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  • 1.
    Andrén, Oliver
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Exploring bis-MPA Based Dendritic Structures in Biomedicine2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades there has been significant advances in polymer chemistry. New coupling chemistries, polymerization techniques and accelerated approaches enable researches to push the limits of structural control. One outcome of such development is the field of linear dendritic (LD) and dendritic linear dendritic (DLD) hybrid materials, drawing benefit from both linear and dendritic material properties. LD-hybrids with their high density of functional groups and customizability offer much promise for use in biological applications. This thesis deals with the potential use of sophisticated LD-hybrid materials focusing on the field of biomedicine and biomedical applications. The linear component is manly poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) while the dendritic part consists of 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic (bis-MPA) building blocks.

    Initially a family of unsymmetrical LD amphiphiles was constructed and evaluated as carriers for drug delivery of chemotherapeutics. Through self-assembly driven by their amphiphilic nature nanocarriers (NC) were constructed with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic corona. NC were found to enhance the effect of conventional therapeutics by relocating the drug from just the nucleus to the mitochondria among other organelles. Their versatile nature allowed for dual loading of a combination of chemotherapeutics and circumvented the resistance mechanism of resistant cancer cells.

    Dendrimers containing a disulfide in the backbone were also constructed, these enabled the selective fragmentation of the dendrimer by reduction to small molecular thiols. The fragments were also envisioned to disrupt the delicate thiol-disulfide balance intracellularly causing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dendrimers were elaborated by conjugation to linear PEG creating LD-hybrids and evaluated in vitro and where found to cause high degree of ROS in cancerous cells.

    Thiol functional polymers were created, including linear polymers, dendrimers and DLD-hybrids. The DLD-hybrids were utilized as hydrogels through two efficient chemistries relying on the versatility of the thiol. By varying the generation of the LD-hybrid and the cross-linking chemistry the modulus could be tuned.

    Amine functional LD-hybrids were constructed utilizing the amino acid alanine. Scaffolds were utilized as antimicrobial hydrogels for prophylaxis during surgical intervention. LD-hybrids were initially evaluated in planktonic mode, and were found to have broad spectrum effect and were highly effective against resistant bacteria. Gelation was studied relying on N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters as cross-linkers, enabling instantaneous gelation under biological conditions. The gels moduli could be varied to match various tissues including stromal and muscle. The effect of the antimicrobial coatings was investigated with promising results both in vitro and in vivo.

    Finally, more industrially applicable hyperbranched LD-hybrids were constructed. The synthetic strategy relied on a convenient pseudo one-pot approach using Fisher esterification along with sequential monomer addition. Materials were found to have properties and characteristics similar to those of perfect dendritic LD-hybrids. And the scaffolds were evaluated in a range of applications such as hydrogels and isopourous films with promising results.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-24 00:00
  • 2.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fernandes, Aristi P.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Heterogeneous Rupturing Dendrimers2017In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing macromolecular scaffolds as templates for the production of small molecules that are distinctively different from the original monomer feedstock has many potential applications. Herein, as a proof-of-concept, a family of dendrimers displaying internally queued disulfide bridges were synthesized and exploited as flawless macromolecular templates that selectively rupture into a set of monomeric mercaptans. Disassembly was accomplished in a reducing environment, using DTT as an external stimulus, and the thiol constituents were successfully isolated. Their composition was dictated by three dendritic regions, i.e., (i) the symmetrical trithiol of the core (C3), (ii) the interior-asymmetric trithiols (CD2), and (iii) the periphery-asymmetric monothiols (DB2), in which B functionality is of an orthogonal nature. Taking into account the steady state between disulfides and thiols in all living cells, the collapse of the dendrimers to a multitude of smaller thiols was intracellularly assessed as a means to disrupt the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) often elevated in cancer cells. Indeed, the fragmentation induced a significant increase of ROS in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. These findings can potentially alter the perception of dendrimers being limited to carriers to being prodrugs for intracellular delivery of ROS with the potential to fight cancer.

  • 3.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Walter, Marie V.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Yang, Ting
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Multifunctional Poly(ethylene glycol): Synthesis, Characterization, and Potential Applications of Dendritic-Linear-Dendritic Block Copolymer Hybrids2013In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 3726-3736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging dendritic-linear-dendritic (DLD) hybrids that possess synergetic properties of linear and highly functional branched dendritic polymers are becoming important macromolecular scaffolds in fields ranging from biomedicine to nanotechnology. By exploiting pseudo-one-step polycondensation reactions, a facile and scalable synthetic methodology for the construction of highly functional DLDs has been developed. A library of three sets of DLDs exhibiting a hydrophilic linear PEG core with covalently attached hyperbranched bis-MPA blocks was synthesized up to the seventh generation with 256 reactive peripheral hydroxyl groups. The degree of branching for the hybrids was found between 0.40 and 0.59 with dispersities ranging from 1.03 to 1.88. The introduction of hyperbranched components resulted in control over or even full disruption of the crystallinity of the PEG. Postfunctionalizations of the peripheral hydroxyl groups with azides, allyls, and ATRP initiators yielded reactive intermediates. These intermediates were successfully assessed through UV-initiated thiol-ene coupling reactions for the synthesis of charged hybrids. ATRP of styrene from the pheriphery afforded amphiphilic macromolecules. Finally, their scaffolding capacity was evaluated for the fabrication of 3D networks, i.e, novel dendritic hydrogels and highly ordered breath figures.

