing reliable action-guidance in practical contexts.

  • 8.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Authenticity in Bioethics: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to bridge the gap between theoretical ideals of authenticity and practical authenticity-related problems in healthcare. In this context, authenticity means being "genuine," "real," "true to oneself," or similar, and is assumed to be closely connected to the autonomy of persons. The thesis includes an introduction and four articles related to authenticity. The first article collects various theories intended to explain the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity in a taxonomy that enables oversight and analysis. It is argued that (in-)authenticity is difficult to observe in others. The second article offers a solution to this difficulty in one theory of authenticity. It is proposed that under certain circumstances, it is morally justified to judge that the desires underlying a person's decisions are inauthentic. The third article incorporates this proposition into an already established theory of personal autonomy. It is argued that the resulting conceptualization of autonomy is fruitful for action-guidance in authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The fourth article collects nine cases of possible authenticity-related problems in healthcare. The theory developed in the third article is applied to the problems, when this is allowed by the case-description, to provide guidance with regard to them. It is argued that there is not one universal authenticity-related problem but many different problems, and that there is thus likely not one universal solution to such problems but various particular solutions.

  • 9.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    David C. Rose, Why Culture Matters Most: Oxford University Press, 2018, 216 pp., £22.99, ISBN: 9780199330720Ingår i: Journal of Value Inquiry, ISSN 0022-5363, E-ISSN 1573-0492Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Ahlin Marceta, Jesper
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Nine Cases of Possible Inauthenticity in Biomedical Contexts and What They Require from BioethicistsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Respect for autonomy is a main moral principle in bioethics. It is sometimes argued that authenticity, i.e., being "real," "genuine," "true to oneself," or similar, is crucial to a person's autonomy. This article collects nine cases in which the notion of authenticity has been or could be invoked in biomedical contexts. One recently developed theory aiming to provide normative guidance with regard to authenticity-related problems is applied when it is possible, while it is explained in detail why the theory is inept or impractical in the remaining cases. The article thus provides an overview of authenticity-related problems which may be helpful for autonomy theorists. Furthermore, it is argued that there is no universal problem of authenticity, but many problems, and that they may require various particular solutions rather than one universal solution. Among other things, it is suggested that bioethicists should explore non-ideal methodological approaches to authenticity-related problems to provide action-guidance with regard to them.

  • 11. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Authén, S
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Increased user-friendliness and transparency in PSA models: Phase 1. Pre-study2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Angere, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    The defeasible nature of coherentist justification2007Ingår i: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 157, nr 3, s. 321-335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impossibility results of Bovens and Hartmann (2003, Bayesian epistemology. Oxford: Clarendon Press) and Olsson (2005, Against coherence: Truth, probability and justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.) show that the link between coherence and probability is not as strong as some have supposed. This paper is an attempt to bring out a way in which coherence reasoning nevertheless can be justified, based on the idea that, even if it does not provide an infallible guide to probability, it can give us an indication thereof. It is further shown that this actually is the case, for several of the coherence measures discussed in the literature so far. We also discuss how this affects the possibility to use coherence as a means of epistemic justification.

  • 13. Authén, S.
    et al.
    Björkman, K.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Larsson, J.
    Guidelines for reliability analysis of digital systems in PSA context: Phase 1, Status Report2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Adaptive Ideals and Aspirational Goals: The Utopian Ideals and Realist Constraints of Climate Change Adaptation2015Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 739-757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing need to implement anticipatory climate change adaptation measures, particularly in vulnerable sectors, such as in agriculture. However, setting goals to adapt is wrought with several challenges. This paper discusses two sets of challenges to goals of anticipatory adaptation, of (1) empirical and (2) normative character. The first set of challenges concern issues such as the extent to which the climate will change, the local impacts of such changes, and available adaptive responses. In the second set of uncertainties are issues such as the distribution of burdens to enhance adaptive capacities in vulnerable agents with a legitimate claim to such resources, and what anticipatory adaptation ideally should result in. While previous discussions have been limited to either discuss the first or second set of uncertainties, this paper suggests that both dimensions should be considered when setting goals in social planning with long time frames. A taxonomy will be suggested that combines both dimensions. Furthermore, strategies for managing situations in which there are either empirical, or normative, uncertainties will be proposed which could be used in social decision-making with long planning time-frames in which goals must be set.

