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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Extending PRT capabilities2009In: Automated People Movers 2009: Connecting People, Connecting Places, Connecting Modes: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference, May 31-June 3, 2009 : Atlanta, Georgia, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2009, p. 343-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) offers direct, on-demand travel in automated vehicles seating 3-6 passengers on exclusive right-of-way. Commercially available systems now offer speeds up to 45 kph at headways from 3 seconds. With 3-second headways, a typical load of 1.5 passengers and 30 empty vehicles, the link capacity will be 1200 passengers per hour (one direction). This paper explores ways to extend the capabilities of PRT with respect to capacity and speed. Strategies have been developed and verified with the generic simulation software PRTsim.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Personal Rapid Transit as Feeder-Distributor to Rail2012In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2275, p. 88-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient feeder distributor systems around train stations are important in attracting train passengers. Such systems would be a suitable application for personal rapid transit (PRT). This paper suggests layouts and operations strategies for transfer stations between PRT and heavy rail. Ticket handling can be avoided by having the train fare include PRT trips. Ridesharing can be encouraged by destination signs. The catchment area that can be efficiently served is related to the interval between trains. The capacity of the station and guideway can be improved by coupling PRT vehicles in the station and decoupling them as necessary en route. Applications in Sweden are illustrated with the PRTsim software. In one case, outgoing PRT vehicles were loaded to 78%.

  • 3.
    Archer, Jeffery
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Indicators for traffic safety assessment and prediction and their application in micro-simulation modelling: a study of urban and suburban intersections2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve sustainable long-term transport infrastructure development, there is a growing need for fast, reliable and effective methods to evaluate and predict the impact of traffic safety measures. Recognising this need, and the need for an active traffic safety approach, this thesis focuses on traffic safety assessment and prediction based on the use of safety indicators that measure the spatial and/or temporal proximity of safety critical events. The main advantage of such measures is that they occur more frequently than accidents, and therefore require relatively short periods of study to establish values that can later be used for comparison, or for accident prediction purposes. There are a number of more generally accepted safety indicators including: Time-to-Accident, Time-to-Collision, and Post-Encroachment Time. These are based on different underlying principles and measurement techniques, including both on-site subjective estimation, and objective photometric measures.

    A major part of the work presented in this thesis, concerns identifying the potential and limitations of the different safety indicators with regard to their validity and reliability, and practical use for safety assessment and prediction purposes. This is done in conjunction with field studies in the urban and suburban environment, at both signalised and unsignalised intersections. Results from these studies indicate that on-site observation methods provide useful quantitative and qualitative information relatively quickly and efficiently, provided that they are used correctly. On the other hand, the methods based on photometric measurement (video-analysis) proved arduous and time-consuming. Furthermore, there are questions regarding the abilities of the Time-to-Collision and Post-Encroachment Time safety indicators to adequately represent interaction severity, suggesting possible flaws in fundamental concepts related to construct validity. Importantly, results showed that the relationship between safety indicators and traffic accidents is complex and equivocal, where many different factors and processes can impose a significant influence on safety. This makes generalised predictive modelling a particularly difficult task for safety analysts.

    The potential of micro-simulation for traffic safety and performance estimation based on the use of safety indicators was investigated in the second part of this thesis. Microscopic traffic simulation has become increasingly popular among transport planners, due to the fact that it serves as a safe and flexible off-line test environment for the estimation of dynamic and complex traffic system effects. It is useful and cost-effective in relation to the evaluation of issues concerning roadway design, and technological systems that influence road-user behaviour and vehicle performance. For reasons related to modelling fidelity and data quality, simulation has seldom been used for traffic safety estimation. Simulation model development is however, undergoing rapid development and the area of ‘safety-simulation’ and is recognised as having a high potential in the field of transport planning and traffic engineering.

    As part of the work in this thesis, practical simulation experiments were carried out to investigate this potential, and identify limitations. Based on the data from one of the earlier studies, and knowledge regarding important safety-influencing factors and behavioural processes, one of the simulation experiments showed evidence to suggest that realistic safety critical events could be generated and measured using safety indicators in a simulation environment, without making unnecessary and unrealistic behavioural assumptions. Furthermore, a second application of this methodology revealed the safety potential of a rear-end incident-reduction function used in standard vehicle actuated signalling. While both of these simulation studies highlighted the potential of this type of approach, the need for more flexible and realistic models of interactive behavioural processes could be identified in addition to the general need for greater active research into the field of safety simulation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Avery, Ryan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    An Interactive Tool for Collecting Traveler Behavior Information2008In: Proceedings of the 87th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Jan. 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding driver behavior and response to traffic information is necessary in order toachieve the maximum benefit from Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). This paperdescribes the development of a travel simulator to collect information on driver route choice inresponse to traffic information. A main feature of the simulator is the realistic representation ofmultiple traffic information sources (currently VMS and radio messages). Furthermore, thesimulator is one of the first Internet-based travel simulators, and the only one that accuratelysimulated the driving task. The simulator consists of collection of pre-trip information anddefault route information followed by multiple simulated trips with varying incidents and trafficinformation. The simulator is evaluated and measures well against established guidelines fortravel simulator development. Results will be discussed in future papers as data collection usingthe simulator is ongoing as of August 2007.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Avery, Ryan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andréasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    An Interactive Tool for Collecting Traveler Behavior Information2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Berrada, Jaafar
    et al.
    Institut VEDECOM.
    Andréasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Leurent, Fabien
    Demand modelling of autonomous shared taxis mixed with scheduled transit2019In: Proceedings of the 98th Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous taxis (aTaxis) are promising to restructure the urban mobility universe: dispatching vehicles on roads to minimize congestion, reducing accidents and thus increasing savings of travel time, improving the transit level of service and reducing operating costs of public modes, thus limiting public subsidies. The simulation of demand and supply for on-demand services while considering the interaction with other modes has not yet been sufficiently investigated.