  • 4.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Lundberg, Pontus
    Hawker, Craig J.
    Nyström, Andreas M.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Therapeutic Nanocarriers via Cholesterol Directed Self-Assembly of Well-Defined Linear-Dendritic Polymeric Amphiphiles2017In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 3891-3898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel platform of fluorescently labeled nanocarriers (NCs) is herein proposed based on amphiphilic linear-dendritic polymeric hybrids. These sophisticated polymers were synthesized with a high degree of structural control at a macro-molecular level, displayed hydrophobic cholesterol compartments as chain-terminus groups of the dendritic block and hydrophilic bifunctional linear poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block. Spherical supramolecular assemblies with therapeutically relevant properties were successfully achieved including (i) sizes in the region of 100 to 200 nm; (ii) narrow dispersity profile with values close to 0.12; and (iii) self-assembly down to nanomolar concentrations. The modular nature of the NCs permitted the encapsulation of single or dual anticancer drugs and in parallel provide intracellular fluorescent traceability. As polymer therapeutics, the NCs were proven to penetrate the cancerous cell membranes and deliver the cargo of drugs into the nuclei as well as the cytoplasm and mitochondria. The dual drug delivery of both doxorubicin (DOX) and triptolide substantially enhanced the therapeutic efficacy with a 63% significant increase against resistant breast cancer cells when compared to free DOX.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Daniel
    Håkansson, Joakim
    Caous, Josefin
    Zhang, Yuning
    Anderson, Therese
    Pedersen, Emma
    Björn, Camilla
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    Malkoch, Michael
    Linear-Dendritic Polyesters as Antimicrobial HydrogelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andrén, Oliver
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Facile thiolation of hydroxyl functional polymers2017In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 8, no 34, p. 4996-5001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfur is an important component in many biological systems. In the hands of an organic chemist it can provide an ample handle for a myriad of robust reactions including thiol-ene click chemistry. However, in polymer chemistry the thiol functionality is rarely attributed to the macromolecule due to unatainable synthetic protocols. Herein, we provide a simple and robust strategy to produce thiol-functional polymers. The chemistry capitalizes on an unsymmetrical disulfide that straightforwardly converts hydroxyl functional polymers to their thiolated counterpart. Finally, PEG hydrogels, using both thiol-ene and Michael addition, is used to showcase the possibilities presented by thiol functional polymers.

  • 7.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Cellulose nanofiber network of high specific surface area provides altered curing reacion and moisture stability in ductile epoxy biocompositesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Plummer, Christopher J. G.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cellulose nanofiber network for moisture stable, strong and ductile biocomposites and increased epoxy curing rate2014In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 63, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites with high volume fractions (15-50 vol%) of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were prepared by impregnation of a wet porous NFC network with acetone/epoxy/amine solution. Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed a significant increase in curing rate of epoxy (EP) in the presence of NFC. The NFC provided extremely efficient reinforcement (at 15 vol%: 3-fold increase in stiffness and strength to 5.9 GPa and 109 MPa, respectively), and ductility was preserved. Besides, the glass transition temperature increased with increasing NFC content (from 68 degrees C in neat epoxy to 86 degrees C in 50 vol% composite). Most interestingly, the moisture sorption values were low and even comparable to neat epoxy for the 15 vol% NFC/EP. This material did not change mechanical properties at increased relative humidity (90% RH). Thus, NFC/EP provides a unique combination of high strength, modulus, ductility, and moisture stability for a cellulose-based biocomposite. Effects from nanostructural and interfacial tailoring are discussed.

  • 9.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materials2016In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 134, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 10. Atlas, Salima
    et al.
    Raihane, Mustapha
    Hult, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Lahcini, Mohammed
    Ameduri, Bruno
    Radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile with 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate for dielectric materials: Structure and characterization2013In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 51, no 18, p. 3856-3866Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radical copolymerization based on acrylonitrile (AN) and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl acrylate (ATRIF) initited by AIBN was investigated in acetonitrile solution. The resulting poly(AN-co-ATRIF) copolymers were characterized by 1 H, 13 C, and 19 F NMR and IR spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Their compositions were assessed by 1 H NMR. The kinetics of radical copolymerization of AN with ATRIF was investigated from sereval experiments achieved at 70 degrees C from initial [AN](0)/[ATRIF](0) molar ratios ranging between 20/80 and 80/20 and was enabled to determine the reactivity ratios of both comonomers. From the monomer-polymer copolymerization curve, the Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tudos laws enabled to assess the reactivity ratios (r(AN) = r(1) = 1.25 +/- 0.04 and r(ATRIF) = r(2) = 0.93 +/- 0.05 at 70 degrees C) while the revised patterns scheme led to r(12) = r(AN) = 1.03, and r(21) = r(ATRIF) = 0.78 at 70 degrees C. In all cases, rAN x rATRIF product was close to unity, which indicates that poly(AN-co-ATRIF) copolymers exhibit a random structure. This was also confirmed by the Igarashi's and Pyun's laws which revealed the presence of AN-ATRIF, AN-AN, and ATRIF-ATRIF dyads. The Q and e values for ATRIF were also assessed (Q(2) = 0.62 and e(2) = 0.93). The glass transition temperature values, Tg, of these copolymers increased from 17 to 61 degrees C as the molar percentage of ATRIF decreased from 77 to 16% in the copolymer. Thermogravimetry analysis of poly(AN-co-ATRIF) copolymers showed a good thermal stability compared to that of poly(ATRIF) homopolymer due to incorporation of AN comonomer.

  • 11. Auty, Sam E. R.
    et al.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Hern, Faye Y.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Rannard, Steven P.
    One-pot' sequential deprotection/functionalisation of linear-dendritic hybrid polymers using a xanthate mediated thiol/Michael addition2015In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 573-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiol-Michael addition chemistry is a powerful tool for the preparation of functional materials. In this first report of xanthate-functional linear-dendritic polymer hybrids, the preparation of four generations of xanthate-functionalised dendron atom transfer radical polymerisation macroinitiators is described using an orthogonal chemical strategy. The controlled polymerisation of tertiary butyl methacrylate is demonstrated to high conversion and without interference from the xanthate surface groups. Modification of the peripheral xanthate groups of dendrons at the hybrid polymer chain-end has been studied using a one-pot deprotection/functionalisation strategy and a range of commercially available and bespoke acrylate monomers to form complex polymer architectures from feedstock polymers, differing in the number of modified end groups and the surface chemistry of the dendron chain end.