  • 15.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Cautiously utopian goals: Philosophical analyses of climate change objectives and sustainability targets2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the framework within which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved or approached is analyzed. Sustainable development and climate change are areas in which goals have tobe set despite uncertainties. The analysis is divided into the normative motivations for setting such goals, what forms of goals could be set given the empirical and normative uncertainties, and how tomanage doubts regarding achievability or values after a goal has been set.

    Paper I discusses a set of questions that moral theories intended to guide goal-setting should respond to. It is often claimed that existent normative theories provide only modest guidance regarding climate change, and consequently have to be revised or supplemented. Two such suggested revisions or supplements are analyzed in order to determine whether they provide such guidance.

    Paper II applies the deep ecological framework to survey the extent to which it can be utilized to discuss issues concerning the management of climate change. It is suggested that the deep ecological framework can provide guidance by establishing a normative framework and an analysis of how the overarching values and principles can be specified to be relevant for actions.

    Paper III is focused on normative political theory, and explicates the two dimensions of empirical and normative uncertainty. By applying recent discussions in normative political theory on ideal/non-ideal theory, political realism, and the relation between normative demands and empirical constraints,strategies for managing the proposed goals are suggested.

    Paper IV suggests a form of goal that incorporates uncertainties. Cautious utopias allow greater uncertainty than realistic goals (goals that are known to be achievable or approachable, and desirable),but not to the same extent as utopian goals (goals wherein it is highly uncertain whether the goal can actually be achieved). Such goals have a performance-enhancing function. A definition and quality criteria for such goals are proposed.

    Paper V considers whether a goal that is becoming all the more unlikely to be achievable should be reconsidered. The paper focuses on the two degrees Celsius target, and asks whether it could still be a sensible goal to aspire to. By applying the principle that ‘ought’ implies ‘can’, the role of such obligations is investigated.

    Paper VI surveys how to treat circumstances in which an already set goal should be reconsidered and possibly revised, and what would evoke doubt in the belief upon which those goals have been set.Two situations are analyzed: (i) a problematic or surprising event occurs, upsetting confidence in one’s relevant beliefs, or (ii) respectable but dissenting views are voiced concerning one’s means and/or values. It is suggested that the validity of doubt has to be considered, in addition to the level in a goal-means hierarchy towards which doubt is raised.

  • 16.
    Baard, Patrik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Change of plans?: An environmental pragmatist view on reconsidering long-term goals2015Ingår i: Environmental Philosophy, ISSN 1718-0198, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 185-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management (AEM), as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted reconsideration of long-term goals are investigated. 

  • 17.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Managing climate change: A view from deep ecology2015Ingår i: Ethics and the Environment, ISSN 1085-6633, E-ISSN 1535-5306, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 23-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the awareness that climate change is an increasingly urgent issue to manage, little is being done to adequately achieve mitigation targets and ambitions. It has been suggested that this is due to ill-equipped normative frameworks and that common concepts, such as responsibility, harm, and justice, collapse when applied to climate change. One perspective has however been missing from this debate – the deep ecological perspective. The paper will investigate the deep ecological view and will argue that it can provide a valuable contribution to normative issues pertaining to climate change.