    This paper proposes a framework for simulating on-demand aTaxi services, while considering interactions with scheduled transit. In particular, it is coupling an agent-based aTaxi model (VIPSIM) and the four-step model of VISUM. The framework is applied to a network in the Paris metropolitan area where aTaxis are implemented to replace a BRT service. Transfers between aTaxis and BRT are considered and a combined utility for public modes is calculated. The convergence between the two models is then performed. Results of the application case show that aTaxis improve the mobility performances of public transit. A supply management analysis proved that 20 aTaxis provides high service efficiency and increase the service profitability. Using 10 more vehicles attracts 15 more passengers. With 65 aTaxis, the demand is 10% higher with the same profit as the BRT.

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  • 7.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Viewpoint: The growing role of dynamic modelling2011In: Impact, ISSN 2045-0141, Vol. May/June, no 37, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other academic)
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    IMPACT_37_Road_Traffic_Modelling
  • 8.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    DYMOBUS: dynamic mesoscopic modelling of bus public transport2009In: Conference proceedings to ITS 2009 conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s public bus transport punctuality is one of the main problems to deal with for traffic planners and operators, especially in large cities such as Stockholm. The current static models do not handle congestion delays and the interaction between bus and car traffic, leading to overly optimistic timetables and hard to manage delays. In the DYMOBUS project (Funded by VINNOVA and City of Stockholm) a dynamic modelling tool was developed in order to study these interactions. This paper discusses a mesoscopic, mixed-traffic, a transit simulation model designed to support evaluation of operations planning and control, especially in the context of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). Examples of applications include frequency determination, evaluation of real time control strategies for schedule maintenance and restoration from major disruptions. The transit simulation component is designed to represent realistically the uncertainty in operations, in order to assess service reliability. The simulation models all sources of uncertainty: chaining of trips, travel time variability, behavior at stops and a detailed representation of passenger demand at the various stops. Unlike most previous efforts in this area, the simulation model is built on the platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which allows modeling of the operations of large-scale transit systems. A Tel-Aviv case study demonstrates the transit simulation capabilities of the model.

  • 9.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    Northeastern University.
    Vehicle loading in traffic simulation models2007In: Proceedings of the 86th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation models are becoming increasingly popular and used to address a wide range of problems, from planning to operations. Furthermore, hybrid models that combine mesoscopic and microscopic models to simulate large scale networks are emerging. Despite the significant progress though, a potentially important process, the loading of vehicles onto the network, has not received much attention. If vehicles are assigned their initial speeds improperly, especially in congested networks, unnecessary turbulence may be created that will result in artificially reduced capacity of the loading link. The paper reviews existing loading methods (employed by the state of the art models MITSIMLab and VISSIM) and demonstrates the sensitivity of the simulation results to the initial speed. The results show that loading has a significant effect on the initial acceleration behavior of the loaded vehicles, and the (implied) capacity of the first segment of the entry link. The paper proposes four alternative loading approaches and identifies one as theoretically sound and consistent. A case study demonstrates that the new method is robust, and performs well even under congested conditions. The proposed method is useful not only for loading vehicles in microscopic models but also in the context of hybrid models for transferring vehicles from the meso to the micro network.

  • 10.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A Discrete-Event Mesoscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Hybrid Traffic Simulation2006In: IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, 2006. ITSC'06, IEEE , 2006, p. 1102-1107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, particularly suited for the development of integrated meso-micro traffic simulation models. The model combines a number of the recent advances in simulation modeling, such as discrete-event time resolution and combined queue-server and speed-density modeling, with a number of new features such as the ability to integrate with microscopic models to create hybrid traffic simulation. The ability to integrate with microscopic models extends the area of use to include evaluation of ITS systems, which often require the detailed modeling of vehicles in areas of interest, combined with a more general modeling of large surrounding areas to capture network effects of local phenomena. The paper discusses the structure of the model, presents a framework for integration with micro models, and illustrates its validity through a case study with a congested network north of Stockholm. It also compares its performance with a hybrid model applied to the same network.