  • 12. Auty, Sam E. R.
    et al.
    Andrén, Oliver
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Rannard, Steven P.
    The first peripherally masked thiol dendrimers: a facile and highly efficient functionalization strategy of polyester dendrimers via one-pot xanthate deprotection/thiol-acrylate Michael addition reactions2014In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 50, no 50, p. 6574-6577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing multiple reactive functional groups at the periphery of dendrimer materials presents considerable challenges if the functionality is able to self-react. An efficient and facile approach to introducing masked thiols at the surface of polyester dendrimers is presented. One-pot, deprotection/thiol-acrylate Michael addition from the xanthate-functional dendritic substrates (generation zero to two) has been achieved for the first time, with high efficiency demonstrated using three acrylates of varying chemistry and avoiding disulfide formation.

  • 13.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. 831220-7585.
    Surface Modification of Nanocellulose towards Composite Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses have attracted great interest during recent decades owing to their renewability, abundancy and remarkable physical and mechanical properties. The aim of this work was to investigate new strategies for surface modification and functionalization of nanocelluloses and their subsequent incorporation in polymer-host matrices.

    Nanocomposites of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were produced by employing CNF nanopaper (NP) as a template and surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (SI-ROP) of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL). SI-ROP of ε-CL from filter paper (FP) was also carried out for comparison. A larger amount of PCL was grafted from NP than from FP. The grafted NP had stronger mechanical properties than neat PCL.

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-reinforced polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) nanocomposites were also investigated. CNC were modified via “SI-reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer and macromolecular design via the interchange of xanthate” (SI-RAFT/MADIX) polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc). The resulting nanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical performance than the unmodified CNC.

    It is generally agreed that covalent grafting is superior to physical adsorption for the modification of a reinforcing agent. However, this hypothesis has never been thoroughly investigated. CNC was modified either through covalent grafting or through physical adsorption of poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA). Both methods resulted in improved mechanical performance than that of pure PCL or PCL containing unmodified CNC. However, covalent grafting gave the best mechanical performance even at high relative humidity.

    Functionalized CNC (F-CNC) were obtained through a versatile methodology employing organic acids bearing a functional group were employed for the simultaneous acid hydrolysis and esterification of cellulose fibers. This provided a facile route for the preparation of F-CNC.

  • 14.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Mazieres, Stephane
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Destarac, Mathias
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    SI-RAFT/MADIX polymerization of vinyl acetate on cellulose nanocrystals for nanocomposite applications2016In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 99, p. 240-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, poly(vinyl acetate) grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-g-PVAc) were prepared via surface initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer and macromolecular design via the interchange of xanthates (SI-RAFT/MADIX) polymerization. Successful grafting of PVAc from CNC was confirmed by FT-IR and TGA analysis. PVAc nanocomposites reinforced with CNC-g-PVAc, as well as pristine CNC for comparison, of different weight percentages (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%) of CNC were prepared via solvent casting. The PVAc reinforced with CNC-g-PVAc resulted in higher transparency and improved mechanical properties compared with unmodified CNC nanocomposites. The addition of 5 wt% CNC-g-PVAc increased the modulus of neat PVAc with as much as 154%. The proposed SI-RAFT/MADIX on CNC could be applied to wide range of monomers, and it is believed to be an efficient and robust method for CNC functionalization, thus expanding the potential applicability of CNC.

  • 15.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Sanchez, Carmen Cobo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Engström, Joakim
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bruce, Carl
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. RISE Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Polycaprolactone Nanocomposites Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals Surface-Modified via Covalent Grafting or Physisorption: A Comparative Study2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 40, p. 35305-35318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have been surface-modified either via covalent grafting or through physisorption of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and employed as reinforcement in PCL. Covalent grafting was achieved by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Two approaches were utilized for the physisorption: using either micelles of poly(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-b-PBMA) or latex nanoparticles of poly(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid)-block-poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (P(DMAEMA-co-MAA)-b-PBMA). Block copolymers (PDMAEMA-b-PBMA)s were obtained by ATRP and subsequently micellized. Latex nanoparticles were produced via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerization, employing polymer-induced self-assembly (PISA) for the particle formation. For a reliable comparison, the amounts of micelles/latex particles adsorbed and the amount of polymer grafted onto the CNCs were kept similar. Two different chain lengths of PBMA were targeted, below and above the critical molecular weight for chain entanglement of PBMA (M-n,M-c similar to 56 000 g mo1(-1)). Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites reinforced with unmodified and modified CNCs in different weight percentages (0.5, 1, and 3 wt %) were prepared via melt extrusion. The resulting composites were evaluated by UV-vis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile testing. All materials resulted in higher transparency, greater thermal stability, and stronger mechanical properties than unfilled PCL and nanocomposites containing unmodified CNCs. The degradation temperature of PCL reinforced with grafted CNCs was higher than that of micelle-modified CNCs, and the latter was higher than that of latex-adsorbed CNCs with a long PBMA chain length. The results clearly indicate that covalent grafting is superior to physisorption with regard to thermal and mechanical properties of the final nanocomposite. This unique study is of great value for the future design of CNC-based nanocomposites with tailored properties.

  • 16.
    Bruce, Carl
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Surface Modification of Cellulose by Covalent Grafting and Physical Adsorption for Biocomposite Applications2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest to replace fossil-based materials with renewable alternatives. Cellulose fibers/nanofibrils (CNF) are sustainable options since they are biobased and biodegradable. In addition, they combine low weight with high strength; making them suitable to, for example, reinforce composites. However, to be able to use them as such, modifications are often necessary. This study therefore aimed at modifying cellulose fibers, model surfaces of cellulose and CNF. Cellulose fibers and CNF were thereafter incorporated into composite materials and evaluated.

    Surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (SI-ROP) was performed to graft ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) from cellulose fibers. From these fibers, paper-sheet biocomposites were produced that could form laminate structures without the need for any addition of matrix polymer.

    By combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), diblock copolymers of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and PCL were prepared. Quaternized (cationic) PDMAEMA, allowed physical adsorption of block copolymers onto anionic surfaces, and, thereby, alteration of surface energy and adhesion to a potential matrix. Furthermore, the architecture of block copolymers of PCL and PDMAEMA was varied to investigate effects on morphology/crystallinity and adsorption behavior. In addition, poly(butadiene) was also evaluated as the hydrophobic block in the form of cationic and anionic triblock copolymers.

