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  • 1.
    Ackebo, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Cykelplanering ur ett lokalt perspektiv: Hur Danderyds kommun kan arbeta för att underlätta en ökning av andelen cykelresor2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Costs and benefits of climate change : a bottom-up analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Developing a weighting set based on monetary damage estimates: Method and case studies2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and life-cycle assessments (LCA), generic values for impacts on the environment and human health are frequently used. There are several sets of generic values, which are based on different valuation methods, e.g. willingness-to-pay, abatement costs, taxes or non-monetary assessments. This study attempts to derive a consistent set of damage-based values based on estimation of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid damages. Where possible we compile existing damage cost estimates from different sources. Currently, there are no generic damage costs available for eutrophication and acidification. We derive damage values for eutrophying and acidifying substances using WTP estimates from available valuation studies. For eutrophication, we derive benefit transfer functions for eutrophication that allows calculation of site-specific values. We compare the derived ecosystem damage values to existing estimates of the cost for reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to water. The analysis indicates that many abatement measures for nitrogen have a positive net benefit while most measures to reduce phosphorus cost more than the benefit achieved when estimated on a general level and should, instead, be assessed on a case-specific level. Moreover, a comparison of the existing environmental taxes on nitrogen, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus in Sweden show that the current tax rates do not reflect the externalities from these pollutants. Subsequently, we construct a weighting set by combining the derived values with existing generic damage values for human toxicity, photochemical oxidants and global warming. The weighting set - labelled Ecovalue09 - is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared to the results using other weighting sets.

  • 4.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Valuation of environmental impacts and its use in environmental systems analysis tools2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of environmental impacts in monetary terms is a both difficult and controversial undertaking. However, the need to highlight the value of ecosystem services in policy decisions has become more and more evident in the face of climate change and diminishing biodiversity in the sea and other ecosystems. Valuing non-market goods and services, like ecosystem services, is a lively research field within environmental economics, and valuation methods have been considerably elaborated in the last ten years. In practical policy analyses, there is often a need for readily available valuations of different impacts. This thesis explores and develops several ways to include valuation of environmental impacts in different policy tools, such as cost-benefit analysis, environmental accounting and life-cycle analysis.

    The first paper in this thesis is a part of the Swedish attempts to construct and calculate an environmentally adjusted NDP (net national product). This work involved putting a price on non-marketed environmental goods and assets. The valuation methods used in paper I include many of the available methods to value non-marketed goods and services.

    Valuation of environmental impacts and/or environmental pressures is used in a number of environmental systems analysis tools besides environmental accounting. Examples are Cost-Benefit Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost analysis, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Management Systems. These tools have been developed in different contexts and for different purposes; the way valuation is used also differs. In paper II, the current use of values/weights in the tools is explored, as well as the usefulness of a common valuation/weighting scheme and necessary qualities of such a scheme. In the third paper, a set of generic weights meeting these criteria is developed.

    Some of the generic values in the weighting set are taken from directly from other studies, while some are calculated by applying a benefit transfer method called structural benefit transfer on results from selected valuation studies. The method is tested on a number of valuation studies in the fourth paper.

    Climate change will have a significant impact on Sweden during this century, both positive and negative. In the fifth paper, a rough estimate of the impacts on man-made capital and human health is presented. The study is an example of an impact assessment including only marketed assets valued with market prices. In the last paper, the economics of sustainable energy use is discussed; what is a sustainable energy price, and how might growth be affected if energy use is limited to a sustainable level? The discussion is based on two different models of thought: a back-casting study, describing how a sustainable future society might look like, and economic scenarios projected with general equilibrium models.

  • 5.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Ecovalue08-a new valuation method for environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ecovalue08-A new valuation set for environmental systems analysis tools2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 17-18, 1994-2003 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA), life-cycle assessment (LCA) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS), weighting is often used to aggregate results and compare different alternatives. There are several weighting sets available, but so far there is no set that consistently use monetary values based on actual or hypothetical market valuation of environmental degradation and depletion. In this paper, we develop a weighting set where the values are based on willingness-to-pay estimates for environmental quality, and market values for resource depletion. The weighting set is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared with the outcomes from three other weighting sets. Ecotax02, Ecoindicator99 and EPS2000. We find that the different sets give different results in many cases. The reason for this is partly that they are based on different values and thus should give different results. However, the differences can also be explained by data gaps and different methodological choices. If weighting sets are used, it is also important to use several to reduce the risk of overlooking important impacts due to data gaps. It is also interesting to note that though Ecovalue08 and Ecotax02 give different absolute values, the results are very similar in relative terms. Thus the political and the individual willingness-to-pay estimates yield a similar ranking of the impacts.

  • 7.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategic Analysis.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Sustainable energy prices and growth: Comparing macroeconomic and backcasting scenarios2007In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 63, no 4, 722-731 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do results from the sustainability research world of backcasting relate to the macroeconomic scenarios used for policy evaluation and planning? The answer is that they don't, mostly - they come from different scientific traditions and are not used in the same contexts. Yet they often deal with the same issues. We believe that much can be gained by bringing the two systems of thinking together. This paper is a first attempt to do so, by making qualitative comparisons between different scenarios and highlighting benefits and limitations to each of them. Why are the pictures we get of the energy future so different if we use a macroeconomic model from when using a backcasting approach based on sustainable energy use? It is evident that the methods for producing those two kinds of scenarios differ a lot, but the main reason behind the different results are found in the starting points rather than in the methods. Baseline assumptions are quite different, as well as the interpretations and importance attached to signals about the future. in this paper, it is discussed how those two types of scenarios differ and how they approach issues such as energy prices and growth. The discussion is based on a comparison between Swedish economic and sustainability scenarios. The economic scenarios aim at being forecasts of the future and are used as decision support for long-term policies. But are the assumptions in the economic scenarios reasonable? The sustainability scenarios are explicitly normative backcasting scenarios. They do not take the issue of growth and consumption fully into account. Could they be developed in this respect? The comparison between the scenarios is also used to look closer at the issue of energy prices in a society with sustainable energy use. One of the questions raised is if a low energy society calls for high energy prices. Moreover, the effects of tradable permits versus energy taxes is analysed in the context of how energy use could be kept low in a growing economy.

  • 8.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, 145-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 9.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    SEI.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weightning and valuation in environmental systems analysis toolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of Electronic Media: A Comparison of a Magazine’s Tablet and Print Editions2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to assess potential environmental impacts of electronic media distribution and consumption—from a life cycle perspective—as compared to those of print media.