  • 18.
    Baard, Patrik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Mill, miljö och hållbarhet2011Ingår i: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, nr 3, s. 29-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    New Beginnings?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Risk-Reducing Goals: Ideals and Abilities when Managing Complex Environmental Risks2016Ingår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social decision-making involving risks ideally results in obligations to avoid expected harms or keep them within acceptable limits. Ambitious goals aimed at avoiding or greatly reducing risks might not to be feasible, forcing the acceptance of higher degrees of risk (i.e., unrealistic levels of risk reduction are revised to comport with beliefs regarding abilities). In this paper, the philosophical principle ‘ought implies can’ is applied to the management of complex risks, exemplified by the risks associated with climate change. In its common interpretation, the principle states that we cannot expect an agent to perform something that lies beyond his or her abilities. However, it is here argued that this principle requires setting thresholds for legitimate claims of inabilities that justify the waiving of normative demands. This paper discuss three claims: (1) that caution is required before revising a risk-reducing goal that is perhaps exceedingly ambitious; (2) that claims on abilities are not only descriptive, but also value-laden; and (3) that the function of a goal has to be clarified before risk-reducing goals are revised. Risk-reducing goals that initially seem unrealistic arguably serve performance-enhancing purposes in risk management. Neglecting such goals could lead to choosing less desirable, but certainly feasible, risk-reducing goals.

  • 21.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Sustainable Goals: Feasible Paths to Desirable Long-Term Futures2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this licentiate thesis is to analyze the framework in which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved. It is often claimed that goals should be realistic, meaning that they should be adjusted to known abilities. This thesis will argue that this might be very difficult in areas related to sustainable development and climate change adaptation, and that goals that are, to an acceptable degree, unrealistic, can have important functions.

    Essay I discusses long-term goal setting. When there is a great temporal discrepancy between the point in time of setting and achieving a goal, many uncertainties have to be considered. The surrounding world and the agent’s abilities and values might change. This is an ontological uncertainty. We often form beliefs regarding how abilities and values might change, but this belief is always uncertain. This is an epistemological uncertainty. A form of goal called cautiously utopian goals is proposed, which incorporate such uncertainties, but enables goal setting with long time-frames.

    Essay II discusses the issue of goals intended to reduce great risks. We cannot expect an agent to do something that lies beyond this agent’s abilities, as exemplified in the principle ‘ought implies can’. Adjusting goals to what we currently, with a high degree of certainty know could be done is difficult. If not including an estimation of how abilities can change, important performance-enhancing functions of goals might be lost. It is argued that very ambitious goals should be set. This is partly due to the great magnitude and likelihood of unwanted consequences and partly due to the difficulty of delineating what lies in agents’ capacity to manage complex risks.

    Essay III discusses a decision-facilitating tool Sustainability Analysis to be used by Swedish municipal planners. One sub-part of the tool, Goal Conflict Analysis, can be used to identify how the consequences of a planned adaptation measure will affect other long-term municipal goals. Identified goal conflicts can then be used in order to determine whether the conflicts are acceptable, or whether a different adaptation measure should be worked out. The paper discusses a workshop in a Swedish municipality in which the tool has been tested.

  • 22.
    Baard, Patrik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    The Shape of Order at the Edge of Chaos2011Ingår i: Ephemera : Theory and Politics in Organization, ISSN 2052-1499, E-ISSN 1473-2866, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 116-123Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Baard, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Cautious Utopias: Environmental goal-setting with long time frames2015Ingår i: Ethics, Policy & Environment, ISSN 2155-0085, E-ISSN 2155-0093, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 187-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a common goal in the public sector but may be difficult to implement due to epistemic uncertainties and required long time frames. This paper proposes that some of these problems can be solved by formulating cautious utopias, entailing a relationship between means and goals differing from both utopian and realistic goal-setting. Cautiously utopian goals are believed, but not certain, to be achievable and to remain desirable, but are open to future adjustments due to changing desires and/or factual circumstances. Quality criteria for such goals are suggested.