    Polystyrene (PS) was covalently grafted from CNF and used as reinforcement in PS-based composites. In an attempt to determine stress transfer from matrix to CNF, a method based on Raman spectroscopy was utilized.

    Covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL from/onto CNF were compared by incorporating modified CNF in PCL matrices. Both approaches resulted in improved mechanical properties compared to unmodified CNF, but even at low amounts of modified CNF, covalent grafting gave tougher materials and indicated higher interfacial adhesion.

  • 17.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Bionanocomposites reinforcedwith cellulose nanofibrils compatibilized through covalent grafting or physisorption of PCL –a comparative studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Javakhishvili, Irakli
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Hvilsted, Søren
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Preparation and evaluation of triblock copolymers based on poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)2013In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 245, p. 613-POLY-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the preparation of two block copolymers based on poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) has been conducted, creating the triblock copolymers PDMAEMA-b-PCL-b-PDMAEMA and PCL-b-PDMAEMA-b-PCL. The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, to give polyelectrolytes with either one or two charged block(s). Subsequently, differences in properties were studied in the solid state, in solution and in water dispersion with techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering.

  • 19.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Javakhishvili, Irakli
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Hvilsted, Søren
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Well-defined ABA- and BAB-type block copolymers of PDMAEMA and PCL2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 49, p. 25809-25818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triblock copolymers of ABA- and BAB-type consisting of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA, A) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL, B) have successfully been prepared. PDMAEMA-b-PCL-b-PDMAEMA (ABA) and PCL-b-PDMAEMA-b-PCL (BAB) were synthesised by a combination of ring-opening polymerisation of epsilon-CL, atom transfer radical polymerisation of DMAEMA and end-group conversion, performed through either acylation or azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. All samples were analysed by size exclusion chromatography where it was found that the evaluation of PDMAEMA-containing polymers was difficult due to the thermoresponsivity of PDMAEMA, affecting the solubility of the polymer in the temperature range at which the SEC was operated. From differential scanning calorimetry measurements it was shown that the crystallinity could be altered by changing the order of the blocks; with PDMAEMA as the outer block (ABA), the inherent crystallinity of PCL was destroyed while with PCL as the outer block (BAB), the degree of crystallinity was in the same proximity as for a PCL homopolymer.

  • 20.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Paper sheets and laminates based on PCL- and PLLA-grafted fibers2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Paper-sheet biocomposites based on wood pulp grafted with poly(ε-caprolactone)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Nilsson, Camilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Paper-sheet biocomposites based on wood pulp grafted with poly(epsilon-caprolactone)2015In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, no 23, article id 42039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft pulp fibers were used as substrates for the grafting of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) from available hydroxyl groups through ring-opening polymerization, targeting three different chain lengths (degree of polymerization): 120, 240, and 480. In a paper-making process, paper-sheet biocomposites composed of grafted fibers and neat pulp fibers were prepared. The paper sheets possessed both the appearance and the tactility of ordinary paper sheets. Additionally, the sheets were homogenous, suggesting that PCL-grafted fibers and neat fibers were compatible, as demonstrated by both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and through dye-labeling of the PCL-grafted fibers. Finally, it was shown that the paper-sheet biocomposites could be hot-pressed into laminate structures without the addition of any matrix polymer; the adhesive joint produced could even be stronger than the papers themselves. This apparent and sufficient adhesion between the layers was thought to be due to chain entanglements and/or co-crystallization of adjacent grafted PCL chains within the different paper sheets. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 42039.

  • 23.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Javakhishvili, Irakli
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Hvilsted, Søren
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Preparation and evaluation of well-defined di- and triblock copolymers based on poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and poly(ε-caprolactone)2014In: ACS National Meeting, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, di- and triblock copolymers based on poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been prepared. The PDMAEMA length was kept constant for both di- and triblock copolymers, while in the diblock copolymers the PCL length was varied in three different lengths, yielding three separate block copolymers. For the triblock blockcopolymers, on the other hand, also the PCL blocks were of the same length yielding one ABA- and one BAB-type block copolymer. In the next step, the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized to yield polyelectrolytes with either one or two charged block(s). In the final step, difference in adsorption behavior onto a negatively charged cellulose surface and subsequent alteration of surface properties was investigated. Overall, the polymers were evaluated in solid state, in solution, in water dispersion, and on cellulose surfaces with techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and quartz crystal microbalance.

  • 24.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    A comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing concern for the environment has, in the past years, directed the research towards a bigger focus on new “greener” materials, such as cellulose-reinforced options. Cellulose is the most abundant organic raw material in the world and it is a versatile material. However, to be able to use it in applications where it is not inherently compatible, a modification is often necessary.1-3 One common method to achieve this modification is to graft polymers onto/from the cellulose chain. This can change the inherent properties of cellulose to attain new properties, such as dimensional stability and water repellency.3 In addition to this, it has been shown that polyectrolytes can be physiosorbed onto charged surfaces.4 Due to this, it is possible to physically modify cellulose by adsorbing a polymer through electrostatic interactions instead of attaching it with a covalent bond.5

    However, a more detailed investigation concerning differences of covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) onto cellulose, has to the author’s best knowledge not been performed. Therefore, this project aims to compare these two techniques. Covalently bonded PCL was grafted by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) from the cellulose. For the adsorption approach, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a cationically charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. This can then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the negatively charged cellulose model surface. Finally, differences between the two approaches are evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  • 25.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Preparation and evaluation of a block copolymer compatibilizer for biocomposite applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a comparison between covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto a nanocellulose model surface was conducted. For the covalent attachment, surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (SI-ROP) was performed. For the physical attachment, a charged block copolymer consisting of PCL and quaternized PDMAEMA was synthesized by ROP and ATRP, and adsorbed to the cellulose. Finally, differences in between the two substrates were investigated with techniques such as AFM.

