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  • 1. Abbak, Ramazan A.
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ellmann, Artu
    Ustun, Aydin
    A precise gravimetric geoid model in a mountainous area with scarce gravity data: a case study in central Turkey2012Inngår i: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 909-927Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In mountainous regions with scarce gravity data, gravimetric geoid determination is a difficult task that needs special attention to obtain reliable results satisfying the demands, e.g., of engineering applications. The present study investigates a procedure for combining a suitable global geopotential model and available terrestrial data in order to obtain a precise regional geoid model for Konya Closed Basin (KCB). The KCB is located in the central part of Turkey, where a very limited amount of terrestrial gravity data is available. Various data sources, such as the Turkish digital elevation model with 3 '' x 3 '' resolution, a recently published satellite-only global geopotential model from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite (GRACE) and the ground gravity observations, are combined in the least-squares sense by the modified Stokes' formula. The new gravimetric geoid model is compared with Global Positioning System (GPS)/levelling at the control points, resulting in the Root Mean Square Error (RMS) differences of +/- 6.4 cm and 1.7 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. This regional geoid model appears to he more accurate than the Earth Gravitational Model 2008, which is the best global model over the target area, with the RMS differences of +/- 8.6 cm and 1.8 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. These results show that the accuracy of a regional gravimetric model can be augmented by the combination of a global geopotential model and local terrestrial data in mountainous areas even though the quality and resolution of the primary terrestrial data are not satisfactory to the geoid modelling procedure.

  • 2.
    Abdalla, Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Determination of a gravimetric geoid model of Sudan using the KTH method2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study is to compute a new gravimetric geoid model of Sudan

    using the KTH method based on modification of Stokes’ formula for geoid determination.

    The modified Stokes’ formula combines regional terrestrial gravity with long-wavelength

    gravity information provided by the global gravitational model (GGM). The collected

    datasets for this study contained the terrestrial gravity measurements, digital elevation

    model (DEM), GPS/levelling data and four global gravitational Models (GGMs), (EGM96,

    EIGEN-GRACE02S, EIGEN-GL04C and GGM03S).

    The gravity data underwent cross validation technique for outliers detection, three gridding

    algorithms (Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and Nearest Neighbor) have been tested,

    thereafter the best interpolation approach has been chosen for gridding the refined gravity

    data. The GGMs contributions were evaluated with GPS/levelling data to choose the best

    one to be used in the combined formula.

    In this study three stochastic modification methods of Stokes’ formula (Optimum, Unbiased

    and Biased) were performed, hence an approximate geoid height was computed. Thereafter,

    some additive corrections (Topographic, Downward Continuation, Atmospheric and Ellipsoidal)

    were added to the approximated geoid height to get corrected geoid height.

    The new gravimetric geoid model (KTH-SDG08) has been determined over the whole

    country of Sudan at 5′ x 5′ grid for area ( 4 ). The optimum method

    provides the best agreement with GPS/levelling estimated to 29 cm while the agreement for

    the relative geoid heights to 0.493 ppm. A comparison has also been made between the new

    geoid model and a previous model, determined in 1991 and shows better accuracy.

    􀁄 ≤φ ≤ 23􀁄 , 22􀁄 ≤ λ ≤ 38􀁄

    Keywords: geoid model, KTH method, stochastic modification methods, modified Stokes’ formula,

    additive corrections.

  • 3.
    Abdelmajid, Yezeed
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Investigation and Comparison of 3D Laser Scanning Software Packages2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Laser scanning technologies has become an important tool in many engineering projects and applications. The output of laser measuring is the point cloud, which is processed in a way that makes it suitable for different applications. Processing of point cloud data is achieved through laser scanning software packages. Depending on the field of application, these packages have many different kinds of functions and methods that can be used. The main processing tasks used on a laser scanning software package include registration, modelling and texture mapping. Investigation and comparison of two laser scanning processing packages (Leica Cyclone and InnovMetric PolyWorks) are performed in this study. The theoretical and mathematical backgrounds of the above functions are presented and discussed. The available methods and functions used by each of the packages for these tasks are addressed and discussed. By using sample data, these functions are trailed and their results are compared and analyzed.

    The results from registration tests show the same results on both packages for the registration using target methods. Although, the results of cloud-to-cloud registration show some deviation from target registration results, they are more close to each other in both packages than to the target registration results. This indicates the efficiency of cloud-to-cloud methods in averaging the total registration error on all used points, unlike target registration methods.

    The modelling tests show more differences in the accuracy of generated models between the two packages. For both fitting and surface construction methods, PolyWorks showed better results and capabilities for three-dimensional modelling. As a result, the advantages and disadvantages of each package are presented in relation with the used task and methods, and a review of data exchange abilities is presented.

  • 4.
    Abdollahzadeh, Makan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Najafi-Alamdari, Mehdi
    Geodesy, KNToosi Uni. Tech..
    Application of Molodensky's Method for Precise Determination of Geoid in Iran2011Inngår i: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 259-270Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the geoid with a high accuracy is a challenging task among geodesists. Its precise determination is usually carried out by combining a global geopotential model with terrestrial gravity anomalies measured in the region of interest along with some topographic information. In this paper, Molodensky's approach is used for precise determination of height anomaly. To do this, optimum combination of global geopotential models with the validated terrestrial surface gravity anomalies and some deterministic modification schemes are investigated. Special attention is paid on the strict modelling of the geoidal height and height anomaly difference. The accuracy of the determined geoid is tested on the 513 points of Iranian height network the geoidal height of which are determined by the GPS observations.

  • 5.
    Abdul Al, Fatima
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Alla barns lekplats: En studie om tillgängligheten på lekplatser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har länge varit ledande inom tillgänglighet. Genom införandet av begreppen ”tillgänglighet” och ”användbarhet” har man genom Plan- och bygglagen och Boverkets riktlinjer ställt krav på den fysiska miljön.