    The thesis consists of a cover essay and two papers appended at the end of the thesis. The cover essay summarizes the papers and puts them in context. The main objectives of the thesis are twofold: to assess potential environmental impacts of production and consumption of tablet editions of magazines from a life cycle perspective (Paper I), and to compare potential environmental impacts of a magazine’s print edition with that of its tablet edition (Paper II).

    The thesis examines the following specific research questions: (1) What are the main environmental impacts of print and tablet editions? (2) Which activities are giving rise to the main environmental impacts of the print and tablet editions? (3) What are the key factors influencing these impacts? (4) What are major data gaps and uncertainties?

    Based on the present assessment, it is clear that for the print magazine, pulp and paper production is the principal cause of most of the potential environmental impacts. For this reason, the use of recycled paper, rather than virgin fiber, in newsprint production may considerably offset environmental impacts.

    For the tablet edition, the content production dominates the potential environmental impacts when readers are few. This appears to be the case in an emerging state of the magazine, but with distribution of more media products to smaller groups of people, this may persist for “mature” products as well. As the number of tablet readers grows, more of the environmental impact of the is due to manufacturing of the device and electronic distribution. However, content production may still be a major factor, depending on the specific environmental impacts studied.

  • 11.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Chaharsooghi, K.
    Developing life-cycle phases for the DoDAF using ISO15704 Annex A (GERAM)2011In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 62, no 3, 253-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a development of the US Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) based on life-cycle concept of the Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) framework/ISO 15704:2000 requirements. Previous research has identified areas of concern within DoDAF by analyzing and evaluating DoDAF against GERAM and potentially assisting in its future development. This paper aims to extend existing architecture description process and artifacts within DoDAF that match the scope of the GERAM life-cycle phases. For this development we use life-cycle aspect of three well-known reference architectures (including PERA, CIMOSA, and GRAI-GIM) that were the basis in formation of GERAM.

  • 12.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Moberg, Åsa
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carbon and ecological footprints of a magazine: Print vs. tablet editions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT), in competition with traditional applications, is providingnew ways to access media content. Similar to print media, ICT-based media has environmental benefits andburdens alike. The overall goal of the present study is to assess the potential environmental impacts”’from a lifecycle perspective”’of a print magazine with its electronic version read on tablets. Important goals are to identifywhich activities give rise to the main impacts, in both print and tablet editions, and to identify the key factorsinfluencing the overall environmental impacts, in both editions. Moreover, data gaps and uncertainties areaddressed.The methodology used in the study is life cycle assessment (LCA). The environmental impacts assessedinclude climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation,particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication and fossil depletion.The results indicate that it is hard to compare print and tablet editions of a magazine due to difficulties indefining the function, and that different functional units indicate different preferences in terms of environmentalimpacts. Also, differences between emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) andmature (high number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet versions leads to various results in thecomparison between print and tablet versions.The studied tablet version in its emerging stage gives rise to higher potential environmental impacts per readerthan the print version; however with an assumed mature tablet version the impacts are generally lower perreader. This illustrates clearly the importance of the number of readers to spread the environmental impactsover.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle assessment of a magazine: part 2: A comparison of print and tablet editions2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. Electronic media are sometimes more advantageous from an environmental perspective than paper-based media solutions, but ICT-based media can also bring environmental burdens. This study compared the potential environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of a print edition of a magazine and that of its electronic edition read on a tablet device. Important objectives were to identify activities giving rise to the main environmental impacts for both the print and tablet editions, determine the key factors influencing these impacts, and address data gaps and uncertainties. A detailed assessment of the tablet edition is provided in a previous article (part 1), whereas this article compares it with the print edition. The methodology used was life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Use of different functional units to compare the print and tablet editions of the magazine resulted in different relative environmental impacts. In addition, emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) and mature (higher number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet editions yielded varying results. The emerging tablet edition resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than the print edition, but the mature tablet edition yielded lower impacts per reader in half the impact categories assessed. This illustrates the importance of spreading the environmental impacts over a large number of readers. The electricity mix used in product system processes did not greatly affect the results of tablet/print comparisons, but overall number of readers for the tablet edition, number of readers per copy for the print edition, file size, and degree of use of the tablet device proved crucial for the comparison results.

  • 14.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Climate Change Impact of Electronic Media Solutions: Case Study of the Tablet Edition of a Magazine2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH, Zurich, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts from print media to electronic media may be regarded as apossibility for promoting sustainability. However, the benefits ofelectronic media are not unquestioned. Previous studies on theenvironmental impacts of print and electronic media have shownthat there is no easy answer. Contributing to this field of research,the present study sought to assess the climate change impact ofthe tablet edition of a magazine using a life cycle perspective.Results showed that with few readers the emerging tablet versionhad a higher potential climate change impact per reader than themature tablet version, although the latter had a substantiallylonger reading time per copy. The contribution of contentproduction, electronic distribution, reading on tablet and wastetreatment of tablet to the impact was analysed. The sensitivityanalysis of electricity mix indicated that this was an importantfactor that clearly influenced the overall results.

  • 15.
    Alquist, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Klimatanpassning av det svenska vägtransportsystemet: En diskussion om vilka åtgärder som kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma för att förhindra naturolyckor och deras konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Alquist, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Klimatanpassning av det svenska vägtransportsystemet: En diskussion om vilka åtgärder som kan vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma för att förhindra naturolyckor och deras konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna är idag ett faktum och klimatanpassning har identifierats som en av transportsektorns stora framtida utmaningar. Antalet naturolyckor, som översvämningar och bortspolade vägar, som påverkar transportinfrastrukturen väntas öka i ett förändrat klimat. Sådana olyckor förekommer också redan idag. T ex i samband med snösmältningen i Norrland 2010 översvämmades älvar, åar och mindre vattendrag och vägar underminerades eller spolades bort. 150 vägpartier skadades och 64 vägar stängdes av. Återställningskostnaderna uppskattades till 100 miljoner kronor.

    Trafikverket behöver anpassa väginfrastrukturen för att klara det ökande antalet naturolyckor. Samtidigt finns begränsade resurser, varför anpassningen behöver vara så kostnadseffektiv som möjligt. Verket saknar idag kunskap om vilka typer av åtgärder respektive vilka platser som är lönsammast att implementera/åtgärda för att förhindra eller minska konsekvenserna av naturolyckor. Eftersom denna typ av kunskap saknas syftar examensarbetet till att öka kunskapen om vilka åtgärder som är mest lönsamma genom att studera ett antal fall med översvämningar och bortspolad väg. Fallen är dels två hypotetiska fall med bortspolad väg, dels tre verkliga fall med översvämningar. Konsekvensen av en naturolycka beskrivs av skador på tillgångar (person, egendom, finans, miljö och immateriell) som definieras av Trafikverkets metod Riskanalys Vald Vägsträcka. Det finns två typer av åtgärder för att minska risken för naturolyckor; sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder som minskar sannolikheten för en olycka och konsekvensminskande åtgärder som minskar konsekvensen av en olycka. Nettomervärdeskvoten används för att beräkna lönsamheten med olika åtgärder för de olika fallen. Utifrån fallen förs sedan en diskussion om vilka typer av åtgärder som är mest samhällsekonomiskt lönsamma. I denna är klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser i Sverige hela tiden en central faktor.