  • 26.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past years, a growing concern for the environment has forced the research to focus more on new “greener” materials. The most abundant organic raw material in the world is cellulose. This, in combination with the versatility of the material, makes it interesting as a green option in various applications. However, to be able to take advantage of all characteristics possessed by cellulose, i.e., use it in applications where it is not inherently compatible, modification is often necessary.1-3 One common method used for modifying cellulose is grafting of polymers onto/from the cellulose chain. This offers a way of changing the inherent properties of cellulose to attain new properties, such as dimensional stability and water repellency.3

    Additionally, it has been shown that polyectrolytes can be physiosorbed onto charged surfaces.4 This has made it possible to physically modify cellulose by adsorbing a polymer through electrostatic interactions instead of attaching it with a covalent bond.5 However, a more detailed investigation concerning the differences, such as surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency, between a covalent and physical attachment of a polymer has to the author’s best knowledge earlier not been performed. Therefore, this project aims to compare these two techniques. A block copolymer consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is made, see figure 1 for 1H-NMR-spectrum.

    Figure 1. The 1H-NMR-spectrum of PCL-block-PDMAEMA (in CDCl3).

    The PDMAEMA-part is then quaternized (figure 2), which results in a charged chain – a polyelectrolyte.

    Figure 2.The quaternization of the PDMAEMA block to obtain cationic charges.

    The charges allow for the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto a cellulose surface. Finally, to evaluate and compare the differences between the covalent and the physical surface modification, regarding for example surface coverage, grafting/physiosorption efficiency, adhesion and matrix compatibility, various characterization methods are employed: fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements (CA), micro adhesion measurement apparatus (MAMA), force measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic peel tests using dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) or Instron.

    Figure 3. A schematic drawing of covalent attachment and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose.

    Further work after preparation of fibres may include such steps as making of fiber-reinforced composites, out of both chemically and physically modified fibres, where for example differences concerning mechanical properties would be investigated.

    References

    (1) Lönnberg, H.; Fogelström, L.; Berglund, L.; Malmström, E.; Hult, A. European Polymer Journal 2008, 44, 2991.

    (2) Lönnberg, H.; Zhou, Q.; Brumer, H., 3rd; Teeri Tuula, T.; Malmström, E.; Hult, A. Biomacromolecules 2006, 7, 2178.

    (3) Roy, D.; Semsarilar, M.; Guthrie, J. T.; Perrier, S. Chemical Society Reviews 2009, 38, 2046.

    (4) Decher, G.; Hong, J. D. Berichte der Bunsen-Gesellschaft 1991, 95, 1430.

    (5) Utsel, S.; Carlmark, A.; Pettersson, T.; Bergström, M.; Malmström, E.; Wågberg, L. Abstracts of Papers, 241st ACS National Meeting & Exposition, Anaheim, CA, United States, March 27-31, 2011 2011, CELL.

  • 27.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, an investigation concerning differences between covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to a nanocellulose modell surface was conducted. For the covalent attachment, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was performed using the “grafting-from” approach, building the polymer from the surface. For the physical attachment, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. The charges allow for the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the nanocellulose modell surface. The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant (DP=20), and the length of PCL was varied (DP=150, 300, 600) for both the covalently attached polymer and for the copolymer. Finally, differences between the two approaches were evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy.

  • 28.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Malmström Jonsson, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Physical Tuning of Cellulose-Polymer Interactions Utilizing Cationic Block Copolymers Based on PCL and Quaternized PDMAEMA2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the aim was to prepare and evaluate a block copolymer that can be used as a compatibilizer in cellulose fiber-reinforced biocomposites. It is an amphiphilic block copolymer consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), prepared with  ring-opening polymerization (ROP)1, and a shorter segment of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) synthesized with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)2. The PDMAEMA-part was prepared in one single length, while the PCL-part was varied in three different lengths. In the last synthesis step the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized, turning it into a cationically charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. The block copolymers were then able to form cationic micelles in water, from where they can adsorb, under mild conditions, to anionic surfaces such as silicon oxide and cellulose-model surfaces. A similar concept has been investigated earlier in a system fully prepared with ATRP3. Additionally, physical adsorption of micelles is a milder approach of attaching a polymer to a cellulose surface compared to more traditional covalent attachment4, making it an interesting option to use in industry. After adsorption, the surface had a more hydrophobic character shown with contact angle measurements, and with AFM force measurements, it was demonstrated that there is a clear entanglement behavior obtained between the block copolymers and a PCL surface at about 60 °C, which is of importance for the information regarding the adhesive interface in a future biocomposite.

  • 30.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Physical Tuning of Cellulose-Polymer Interactions Utilizing Cationic Block Copolymers Based on PCL and Quaternized PDMAEMA2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the aim was to prepare and evaluate a block copolymer that can be used as a compatabilizer in cellulose fiber-reinforced biocomposites. It as an amphiphilic block copolymer consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), made with  ring-opening polymerization (ROP), and a shorter segment of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) that was synthesized with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was made in one single length, while the PCL-part was varied in three different lengths; in total were three block copolymers prepared. In the last step of the synthesis, the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized that turns it into a cationically charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. The block copolymers were then able to form cationic micelles in water, from where they can adsorb, under mild conditions, to anionic surfaces such as silicon oxide and cellulose-model surfaces. This provides the surface with a more hydrophobic character shown with contact angle measurements. Finally, with atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements, it was demonstrated that there is a clear entanglement behavior obtained between the block copolymers and a PCL surface at about 60 °C, which is of importance for the information regarding the adhesive interface in a future biocomposite.

  • 31.
    Bruce, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Utsel, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Larsson, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Fogelström, Linda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Preparation and evaluation of a block copolymer compatibilizer for biocomposite applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the concept of using a free polymer as a compatibilzer in biocomposite applications has been evaluated with focus on the polymer poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), commonly used in conventional grafting onto/from cellulose. A block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant, and the PCL-part was varied in three different lengths, yielding three separate block copolymers. As a final step, the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized, which resulted in cationically charged chains –polyelectrolytes. The charged part could then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto negatively charged cellulose model surfaces. Finally, these cellulose model surfaces were evaluated regarding for example amount of polymer adsorbed and hydrophobic character, investigated with techniques such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements.