    Ca 7 000 barn i Sverige är rörelsehindrade. Ungefär hälften av dessa barn använder en rullstol. Trots att alla barn har rätt till lek, är det intressant att undersöka huruvida alla barn ges möjlighet att utnyttja denna rättighet. Efter att ha uppmärksammat Helsingborgs stads kreativa lekplatsbyggen, dök frågan kring huruvida alla barn har möjlighet att leka på dessa lekplatser, upp.

    Syftet med arbetet är att belysa vikten av tillgängliga lekplatser, samt att undersöka hur tillgängligheten på lekplatser kan förbättras och vilka anpassningar som krävs för att förbättra tillgängligheten för rullstolsburna barn.

    I detta arbete görs en litteraturstudie, med fokus på regelverk och litteratur kopplad till tillgänglighet. En fallstudie görs i form av platsbesök på 8 lekplatser i Helsingborg, som underlag för en jämförelse. En intervju görs med Johanna Elgström, landskapsarkitekt på Helsingborgs stad.

    Slutsatsen av detta arbete är att lekplatser där man fokuserat mer på tillgänglighet ofta är mer tillgängliga och användbara för barn i rullstol. Dock krävs incitament för att säkerställa en tillgänglig och användbar lekplatsmiljö, samt tydligare definition av dessa begrepp. Genom att ha en lekplats som är tillgänglig och användbar för de flesta, gynnas den sociala hållbarheten. Slutsatsen av detta arbete blir således att säkerställandet av tillgängliga och användbara lekplatser gynnar rullstolsburna barns möjlighet till socialt samspel.

  • 6.
    Abdul Al, Fatima
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Ansvarsfördelning vid förvaltning av 3D-utrymmen: En studie om underbyggnad av allmän plats2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 januari 2004 infördes regler om tredimensionell fastighetsbildning. I takt med att städerna växer krävs yteffektiva lösningar för att utveckla staden samtidigt som dess kvaliteter bibehålls. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur ansvarsfördelningen av drift och underhåll vid bildandet av tredimensionella fastigheter lämpligen bör utformas för att åstadkomma en långsiktigt hållbar förvaltning i en tät stadsstruktur, där ytor för allmänna platser underbyggs med enskilda anläggningar. Examensarbetet begränsar sig till att endast behandla 3D-utrymmen som avser allmän plats med kommunalt huvudmannaskap som underbyggs med en enskild anläggning. Examensarbetet behandla frågorna om 3D-utrymmen ur ett kommunalt och lantmäterimässigt perspektiv. I examensarbetet studeras hur ansvaret för drift och underhåll av 3D-fastigheten ska fördelas mellan parterna för att underlätta en långsiktigt hållbar förvaltning av allmän plats som underbyggs med en enskild anläggning. Därefter studeras hur ansvarsfördelningen regleras i detaljplan, förrättningsakt och avtal, för att slutligen kunna svara på vilka möjliga utmaningar 3D-fastighetsbildningen medför för den långsiktiga förvaltningen av den allmänna platsen. Studien har visat att förvaltningen av 3D-fastigheter är en komplex fråga. Resultatet tyder på att det krävs att ansvarsfördelningen mellan de båda fastighetsägarna tydligt definieras för att få till en hållbar och välfungerande långsiktig förvaltning. Därav följer en reglering av kostnadsfördelningen för att tydligt avgöra vilken fastighetsägare som står för vilka kostnader avseende utförande, drift och underhåll. Ansvaret definieras genom angivelse i plankarta och planbestämmelser samt genom reglering i förrättningsakt och avtal. Studien visar även på att det är viktigt med ett nära samarbete mellan kommunen och Lantmäterimyndigheten för att säkerställa en långsiktigt hållbar förvaltning. Det är särskilt viktigt med ett nära samarbete mellan enheterna inom kommunen för att kunna tillgodose entydigheten i de juridiskt bindande dokumenten för att därigenom kunna säkerställa en tydlig reglering av ansvarsfördelningen för förvaltningen av 3D-fastigheten

  • 7.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, GA Delft, 2600, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Determinants of traveler satisfaction: Evidence for non-linear and asymmetric effects2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 66, s. 339-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 8.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    How does travel satisfaction sum up?: Decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips2018Inngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 1615-1642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how satisfaction with individual trip legs aggregates to the overall travel experience for different types of trips will enable the identification of the trip legs that are most impactful. For this purpose we analyze data on retrospective evaluations of entire multi-modal trip experiences and satisfaction with individual trip legs. We formulate and describe alternative aggregation rules and underpin them in theory and previous empirical findings. The results of a series of regression models show that for a large number of multi-modal trip configurations normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules. This indicates that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience, especially for trips legs involving waiting and/or transferring time. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yielded the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction. No evidence for a disproportional effect of the last or most exceptional part of the trip was found. This research contributes to the literature on combining multi-episodic experiences and provides novel empirical evidence in the transport domain. 

  • 9.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Investigating the nature of Public Transport service attributes2018Inngår i: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 10.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Individual, Travel, and Bus Stop Characteristics Influencing Travelers’ Safety Perceptions2018Inngår i: TRR Journal of transportation research boardArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring safety during door-to-door public transport trips is a fundamental challenge to service providers as safety influences individuals’ mobility. Using reported safety perceptions of travelers waiting at six bus stops with different characteristics in Stockholm, this study investigates factors that have an impact on determining travelers’ perceived safety and crime perceptions. This is done by assessing the importance of real-time information provision and the environmental characteristics of bus stops during the day and at night for different types of crime, after controlling for travelers’ individual and trip characteristics, and their previous experiences of victimization. Interaction effects of age, gender, and travel frequency are also tested. The  results  suggest  that  bus  shelter  characteristics,  natural  surveillance,  and  trustworthy  real-time  information  are  the most important factors influencing safety and crime perceptions. Additionally, safety perceptions are strongly influenced by previous experiences of victimization. The effect of perceived feelings about crime and safety are found to be nuanced by age and gender. Unlike some common beliefs, travelers: (1) feel less worried about becoming a victim of crime at bus stops associated with high crime rates; (2) prefer opaque shelters at night; and (3) have higher safety perceptions when the stop is located in an area of mixed land use. The impact of a bus stop’s number of passers-by is found to be insignificant. No direct or indirect effects can be attributed to frequency of travel by bus, indicating that familiar places and routine behavior have noeffect on declared crime and safety perceptions.