  • 11.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Incident Management and Traffic Information: Tools and Methods for Simulation-Based Traffic Prediction2010In: TRB 89th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers,, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Rigole, Pierre Jean
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Impacts of Shared Autonomous Taxis in a Metropolitan Area2015In: Proceedings of the 94th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of potential benefits of a fleet of shared autonomous taxis “aTaxis”, in this paper referred to as Shared Autonomous Vehicles  (SAV)) when replacing private car commuter trips in a metropolitan area. We develop a framework for dynamic allocation of SAVs to passenger trips, empty-vehicle routing and multi-criteria evaluation with regard to passenger waiting time, trip times and fleet size. Using a dynamic representation of current private vehicle demand for the Stockholm metropolitan area and a detailed network representation, different scenarios (varying levels of accepted passenger waiting time at origin and accepted % increase in travel time) are compared with respect to passenger travel time, number of vehicles needed and vehicle mileage. The results indicate that an SAV-based personal transport system has the potential to provide an on-demand door-to-door transport with a high level of service, using 5 % of today's private cars and parking places. In order to provide an environmental benefit and to reduce total mileage, an SAV-based personal transport system requires users to accept ride-sharing, allowing a maximum 30% increase of their travel time (13% on average) and a start time window of 10 minutes.

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  • 13. Börjesson, M.
    et al.
    Dillén, J.
    Lind, G.
    Avery, Ryan P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Trut - information search cost and benefits of traffic information (sweden)2008In: World Congr. Intell. Transp. Syst. ITS Am. Annu. Meet., 2008, p. 6685-6688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benefits from traffic information examined using three methods; focus groups, stated preference-studies (SP) as well as simulated work-trips on the internet. The SP-results show that that there is a clear relationship between message content and the valuation. They also show that the value of decreasing uncertainty, when informed about a travel time delay with ± 10 minutes, corresponds to SEK 3.80 (EUR 0.4). The travel simulation shows that radio messages in general have a larger effect than VMS messages on route choice. Repeated information has however an impact, since a large share of the respondents who did not switch route at the first decision point, switched at the next decision point where updated information was given.

  • 14.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Harry, Flam
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. VTI.
    Infrastrukturbeslut måste grundas på samhällsekonomiska kalkyler: DN Debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-02-17Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Dynamic Modelling of Transit Operations and Passenger Decisions2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and reliable public transport systems are fundamental in promoting green growth developments in metropolitan areas. A large range of Advanced Public Transport Systems (APTS) facilitates the design of real-time operations and demand management. The analysis of transit performance requires a dynamic tool that will enable to emulate the dynamic loading of travelers and their interaction with the transit system.

    BusMezzo, a dynamic transit operations and assignment model was developed to enable the analysis and evaluation of transit performance and level of service under various system conditions and APTS. The model represents the interactions between traffic dynamics, transit operations and traveler decisions. The model was implemented within a mesoscopic traffic simulation model. The different sources of transit operations uncertainty including traffic conditions, vehicle capacities, dwell times, vehicle schedules and service disruptions are modeled explicitly.

    The dynamic path choice model in BusMezzo considers each traveler as an adaptive decision maker. Travelers’ progress in the transit system consists of successive decisions that are defined by the need to choose the next path element. The evaluations are based on the respective path alternatives and their anticipated downstream attributes. Travel decisions are modeled within the framework of discrete random utility models. A non-compensatory choice-set generation model and the path utility function were estimated based on a web-based survey.

    BusMezzo enables the analysis and evaluation of proactive control strategies and the impacts of real-time information provision. Several experiments were conducted to analyze transit performance from travelers, operator and drivers perspectives under various holding strategies. This analysis has facilitated the design of a field trial of the most promising strategy. Furthermore, a case study on real-time traveler information systems regarding the next vehicle arrival time investigated the impacts of various levels of coverage and comprehensiveness. As passengers are more informed, passenger loads are subject to more fluctuation due to the traveler adaptations.

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  • 16.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Effektivisering av busstrafik genom BuzMezzo2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mesoscopic Modeling of Bus Public Transportation2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2188, p. 9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of public transport system performance and level of service in urban areas is essential. Dynamic modeling of traffic conditions, passenger demand, and transit operations is important to represent adequately the complexity of and the interactions between these components in modern public transportation systems. This paper presents a transit simulation model designed to support evaluation of operations planning and control, especially in the context of advanced public transportation systems. Unlike most previous efforts in this area, the simulation model is built on a platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which allows modeling or the operation dynamics of large-scale transit systems, taking into account the main sources of service uncertainty and stochasticity. The capabilities of Mezzo as an evaluation tool of transit operations are demonstrated with an application to a real-world, high-demand bus line in metropolitan Tel Aviv, Israel, under various scenarios. The application shows that important phenomena such as bus bunching are reproduced realistically. A comparison of simulated running times and headway distributions with field data shows the model is capable of replicating observed data.

  • 18.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Effect of real-time transit information on dynamic passenger path choice.2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, Vol. 2217, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide. The evaluation of the effect of real-time information requires dynamic modeling of transit operations and of passenger path choices. This paper presents a dynamic transit analysis and evaluation tool that represents time-tables, operation strategies, real-time information, adaptive passenger choices, and traffic dynamics at the network level. Transit path choices are modeled as a sequence of boarding, walking and alighting decisions that passengers undertake when carrying out their journey. The model is applied to the Metro network of Stockholm, Sweden area under various operating conditions and information provision scenarios, as a proof of concept. An analysis of the results indicates substantial path choice shifts and potential time savings associated with more comprehensive real-time information provision and transfer coordination improvements.