  • 32.
    Brännström, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Biobased UV-curable coatings based on itaconic acid2017In: Journal of Coatings Technology Research, ISSN 1945-9645, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 851-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of renewable unsaturated polyesters were synthesized from itaconic acid (IA), succinic acid, and 1,4-butanediol by solvent-free polycondensation. Previous studies utilizing IA to make polyesters for coating applications have shown great potential; however, the curing and material properties have not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate how the curing is affected by the amount of unsaturations and how well itaconate-based polyesters crosslink without the addition of any other unsaturated monomers or reactive diluents. The chemical structures of the polyesters were confirmed with FTIR, 1 HNMR, and THF-SEC. The degree of curing was studied with FTIR, and the mechanical properties of the crosslinked polyesters were evaluated with DMA, pendulum hardness, and microindentation. The degree of curing was found to be up to 75%, and furthermore, it was found that the final mechanical properties of the crosslinked coatings could be tuned by modifying the IA content in the monomer composition. The results from DMA showed that there is a clear trend between mechanical properties and crosslinking density.

  • 33.
    Carlborg, Carl Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Haraldsson, Tommy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Öberg, Kim
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Microsystem Technology (Changed name 20121201).
    Beyond PDMS: off-stoichiometry thiol–ene (OSTE) based soft lithography for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices2011In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 11, no 18, p. 3136-3147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we introduce a novel polymer platform based on off-stoichiometry thiol–enes (OSTEs), aiming to bridge the gap between research prototyping and commercial production of microfluidic devices. The polymers are based on the versatile UV-curable thiol–ene chemistry but takes advantage of off-stoichiometry ratios to enable important features for a prototyping system, such as one-step surface modifications, tuneable mechanical properties and leakage free sealing through direct UV-bonding. The platform exhibits many similarities with PDMS, such as rapid prototyping and uncomplicated processing but can at the same time mirror the mechanical and chemical properties of both PDMS as well as commercial grade thermoplastics. The OSTE-prepolymer can be cast using standard SU-8 on silicon masters and a table-top UV-lamp, the surface modifications are precisely grafted using a stencil mask and the bonding requires only a single UV-exposure. To illustrate the potential of the material we demonstrate key concepts important in microfluidic chip fabrication such as patterned surface modifications for hydrophobic stops, pneumatic valves using UV-lamination of stiff and rubbery materials as well as micromachining of chip-to-world connectors in the OSTE-materials.

  • 34.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Tailoring cellulose surfaces by controlled polymerization methods2013In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 214, no 14, p. 1539-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose, with its excellent mechanical properties and low weight, would be highly advantageous to employ in bioplastics and biocomposites applications. However, to expand the utilization of cellulose beyond its traditional uses, a modification of the fiber surface is often a prerequisite. One approach is to graft polymer chains on the surface in order to compatibilize the fibers with a non-polar polymer matrix or to introduce functionalities. By exploiting controlled polymerization methods such as ATRP, RAFT, ROP, and ROMP, the surface of the fibers can be carefully tailored. Herein, an overview on controlled, heterogeneous grafting of cellulose fibers and fibrils employing both "grafting from" and "grafting to" methodologies is provided, focusing on the latest findings.