  • 11.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Ettema, Dick F.
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, 7,POB 80115, NL-3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Do accessibility, vulnerability, opportunity, and travel characteristics have uniform impacts on the traveler's experience?2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 114, s. 38-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Liu, C.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 122, s. 34-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The ordered logit model results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Johanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Vild natur: Värden, attityder och associationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den moderna människan anses ha förlorat kopplingen till naturen, och en planering som arbetar för att minska separationen mellan människa och natur har efterfrågats. Grönområden värderas ofta utifrån ett brett perspektiv och få studier har undersökt den vilda naturtypens specifika kvaliteter. Det verkar också finnas definitionsmässiga problem och konflikter rörande begreppet ”vild natur”. Syftet med denna rapport är att identifiera vild naturs specifika värden och att undersöka vad begreppet egentligen kan innefatta. Ett annat syfte är att undersöka attityder och associationer till vild natur och hur den arbetas med i planeringen.

    En litteraturstudie har använts som främsta metod. Litteraturstudien har sedan kompletterats med en mindre fallstudie innefattande en dokumentstudie, intervjuer och enkäter. 

    Slutsatsen är att vild natur erbjuder värden av ekologisk, pedagogisk och upplevelsemässig karaktär. Det ekologiska värdet består i att vild natur möjliggör biologisk mångfald. Det pedagogiska värdet innefattar aspekter som bidrar till att stärka kopplingen till naturen, vilket kan leda till ändrade miljömässiga beteenden. Dessutom har vild natur upplevelsevärden av spirituell och reflekterande karaktär, bidrar till stressminsking och ökat välmående. Vild natur associeras till mänskligt opåverkade och stora områden. Samma synsätt finns inom planeringen och den vilda naturens upplevelsekvaliteter värderas ofta utifrån ett ekologiskt perspektiv. Detta innebär att potentialen hos grönområden som inte passar in i den traditionella bilden inte tas tillvara. Vild natur kan också definieras utifrån de upplevelsekvaliteter som relaterats till vildhet. En utveckling mot ett sådant synsätt skulle kunna innebära att den vilda naturens specifika värden tas tillvara. Detta skulle kunna bidra till ett ökat välmående hos invånarna men långsiktigt även ett mer hållbart samhälle.

  • 14.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Recovering Moho parameters using gravimetric and seismic data2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Isostasy is a key concept in geoscience to interpret the state of mass balance between the Earth’s crust and mantle. There are four well-known isostatic models: the classical models of Airy/Heiskanen (A/H), Pratt/Hayford (P/H), and Vening Meinesz (VM) and the modern model of Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM). The first three models assume a local and regional isostatic compensation, whereas the latter one supposes a global isostatic compensation scheme.

    A more satisfactory test of isostasy is to determine the Moho interface. The Moho discontinuity (or Moho) is the surface, which marks the boundary between the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Generally, the Moho interface can be mapped accurately by seismic observations, but limited coverage of seismic data and economic considerations make gravimetric or combined gravimetric-seismic methods a more realistic technique for imaging the Moho interface either regional or global scales.

    It is the main purpose of this dissertation to investigate an isostatic model with respect to its feasibility to use in recovering the Moho parameters (i.e. Moho depth and Moho density contrast). The study is mostly limited to the VMM model and to the combined approach on regional and global scales. The thesis briefly includes various investigations with the following specific subjects:

    1) to investigate the applicability and quality of satellite altimetry data (i.e. marine gravity data) in Moho determination over the oceans using the VMM model, 2) to investigate the need for methodologies using gravimetric data jointly with seismic data (i.e. combined approach) to estimate both the Moho depth and Moho density contrast over regional and global scales, 3) to investigate the spherical terrain correction and its effect on the VMM Moho determination, 4) to investigate the residual isostatic topography (RIT, i.e. difference between actual topography and isostatic topography) and its effect in the VMM Moho estimation, 5) to investigate the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction and its effect on the Moho geometry using the VMM model, 6) Finally, the thesis ends with the application of the classical isostatic models for predicting the geoid height.

    The main input data used in the VMM model for a Moho recovery is the gravity anomaly/disturbance corrected for the gravitational contributions of mass density variation due in different layers of the Earth’s crust (i.e. stripping gravity corrections) and for the gravity contribution from deeper masses below the crust (i.e. non-isostatic effects). The corrections are computed using the recent seismic crustal model CRUST1.0.

    Our numerical investigations presented in this thesis demonstrate that 1) the VMM approach is applicable for estimating Moho geometry using a global marine gravity field derived by satellite altimetry and that the possible mean dynamic topography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination, 2) the combined approach could help in filling-in the gaps in the seismic models and it also provides good fit to other global and regional models more than 90 per cent of the locations, 3) despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the Moho result most significantly in many areas, 4) the application of the RIT correction improves the agreement of our Moho result with some published global Moho models, 5) the application of the lithospheric thermal-pressure correction improves the agreement of VMM Moho model with some other global Moho models, 6) the geoid height cannot be successfully represented by the classical models due to many other gravitational signals from various mass variations within the Earth that affects the geoid.  