  • 24.
    Baard, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Vredin Johansson, Maria
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Scenarios and sustainability: tools for alleviating the gap between municipal means and responsibilities in adaptation planning2012Ingår i: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 17, nr 6-7, s. 641-662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change often involves long-time frames and uncertainties over the consequences of chosen adaptation measures. In this study, two tools designed for assisting local decision-makers in adaptation planning were tested: socio-economic scenarios and sustainability analysis. The objective was to study whether these tools could be of practical relevance to Swedish municipalities and facilitate local-level climate change adaptation. We found that the municipal planners who participated in the testing generally considered the tools useful and of high relevance, but that more time was needed to use the tools than was provided during the test process.

  • 25. Barton, A.
    et al.
    Grüne-Yanoff, Till
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    From Libertarian Paternalism to Nudging—and Beyond2015Ingår i: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 341-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Barton, Adrien
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    How Tobacco Health Warnings Can Foster Autonomy2013Ingår i: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 207-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate whether tobacco health warnings' interference with autonomy is ethically justifiable in order to deter people from smoking. I dissociate first the informational role and the persuasive role of tobacco health warnings and show that both roles enable typical addicted smokers to better rule themselves, fostering their autonomy. The fact that some messages address people's non-deliberative faculties is therefore compensated by a larger positive influence on their autonomy. However, misleading messages are not ethically justified and should be avoided. Tobacco health warnings' effect on autonomy highlights an important difference between libertarian paternalism and classical paternalism.

  • 27.
    Barton, Adrien
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Burgun, A.
    Duvauferrier, R.
    Probability assignments to dispositions in ontologies2012Ingår i: Front. Artif. Intell. Appl., 2012, s. 3-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how probabilities can be assigned to dispositions in ontologies, building on Popper's propensity approach. We show that if D is a disposition universal associated with a trigger T and a realization R, and d is an instance of D, then one can assign a probability to the triplets (d,T,R) and (D,T,R). These probabilities measure the causal power of dispositions, which can be defined as limits of relative frequencies of possible instances of T triggering an instance of R over a hypothetical infinite random sequence of possible instances of T satisfying certain conditions. Adopting a fallibilist methodology, these probability values can be estimated by relative frequencies in actual finite sequences.

  • 28.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Exploitative,irresistible and coercive offers.: Why research participants should be paid well or not at all.Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper starts with the assumption that it ismorally problematic when people in need are offered money in exchange forresearch participation if the amount offered is unfair. Such offers are called“coercive”, and the degree of coerciveness is said to be determined by theoffer’s potential to cause exploitation and its irresistibility. Depending onwhat view we take on the possibility to compensate for the sacrifices made byresearch participants, a wish to avoid “coercive offers” leads to policyrecommendations concerning payment for participation. For sacrifices consideredcompensable we ought to offer either no payment or payment at a level deemedfair, while for sacrifices deemed incompensable we always ought to offer nopayment.

  • 29.
    Belfrage, Sara
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Exploiting gift-giving2014Ingår i: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 371-400Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly thought that transactions that are the result of voluntary gift-giving do not constitute exploitation. This paper argues that exploitation is indeed possible in such situations, by showing how gift-giving can fulfil the two commonly proposed criteria for exploitation, namely that in an interaction between two persons one receives disproportionally little and the other disproportionally much of the resulting benefits, and that this disproportion is caused by the latter making inappropriate use of a disadvantage of the former. A theoretical approach to what such inappropriate use would amount to in cases of gift-giving is lacking. The paper therefore aims at spelling out such an approach. The method of reflective equilibrium inspires this endeavour, which proceeds by testing intuitions about examples that embody a set of possible conditions. It is concluded that three of the conditions are necessary for exploitation of gift-giving, namely (1) the giver incurs a loss, (2) the recipient has aimed for the gift, and (3) the gift is undeserved.

  • 30.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    In the name of research: Essays on the ethical treatment of human research subjects2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: Traffic research shares a fundamental dilemma with other areas of empirical research in which humans are potentially put at risk. Research is justified because it can improve safety in the long run. Nevertheless, people can be harmed in the research situation. Hence, we need to balance short-term risks against long-term safety improvements, much as in other areas of research with human subjects. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affected in the performance of research by examining how the ethical requirements in biomedical research can inform traffic research. After introducing the basic ethical requirements on biomedical research, each of the major requirements is discussed in relation to traffic research. We identify the main areas where biomedical research and traffic research differ, and where the ethical requirements from the former cannot easily be transferred to the latter. We then point to some of the issues that need to be addressed for a systematic approach to the ethics of traffic research.