  • 19.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Evaluation of real-time holding strategies for improved bus service reliability2010In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, Madeira, Portugal, 2010, p. 718-723Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is one of the main measures of performance determining transit system level of service. Holding control strategies are a common transit operations practice aimed to reduce transit service unreliability by setting criteria for departure fromtime point stops. In order to adequately analyze the sources of uncertainty involved with transit performance, it is essential to model dynamically the interactions between traffic conditions, passenger demand and transit operations. BusMezzo, a transit simulation model has been developed on a platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which enables the representation of large-scale transit systems. The model implements severalreal-time holding strategies. It is used to evaluate the application of these strategies in areal-world high-demand bus line in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, under various scenarios. An analysis of the results suggests that a holding strategy based on the mean headway from the preceding bus and the next bus, restricted by a maximum allowableholding time, is especially efficient. 

  • 20.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Mesoscopic modeling of bus public transportation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modeling real-time transit information and its impacts on travelers’ decisions2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ferranti, Francesco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kolkowski, Lukas
    TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Unravelling Mobility Patterns using Longitudinal Smart Card Data: Final report for Trafik och Region 2019SLL-KTH research project2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This project followed-up on a project called FairAccess which was granted in Trafik och Region 2018.In FairAccess, we processed Access card data and performed a sequence of inferences to derive timedependent origin-destination matrices for the entire Region Stockholm system. Tap-in records werematched with corresponding inferred tap-out locations and time stamps for about 80% of all records.Moreover, we implemented an algorithm to generate a journey database based on our transferinference method. We used the outputs of this process to evaluate the impacts of the fare schemechange (i.e. from zone-based to flat fare) on different user profiles. Access card products and zonalattributes were used for analysing policy impacts on different market segments.The “Unravelling Mobility Patterns using Longitudinal Smart Card Data” project was granted on May27, 2020 and the contract was signed on July 17, 2020. In this project, we capitalise on the capabilitiesof the inferences performed in previous work to conduct a series of market segmentation andadvanced data analytics to empirically analysis demand patterns for public transport in the StockholmCounty. The growing travel demand in Stockholm County is accompanied by an increased diversity ofsub-centres within the region as well as in individual travel patterns. It is thus increasingly importantto understand how demand patterns evolve over time, what the key market segments are and howdifferent users are affected by changes in service provision. The latter is studied in the contact of theopening of the Citybanan project.As stated in the SLL Research and Innovation Plan, the development of transport solutions for theStockholm region requires new knowledge regarding travellers’ needs and preferences, and theimpacts for different types of travellers. 

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  • 23.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Evaluating the role of real-time transit information provision on dynamic passenger path choice2012In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Larijani, Anahid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Impacts of holding control strategies on transit performance: A bus simulation model analysis2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2216, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit operators are interested in strategies to improve service reliability as it is an important measure of performance and level of service. One of the common practices aimed at reducing service unreliability is holding control strategies. The design of these strategies involves the selection of a set of time point stops and the holding criteria for regulating the departure time. The interactions between passenger activity, transit operations, and traffic dynamics must be dynamically modeled to analyze the impacts of holding strategies on transit performance. An evaluation of different holding criteria and the number and location of time point stops was conducted with Bus Mezzo, a dynamic transit simulation model. The holding strategies were implemented in the model and applied to a high-frequency trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. The analysis of the results considers the implications of holding strategies from both passenger and operator perspectives. The analysis suggests substantial gains are possible by implementing a holding strategy on the basis of the mean headway from the preceding and the succeeding buses. This strategy is the most efficient for passenger time savings as well as fleet costs and crew management.

  • 25.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Larijani, Anahid Nabavi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andréasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Bus-Holding Control Strategies Simulation-Based Evaluation and Guidelines for Implementation2012In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2274, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit operations involve several inherent sources of uncertainty, including dispatch time from the origin terminal, travel time between stops, and dwell time at stops. Bus-holding control strategies are a prominent method applied by transit operators to improve transit performance and level of service. The common practice is to regulate departures from a limited number of stops by holding buses until their scheduled departure time. An analysis of the performance of a high-frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden, based on automatic vehicle location data showed that this control strategy was not effective in improving service regularity along the line. The analysis also indicated that drivers adjusted their speed according to performance objectives. Implications of a control strategy that regulates departures from all stops on the basis of the headways of the preceding bus and the following bus were evaluated with Bus Mezzo, a transit operations simulation model. The results suggest that this strategy can improve service performance considerably from both passengers' and operator's perspectives. In addition, the strategy implies cooperative operations, as the decisions of each driver are interdependent with other drivers' decisions, and mutual corrections can be made. Difficulties in realizing the benefits of the proposed strategy in practice, such as dispatching from the origin terminal, driver scheduling, and compliance, are discussed. The implications of several practical considerations are assessed by conducting a sensitivity analysis as part of the preparations for a field experiment designed to test the proposed control strategy.