  • 15.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. Univ Karlstad, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Sampietro, D.
    Towards the Moho depth and Moho density contrast along with their uncertainties from seismic and satellite gravity observations2017Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 231-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a combined method for estimating a new global Moho model named KTH15C, containing Moho depth and Moho density contrast (or shortly Moho parameters), from a combination of global models of gravity (GOCO05S), topography (DTM2006) and seismic information (CRUST1.0 and MDN07) to a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz' inverse problem of isostasy. This paper also aims modelling of the observation standard errors propagated from the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and CRUST1.0 models in estimating the uncertainty of the final Moho model. The numerical results yield Moho depths ranging from 6.5 to 70.3 km, and the estimated Moho density contrasts ranging from 21 to 650 kg/m(3), respectively. Moreover, test computations display that in most areas estimated uncertainties in the parameters are less than 3 km and 50 kg/m(3), respectively, but they reach to more significant values under Gulf of Mexico, Chile, Eastern Mediterranean, Timor sea and parts of polar regions. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by KTH15C and those derived by KTH11C, GEMMA2012C, CRUST1.0, KTH14C, CRUST14 and GEMMA1.0 models shows that KTH15C agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The Moho density contrasts estimated by KTH15C and those of the KTH11C, KTH14C and VMM model agree to 112, 31 and 61 kg/m(3) in RMS. The regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between KTH15C and Moho depths from seismic information yields fits of 2 to 4 km in South and North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, respectively.

  • 16.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering. Univ Gavle, Dept Ind Dev IT & Land Management, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Combined Moho parameters determination using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz model2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1674-487X, E-ISSN 1867-111X, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 607-616Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parameters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1A(0)x1A(0). The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m(3), with a global average of 321 kg/m(3), and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our leastsquares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our estimate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  • 17.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Modelling Moho depth in ocean areas based on satellite altimetry using Vening Meinesz–Moritz’ method2016Inngår i: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, ISSN 1217-8977, E-ISSN 1587-1037, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 137-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for estimating Moho depth is carried out based on satellite altimetryand topographic information using the Vening Meinesz–Moritz gravimetric isostatichypothesis. In order to investigate the possibility and quality of satellite altimetry in Mohodetermination, the DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field model and the DTM2006 globaltopography model are used to obtain a global Moho depth model over the oceans with aresolution of 1 x 1 degree. The numerical results show that the estimated Bouguer gravity disturbancevaries from 86 to 767 mGal, with a global average of 747 mGal, and the estimatedMoho depth varies from 3 to 39 km with a global average of 19 km. Comparing the Bouguergravity disturbance estimated from satellite altimetry and that derived by the gravimetricsatellite-only model GOGRA04S shows that the two models agree to 13 mGal in root meansquare (RMS). Similarly, the estimated Moho depths from satellite altimetry andGOGRA04S agree to 0.69 km in RMS. It is also concluded that possible mean dynamictopography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination.

  • 18.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016Inngår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 204, nr 1, s. 262-273Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1 degrees x 1 degrees blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 19.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Sampietro, Daniele
    Modelling Moho parameters and their uncertainties from the combination of the seismic and satellite gravity dataManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for estimating a new global Moho model (KTH15C), containing Moho depth and density contrast, from a combination of global models of gravity (GOCO05S), topography (DTM2006) and seismic information (CRUST1.0 and MDN07) to a resolution of 1°×1° based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz’ inverse problem of isostasy. Particularly, this article has its emphasis on the modelling of the observation standard errors propagated from the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and CRUST1.0 models in estimating the uncertainty of the final Moho model. The numerical results yield Moho depths ranging from 6.5 to 70.1 km, with a global average of 23.4 ± 13 km. The estimated Moho density contrasts range from 21 to 680 kg/m3, with a global average of 345.4 ± 112 kg/m3. Moreover, test computations display that in most areas estimated uncertainties in the parameters are less than 3 km and 50 kg/m3, respectively, but they reach to more significant values under Gulf of Mexico, Chile, Eeastern Mediterranean, Timor sea and parts of polar regions. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by KTH15C and those derived by KTH11C, GEMMA2012C, CRUST1.0, KTH14C, CRUST14 and GEMMA1.0 models shows that KTH15C agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The Moho density contrasts estimated by KTH15C and those of the KTH11C and KTH14C model agree to 120 and 80 kg/m3 in RMS. The regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between KTH15C and Moho depths from seismic information yields fits of 2 to 4 km in South and North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, respectively.    

  • 20.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Interaction between rivers and morphology of cities in Sweden2014Inngår i: Our common future in urban morphology, Porto: FEUP edições (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto Edicoes), 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers as one of the most important topographic factor have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper I intend to find out the influence of rivers on the morphology of a cities and discuss that how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. My study area is river-cities in Sweden in which they have not received much attention in this issue. To this purpose I use space syntax method integrating with geospatial analysis and extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, choice value and so on. Comparing the states of presence and absence of rivers in these cities as well as evaluating the effect of rivers on the morphology of areas located in different banks of rivers are also part of interest in this paper. The primary result shows that although a river is not comparable to a city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of a city in both global and local properties. In addition, tracking the pattern of river-cities and their interaction to rivers may lead us to interoperate the physical form of these cities in terms of structured and distributed cities.

  • 21.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Arkitektonisk gestaltning.
    Resilience, space syntax and spatialinterfaces: The case of river cities2017Inngår i: A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, ISSN 1303-7005, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 25-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience defined as the capacity of a system to manage impacts, keep its efficiency and continue its development has been scrutinized by researchers from different points of view over the past decades. Due to the prominence of resilience in urban planning, this paper intends to find out how the spatial structure of cities deals with disturbances, and if geographical phenomena such as rivers affect the resilience in cities. Using the space syntax methods syntactically analyze the resilience in cities, we innovatively introduce two measures; similarity and sameness. These measures are in relation with the syntactical properties of cities and compare the degree of resilience between different groups. Similarity measures the degree to which each city retains the relative magnitude of its foreground network after a disturbance and sameness is the degree to which each city retains the same segments as its foreground network after a disturbance. Likewise to network resilience studies, we apply different disturbances on cities and explore the reaction of cities to disturbances in terms of size of the foreground network and which segments are parts thereof. We then compare different groups based on these measurements as a method to analyze sameness and similarity. The results show that the resilience, in the way we define it, is different in different cities depending on in which view and based on which parameters we are discussing the resilience. Additionally morphological phenomena such as rivers have a great impact on the structure of cities and in turn on their resilience.