    Examensarbetet visar att en åtgärds lönsamhet bestäms av åtgärdskostnaden och vilka tillgångar den minskar eller förhindrar skada på. De vanligaste och därför viktigaste skadekostnaderna är avstängningskostnad (finans) och återställningskostnad (egendom) för vägen. I de studerade översvämningsfallen bestäms lönsamheten för alla åtgärdstyper av avstängningskostnaden för vägen. I räkneexemplen för bortspolad väg finns tre skadade tillgångstyper; person, egendom och finans (avstängningskostnad). Sannolikhetsreducerande åtgärder beror på alla dessa medan konsekvensminskande åtgärder beror på avstängningskostnad. Konsekvensminskande åtgärder framstår alltid som lite mindre lönsamma än vad de är, eftersom indirekta vägavstängningskostnader inte finns med i någon av Trafikverkets modeller.

    I ett förändrat klimat blir översvämningar och bortspolningar vanligare och därmed blir alla typer av åtgärder lönsammare. Åtgärder som idag är olönsamma kan bli nödvändiga för att lyckas reducera framtida risker. Existerande klimatmodeller är inte tillräckligt exakta för att kunna säga precis hur sannolikheten för naturolycka ändras från en plats till en annan. För att kunna prioritera optimalt behöver också riskerna i dagens klimat vara kända. Köpenhamnsdiagnosens slutsatser samt att utsläppen av växthusgaser är värre än i A2-scenariot gör att naturolyckor är sannolikare än vad som beskrivs i rapporterna som citeras i examensarbetet. Framtida skadekostnader är alltså större än Trafikverket räknat med och åtgärder blir därför både angelägnare och lönsammare. En viktig riskaspekt vad gäller klimatförändringarna är att ingen vet exakt vad som kommer hända. Om extremväder får nya förlopp, är det inte rimligt att räkna med att saker kommer fungera på samma som tidigare. T ex skulle det kunna innebära att frekvensen personskador ändras, om inga nya åtgärder för att förhindra dem vidtas.

  • 17.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Environmental and ethical aspects of destruction of ammunition2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many decision-making situations today affect the safety of individuals and the environment,for instance hazardous waste management. In practice, many of these decisions are madewithout an overall view and with the focus on either the environment or safety. Now and then the areas of regulation are in conflict, i.e. the best alternative according to environmental considerations is not always the safest way and vice versa.A tool for taking an overall view within the areas of safety and environment would simplify matters and provide authorities and industry with a better basis for their work. This thesis forms part of a project which aims to develop a framework tool giving this overall view and supporting decision-making in which the issues (areas) of environment, safety, ethics and costs are all integrated. By developing a framework tool, different areas of interest could be taken into consideration more easily when a decision is to be made and could also help develop legislation and policy locally (at an industry or company), nationally and internationally. The project also aims to provide knowledge about different destruction/decommission methods, their good and bad points and their consequences, in order to provide different actors with a better basis for decision-making. This thesis focuses on development of the framework. The scope of the studies was restricted to environment, ethics and personnel safety due to the extent of the work and time limitations. In the next part of the project, the areas of costs and evaluation will be studied and a first draft of the framework tool will be presented. In order to develop the framework tool, two case studies were carried out here: an environmental analysis involving a life cycle assessment and an ethical analysis. With the help of these analyses, three different methods of destruction of ammunition were compared: Open detonation, modelled both with and without recovery and recycling of metals; incineration in a static kiln with air pollution control combined with recycling of metals, modelled with two different levels of air emissions; and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and recycling of metals, giving a total of five options. Every method of destruction of energetic material, i.e. explosive waste or ammunition, results in environmental impacts in both the short and long term. These environmental impacts have direct or indirect impacts on safety, quality of life, the economy, etc., now and in the future, locally and globally. Life cycle assessment revealed two factors of importance for reducing the environmental impacts: Recycling the metals and air pollution control. As a consequence of controlling these potential negative environmental impacts, safety problems might also be controlled. Ethical analysis revealed that future generations and people in foreign countries will be affected by the destruction of ammunition. When choosing a method for destruction of ammunition, this group (the general public) should thus be given special attention.

     

  • 18.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, 1101-1109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 19.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Sandin, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala.
    Ethical analysis of three methods for destruction of ammunition2011In: Risk Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1460-3799, E-ISSN 1743-4637, Vol. 13, no 1-2, 63-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative ethical analysis of three different methods for destroying ammunition was performed using a three-party model for ethical risk analysis presented by Hermansson and Hansson. The model was also evaluated by applying it for the case of destruction of a 40-mm grenade in Sweden. A general observation is that future generations and people in foreign countries will be negatively affected by the destruction of ammunition, although they quite often receive no benefit or compensation. A number of groups exposed to risks or environmental impacts will have some benefits from the destruction. However, it is difficult to determine the extent of this benefit or the fairness of the distribution of risks and benefits. This highlights some important limitations of the Hermansson and Hansson model.

  • 20.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nevhage, Björn
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Erdeniz, Robert
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Methods for risk analysis2010Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL Svenska Miljöinsitutet.
    Potential för ökad materialåtervinning av hushållsavfall och industriavfall2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens övergripande syfte är att ge underlag för eventuella förslag till mål för ökad materialåtervinning i Sverige. Vi har gjort detta genom att beräkna potentialen (mängder) för ökad källsortering och materialåtervinning av avfall i Sverige, analysera miljömässiga och företagsekonomiska konsekvenser, samt samla information om den praktiska genomförbarheten.

    Utifrån befintlig avfallsstatistik har vi identifierat vilka mängder av fraktionerna plast, papper och papp, metall, glas, gummi, gips, textil och WEEE som förekommer i blandade avfallskategorier men som skulle kunna källsorteras och materialåtervinnas.

    Med ett scenario för hur avfallsmängderna kan antas öka till år 2030 har vi beräknat de potentiella miljöeffekterna i ett livscykelperspektiv av maximal källsortering och materialåtervinning jämfört med dagens nivåer. Klimatpåverkan, försurning, övergödning, bildning av fotooxidanter och total energianvändning utvärderades för plast, papper och papp, metall, glas och gummi. För samma scenario har de företagsekonomiska kostnaderna för ökad återvinning beräknats. Dessutom har olika aktörer intervjuats om vad de ser för hinder och möjligheter för ökad materialåtervinning.