    Essay 2: The requirement of always obtaining participants’ informed consent in research with human subjects cannot always be met, for a variety of reasons. In this paper, research situations where informed consent is unobtainable are described and categorised. Some of these kinds of situations, common in biomedicine and psychology, have been previously much discussed, whereas others, more prevalent in for example infrastructure research, introduce new perspectives. The advancement of new technology may lead to an increase in research of these kinds. The paper also provides a review of methods intended to compensate for a lack of consent and their applicability and usefulness for the different categories of situations are discussed, thereby providing insights into one important aspect of relevance for the question of permitting research without informed consent: how well that which informed consent is meant to safeguard can be achieved by other means.

    Essay 3: This paper starts with the assumption that it is morally problematic when people in need are offered money in exchange for research participation if the amount offered is unfair. Such offers are called “coercive”, and the degree of coerciveness is said to be determined by the offer’s potential to cause exploitation and its irresistibility. Depending on what view we take on the possibility to compensate for the sacrifices made by research participants, a wish to avoid “coercive offers” leads to policy recommendations concerning payment for participation. For sacrifices considered compensable we ought to offer either no payment or payment at a level deemed fair, while for sacrifices deemed incompensable we always ought to offer no payment.

    Essay 4: It is commonly thought that transactions that are the result of voluntary gift-giving do not constitute exploitation. This paper argues that exploitation is indeed possible in such situations, by showing how gift-giving can fulfil the two commonly proposed criteria for exploitation, namely that in an interaction between two persons one receives disproportionally little and the other disproportionally much of the resulting benefits, and that this disproportion is caused by the latter making inappropriate use of a disadvantage of the former. A theoretical approach to what such inappropriate use would amount to in cases of gift-giving is lacking. The paper therefore aims at spelling out such an approach. The method of reflective equilibrium inspires this endeavour, which proceeds by testing intuitions about examples that embody a set of possible conditions. It is concluded that three of the conditions are necessary for exploitation of gift-giving, namely (1) the giver incurs a loss, (2) the recipient has aimed for the gift, and (3) the gift is undeserved.

  • 31.
    Belfrage, Sara
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Without Informed Consent2011Ingår i: International Journal of Technoethics, ISSN 1947-3451, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 48-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirement of always obtaining participants’ informed consent in research with human subjects cannot always be met, for a variety of reasons. This paper describes and categorises research situations where informed consent is unobtainable. Some of these kinds of situations, common in biomedicine and psychology, have been previously discussed, whereas others, for example, those more prevalent in infrastructure research, introduce new perspectives. The advancement of new technology may lead to an increase in research of these kinds. The paper also provides a review of methods intended to compensate for lack of consent, and their applicability and usefulness for the different categories of situations are discussed. The aim of this is to provide insights into one important aspect of the question of permitting research without informed consent, namely, how well that which informed consent is meant to safeguard can be achieved by other means.

  • 32.
    Belfrage, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Ethical problems in traffic research2006Ingår i: TRA - TRANSPORT RESEARCH ARENA EUROPE 2006: GREENER, SAFER AND SMARTER ROAD TRANSPORT FOR EUROPE. PROCEEDINGS, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic research gives rise to many types of ethical issues. In this paper we focus on ethical issues that arise when human beings are directly affected in the performance of research, by comparing traffic research to the ethical requirements imposed on biomedical research. After introducing the basic ethical requirements on biomedical research, each of the major requirements is discussed in relation to traffic research. We identify the main areas where biomedical research and traffic research differ, and where the ethical requirements from the former cannot easily be transferred to the latter. Finally, we argue that there is a need for systematic studies of the ethics of traffic research and point to some of the issues that need to be addressed (A). For the covering abstract of the conference see ITRD E212343