  • 22.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Rivers as integration devices in cities2016Inngår i: City, Territory and Architecture, ISSN 0885-7024, E-ISSN 2195-2701, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 1-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As dynamic systems rivers and cities have been in interaction under changing relations over time, and the morphology of many cities has risen through a long and steady struggle between the city functions and the river system flowing inside. This makes river cities an interesting case to study how the presence of geographical features interacts with spatial morphology in the formation of cities.

    Methods: The basis of this research is enabled by utilizing a novel model for cross-city comparison presented by Hillier in his Santiago keynote in 2012 called a “star model”. This is done on large samples of cities investigating concurrent configurations, as well as how the properties in this star model react to specific forms of disturbance.

    Results: Results illustrate that the foreground network as identified through maximum choice values in cities are more vital to the structure of cities than the bridges. The overall syntactic structure tends to retain its character (degree of distributedness) and the location of its foreground network (which street segments constitute the foreground network) even when bridges are targeted. Furthermore, counter to the initial hypothesis, river cities tend to change less than non-river cities after targeted disturbance of the systems. Finally, the results show that while there is a statistical morphological difference between river cities and non-river cities, this difference is not directly explained through the bridges.

    Conclusion: Integrating space syntax with statistical and geospatial analysis can throw light on the way in which the properties of city networks and urban structure reflect the relative effect of rivers on the morphology of river cities. The paper, finally, contributes through offering one piece of a better perception of the structure of river-cities that can support strategies of river-cities interaction as well as enhance our knowledge on the constraints and limits to that interaction.

  • 23.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Visibility Analysis, Similarity and Dissimilarity in General Trends of Building Layouts and their Functions2013Inngår i: Proceedings of Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young Ook Kim, Hoon Tae Park, Kyung Wook Seo, Seoul: Sejong University Press , 2013, s. 11:1-11:15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Visibility analysis is one of the key methods in space syntax theory that discusses visual information conveyed to observers from any location in space that is potentially directly visible for the observer without any obstruction. Visibility – simply defined as what we can see – not only affects the spatial function of buildings, but also has visual relation to the perception of buildings by inhabitants and visitors. In this paper we intend to present the result of visibility analysis applied on a sample of building layouts of different sizes and functions from a variety of places of periods. The main aim of this paper is to statistically explore the general trends of building layouts and show if and how visibility properties such as connectivity, clustering coefficient, mean depth, entropy, and integration values can make distinctions among different functions of buildings. Our findings reveal that there are significant correlation coefficients among global properties of visibility in which we consider the mean value of properties, a similarity suggesting that they are not intensively manipulated by architecture. On the other hand, there are correlations although less so than the previous, still significant among local properties of visibility in which we consider the (max-min) value of properties, suggesting that social, cultural or other physical parameters distinguish buildings individually. We also show that functions such as ‘museum’ and ‘veterinary’ are relatively well-clustered, while functions such as ‘ancient’ and ‘shopping’ show high diversity. In addition, using a decision tree model we show that, in our sample, functions such as ‘museum’ and ‘library’ are more predictable rather than functions such as ‘hospital’ and ‘shopping.’ All of these mean that – at least in our sample – the usability and applicability of well-clustered and well-predicted functions have been predominant in shaping their interior spaces; vice versa, in well-diverse and unpredicted functions, the pragmatic solutions of people’s daily life developed in material culture affect the visual properties of their interior spaces.

  • 24.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur.
    Flood hazard and its impact on the resilience of cities: An accessibility-based approach to amenities in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 11th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2017, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Georrecursos , 2017, s. 36.1-36.15Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of climate change and its impact on increasing the number and intensity of floods, adaptability of cities to and resistance against the flood hazard is critical to retain functionality of the cities. Vulnerability of urban infrastructure and its resilience to flooding from different points of view have been important and worth investigating for experts in different fields of science. Flood hazards as physical phenomena are influenced by form of the cities and thus the magnitude of their impacts can be intensified by urban infrastructures such as street networks and buildings (Bacchin et. al, 2011). In this paper, we aim to develop a method to assess the resilience of a river city (the city of Gothenburg in Sweden), which is prone to flood events, against such disturbances and find out how the city reacts to river floods and to what extent the city retains its accessibility to essential amenities after a flood occurs. To do so, collecting required data; we, firstly, simulate flood inundation with two different return periods (50 and 1000 years) and then the impact areas overlay on the street networks. Evaluating the resilience of the city, syntactic properties of the street networks before and after flooding are measured at different scales. Additionally, accessibility and the minimum distance of the street networks to essential amenities such as healthcare centers, schools and commercial centers, at a medium distance (3 Km) is examined. The results show that flooding influences the city configuration at global scale more than the local scale based on comparison of syntactic properties before and after flooding. However, the results of accessibility and the minimum distance show that the impact of flooding on the functionality of the city is more limited to the riparian areas and the city is not affected globally.

  • 25.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Stadsbyggnad.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Arkitektur, Stadsbyggnad.
    Flood Resilient Cities: A Syntactic and Metric Novel on Measuring the Resilience of Cities against Flooding, Gothenburg, Sweden2017Inngår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 9, s. 505-534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is one of the most destructive natural disasters which have rapidly been growing in frequency and intensity all over the world. In this view, assessment of the resilience of the city against such disturbances is of high necessity in order to significantly mitigate the disaster effects of flooding on the city structures and the human lives. The aim of this paper is to develop a method to assess the resilience of a river city (the city of Gothenburg in Sweden), which is prone to flood Hazard, against such disturbances. By simulating flood inundation with different return periods, in the first step, the areas of impact are determined. To assess the resilience, two different methods are followed. One is a syntactic method grounded in the foreground network in space syntax theory and the other is based on measuring accessibility to the essential amenities in the city. In the first method, similarity and sameness parameters are defined to quantitatively measure the syntactic resilience in the city. In the next step, accessibility to amenities and the minimum distance to amenities before and after each disturbance is measured. The results, in general, show that such disturbances affect the city structure and the resilience of the city differently. For instance, the city is more resilient after flooding ac- cording to accessibility measures. This clearly means that the answer to the question of resilience is mainly dependent on “resilience of what and for what.”