    Trots väl utbyggd källsortering och återvinning är fortfarande potentialen för ökad källsortering i Sverige betydande. Miljöbedömningarna visar att dagens system för avfallshantering medför nettovinster för miljön i ett livscykelperspektiv, genom att de resurser som återvinns från avfall indirekt ger minskad miljöpåverkan från andra sektorer. Denna positiva indirekta miljöpåverkan från avfallshanteringen kan öka ytterligare genom att öka återvinningen. Med hänsyn till möjliga miljövinster per kton material och tillgängliga mängder återvinningsbart material i blandat avfall, framstår ökad återvinning av plastavfall och pappers- och pappavfall som miljömässigt prioriterat. Ökad återvinning av metallavfall och gummiavfall skulle ge mindre men tydliga miljövinster. Ökad återvinning av glasavfall framstår inte som prioriterat. För textilavfall, gipsavfall och WEEE har inga beräkningar gjorts, men av olika skäl som redovisas i rapporten finns anledning att undersöka dessa fraktioner vidare.

    Intervjuer och möten med representanter för olika avfallsbolag, återvinningsindustrier, byggsektorn och boendesektorn har gett en mångfald av synpunkter, idéer och förslag kring ökad källsortering och återvinning. Det rör allt ifrån internationell lagstiftning på avfallsområdet och övriga miljöområdet, till synpunkter på arkitekters ansvar att ta hänsyn till källsortering vid nyproduktion. Resultatet kan tolkas som att det finns praktiska förutsättningar att öka källsortering och återvinning i Sverige. Inga synpunkter om avgörande praktiska hinder framfördes. Överlag verkar det finnas en vilja att bidra till ökad källsortering och återvinning, förutsatt att det är motiverat ur miljösynpunkt, men det finns önskemål om tydligare målformuleringar och regelverk.

    De företagsekonomiska kostnaderna för avfallshantering ökar med ökad återvinning, men i jämförelse med tillgängliga beräknade åtgärdskostnader för reduktion av växthusgaser inom transportsektorn, framstår kostnaderna som rimliga.

  • 22. Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Holmgren, Lina
    Non-industrial private forest owners' financial risk taking: Does gender matter?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners differ in inheritance positions, valuations and forest management style. A survey of Swedish NIPF owners found that male and female owners differ in their willingness to take a financial risk. The preliminary analysis, looking only at gender, revealed no difference in the willingness to take risk. Dividing the population according to dependence on income from forestry, however, showed that female NIPF owners increased their willingness to take financial risk when the dependence of income from forestry changed from insubstantial to notable. Females' tolerance towards risk was also significantly higher than males' at the notable level of dependence of forestry income. Having or not having economic yield as one of the most important objectives of ownership seemed to have a little effect on the willingness to take financial risk; however, the results were further strengthened when adding this dimension. A gender perspective was applied to explain identified differences between male and female forest owners concerning their willingness to take financial risks. Whether these differences emanate from real differences in willingness to take risk, or whether they are effects from other differences in male and female forest ownership, is discussed.

  • 23. Andrews, Evan Stuart
    et al.
    Barthel, Leif-Patrick
    Beck, Tabea
    Benoît, Catherine
    Ciroth, Andreas
    Cucuzzella, Carmela
    Gensch, Carl-Otto
    Hébert, Julie
    Lesage, Pascal
    Manhart, Andreas
    Mazeau, Pierre
    Mazijn, Bernard
    Methot, Andrée-Lise
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Norris, Greg
    Parent, Julie
    Prakash, Siddarth
    Reveret, Jean-Pierre
    Spillemaeckers, Sophie
    Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie
    Valdivia, Sonia
    Weidema, Bo
    Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products.: Social and socio-economic LCA guidelines complementing environmental LCA and Life Cycle Costing, contributing to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development.2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Apelmo, Elisabet
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Lund University.
    Greger, Henriksson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kan stadsbors användning av IT bidra till ett hållbart samhälle?: En kunskapsöversikt.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with everyday habits with environmental impacts in relation to the use of information and communication technology (ICT, colloquially referred to as IT).

    We raise issues related to a) how environmentally promising and problematic ‘ICT-practices’ in urban everyday life can be identified and b) how the potential for such practices to be transformed through the use of ICT can be assessed, and ultimately utilized, in the context of sustainable urban development.

    These issues we have addressed through reviewing case studies, reports etc. Case study examples showed how ICT is used, e.g. to streamline and inform, or to share resources, vehicles and other products.

    We discussed how it might be possible, from an environmental sociology perspective, to assess when and how ICT might serve as an enabling technology that enhances or replaces previous patterns of action. We also briefly included, and discussed, phenomena defined from more general sustainability science point of view, e.g. substitution, induction and rebound effects.

    An important starting point was that social structures both enable and limit specific patterns of action. The structures can only be said to exist, or be maintained, by people's actions and through their experience. Change occurs as a result of the dynamics between people's actions and the structures created by past actions. Social practices are constantly being reproduced, with additions of new elements, e g when ICT applications are put to new uses. Then patterns of social relations and systems might also change, for example in how we use energy, travel, consume or socialize during both work and leisure time.

    Our review indicates that the knowledge that partners of Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC) currently have access to, is fragmented and with a bias towards certain types of sectors, and patterns of action. Environmentally promising practices are more researched than problematic ones. Furthermore, use of ICTs for e.g. commuting and monitoring household energy use is more researched than most other patterns of action involving use of ICTs. Research on e.g. leisure and entertainment in relation to the environment is very much absent from today’s body of knowledge (as it is defined and delimited in this report).

    As for how everyday practices might change towards increased environmental sustainability by the use of ICT, we have found the knowledge situation even more incomplete. This shows, however, that it is worthwhile for CESC researchers and partners to carry on searching and developing knowledge regarding this.

    Regarding what should be viewed as more promising respectively more problematic urban patterns of action, we have to some extent illuminated this by exemplifying international environmental sociological research that is useful for discussing social practices in relation to environmental impacts. We have exemplified how this can shed light on some of the case studies we found among the CESC researchers and partners. Based on environmental sociology we discussed in what ways city dwellers with high income account for the most environmentally problematic practices. Correspondingly, we discussed how inhabitants with low income – out of necessity–account for many promising practices. In relation to this we also briefly discussed how rebound effects should be seen as related to socio-economic position.

    Another kind of problematic aspect highlighted is that players responsible for introducing, trying out etc., new ICTs, seem to have a tendency to do this in own networks or among the urban middle class. This is problematic from a democratic point of view. In 2012, 1.2 million people in Sweden did very rarely, or not at all, use the internet in their homes. Detailed knowledge about this group's ICT related practices seems to be largely missing.  If representatives for these groups are not represented in environmental research there is a danger that they also become less visible in public debate of environmental and ICT issues.