  • 33. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety goals are defined in different ways in different countries and also used differently. Many countries are presently developing them in connection to the transfer to risk-informed regulation of both operating nuclear power plants (NPP) and new designs. However, it is far from self-evident how probabilistic safety criteria should be defined and used. On one hand, experience indicates that safety goals are valuable tools for the interpretation of results from a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and they tend to enhance the realism of a risk assessment. On the other hand, strict use of probabilistic criteria is usually avoided. A major problem is the large number of different uncertainties in a PSA model, which makes it difficult to demonstrate the compliance with a probabilistic criterion. Further, it has been seen that PSA results can change a lot over time due to scope extensions, revised operating experience data, method development, changes in system requirements, or increases of level of detail, mostly leading to an increase of the frequency of the calculated risk. This can cause a problem of consistency in the judgments.

    This report presents the results from the second, third and fourth phases of the project (2007–2009), which have dealt with providing guidance related to the resolution of some specific problems, such as the problem of consistency in judgement, comparability of safety goals used in different industries, the relationship between criteria on different levels, and relations between criteria for level 2 and 3 PSA. In parallel, additional context information has been provided. This was achieved by extending the international overview by contributing to and benefiting from a survey on PSA safety criteria which was initiated in 2006 within the OECD/NEA Working Group Risk.

    The results from the project can be used as a platform for discussions at the utilities on how to define and use quantitative safety goals. The results can also be used by safety authorities as a reference for risk-informed regulation. The outcome can have an impact on the requirements on PSA, e.g., regarding quality, scope, level of detail, and documen¬tation. Finally, the results can be expected to support on-going activities concerning risk-informed applications.

    The project provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art description and has contributed to clarifying the history of safety goals both nationally and internationally, the concepts involved in defining and applying probabilistic safety criteria, and the international status and trends in general. It has identified critical issues and the main problem areas. Finally, the project provides useful recommendations and guidance on the definition and application of criteria.

    Furthermore, the project makes it possible to define criteria stringently, improving the possibilities of argumentation on safety. Generally, this supports efficient use of criteria, yielding more useful PSA results. In this connection, the introduction of ALARP type criteria is judged to provide a very useful way of balancing stringency with the necessary flexibility. There is a possibility of making more active use of lower level criteria. This makes the connection to defence in depth more evident, and opens the perspective of increased control of defence in depth by use of probabilistic methods, including the use as design tools. There is an opportunity for comparison of risk of different NPPs, as well as of comparison of NPP risk with other risks in society. This is judged to provide an opportunity for improved communication on risks with non-PSA experts and with the public in general. However, a necessary condition for meaningful comparisons is to agree on the scope of PSA and methods applied.

    Obviously, there will also be challenges in the future definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria. These include very general aspects, such as the interpretation of the probability, quality aspects of PSA, and the definition of meaningful and consistent risk criteria for different usages. The need and usefulness of subsidiary criteria has been stressed in the project, but there is obviously also a challenge in defining a relevant set of criteria on different levels. Defining criteria for L(E)RF is complex, especially if release criteria are defined as subsidiary for societal and individual risk. Finally, it will be a challenge to develop coherent application procedures relative to the criteria defined.