  • 35.
    Carlmark, Anna E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Carlsson, Linn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization from cellulose fibers2011In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 242, p. 432-POLY-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Carlsson, Linn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Surface Modification of Cellulose by Covalent Grafting and Physical Adsorption2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in new environmentally friendly cellulose‐based productshas increased tremendously over the last years. At the same time theSwedish forest industry faces new challenges in its strive to increase the utilization of cellulose fibers in high‐value end‐products. The aim of this study was to expand the toolbox for surface modification of cellulose byemploying covalent surface‐initiated (SI) polymerizations or by physicaladsorption of polymers. SI‐ring‐opening polymerization (ROP) of ε‐caprolactone (ε‐CL) was performed from filter paper (FP) and high surface area nanopaper (NP).Larger amounts of polycaprolactone (PCL) were grafted from NP, compared to FP, owing to the higher amount of available initiating hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of PCL were improved by the grafting of FP and NP, as compared to pure PCL.It is challenging to characterize a polymer grafted from a surface. Hence, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM‐D) was employed to investigate SI‐ROP in real time from a cellulose model surface. Furthermore, it was shown by colloidal probe AFM that increased lengthof grafted PCL, from cellulose microspheres, improved the interfacialadhesion to a pure PCL surface, suggesting that chain entanglements havea significant impact on the interfacial properties. Increased temperatureand time in contact also improved the adhesion.In order to investigate the degree of substitution (DS) and the degree of polymerization (DP), PCL‐grafted hydrolyzed cellulose cotton linters (HCCL) were studied by solid state NMR. It was found that despite a DS of only a few percent, the surface character changed considerably; furthermore, the DS was virtually independent of the DP. To increase theamount of grafted polymer, ring‐opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene was performed from FP. Short polymerizationtimes and low temperatures resulted in highly grafted surfaces. Alternatively, physical adsorption by electrostatic interactions was employed to modify a cellulose model surface in the QCM‐D. Cationic latex nanoparticles of poly(dimetylaminoethyl methacrylate‐co‐methacrylicacid)‐block‐poly(methyl methacrylate) were produced by reversible addition‐fragmentation chain‐transfer (RAFT)‐mediated surfactant‐freeemulsion polymerization by polymerization‐induced self‐assembly (PISA).This strategy does not require any organic solvents and could potentiallybe introduced in industrial processes.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, Linn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Fall, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Chaduc, Isabelle
    Charleux, Bernadette
    D'Agosto, Franck
    Lansalot, Muriel
    Modification of cellulose surfaces by cationic latex prepared by RAFT-mediated surfactant-free emulsion polymerizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Carlsson, Linn K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Boujemaoui, Assya
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sehaqui, Houssine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lachini, Mohammad
    Malmström Jonsson, Eva E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Carlmark, Anna E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Synthesis and characterization of biocomposites from cellulose nano- and filter papers prepared by ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone with titanium based catalyst2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Carlsson, Linn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Blomberg, Hanna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Solid State CP/MAS 13C-NMR investigation of hydrolyzed cotton linters grafted by surface‐initiated ring‐opening polymerization of ε‐caprolactoneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Claudino, Mauro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Macromolecular design: UV-curable thiol-ene networks based on renewable resources2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant oils and terpenes are ubiquitous natural renewable compounds. The double bonds contained in most of these monomers can be utilized via the photo-induced free-radical thiol–ene reaction to create novel bio-derived polymer thermosets representing a valuable ‘green’ alternative to petrochemical olefins and resulting synthetic plastic materials. Nevertheless, there are several factors limiting their applicability, the first one being the relatively slow reaction rates towards thiol–ene coupling and many times the need to modify these natural olefins to make them more reactive. The latter process necessarily introduces additional pre-synthesis steps which has implications related both to cost and synthetic routes employed thereafter, those of which may or may not follow the principles of Green Chemistry. Therefore, this thesis intends to gain primary insight about the thiol–ene mechanism, kinetics and reactivity involving these multi-substituted olefins and then use the resulting knowledge to design semi-synthetic thermosets by incorporating these natural monomers into thiol–ene networks in the most environmentally friendly way possible. Mechanistic kinetic results show that internal 1,2-disubstituted enes found in mono-unsaturated vegetable oils and some macrolactones undergo a fast reversible cis/trans-isomerization process in favour of trans-isomer formation coupled with the thiol–ene mechanism. The slow reactivity of these enes has been accredited not just to the isomerization itself, but predominantly to the chain-transfer hydrogen-abstraction step. This rate-limiting step, however, does not seem to compromise their use in the creation of thiol–ene networks as demonstrated by photopolymerization in the melt of a series of linear globalide/ε-caprolactone-based copolyesters differing in amount of unsaturations along the backbone crosslinked with a tri-functional thiol propionate ester monomer. The resulting thermoset films were amorphous elastomers exhibiting different thermal and mechanical properties depending on the comonomer feed ratio. D-limonene, a renewable diolefinic substrate, proved to be an important terpene in free-radical thiol–ene additions. Empirical results show that the 1,1-disubstituted exo-vinylidene bond is about 6.5 times more reactive than the endocyclic 1,1,2-trisubstituted 1-methyl-cyclohexene moiety when reacting with mercapto propionate esters in organic solution conditions. Kinetic modeling results suggest that the differences in double bond reactivity are partially ascribed to steric impediments coupled with differences in electron-density controlling thiyl-radical insertion onto the two unsaturations but predominantly to differences in relative energy between the two tertiary insertion carbon-centered radical intermediates. Off-stoichiometric manipulations in the thiol–limonene mole ratio, assisted by numerical model simulations, offer a convenient method to visualize and assess the overall reaction system kinetics irrespective of time, thus being regarded as an important guiding tool for organic and polymer chemists aiming at designing thiol–ene reaction systems based on limonene. Multifunctional limonene-terminated thiol–ene macromonomer resins were synthesized in ethyl acetate solution and then reacted in different combinations with polyfunctional mercapto propionate esters to afford semi-synthetic thiol–ene networks with different thermo-viscoelastic properties depending on functionality, crosslink density, homogeneity and excess ofthiol occluded into the networks. The bulky cycloaliphatic ring structure of limonene locked between thioether linkages introduce a certain degree of rigidity to the final networks and increase the glass-transition temperature when compared tomore standard thiol–allyl systems. In all cases evaluated, high thiol–ene conversions were achieved with minimum or no side-reactions such as chain-growth homopolymerization and at reasonable reaction rates.

  • 41.
    Claudino, Mauro
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Thiol−ene Coupling of Renewable Monomers: at the forefront of bio-based polymeric materials2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant derived oils bear intrinsic double-bond functionality that can be utilized directly for the thiol–ene reaction. Although terminal unsaturations are far more reactive than internal ones, studies on the reversible addition of thiyl radicals to 1,2-disubstituted alkenes show that this is an important reaction. To investigate the thiol–ene coupling reaction involving these enes, stoichiometric mixtures of a trifunctional propionate thiol with monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (methyl oleate or methyl elaidate) supplemented with 2.0 wt.% Irgacure 184 were subjected to 365-nm UV-irradiation and the chemical changes monitored. Continuous (RT– FTIR) and discontinuous (NMR and FT–Raman) techniques were used to follow the progress of the reaction and reveal details of the products formed. Experimental results supported by numerical kinetic simulations of the system confirm the reaction mechanism showing a very fast cis/trans-isomerization of the alkene monomers (<1.0 min) when compared to the total disappearance of double-bonds, indicating that the rate-limiting step controlling the overall reaction is the hydrogen transfer from the thiol involved in the formation of final product. The loss of total unsaturations equals thiol consumption throughout the entire reaction; although product formation is strongly favoured directly from the trans-ene. This indicates that initial cis/trans-isomer structures affect the kinetics. High thiol–ene conversions could be easily obtained at reasonable rates without major influence of side-reactions demonstrating the suitability of this reaction for network forming purposes from 1,2-disubstituted alkenes. To further illustrate the validity of this concept in the formation of cross-linked thiol–ene films a series of globalide/caprolactone based copolyesters differing in degree of unsaturations along the backbone were photopolymerized in the melt with the same trithiol giving amorphous elastomeric materials with different thermal and viscoelastic properties. High thiol–ene conversions (>80%) were easily attained for all cases at reasonable reaction rates, while maintaining the cure behaviour and independent of functionality. Parallel chain-growth ene homopolymerization was considered negligible when compared with the main coupling route. However, the comonomer feed ratio had impact on the thermoset properties with high ene-density copolymers giving networks with higher glass transition temperature values (Tg) and a narrower distribution of cross-links than films with lower ene composition. The thiol–ene systems evaluated in this study serve as model example for the sustainable use of naturally-occurring 1,2-disubstituted alkenes at making semi-synthetic polymeric materials in high conversions with a range of properties in an environment-friendly way.