    This means that different social positions imply different opportunities and constraints. What patterns of actions people take more or less part in is influenced by social structures, norms and regulations, the historical and the immediate context, but also by the individuals' previous experiences and knowledge. The understanding of how a change towards a more sustainable society could come about through use of ICT therefore requires knowledge of practices among the full socio-demographic range of city dwellers.

  • 25.
    Armyr, Linda Augusta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Certifiering och marknadsföring av hållbar stadsutveckling: så hanteras vattenkontakt och delaktighet när Stockholm och Minneapolis bygger hållbart2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about sustainable neighborhoods and communities. To define and strengthen the sustainability of neighborhoods, checklists, certification and marketing are used. Certifications and checklists are used as tools in the planning process and specify the grounds upon which a community is called “sustainable”. A certification is also a public signal to convey a credible environmental and sustainability labeling. Today there are few certified neighborhoods, but several urban developments that market themselves as sustainable or with elements of sustainability. Marketing captures, develops and communicates positive values. The marketing and communication of “sustainable” urban development projects indicate a desirable image of the city of tomorrow, and can therefore be regarded as a normative scenario of the future. But what does this scenario look like, and what is its resemblance to the urban development as defined by the criteria for certifying a city as sustainable?

    To answer the main question, the thesis uses theories about the concept of sustainability, future studies, marketing, public participation and the use of knowledge in the planning process. Subsequently, the thesis presents a comparison between the content of the certification system BREEAM Communities, a checklist for sustainable urban development from the consultancy firm WSP and marketing material from case studies in Stockholm. Since the certification checklist and marketing have many aspects of sustainability, delimitation is done to sustainability aspects concerning water contact and participation. Water contact includes both ecological values and accessibility issues related to waterfront development. Participation refers to public participation and the knowledge and connected norms that are heard in the urban development process. To provide additional perspectives to the discussion, a comparison was also done with how Minneapolis works with water contact and participation. Interviews were conducted in both Stockholm and Minneapolis on the difficulties of measuring the sustainability and benefits of certification.

    The comparison gives that most of the aspects that are marketed in the case studies, within the delimitation participation and water contact, can be found in BREEAM Communities and the WSP checklist. The exceptions being marketed but not listed in the tools are education and new development of external partnerships and transport infrastructure. The certification system and checklist also contain some additional points regarding land use and ecological aspects which have not been found in the marketing material. The feasibility of the main question is discussed, as are the difficulties in certifying linked to measurables and how a certification can contribute to sustainable urban development.

  • 26.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    What makes a difference for environmental performance of online newspapers?2012In: Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings / [ed] Klaus-Dieter Lang, Nils F. Nissen, Andreas Middendorf, Perrine Chancerel, IEEE , 2012, 6360454- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The media sector is becoming increasingly digital and newspapers are most commonly published online as well as on paper. For printed newspaper, paper production is the main reason for environmental impacts according to several studies performed, but for online newspapers the environmental impacts are not as well studied. The current study looked into key factors influencing the potential climate change impact of online newspapers using life cycle assessment. The main contributors to the climate change potential of the Finnish online newspaper studied were: in the case of using a computer, manufacturing of the device followed by electronic distribution, and in the case of using a tablet device, electronic distribution followed by manufacturing of the device. Geographical location, lifetime and total active use of the electronic devices are important factors when assessing the environmental impacts and so is the type of device used for accessing and reading the online newspaper.

  • 27.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Ovaskainen, Mari
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Challenges in environmental assessment of new media solutions - case studies of Alma Media newspapers2012In: SETAC 18th LCACase Study Symposium: Sustainability Assessment in the 21st centuryTools, Trends & Applications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media sector, recently new means of distribution, new platforms for accessing media and consequently new media products have been introduced. With new products potential environmental impacts related to activities of media companies are changing. Finnish media publisher Alma Media commissioned an LCA study in order to learn more about environmental impacts related to their mature and emerging products. Based on this, the current paper aims to present potential environmental impacts related to printed and online newspapers, focusing on their differences and challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results. Three newspapers are studied as cases, covering upstream printing house supply chain, printing house activities, delivery to readers and final disposal for print versions; electronic storage and distribution, the relevant share of electronic devices manufacturing and disposal and electricity needed for downloading and reading for online versions; content production for both.

    Mainly generic data was used for online products assessment, since specific data were not available. The specific data for the more mature print products were detailed but less comprehensive than generic. The implication is increased uncertainty and difficulties in communication of results. Environmental performance of both printed and online newspapers is dependent on various characteristics of the newspaper and its readers, including e.g. format and number of pages for print versions, and type of device used and its total use, size of content download and reading time for online versions. User practices may be changing as emerging products get more mature, which will influence environmental performance.

    Print and online versions give rise to different types of environmental impacts and the distribution of impacts in the life cycles differ. Printed newspaper impacts largely occur in the printing house supply chain and in delivery to readers, whereas online newspapers impacts are mainly connected to the electronic devices supply chain, and to some extent electricity used for reading and distribution. Impacts of printed newspapers studied occur more locally with paper manufacturing and printing located in Finland. Impacts related to online versions largely occur in other countries. Also, new value chain actors are involved, which are not directly related to the media company. Different actions for improvement may be necessary for emerging media products, as well as new types of collaborations.

    Comparison of online and print versions is not straightforward as different benefits are provided and reader practices differ. Although emerging media products may be considered substitutes for print counterparts, this is not necessarily the case. The choice of functional unit of assessment proved crucial for the comparison. Different functional units were used (one year, one reader and week, one reading hour). Comparing print and online versions Alma Media online newspapers showed lower environmental impacts than their print versions per year and also per reader and week. However, impacts per reading hour were lower for printed newspapers in some cases. Using different kinds of perspectives, e.g. through different functional units, gives more information and increased knowledge. Complexity in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on emerging media products was experienced in this study. Further studies and action need to be taken.

  • 28.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Department of Technology and Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Kindembe, Beatrice Isampete
    Department of Technology and Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Hult, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala.
    Myhr, U.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, O.
    Department of Technology and Built Environment, University of Gävle.
    Environmental assessment of building properties — Where natural and social sciences meet: the case of EcoEffect2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 3, 1458-1464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoEffect method of assessing external and internal impacts of building properties is briefly described. The external impacts of manufacturing and transport of the building materials, the generation of power and heat consumed during the operation phase are assessed using life-cycle methodology. Emissions and waste; natural resource depletion and toxic substances in building materials are accounted for. Here methodologies from natural sciences are employed. The internal impacts involve the assessment of the risk for discomfort and ill-being due to features and properties of both the indoor environment and outdoor environment within the boundary of the building properties. This risk is calculated based on data and information from questionnaires; measurements and inspection where methodologies mainly from social sciences are used. Life-cycle costs covering investment and utilities costs as well as maintenance costs summed up over the lifetime of the building are also calculated.