  • 34. Bengtsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Rossi, Jukka
    Knochenhauer, Michael
    Probabilistic Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants; Phases 2-4: Final Report.2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Bergman, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Jakobsson,, Kristina
    Universitetssjukhuset Lund.
    Källén, Erland
    Stockholms universitet.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Giftfritt – en nyttig utopi2009Ingår i: Chemicalnet.seArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Hanberg, A.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Background paper on the risk assessment of Bisphenol A: Overview of previous risk assessments2010Ingår i: The joint FAO/WHO expert meeting to review toxicological and health aspects of bisphenol A, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hanberg, A.
    Improving the transparency of data evaluation in risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds-Implications from the bisphenol A case study2011Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 205, s. S256-S256Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex biology and toxicology of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) makes toxicity testing as well as evaluation of data for risk assessment difficult. Standardized test guidelines have previously been questioned as to their applicability for evaluating EDC toxicity. However, several guidelines have been updated and enhanced in an effort to better cover EDCs. Also, EDC toxicity is a very active research field and a lot of toxicological data are generated in research studies NOT conducted according to standardized guidelines. Our previous work indicates that differences in how the reliability and relevance of toxicity studies are judged may vary greatly between risk assessments of the same compound and may result in different conclusions about the size and nature of health risks. Further, the process of data evaluation is in many cases in-transparent. The purpose of this on-going study is to contribute to making health risk assessments of EDCs more transparent, systematic, and predictable. The investigation is conducted as a literature study using the EDC bisphenol A (BPA) for a case study. We scrutinize and compare the strengths and weaknesses of both guideline and non-guideline studies evaluating developmental neurotoxicity of BPA. One goal is to further assess the applicability of standardized guidelines in this case. Another aim is to propose improvements in the process of data reporting of non-guideline studies and recommend criteria for the evaluation of data in order to facilitate risk assessment of EDCs.

  • 38. Beronius, A.
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hanberg, A.
    Garai, J.
    Håkansson, H.
    Assessing the risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals2009Ingår i: Endocrine disrupting chemicals in food / [ed] Ian Shaw, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009, s. 356-380Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, four European regulatory frameworks are compared concerning how they cope with identifying and risk assessing endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This comparison is performed by using four example chemicals, bisphenol A, dioxins, ethinyl estradiol and vinclozolin, representing four different regulatory categories. It is concluded that within these regulations, there are no general test requirements that specifically enable identification of endocrine disruptors, and there seem to be little conformity in the risk assessment processes even though the route of exposure and the mode of toxicity are similar. Further development of risk assessment guidance for endocrine disruptors requires continued cooperation between experimental scientists, risk assessors, regulators and industry.

  • 39. Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Hanberg, Annika
    Håkansson, Helen
    Health risk assessment procedures for endocrine disrupting compounds within different regulatory frameworks in the European Union2009Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 111-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have investigated how different regulatory frameworks in Europe cope with identification and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Four regulatory groups were selected for the investigation: existing industrial chemicals, environmental pollutants in food, pharmaceuticals and plant protection products. The legislation and guidelines for each of these groups were scrutinized and compared in detail. In addition, one recent European risk assessment document each for three identified EDCs, i.e. bisphenol A, dioxins and vinclozolin, were reviewed and compared. We found that the requirements for toxicity testing and availability and scope of risk assessment guidelines varied between the four regulatory frameworks. Also, the general principles regarding the human relevance of the mode of action identified in animal tests differed in the different risk assessments. In conclusion, there is little conformity in the risk assessment processes between these groups of chemicals. Because of the complicated nature of endocrine disruption, test methods, principles and criteria for data interpretation traditionally used might not be directly applicable to EDCs and further development of a transparent and reliable risk assessment process for this type of substances is needed.

  • 40. Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Håkansson, Helen
    Hanberg, Annika
    Risk to all or none? A comparative analysis of controversies in the health risk assessment of Bisphenol A2010Ingår i: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 132-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor for which health risk assessment has proven controversial. Conclusions regarding health risks of BPA vary between assessments from "there is no risk to any part of the population" to "there is risk to the entire population". We have carried out a literature study investigating what might be the scientific and/or policy-related reasons for these differences. Ten risk assessments for BPA were scrutinized and several factors were compared between assessments, including estimations of exposure levels, identification of critical study and NOAEL, assessment factors and significance attributed to reports of low-dose effects. Differences in conclusions were mainly influenced by the evaluation of low-dose effects and the uncertainties surrounding the significance of these data for health risk assessment. The results illustrate the impact of differences in risk assessment policy and expert judgment on the risk assessment process and highlight the importance of transparency in this process.