  • 26.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Reimal, Triin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Public Transport Pricing Policy Empirical Evidence from a Fare-Free Scheme in Tallinn, Estonia2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2415, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a fare-free public transport (FFPT) service in an effort to improve accessibility and mobility for its residents. The case of Tallinn is a full-scale, real-world experiment that provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impacts of FFPT policy. A macrolevel empirical evaluation of FFPT impacts on service performance, passenger demand, and accessibility for various groups of travelers is presented. In contrast to previous studies, the influence of FFPT on passenger demand was estimated while changes in supply were controlled. The results indicate that the FFPT measure accounts for an increase of 1.2% in passenger demand, with the remaining increase attributed to an extended network of public transport priority lanes and increased service frequency. The relatively small effect could be attributed to the previous price level and public transport share as well as analysis of the short-term impact. The evidence-based policy evaluation in this paper is instrumental in supporting policy making and facilitating the design of public transport pricing strategies.

  • 27.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    Vermeulen, Alex
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Susilo, Yusak
    How fair is the fare? Estimating travel patterns and the impacts of fare schemes for different user groups in Stockholm based on smartcard data: Final report for Trafik och Region 2018 SLL-KTH research project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rapid increase in the deployment, acquisition and analysis of automated fare collection (AFC) systems, enabling a profound change in the ability to analyze high-volume data that relate to observed passenger travel behavior and recurrent patterns. The analysis of such passively collected data offers direct access to a continuous flow of observed passenger behavior at a large scale, saving expensive data collection efforts. For a review of the spectrum of applications – from strategic demand estimation to operational service performance measurements.

    The FairAccess project leverages on the availability of Access-kort data for the vast majority of trips performed in Stockholm County. The overarching goal of this project is to develop means to analyse empirically the impacts of policy/planning measures based on disaggregate passively collected smart card data. This involves a series of analysis and modelling challenges. We develop and apply a series algorithms to infer of tap-out locations, infer vehicles and travel times, and infer transfers to that journeys can be composed. Tap-in records have been matched with corresponding inferred tap-out locations and time stamps for about 80% of all records. Thereafter, we construct time-dependent origin-destination matrices for which segmentations can be performed with respect to geographical and user product features.

    We demonstrate the approach and algorithms developed by performing a before-after analysis of the fare scheme change from zone-based to flat fares. We analyse changes in travel patterns and derive price elasticities for distinctive market segments. The introduced fare policy delivered the desirable result of an increased ridership through improved convenience of the single-use products. Nevertheless, the significance of the service convenience component was underestimated, which resulted in the price adjustments being not in line with the mobility effects.

    The planning and development of the Stockholm public transport system must rely on the best empirical foundations available to support evidence-based decision-making and make the right priorities. To this end, the development and analysis performed in the FairAccess project lay a necessary foundation for further methodological developments and analyses such as on-board crowding evaluation, demand forecasting and identifying user groups.

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  • 28.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Transport Sci, Teknikringen 10, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Reimal, Triin
    Ramboll AB, Krukmakargatan 21, S-10462 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn (vol 44, pg 1083, 2017)2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1601-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, POB 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Chen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity in high-demand areas. Even though parking policies are often a topic of public debate, there is lack of systematic empirical analysis of various parking measures. This paper proposes a survey methodology to empirically measure the impacts of on-street parking policies based on automated parking transaction data. Parking performance is computed based on data available from ticket vending machines calibrated using floating car films. The survey method allows comparing parking occupancy including its temporal variations, allowing the analysis of the accumulated utilization pattern. Average and maximum parking occupancy levels, throughput, parking duration and total fare collection are compared prior and following the introduction of a new parking scheme for visitors to Stockholm inner-city, Sweden. The results indicate that the policy fulfilled its objective to increase the ease of finding a vacant parking place in the central areas and even resulted with underutilized parking spaces.

  • 30.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Vermeulen, Alex
    TU Delft.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Generating Network-Wide Travel Diaries and OD Matrices Using Stockholm County Smartcard Data2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: The public transport system in Stockholm extends across the greater Stockholm area, covering ca 6,500 km2 and 2.3 million inhabitants. The system includes 21 commuter train, metro, light rail and tram lines spanning ca 470 km, around 490 bus lines spanning ca 9,100 km, and a number of ferry lines (SLL 2016). The main ticketing system is the Access system, which uses electronic tickets that are loaded onto contactless cards. The system was introduced in limited scale in 2008 and the average number of ticket validations per day has since grown to 1.9 million in 2018. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm is collecting access smartcard data for several years. Just for year 2017 smartcard data consist of approximately 680 million tap-in records. The majority of tap-ins are recorded at metro gates (45%) and upon boarding buses (41%) while the remaining consists of commuter trains, trams, and ferries. Each card has a unique number, which allows it to be traced and construct the complete journeys and travel diaries. There is a big potential in using these data for different analysis, evaluation, and planning of public transport. We present the framework that enables processing of raw access data in fusion with AVL and network data to the network-wide travel diaries. Furthermore, the estimated OD matrices can be used for measuring the impacts of various interventions such as fare policy and service design changes. The inferred travel diaries also allow for extracting passenger loads for each vehicle trip segment across the network at the same resolution as the flow outputs of schedule-based transit assignment models.