  • 26.
    Ackebo, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Cykelplanering ur ett lokalt perspektiv: Hur Danderyds kommun kan arbeta för att underlätta en ökning av andelen cykelresor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 27. Adam, F.
    et al.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Introduction: The meaning and importance of socio-cultural context for innovation performance2013Inngår i: Innovation in Socio-Cultural Context, Taylor & Francis, 2013, s. 1-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Addai, Joseph
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och satellitpositionering.
    Quantification of temporal changes in metal loads – Moss data over 20 years2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental monitoring, assessment and conservation programmes worldwide have led to the development of scientific and technological methods to study the changes in our environment. As a result, a technique for monitoring atmospheric metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the 1960s. This technique is based on the principle that, carpet-forming moss obtains its nutrients from dry deposition particles in the air. The Swedish Environmental Research institute (IVL) has a database of concentrations of metals in terrestrial mosses. These were sampled during the national moss surveys (1975 – 2000). From these point data, long-term changes in the deposition loads can be studied.One aim of this project is to create continuous surfaces for these point data and to develop a technique to map the spatio-temporal changes. It also seeks to quantify the temporal changes in metal loads of the moss data for over 20 years. With the amount of data increasing from various air quality assessments and monitoring methods, it is prudent to approach the data analysis from a multidisciplinary perspective. By using statistics, geostatistic, GIS and visualization methods, the quantitative, spatial and temporal trends of the moss surveys were analysed. Multidimensional visualizations based on exploratory data analysis were applied to the data to visualize and reveal trends in the multivariate data.The project area comprised the whole Sweden with the data from 1975 to 2000, with the exception of the moss survey in 1975, which was conducted only in southern Sweden. A combination of GIS, geostatistics and high dimensional visualization techniques were applied in the data cleaning and analysis stages.The results of the project show the rate of change of metal loads over the years and the spatial distribution of the metal depositions as well. The visual approach used from the data cleaning to results presentation makes it easily comprehensible to non-scientist as well.

  • 29.
    Adjei-Darko, Priscilla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik.
    Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Flood Risk Mapping and Near Real-time Flooding Extent Assessment in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Disasters, whether natural or man-made have become an issue of mounting concern all over the world. Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, cyclones, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are yearly phenomena that have devastating effect on infrastructure and property and in most cases, results in the loss of human life. Floods are amongst the most prevalent natural disasters. The frequency with which floods occur, their magnitude, extent and the cost of damage are escalating all around the globe. Accra, the capital city of Ghana experiences the occurrence of flooding events annually with dire consequences. Past studies demonstrated that remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are very useful and effective tools in flood risk assessment and management.  This thesis research seeks to demarcate flood risk areas and create a flood risk map for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area using remote sensing and Geographic information system. Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) is used to carry out the flood risk assessment and Sentinel-1A SAR images are used to map flood extend and to ascertain whether the resulting map from the MCA process is a close representation of the flood prone areas in the study area.  The results show that the multi-criteria analysis approach could effectively combine several criteria including elevation, slope, rainfall, drainage, land cover and soil geology to produce a flood risk map. The resulting map indicates that over 50 percent of the study area is likely to experience a high level of flood.  For SAR-based flood extent mapping, the results show that SAR data acquired immediately after the flooding event could better map flooding extent than the SAR data acquired 9 days after.  This highlights the importance of near real-time acquisition of SAR data for mapping flooding extent and damages.  All parts under the study area experience some level of flooding. The urban land cover experiences very high, and high levels of flooding and the MCA process produces a risk map that is a close depiction of flooding in the study area.  Real time flood disaster monitoring, early warning and rapid damage appraisal have greatly improved due to ameliorations in the remote sensing technology and the Geographic Information Systems.

  • 30.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Estimating a polycentric urban structure2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Estimating a Polycentric Urban Structure. Case Study: Urban Changes in the Stockholm Region 1991-20042009Inngår i: Journal of urban planning and development, ISSN 0733-9488, E-ISSN 1943-5444, Vol. 135, nr 1, s. 19-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper are to empirically test and evaluate methods for describing intraurban polycentricity, and to evaluate the polycentric development with respect to the regional development plan of the Office of Urban and Regional Transportation in 2001. The study area is Stockholm County and the time period investigated is 1991-2004. Three dimensions of polycentricity are analyzed: urban nuclei size relations, spatial distribution of urban nuclei, and potential interaction (accessibility). According to the methods' various qualifications in describing polycentric forms it is proposed here that a combination of methods is preferable for this subject. The polycentric structure exposes an increasing and considerable concentration of urban resources to the major urban nuclei. This concentration is combined with an increased spatial dispersal of the urban nuclei. In relative terms, the accessibility has decreased concerning the accessibility by public transportation modes and increased (workspace) or remained on almost the same level (residential space) by car transportation mode. Thus, the urban structural change in the Stockholm region corresponds to the political guidelines. In spite of this, by the increase in relative accessibility by car and decrease in the relative accessibility by public transportation modes the goal concerning higher share in public transports may not be possible to fulfill.