    The result presentation offers extensive layers of diagrams and data tables ranging from an aggregated diagram of environmental efficiency to quantitative indicators of different aspects and factors. Environmental efficiency provides a relative measure of the internal quality of a building property in relation to its external impact vis-à-vis its performance relative to other building properties.

  • 29. Banister, David
    et al.
    Dreborg, Karl
    Hedberg, Leif
    Hunhammar, Sven
    Steen, Peter
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Transport Policy Scenarios for the EU: 2020 Images of the Future2000In: Innovation, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential to take a longer term view if sustainable mobility is to become a reality. This paper takes a perspective to 2020 and constructs Images of the future which conform to the principles of sustainable mobility. Set at the EU level, clear environmental, regional development and efficiency targets are set, within which strategies are developed, based on different combinations of technological innovation and the decoupling of economic growth from transport growth. The external political situation is taken as given with either a move towards greater co-operation (and extension) or towards greater fragmentation (and regionalisaization) in Europe. The three Images of the future (2020) demonstrate that challenging targets for sustainable mobility can be achieved through a range of different policy actions within the transport sector and more widely. Immediate action is required and even more difficult choices will have to be made in the EU 15, if large-scale extension of the EU takes place. Improvements in vehicle technology alone will not achieve the targets. More fundamental changes have to take place in the way in which people make travel choices and in the means by which freight is transported. All of these measures must involve less travel, more efficient and cleaner travel modes.

  • 30. Benoît, Catherine
    et al.
    Norris, Gregory A.
    Valdivia, Sonia
    Ciroth, Andreas
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bos, Ulrike
    Prakash, Siddharth
    Ugaya, Cassia
    Beck, Tabea
    The Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of products: Just in time!2010In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 15, no 2, 156-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Authors of different sustainability journals, including authors of articles in past issues of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment have acknowledged the rising interest and the pressing need for a social and socio-economic life cycle assessment methodology and identified challenges in its development and implementation. Social life cycle assessment (LCA) allows identification of key issues, assessing, and telling the story of social conditions in the production, use, and disposal of products. In this article, the United Nations Environment Programme/The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products will be presented.

    Aim and scope The guidelines demystifies the assessment of product life cycle social impacts and presents an effective framework representing the consensus of an international group of experts leading research in this field. The guidelines complement those for environmental life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, and by doing so contribute to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development. They enable a larger group of stakeholders to engage. Key aspects of the framework and the research needs identified in the guidelines will be summarized.

    Conclusions In a globalized world where transparency and information occupies a predominant place and where consumers and companies reach out to shed light on both the brightest and the darkest side of the economy and, when applicable, transform its condition, social LCA brings strong value. At a moment where major companies and initiatives are going forward with using LCA and are trying to track and communicate about the social impacts of their products they are increasingly held accountable for the guidelines for social life cycle assessment arrive just in time to inform their efforts.

  • 31.
    Berglund, Björn I.
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Carlsson, Annica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings Universtitet.
    Svanström, S.
    To prospect an urban mine - Assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure cold spots in Norrköping, Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, 103-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. The infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrköping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. Particular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Södra Butängen, which is slated for re-development and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. We argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 32.
    Bitencourt de Oliveira, Felipe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a High-Density Datacenter Cooling System: TeliaSonera’s ‘Green Room’ Concept2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly power load of datacenters worldwide and consequently, the increase on heat dissipation by electronic components, have been highlighting the importance of efficiently designing cooling solutions for such systems. In fact, bad management of the cooling system can greatly increase the total electricity consumption in a datacenter. This being said, TeliaSonera in order to decrease the total electricity consumption in its datacenters, has developed a new cooling solution known as the Green Room concept. Therefore in order to evaluate the potential environmental benefits related to this product, this work was developed. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology in accordance to ISO 14040/43 standards was applied to assess its environmental performance, from cradle-to-grave. Moreover the software SimaPro, the Ecoinvent database and the ReCiPe impact assessment method were also utilized.

    The results emphasized the phases and activities during Green Room life cycle presenting the highest potential impacts. This being said, the utilization phase presented for every impact category analyzed the highest potential impacts, with exception of ozone depletion category, which was dominated by material extraction and manufacturing phase, due to the presence of R134a refrigerant. In addition transportation phase presented the lowest values for every category and the end of life phase exposed considerable impact mitigation for the whole life cycle. Moreover extraction and manufacturing phases presented copper, steel and the refrigerant R134a as the most impacting materials for damage to human health, damage to ecosystems and damage to resources, respectively. Finally, improvements were proposed in order to increase the environmental performance of this cooling system.

  • 33.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden2012In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 32, no 1, 82-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives.

  • 34.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, K.-H
    Johansson, J
    Mårtensson, A
    Stenlund, J
    Viklund, P
    Viklund, H
    Energiplanering med strategisk miljöbedömning i Finspång2007Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Application of LCA to waste management2010In: Solid Waste Technology & Management / [ed] Christensen, T.H, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 137-160 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Giftfria och resurssnåla kretslopp: Åtgärdsstrategier under olika omvärldsutveckling2007Report (Other academic)
  • 37. Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Westberg, Lotten
    Geber, Ulrika
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ahnström, Johan
    Local selling as a driving force for increased on-farm biodiversity2009In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 33, no 8, 885-902 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of whether local selling of farm products improves on-farm biodiversity in rural areas. In contrast to the main agricultural trend of farms specializing and increasing in size in response to national and global markets, increasing numbers of Swedish farmers are diverting their efforts towards selling at local markets. Based on case studies of six farms selling their products locally, this paper explores the nature of the diversity on these farms and identifies qualities in the interaction between the farmers and their consumers that are supporting this diversity. The study showed that farmers who interacted with consumers were encouraged to diversify their production. Marketing a large diversity of products at a local market led to better income for participating farmers. Animal farms maintained important biodiversity associated with their extensive way of rearing animals on semi-natural pastures. Access to local markets promoted this.

  • 38.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Pappersbok och elektronisk bok på läsplatta: en jämförande miljöbedömning2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Books from an environmental perspective - Part 1: Environmental impacts of paper books sold in traditional and internet bookshops2011In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, no 2, 138-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The sale and distribution of books are activities that have changed through increased use of the internet. The main aim of this paper was to determine the potential environmental impacts of paper books and identify key issues determining the magnitude of those impacts. A second aim was to study the environmental difference between a paper book bought in a traditional bookshop and through an internet bookshop. In addition, areas with a lack of data and major uncertainties were to be noted.