    Metod: Tickets are validated upon access to stations or boarding of vehicles but not on egress or alighting. In other words, the Access system is “tap-in only”. We propose a method to estimate the alighting station in a multimodal public transport system, where tap-in transactions are observed in a complex network. Similar to previous literature it is assumed that the alighting occurs within a certain distance of the next transaction. Furthermore, vehicle and time inference using AVL data is performed. Trip elements are assessed individually resulting in individual travel diaries.

    Resultat och slutsats: The implemented inference algorithms and the derived travel diaries facilitate the construction of OD matrices that are essential input for services planning. The performance of the inferring algorithms is: for the alighting station: 87%; for travel time 70% using AVL data exclusively; considering all trips even without alighting station 86% of all journeys have inferred destination; from which 73% have travel time estimated.

  • 31.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Langefors, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    The impact of fear on young people’s mobility2021In: European Journal of Criminology, ISSN 1477-3708, E-ISSN 1741-2609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes use of a dataset recently collected among young people in Stockholm, Sweden (N = 1122), to investigate the impact of fear on young people?s mobility and precautionary behaviour, after controlling for previous victimization as well as situational characteristics of daily trips. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and logistic regression models underlie the methodology of the study. Previous victimization, especially for sexual crimes, triggers precautionary behaviour among young people using trains and the metro. Signs of poorly maintained transit environments also affect young riders? mobility patterns, as they state that they avoid particular stations or routes at particular times. Informed by principles of environmental criminology and the theory of fear of crime, the implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed.

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  • 32.
    Ceccato, Vania
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Langefors, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Sexual violence on the move: An assessment of youth’s victimization in public transportation2021In: Women & Criminal Justice, ISSN 0897-4454, E-ISSN 1541-0323, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 294-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informed by principles of environmental criminology, this study assesses patterns of sexual victimization among young riders of rail-bound public transportation using a sample of 1,122 university students in Stockholm, Sweden. Exploratory data analysis and logistic regression models underlie the methodology of the study. Findings indicate that the physical and social characteristics of transit environments have an impact on the likelihood of sexual victimization after controlling for individual factors. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

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    fulltext
  • 33. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Rydergren, C.
    Heuristic algorithms for a second-best congestion pricing problem2009In: Netnomics, ISSN 1385-9587, E-ISSN 1573-7071, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 85-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a congestion pricing scheme involves a number of complex decisions. Focusing on the quantitative parts of a congestion pricing system with link tolls, the problem involves finding the number of toll links, the link toll locations and their corresponding toll level and schedule. In this paper, we develop and evaluate methods for finding the most efficient design for a congestion pricing scheme in a road network model with elastic demand. The design efficiency is measured by the net social surplus, which is computed as the difference between the social surplus and the collection costs (i.e. setup and operational costs) of the congestion pricing system. The problem of finding such a scheme is stated as a combinatorial bi-level optimization problem. At the upper level, we maximize the net social surplus and at the lower level we solve a user equilibrium problem with elastic demand, given the toll locations and toll levels, to simulate the user response. We modify a known heuristic procedure for finding the optimal locations and toll levels given a fixed number of tolls to locate, to find the optimal number of toll facilities as well. A new heuristic procedure, based on repeated solutions of a continuous approximation of the combinatorial problem is also presented. Numerical results for two small test networks are presented. Both methods perform satisfactorily on the two networks. Comparing the two methods, we find that the continuous approximation procedure is the one which shows the best results.

  • 34. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Rydergren, C.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    A heuristic method for finding congestion pricing schemes in traffic networks with modal choice2008In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies: Transportation and Management Science, 2008, p. 773-782Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend a previously developed heuristic procedure, with a modal choice model, to solve the congestion pricing problem of simultaneously finding the optimal number of toll facilities, their corresponding location and toll levels. When considering a congestion pricing scheme the cost of collecting the tolls can not be disregarded. The objective is wherefore to maximize the net social surplus, which is the social surplus minus the cost of collecting the tolls. The heuristic method is an iterative solution procedure, in which the integer part of the objective function is approximated by a continuous function. A version of the Sioux Falls network (76 links) is used to demonstrate the solution procedure. The solution is a congestion pricing scheme which divide the network into four zones, by locating tolls on 27 links. This solution yields a social surplus which is only 13.5% lower than the marginal social cost pricing solution.

  • 35. Ekström, Joakim
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Optimal toll locations and toll levels in congestion pricing schemes: a case study of Stockholm2014In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 333-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As congestion pricing has moved from theoretical ideas in the literature to real-world implementation, the need for decision support when designing pricing schemes has become evident. This paper deals with the problem of finding optimal toll levels and locations in a road traffic network and presents a case study of Stockholm. The optimisation problem of finding optimal toll levels, given a predetermined cordon, and the problem of finding both optimal toll locations and levels are presented, and previously developed heuristics are used for solving these problems. For the Stockholm case study, the possible welfare gains of optimising toll levels in the current cordon and optimising both toll locations and their corresponding toll levels are evaluated. It is shown that by tuning the toll levels in the current congestion pricing cordon used in Stockholm, the welfare gain can be increased significantly, and furthermore improved by allowing a toll on a major bypass highway. It is also shown that, by optimising both toll locations and levels, a congestion pricing scheme with welfare gain close to what can be achieved by marginal social cost pricing can be designed with tolls being located on only a quarter of the tollable links.