  • 32.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Estimating a Polycentric Urban Structure. Case Study: Urban Changes in the Stockholm Region 1991-2004 (vol 135, pg 19, 2009)2010Inngår i: Journal of urban planning and development, ISSN 0733-9488, E-ISSN 1943-5444, Vol. 136, nr 4, s. 381-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Främling i konsumtionsstaden2014Inngår i: Det förflutna i framtidens stad / [ed] Krister Olsson, Daniel Nilsson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag lever vi i ett globaliserat konsumtionssamhälle, i ett allt intensivare tempo där konkurrensen är hård om tid, utrymme och uppmärksamhet. I vår samtid är även kultur- och stadsmiljöerna på olika sätt ”produkter” och ”resurser”. Men hur påverkar samhällsutvecklingen kulturarvet och vår syn på dess värden? Kanske kan vi tydligare se utvecklingstrenderna och kulturarvets roll för hållbar stadsutveckling om vi blickar bakåt i tid och även vänder perspektivet mot framtiden? I Det förflutna i framtidens stad lägger en grupp forskare olika tidsperspektiv på relationen mellan kulturarv, konsumtion och hållbar stadsutveckling. Författarna arbetar till vardags med framtidsstudier, samhällsplanering, arkeologi, arkitektur och konst och de samsas här under tematiska avsnitt som framtidsvisioner, valmöjligheter, tid och rörelse i stadslandskapet. Texterna gör nedslag i vår närmiljö bland resor, detaljhandel, bostäder och livsstilsideal. Författarna frågar sig bland annat hur vi kan bygga in hemkänsla, identitet och trygghet i stadsmiljön. Kan vi återanvända historiska bostadsmodeller? Och vem bestämmer vilka minnen som är värda att bevaras – vilka föreställningar om framtiden har bäring på samtidens kulturmiljövård? Boken vänder sig till beslutsfattare, tjänstemän, studenter och en bred allmänhet – alla som har ett intresse för såväl utmaningar som lösningar för en hållbar stad. 

  • 34.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Kernel densities and mixed functionality in a multicentred urban region2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Kernel densities and mixed functionality in a multicentred urban region2010Inngår i: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 550-566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interurban-level focus during the last decade has shifted from the compact city towards a polycentric urban framework. The ability to define consistent urban structures and also link them with sustainability goals has been hindered by inconsistent evaluation methods for density and mixed functionality in a polycentric framework. The aim of this research is to test and combine various methods from these perspectives in order to define more reliable and consistent descriptions of urban structures. The methods used are spatial-density modelling using kernel convolution, a polycentric density estimation, and methods depicting mixed functionality and the association between density and mixed functionality. The empirical findings relate to planning goals at both national and international level. The study region is the municipality of Strangnas, within the Stockholm City Region since 1997. Results from the analysis reveal urban development towards further segregated land use and sprawl, as well as a decreasing link with a polycentric urban scheme. The methods developed for depicting urban form could be useful tools in the planning process and may reinforce the possibility for analysing links between urban form and sustainability aspects. This improved knowledge in turn could contribute towards formulating future planning principles.

  • 36.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    New urban settlements in a perspective of public and private interests. Case study: a Swedish municipality within the hinterland of the Stockholm city2008Inngår i: Journal of Geographical Systems, ISSN 1435-5930, E-ISSN 1435-5949, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 345-367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes of land use patterns and urban structures could be seen as the dynamic result of the trade off between public and private interests. Thereby the land use change is to some extent unpredictable. The focus in the current study is to measure the importance of spatial location factors regarding new residential and commercial buildings in relation to existing urban amenities and political guidelines. The relative importance of the location factors was studied by multinomial regression analysis. Results from this study reveal that the location profiles of new urban object types attained here indicate strong correspondence with local political land use guidelines and to clustering. The spatial distribution of new urban settlements does not in general correspond to the monocentric urban scheme where firms and residents locate in spatial proximity to urban centres.

  • 37.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    On analysing changes in urban structure: Some theoretical and methodological issues2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Urban Design and social life – the relocation of Kiruna2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Vad talar vi om när vi talar om Urbansim?2016Inngår i: Urbanismer / [ed] Olsson K, Nilsson D. och Haas T., Nordic Academic Press, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Impact on urban form by the localization of railway stations: Evidence from Sweden2019Inngår i: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 95, artikkel-id 102362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s a number of new railway stations have been established in Sweden on new or rerouted lines, while other stations have been reconstructed at their original locations. Some stations were located in urban surroundings, others in semi-urban or peripheral locations depending on the trade of between regional speed, and local urban circumstances. The urban form consequences depending on station localisation of these transport infrastructure investments are nonetheless unknown. In order to provide a basis for future planning, this research aims to provide knowledge on urban form consequences of relocating railway stations. 13 stations were selected in a case study. Changes in urban densities from 1993 to 2013 were analysed by a combination of kernel techniques and estimation of monocentric density models. Stations within an urban and semi-urban environments show strong agglomeration tendencies. Within peripheral environments, the urban development was unclear or even negative. In an urban environment, the location of the station still attracted more urban resources compared to the location of the urban density centre. These findings should be understood in the light of a market-oriented socio-economic context since 1990th influencing the planning system and the development of urban form.

  • 41.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Van Well, Lisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Polycentrism, monocentrism och regionförstoring: Alternativa och/eller komplementära utvecklingsförlopp2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    The theory practice gap in regional (transport) planning2016Inngår i: RSA Annual Conference Graz 2016, Regional Studies Association , 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Westin, Jonas
    Regionala Systemanalyser2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Olsson, Krister
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Urban structure and social life: the planning for relocation of Kiruna townArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Snickars, Folke
    On analysing changes in urban form – some theoretical and methodological issues2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Afrin, Shahrina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Green Skyscraper: Integration of Plants into Skyscrapers2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research has been emphasized on integration of plants in skyscraper design which play a vital role for the energy conservation by the building as well as improving the living quality into these vertical cities. Throughout the thesis work it has been studied to establish the necessity of planting to incorporate into skyscrapers, for the well being of our economy, society and the environment. The rules and regulations in various countries have been studied. The provisions of integrate plants into skyscraper includes the four possible options like, Green roof, Green wall, Biofilter and Indoor potting plants which can be incorporate into the  esign. Benefits and impacts have been studied in terms of energy savings and  ndoor environmental qualities. For example green roof can reduce 50% of cooling  oad; green wall can reduce 10 degree centigrade indoor temperature, where as biofilter and indoor plants purifies indoor air by 50% to 60%. Available technologies for green installments, like complete, modular and vegetated blanket system for green roof; modular, freestanding and cable-rope system for green wall; active and passive system for biofilter and different types of indoor plants have been addressed here along with their examples and case studies. At the end the  ecommendation shows that integration of plants into skyscrapers can change the micro and macro environment, climate, can restore the ecology and benefited to the economy. Results are the noticeable decrease in urban heat island, rapid reduction of energy consumption and cost, refreshing air for a healthy environment.