    Materials and methods A screening life cycle assessment was performed on an average hardback novel produced and read in Sweden. The data used were general data from Ecoinvent 2.0 and site-specific data from companies participating in the study, whenever average data were not available.

    Results and discussion The results showed the most important processes to be pulp and paper production. However, if a substantial distance was travelled by car, to buy a book or collect it, this had a major influence on the environmental performance. Comparing the two bookshop alternatives, the results showed a slight benefit for the internet bookshop due to fewer books being returned to the publisher and the avoidance of energy use at the traditional bookshop. The buyer of a book could significantly influence the total impact by choosing to walk to the bookshop or to combine the trip with several other activities to decrease the impact of the travel per activity performed. When books ordered via the internet were sent by postal services directly to the end consumer, the climate change impact was lowered.

    Conclusions This study showed that, in addition to the paper used, the way books are bought and distributed, including possible personal transportation, can significantly affect the total environmental impact of paper books. The impact per book read can be significantly decreased by sharing books with others.

  • 40.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Räsänen, Minna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Business meetings at a distance - decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and cumulative energy demand?2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 41, 126-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation, or rather access, is a major challenge in relation to achieving environmental goals and in striving for sustainable development. One potential means suggested to decrease the environmental impact related to accessibility is mediated meetings. However, few studies have quantified the potential environmental impacts with a life cycle perspective. With inspiration from a project involving four major Swedish media companies experiencing an increasing need for business travel and decreasing resources, this study assessed the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative energy demand (CED) related to different types of business meetings, using a life cycle perspective. The potential consequences for emissions of GHG and CED in two hypothetical companies introducing mediated meetings were also assessed. The results indicated that mediated meetings using personal computers can reduce GHG emissions and CED per meeting and that more advanced mediated solutions are preferable to meetings which require travel, if the equipment is frequently used to replace travel. However, advanced technology that is under-used may give similar or higher GHG emissions and CED than meetings traveled to by train. All mediated meeting alternatives studied here had lower GHG emissions and CED than meetings which required travel by plane or car. LCD screen manufacture contributed the main environmental impact of mediated meetings, but the meeting rooms needed, electricity use for equipment and internet use for data transmission were also important in some cases. As LCD screen manufacture and internet energy use were main issues and as the data on these issues are uncertain, they should be further assessed+ and updated in future studies. Introduction of mediated meetings in companies and organizations should involve a thorough consideration of needs and possible solutions to achieve the best possible environmental benefits through efficient use and replacement of travel.

  • 41.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Gunnarsson, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Miljörättvisa: ett nytt perspektiv i svensk planering2007In: PLAN – Tidskrift för Samhällplanering, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den senaste tiden har miljö- och klimatfrågor varit ett hett ämne i samhällsdebatten. Framförallt diskuteras hur växthuseffekten kan hanteras och hur system för utsläppsrätter bäst organiseras. Sällan ställs frågor om vilka som orsakar miljöproblem och vilka som drabbas av dem. Och vem som definierar vad som betraktas som akuta miljöproblem. Detta är frågor som uppmärksammas i forskning om miljörättvisa – ett fält på frammarsch i Sverige.

  • 42.
    Brandt, Anna-Clara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hälsoeffekter av ett förändrat klimat – risker och åtgärder i Botkyrka kommun: Planering för en robust och klimatsäkrad dricksvattenförsörjning med vatten av god kvalitet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten baseras på en klimat- och sårbarhetsanalys som identifierar de hälsoeffekter som uppkommer i och med ett förändrat klimat. Analysen pekar ut flera samhällsystem som kommer att påverkas av klimatförändringarna men som kan anpassas med hjälp av samhällsplaneringen. Utifrån klimat- och sårbarhetsanalysen har parametern dricksvatten undersökts närmare då tillgången till rent dricksvatten är grundläggande för allt mänskligt liv.

    Botkyrka kommun tar idag sitt dricksvatten från Mälaren. Forskning visar dock att Mälarens vattenkvalitet hotas av klimatförändringarna. Den pågående havsnivåhöjningen kommer i slutet av seklet leda till en ökad risk för större inbrott av saltvatten i Mälaren. Brunifieringen, en ökad halt av näringsämnen och humus i råvattnet, är ytterligare ett hot mot dricksvattenkvaliteten och kommer att öka i och med större nederbördsmängder i framtiden.

    Botkyrka har genom sina stora isälvsavlagringar bra naturliga förutsättningar för att producera grundvatten av god kvalitet, vilket är vatten som kan användas för dricksvatten, både idag och i framtiden. De stora isälvsavlagringarna bidrar också till goda förutsättningar f̈ör att framställa ballastmaterial till bygg- och anläggningsindustrin. Det innebär en målkonflikt mellan dessa olika prioriteringar, vilken har blivit synliggjord under senare år i och med den ökade kunskapen kring behovet att säkerställa en robust, kvalitetssäkrad och långsiktig lösning för kommunens och regionens dricksvattenförsörjning.

    Idag pågår grustäktsverksamhet på flera platser i kommunen, vilket innebär en negativ risk för vattenresursens funktion som dricksvatten. Vid grustäktsverksamhet forslas många lager grus bort, vilka fyller en funktion vid naturlig rening av grundvattnet. I och med det ökar riskerna för att vattnets naturliga rening kommer att påverkas negativt. En ökad risk finns även för föroreningar från verksamheten i sig, där fordon på grustäktsområdet kan leda till spill av olja och andra kemikalier.

    Kommunen arbetar för att grustäktsverksamheten ska avvecklas. I samrådsförslaget till den nya översiktsplanen har kommunen istället förslag på att exploatera dessa områden. Det kan innebära andra risker, som kan ha negativ påverkan på grundvattenkvaliteten, om dessa områden exploateras. Kommunen behöver därför se över de exploateringsförslag som finns på grustäktsområden.

    Kommunen behöver upprätta en vattenförsörjningsplan för att kunna säkerställa en robust, kvalitetssäkrad och långsiktig lösning för kommunens och regionens dricksvattenförsörjning. Med en sådan plan kan prioriterade vattenområden, för framtida dricksvattenförsörjning, identifieras och skyddas. 

  • 43.
    Brolinson, Hanna
    et al.
    SCB.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    SCB.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer: Underlag för uppföljning av generationsmålet2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Brown, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Bai, Wei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Sustainability assessment of Renovation for Increased End-use Energy Efficiency for Multi-family Buildings in Sweden2011In: Proceedings of 6th World Sustainable Building Conference, SB11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Methane Dissolved in Wastewater Exiting UASB Reactors: Concentration Measurement and Methods for Neutralisation2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane exiting upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (operating at standard conditions) dissolved in the liquid phase constitutes a significant proportion of the total quantity of methane that is evolved in the reactors. This significantly affects the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the reactors.