  • 36.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Integration of travel demand model with dynamic traffic assignment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ferrannini, Giulia
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Almosawi, Mariam
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Buhlin, Kare
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Dent Med, Div Periodontol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    De Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Sect Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kjellstrom, Barbro
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Clin Physiol, Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Klinge, Bjorn
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Sect Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Malmö Univ, Fac Odontol, Dept Periodontol, Malmö, Sweden..
    Nygren, Ake
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyds Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Div Rheumatol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryden, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norhammar, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Capio St Gorans Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Long-term prognosis after a first myocardial infarction: eight years follow up of the case-control study PAROKRANK2022In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 337-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To explore long-term cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients after a first myocardial infarction (MI) compared with matched controls in a contemporary setting. Methods. During 2010-2014 the Swedish study PAROKRANK recruited 805 patients <75 years with a first MI and 805 age-, gender-, and area-matched controls. All study participants were followed until 31 December 2018, through linkage with the National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The primary endpoint was the first of a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and heart failure hospitalization. Event rates in cases and controls were calculated using a Cox regression model, subsequently adjusted for baseline smoking, education level, and marital status. Kaplan-Meier curves were computed and compared by log-rank test. Results. A total of 804 patients and 800 controls (mean age 62 years; women 19%) were followed for a mean of 6.2 (0.2-8.5) years. The total number of primary events was 211. Patients had a higher event rate than controls (log-rank test p < .0001). Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the primary outcome was 2.04 (95% CI 1.52-2.73). Mortality did not differ between patients (n = 38; 4.7%) and controls (n = 35; 4.4%). A total of 82.5% patients and 91.3% controls were event-free during the follow up. Conclusions. In this long-term follow up of a contemporary, case-control study, the risk for cardiovascular events was higher in patients with a previous first MI compared with their matched controls, while mortality did not differ. The access to high quality of care and cardiac rehabilitation might partly explain the low rates of adverse outcomes.

  • 38.
    Fortin, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campi, B.
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Ferrannini, E.
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Mari, A.
    CNR, Inst Neurosci, Padua, Italy..
    Mellbin, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norhammar, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    Ryden, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Saba, A.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Pathol, Mass Spectrometry Lab, Pisa, Italy..
    Ferrannini, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    High mannose correlates with surrogate indexes of insulin resistance and predicts cardiovascular events independently of glycaemic status and traditional risk factors2023In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Fortin, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ferrannini, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campi, B.
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Mellbin, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Norhammar, A.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Saba, A.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Surg Med Mol & Crit Area Pathol, Lab Biochem, Pisa, Italy..
    Ferrannini, E.
    CNR, Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy..
    Ryden, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med K2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Plasma mannose and a first myocardial infarction: associations according to glycaemic state2022In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 65, no SUPPL 1, p. S412-S413Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40. Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    The value of travel time variance2011In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are defined in terms of linearly time varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can freely choose departure time and to travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway. Depending on parameters, travellers may be risk averse or risk seeking and the value of travel time may increase or decrease in the mean travel time.

  • 41. Gavriilidou, A.
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Reconciling transfer synchronization and service regularity: real-time control strategies using passenger data2019In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 215-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time holding control strategies are implemented, among other reasons, in order to protect transfers. In the context of high-frequency services, there is a need to reconcile between striving for single-line regularity and synchronizing inter-line arrivals. Their operationalization depends on the predictions regarding passenger flows across the network. We examine the influence of real-time passenger data on the performance of transfer synchronization control. To this end, we develop two real-time transfer synchronization controllers which make use of different passenger data sources. The controllers differ in their assumptions concerning capacity constraints as well as on-board crowding conditions. The results show that each transferring passenger saves on average 2–10 min thanks to the proposed strategy, while on-board passengers experience a delay of 1–2 min each in most cases. The highest time saving per transferring passenger is obtained when the demand level is low and the controller opts for synchronizing more frequently. Highlights Rule-based holding controller selects transfer synchronization or line regularity The impact of different passenger data on controller performance is investigated On-board crowding conditions are considered by the real-time controller On-board occupancy is the most valuable real-time passenger data source.

  • 42. Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Effects of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System on Traffic Performance and Exhaust Emissions2013In: TRB 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on traffic or road conditions exist on motorways in many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents while increasing efficiency of traffic system. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of microscopic traffic simulation. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. Both aggregate and micro-scale emission models are used to estimate emission from vehicle states in traffic flow. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts. The emission estimates in the study are dependent on the emission models being applied.