    Key words: Green Skyscraper, integration of plants, green roof, green wall, biofilter, ecological impact, climate, energy savings, indoor air quality, aesthetics, design technology.

  • 47.
    Agampatian, Razmik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Using GIS to measure walkability: A Case study in New York City2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity has become a global epidemic due to changes in society and in behavioral patterns of communities over the last decades. The decline in physical activity is one of the major contributors to the global obesity epidemic. Thus programs, plans and policies that promote walking could be a possible solution against obesity and its comorbidities. That is because walking is the simplest and most common form of physical activity among adults, regardless of age, sex, ethnic group, education or income level.

    The characteristics of the built environment might be significant factors that affect people’s decision to walk. Thus, measurable characteristics can assist in determining the extent to which the built environment affects the people. These characteristics can also provide indirect evidence of the state of population health for the area under study. Towards the analysis and assessment of potential associations between a number of measures of the built environment and walking, Geographic Information Systems have an increasing acceptance. Composite measures, also known as Walkability Indices, are a promising method to measure the degree to which an area provides opportunities to walk to various destinations.

    The main objective of this research is to develop a method to model walkability drawing partially from previously developed Walkability Indices and walkability measures, and suggest eventually an improved Walkability Index composed of 6 parameters. These are: i) Residential Density, ii) Diversity – Entropy Index, iii) Connectivity, iv) Proximity, v) Environmental Friendliness, vi) Commercial Density – FAR. The chosen spatial unit of analysis is the Census Tract level. The method of buffering that defines spatial units around geocoded locations at a given distance is also employed in an attempt to suggest an improvement of previously used methods. The study area is New York City (NYC).

    The results imply that Manhattan is the most walkable Borough, while Staten Island is the least walkable Borough. It is also suggested that NYC has a centripetal structure, meaning that the historical center and the entire island of Manhattan is more developed, and more walkable, followed by the adjacent areas of the neighboring Boroughs of Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. The farthest areas of NYC’s periphery are consistently found to have the lowest walkability. Additionally, neighborhoods that are extremely homogeneous in terms of land-use and do not include considerable number of commercial parcels score very low. Hence, Census Tracts that are mainly characterized by primarily industrial land-use or contain large transportation infrastructures (e.g. ports, airports, large train stations) or even large metropolitan parks display limited walkability.

    The results and findings coincide to a satisfactory extent with the results of previous studies. However, the comparison is simple and barely based on easily observed patterns. As a result, the validity of the new Walkability Index might need further assessment due to limitations and lack of data.

    All types of limitations have been identified including limitations in data and in methodology. Suggestions for further research include possible additional parameters that can be employed in our Walkability Indices (e.g. crime rate, and separate parameter for parks and green areas) and further research whether the components of a Walkability Index should be weighted or not. In general, Walkability Indices are promising GIS applications that still need further research and development.

  • 48.
    Aguiar Borges, Luciane
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Education and Health in ICT-futures: Scenarios and sustainability impacts of ICT societies2015Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, s. 213-220Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the performance of the education and health sectors in relation to five ICT futures for Sweden in 2060. The accessibility, affordability, quality and efficiency of these sectors influence the creation and maintenance of essential collective values such as democracy and justice; consequently both education and health are fundamental to a sustainable society. Exploring the performance of these sectors in different futures enables the identification of barriers and undesirable developments, and encourages a debate on how ICT can be used to reinforce inclusive, and counteract unwanted, futures.

  • 49.
    Aguiar Borges, Luciane
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Stories of Pasts and Futures in Planning2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Societies are constantly changing, facing new challenges and possibilities generated by innovative technologies, sociospatial re-structuring and mobilities. This research approaches these challenges by exploring the role that stories about pasts, presents and futures play in planning. It sees stories as interlinked spaces of struggle over meanings, legitimacies and powers through which “our” valuable pasts and “our” desirable futures become re-constructed, framed and projected. It argues that powerful stories might consciously or unconsciously become institutionalised in policy discourses and documents, foregrounding our spatial realities and affecting our living spaces. These arguments and assumptions are investigated in relation to three cases: Regional-Pasts, SeGI-Futures and ICT-Futures. The stories about pasts, presents and futures surrounding these cases are investigated with the aim of initiating critical discussions on how stories about pasts and futures can inform, but also be sustained by, planning processes. While studies of these cases are presented in separate papers, these studies are brought together in an introductory essay and reconstructed in response to the research questions: How do regional futures become informed by the pasts? How do particular stories about the pasts become selected, framed and projected as envisioned futures? What messages are conveyed to the pasts and the presents through envisioned futures? How can stories of the past be referred and re-employed in planning to build more inclusive futures? To engage with the multidisciplinarity of these questions, they are investigated through dialogues between three main fields: heritage studies, futures studies and planning. The discussions have challenged the conventional divides between pasts, presents and futures, emphasised their plural nature and uncovered how the discursive power of stories play a significant role when interpreting pasts and envision futures in planning practices.

  • 50.
    Aguiar Borges, Luciane
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Using the Past to Construct Territorial Identities in Regional Planning: the Case of Mälardalen, SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the past is used in the construction of regional identity narratives in policy discourses and documents. Despite assumptions that regional identity is based on shared culture, some authors argue that new forms of regional identity have emerged as the consequence of regions’ involvement in wider networks. Identity has been pursued as an asset to regional attractiveness and economic growth and, as such, is shaped by regional development strategies concerning particular social groups. Socially shared representations of the past through history, cultural heritage and collective memory play an important role in this process since the past is a powerful resource that may be used to construct images of places, legitimizing claims on territories. Document analysis and interviews with planners are used to analyse strategies for regional development in five counties located in the Mälardalen Region, Sweden. This study shows that regional strategies are guided by identity narratives framing regions from an exclusive outside perspective, leaving internal qualities unnoticed. The past is used to structure these narratives and construct identities that serve economic growth rather than the integration of the plural heritages of the region.

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