    Initially a method for direct measurement of the liquid phase concentration of methane in the wastewater exiting the UASBs at Hammarby Sjöstads Reningsverk pilot plant is developed. Results from the measurements show that the wastewater has a methane concentration of between 2.5x10-5 and 3.8x10-5 [mol fraction], corresponding to about 120 to 180 % of the theoretically predicted saturation concentration given conditions in the UASB headspace.

    Systems are also designed to recover and oxidise the methane from wastewaterexiting UASB reactors in a proposed full-sized local wastewater treatment plant for Hammarby Sjöstad, handling wastewater from 15,000 person equivalents, and with a COD equal to that of wastewater treated at Hammarby Sjöstads Reningsverk pilotplant.

    Dimensioning, costing and performance analysis procedures are developed for two main types of system; packed tower counter-current cascades and bubble column counter-current cascades. For each type of system, two distinct cases are considered: One where the methane concentration in the gas phase exiting the respective cascadesis 0.0125 [mol fraction]. For this case, a regenerative thermal oxidiser (RTO) with high heat exchange efficiency is used to oxidise the methane. Secondly, systems are designed where the methane concentration in the gas phase exiting the respective cascades is 0.28 [mol fraction] up to 0.41 [mol fraction]. For this latter case, no specific final oxidation step is considered.

    It is shown that all systems considered are capable of reducing the quantity of methane released to the atmosphere by at least 97%, compared to the situation where no methane recovery and oxidation system is considered. It is furthermore shown that it is technically and economically feasible to do so and that a high proportion of the energy content of the recovered methane can be utilised.

    Packed tower cascades desorbing to an exiting gas phase methane concentration of 0.0125 [mol fraction] with subsequent oxidation in an RTO are capable of performing the entire process at a total cost of 0.47 [SEK/m3 wastewater] and process energy use of 4.6 [kJel/s] or 127 [kJel/m3 wastewater]. Total cost for equivalent systems desorbing with bubble column cascades are very similar, though process energy use is roughly an order of magnitude greater.

    Combustion of recovered methane at the low exiting gas phase concentrations considered in these systems in the RTO yields an energy output of 47 [kJ thermal/s] or 1.3 [MJthermal/m3wastewater] in the form of flue gas at 340 [oC]. This energy output maybe used for process or space heating purposes.

    Packed tower and bubble column systems for desorption to high exiting gas phase methane concentrations are at least 20% more expensive and have a process energy demand about an order of magnitude greater than the respective low exiting gas phase concentration systems described above. These systems have an advantage over low exiting gas phase methane concentration systems because the high concentration methane output has the possibility to be upgraded to vehicle fuel, increasing the total environmental benefit of the system by using evolved methane as a direct replacement for a fossil fuel.

  • 46.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Bai, Wei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Sustainability assessment of renovation packages for increased energy efficiency for multi-family buildings in Sweden2012In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 61, 140-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a method for assessing renovation packages drawn up with the goal of increasing energy efficiency. The method includes calculation of bought energy demand, life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis and assessment of the building according to the Swedish environmental rating tool Miljöbyggnad (MB). In this way the methodology assesses economic, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and specifically environmental aspects associated with energy demand of such packages from a sustainability point-of-view. Through MB, energy efficiency packages are placed in context with other necessary measures required to improve environmental performance in buildings, providing a consistent and systematic basis other than simply financial performance by which to compare capital improvements. The method is further explained and analyzed by applying it in three case studies. In each case study a multi-family building representing a typologically significant class in the Swedish building stock is considered, and for each building a base case and two renovation packages with higher initial investment requirement and higher energy efficiency are defined. It is shown that higher efficiency packages can impact IEQ indicators both positively and negatively and that packages reducing energy demand by approx. 50% have somewhat higher LCC. Identified positive IEQ impacts point to added value for packages that may not otherwise be communicated, while negative impacts identify areas where packages need to be improved, or where MB indicators may be referred to as specifications in procurement procedures.

  • 47.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Mirzadeh, Iman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Bitumen Feedstock Energy and Electricity Production in Pavement LCA2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt production consumes considerable amount of fuel and electric energy as significant amount of materials (bitumen and aggregates) are blended together for the construction of flexible pavements. Bitumen is used in asphalt as a binder but can also be used as an alternate energy source. Feedstock energy of bitumen becomes relevant in the life cycle cost (LCC) study, as cost of the binder would be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. In this study, a method was suggested to calculate energy content of the bitumen. Importance of choosing electricity not produced in local diesel generators was also demonstrated. Replacing fuel with inefficiently produced electricity for heating the materials in the asphalt plant would result in high environmental impacts. The calculation of feedstock energy and the understanding of efficient energy production and use could be utilized in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the roads.

  • 48.
    Byggeth, Sophie
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Handling trade-offs in Ecodesign tools for sustainable product development and procurement2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, 1420-1430 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade-off situations often occur in the product development and procurement processes when alternative solutions emphasize different aspects that have to be balanced against each other. Ecodesign tools can be used in both product development and purchasing, for example to prescribe design alternatives, assess environmental impacts or to compare environmental improvement alternatives. However, it is not always clear what should be chosen in trade-off situations. In this study, 15 different Ecodesign tools were analyzed to ascertain whether a valuation is included in the tools, in what way the tools give support in different types of trade-off situations and whether the tools provide support from a sustainability perspective.

    Nine of the 15 tools analyzed included a valuation and were able to provide support in a trade-off situation, but the support was not sufficient. The valuation should include a life cycle perspective and a framework for sustainability. Otherwise, it can lead to strategically incorrect decisions from a sustainability perspective with concomitant risks of sub-optimized investment paths and blind alleys. However, all the analyzed tools can be complemented with other tools and methods based on strategic planning towards sustainability in order to include a framework for sustainability.

  • 49.
    Börjeson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Scenario types and techniques: Towards a user's guide2006In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 38, no 7, 723-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various scenario typologies have been suggested in attempts to make the field of futures studies easier to overview. Our typology is based on the scenario user's need to know what will happen, what can happen, and/or how a predefined target can be achieved. We discuss the applicability of various generating, integrating and consistency techniques for developing scenarios that provide the required knowledge. The paper is intended as a step towards a guide as to how scenarios can be developed and used.

  • 50.
    Börjeson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Towards a user's guide to scenarios: A report on scenario types and scenario techniques2005Report (Other academic)
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