  • 43. Guan, Wei
    et al.
    Yan, Xuedong
    Radwan, Essam
    Wong, Sze Chun
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Advanced Dynamic Simulations in Transportation2015In: Discrete dynamics in nature and society, ISSN 1026-0226, E-ISSN 1607-887X, Vol. 2015, article id 675263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Gunay, B.
    et al.
    Akdeniz Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Antalya, Turkey.
    Akgol, K.
    Akdeniz Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Antalya, Turkey.
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Terzi, S.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Isparta, Turkey.
    Estimation of modal shift potential for a new form of dial-a-ride service2016In: Journal of Public Transportation, ISSN 1077-291X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a dynamic and flexible Intelligent Subscription Bus Service (I-Service) was developed, and two integrated questionnaires were conducted among the commuters of a large university campus. To determine travel times to the campus by I-Service, a digital urban road network map with travel time databases was produced, and software was developed to calculate optimum routes using these databases. Travel times for each participant were determined by the shortest travel time principle. The proposed hypothetical service was introduced to participants, and anticipated advantages for each participant were reported back to them by means of a second questionnaire to determine if they would prefer using I-Service. As a result, a 49% modal shift potential from all other modes in general and a 52% modal shift potential from private car to I-Service were found.

  • 45.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Modular Vehicle Routing for Combined Passenger and Freight TransportIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous increase in urban deliveries and the ongoing urbanization of large cities require the development of efficient and sustainable transportation solutions. This study investigates the impact of modular vehicle concepts and the consolidation of different demand types in the route planning on the efficiency of the urban freight and passenger transportation system. Modularity is achieved by connecting multiple vehicles together to form a platoon. The consolidation of different demand types is realized by simultaneously consider passenger and freight demand in the optimization algorithm. The considered vehicles are specific for each demand type by can be connected freely, hence it is possible to transport different demand types in the same platoon. The cost terms in the problem formulation are comprised of travel time costs, travel distance costs, fleet size costs, and cost considering unserved requests. The modular vehicle operations are modeled in a novel pickup and delivery problem which is solved using CPLEX and Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS). In an extensive scenario study, the potentials of the new modular vehicle type are explored for different spatial and temporal demand distributions. A parameter study on vehicle capacity, vehicle range and cost saving assumptions is performed to study their influence on the efficiency. The experiments carried out indicate a general cost savings of 48% due to modularity and an additional 9% due to consolidation. The reduction mainly stems from reduced operating costs and reduced trip duration, while the same number of requests can be served in all cases. Empty vehicle kilometers are reduced by more than 60% by consolidation and modularity. The proposed model and optimization framework can be used by companies and policy makers to identify required fleet sizes, optimal vehicle routes and cost savings due to different types of operation and vehicle technology.

  • 46.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Multi-purpose Pickup and Delivery Problem for Combined Passenger and Freight TransportIn: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles which can alternately transport different kinds of flows. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed single-use vehicle fleet. Our findings suggest that total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing the total vehicle trip duration and total distance travelled by an average of 33% and 16%, respectively. The size of the fleet can be reduced by an average of 35%. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to decide on whether the combination of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing fleet configurations.

  • 47.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem for combined passenger and freight transport2024In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the development of modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles, which enable alternate transport of different demand types. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed fleet of single-purpose vehicles. Depending on cost parameters, our findings suggest that in certain scenarios, the total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing total vehicle trip duration and total distance traveled by on average 33% and 16%, respectively. The required fleet size can be reduced by 35% on average when operating multi-purpose vehicles. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to determine if the combined service of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing transport operations.

  • 48.
    Huang, Zhen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Integration of Emission and Fuel Consumption Computing with Traffic Simulation using a Distributed Framework2009In: 2009 12TH INTERNATIONAL IEEE CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 154-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air quality and fuel efficiency has become important factors in decision-makings on urban traffic planning and management. To support the process simulation models have potential to play essential roles in evaluation of planning alternatives and control strategies. However, traffic and its environmental impacts are different processes and often require various levels of models. With concerns on high computing performance and rich functionalities, it may be not appropriate to model emission inventory within traffic simulation. In this paper, we present a distributed simulation approach, and an independent emission/energy computing platform is built to simulate, visualize and analyze online emission outputs, given a microscopic traffic simulation tool, KTH-TPMA. Two distributed computing frameworks, common objects request broker architecture (CORBA) and service oriented architecture (SOA), are adopted in the distributed software design and implementation. Several emission models are implemented and generally evaluated in microsimulation runs of two road networks.

  • 49.
    Huang, Zhen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A numerical optimization approach for calibration of dynamic emission models based on aggregate estimation of ARTEMIS2010In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2010, p. 1221-1226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a numerical approach to calibrate dynamic emission models when on-road or in-lab instantaneous emission measurements are not fully available. Microscopic traffic simulation is applied to generate dynamic vehicle states in the second-by-second level. Using aggregate estimation of ARTEMIS as a standard reference, a numerical optimization scheme on the basis of a stochastic gradient approximation algorithm is applied to find optimal parameters for the dynamic emission model. The calibrated model has been validated on several road networks with traffic states generated by the same simulation model. The results show that with proper formulation of the optimization objective function the estimated dynamic emission model can reasonably capture the trends of online emissions of traffic fleets.

  • 50.
    Isaksson, E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laska, A. -C
    Wester, P.
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    Lundstrom, E.
    Uppsala Univ, Neurosci, Neurol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Agreement between the simplified modified rankin scale questionnaire and a face-to face assessment of the modified rankin scale2020In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 15, no 1_SUPPL, p. 411-412Article in journal (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 121
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