  • 41.
    Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willighagen, Egon
    Maastricht Univ, Maastricht, Netherlands .
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hanberg, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Factors influencing developmental neurotoxicity study outcome in the bisphenol A case2012Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, s. S128-S129Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42. Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Effects of workplace inspection of the Swedish noise campaign2008Ingår i: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 55-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Evaluation of the Work Environment Authority 2005 campaign: STOP THAT NOISE!2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Björkdahl, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Wester, Misse
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Utvärdering av Arbetsmiljöverkets kampanj 2005: BORT MED BULLRET!2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Different Types, Different Rights: Distinguishing Between Different Perspectives on Ownership of Biological Material2007Ingår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 221-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a social construction theory of ownership in biological material this paper discusses which differences in biological material might motivate differences in treatment and ownership rights. The analysis covers both the perspective of the person from whom the material originates and that of the potential recipient. Seven components of bundles of rights, drawing on the analytical tradition of Tony Honore, and their relationship to various types of biological material are investigated. To exemplify these categories the cases of a heart, a kidney, stem cells and hair are used.

  • 46.
    Björkman, Barbro
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Etiska aspekter på samhällets riskhantering2005Ingår i: Filosofins Nya Möten / [ed] K. Edvardsson, S.O. Hansson & J. Nihlén Fahlquist, Hedemora: Gidlunds Förlag , 2005, s. 103-111Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Björkman, Barbro
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    How agencies inspect: A comparative study of inspectionpolicies in eight Swedish government agencies2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    On the Necessary Self-regarding Aspects of Other-regarding VirtuesArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Virtue Ethics, Bioethics, and the Ownership of Biological Material2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to show how some ideas in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics can be interpreted and used as a productive way to approach a number of pressing issues in bioethics. Articles I-II introduce, and endorse, a social constructivist perspective on rights (as opposed to the more traditional natural rights idea). It is investigated if the existence of property-like rights to biological material would include the moral right to commodification and even commercialisation. Articles III-V discuss similar questions and more specifically champion the application of an Aristotelian virtue ethics perspective. The articles are preceded by an introductory essay on some of the central themes in the Nicomachean Ethics. This section also includes a very brief account of what the connection between virtue ethics and a theory of social construction, including rights, could look like. The thesis seeks to show that if read somewhat creatively many of the ideas in the Nicomachean Ethics make for a highly useful approach to modern moral problems. It should be noted, however, that this thesis in no way claims to be an exegetic, or a complete, study of the Nicomachean Ethics.

    Article I deals with ownership of biological material from a philosophical, as opposed to a legal, perspective. It is argued that a strand in liberal political theory that treats property relations as socially constructed bundles of rights, as developed by e.g. Felix Cohen and Tony Honoré, is well suited for discussions on ownership of biological material.

    Article II investigates which differences in biological material might motivate differences in treatment and ownership rights. The article draws on the social constructivist theory of ownership which was developed in Article I.

    Article III employs virtue ethics to explain why it is morally permissible to donate but not to sell organs such as kidneys. It is suggested that the former action will bring the agent closer to a state of human flourishing.

    Article IV argues that virtues like philia, justice, beneficence and generosity — traditionally all seen as other-regarding — contain strong self-regarding aspects. The central claim is that these self-regarding aspects of the other-regarding virtues are necessary components of complete virtue and thus that the fully virtuous agent has to act virtuously both in her dealings with herself and others.

    Article V applies the ideas that were developed in Article IV to the case of living organ donations to next of kin. It is proposed that such an act, although noble and fine, is supererogatory, rather than obligatory, as the donor is morally entitled to be partial to herself. This argument is made against the backdrop of a discussion on some Aristotelian ideas on philia and partiality.

  • 50.
    Björkman, Barbro
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi.
    Why Organ Donation from the Living is a Supererogatory Act: A Discussion on Philia and the Moral Right to Favour OneselfArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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