  • 42.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
    Thiol-ene coupling of 1,2-disubstituted alkene monomers: The kinetic effect of cis/trans-isomer structures2010In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 2321-2332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The free-radical induced reaction between a tri-functional thiol (2-ethyl-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol trimercapto propionate) and two 1,2-disubstituted alkenes (methyl oleate and methyl elaidate) has been investigated under photochemical conditions. The photoreaction was monitored via time-resolved FUR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy to provide insights about the kinetics and efficiency in end-product formation. The information collected was subjected to numerical modelling using the GEPASI software using pre-established literature values for the rate coefficients in order to verify the proposed reaction scheme. The results confirm the thiol-ene reaction mechanism showing a very fast cis/trans-isomerization (<1.0 min) when compared with the total disappearance of unsaturations, indicating that the rate-limiting step controlling the reaction is the hydrogen transfer from the thiol involved in the formation of product. High thiol-ene conversions can be obtained at reasonable rates without major influence of side-reactions when performed in bulk indicating that this reaction is suitable for network forming purposes with mono-unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters derivatives. The kinetic and mechanistic information collected provides a basis for the design of new thiol-ene systems aiming at material and coating applications.

  • 43.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Thiol-ene coupling kinetics of D-limonene: a versatile 'non-click' free-radical reaction involving a natural terpene2013In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 3, no 27, p. 11021-11034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The free-radical photoinduced thiol-ene reaction between D-limonene, as renewable diolefinic substrate, and two mono-/tri-functional thiols (iso-tridecyl 3-mercaptopropionate and trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate)), has been investigated kinetically to define a relationship between alkene structure and reactivity. Separate thiol-ene solutions of the appropriate thiol in d-chloroform, supplemented with 1.0 wt% of DMPA (Irgacure 651), were subjected to polychromatic UV-irradiation and the chemical changes monitored discontinuously via H-1 NMR spectroscopy to quantify double bond conversion. The kinetic concentration profiles were modeled analytically and simulated in the application software COPASI for parameter estimation and to verify if the experimental data explained a suggested mechanistic scheme. Empirical results demonstrate that the external vinylidene bond of limonene reacts about 6.5 times faster with thiol than the internal trisubstituted 1-methyl-cyclohexene unsaturation. The selectivity observed for the two unsaturations was successfully explained by means of a simplified steady-state equation derived from the sequential reaction mechanism accounting for propagation and chain-transfer elementary steps with estimated rate coefficients. Kinetic modeling results attribute the difference in selectivity partially to steric impediments controlling thiyl-radical insertion onto the double bonds and predominantly to differences in relative energy between the two tertiary insertion carbon radical intermediates. The rate-limiting step was identified as the third chain-transfer hydrogen-abstraction reaction promoted by the second insertion carbon radical intermediate. High thiol-ene conversions were obtained in a timely fashion without major influence of secondary reactions demonstrating the suitability of this reaction for network forming purposes. The mechanistic and kinetic information collected can be used as a quantitative predictive tool to assess the potential use of D-limonene in thiol-ene network forming systems involving multifunctional alkyl ester 3-mercaptopropionates.

  • 44.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Utilizing Thiol-Ene Coupling Kinetics in the Design of Renewable Thermosed Resins based on D-Limonene and Polyfunctional ThiolsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Utilizing thiol-ene coupling kinetics in the design of renewable thermoset resins based on D-limonene and polyfunctional thiols2014In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 4, no 20, p. 10317-10329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extended model is developed to predict the free-radical thiol-ene reaction dynamics between D-limonene, as a renewable diolefin, and a monothiol compound (iso-tridecyl 3-mercaptopropionate) in bulk liquid conditions. Thermally and photo-initiated reactions of the two monomers showed favored thiol-ene coupling at the exo-isopropenyl alkene structure when reacted at 1 : 1 and 1 : 0.5 mole ratios. Experimental kinetic data obtained from the two stoichiometries were well reproduced numerically via the simulation software COPASI by introducing a multi-route mechanistic scheme with propagation-chain-transfer steps accounting for primary (mono-additions) and secondary (di-addition) modes of coupling. The differences in intrinsic double-bond reactivity enable synthesis of limonene-terminated resins (mono-versus poly-disperse) as multifunctional network precursors. Off-stoichiometry manipulations in the initial mole ratio, assisted by numerical simulations, offer a convenient approach to visualize the overall reaction system kinetics irrespective of temporal effects, thus being regarded as an important guiding tool for chemists aiming at designing thiol-ene systems based on limonene.

  • 46.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Mathevet, Jeanne-Marie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Bringing D-limonene to the scene of bio-based thermoset coatings via free-radical thiol-ene chemistry: macromonomer synthesis, UV-curing and thermo-mechanical characterization2014In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 3245-3260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing pursuit for bio-based plastic materials led us to investigate the potential use of the monoterpene limonene in thermoset synthesis using the free-radical mediated thiol-ene reaction. The high efficiency of this reaction to prepare multifunctional ene-terminated resins, as intermediary macromolecular precursors, for thermosets synthesis was demonstrated under thermal and photoinitiated conditions. Although an excess of terpene favors formation of well-defined macromonomers in organic solution, the characteristic low-vapor pressure of limonene hinders its simple removal (or recycling) via evaporation after synthesis. Alteration to an initial thiol-ene stoichiometry of 1 : 0.5 enables production of high molecular weight resins in the form of 'hyperbranched oligomeric-like' structures having moderate polydispersity. UV-curing of these polyfunctional resins combined with equal mole compositions of multifunctional alkyl ester 3-mercapto propionates yields highly sticky, amorphous and flexible elastomers with different thermo-mechanical properties. These can be further modulated by varying the amount of unreacted thiol occluded within the networks working as a plasticizer. Introduction of a renewable cycloaliphatic structure into the materials offers a convenient way to enhance the glass-transition temperature and stiffness of traditional thiol-ene networks. The materials synthesized may be considered potentially useful as sealants and adhesives in a wide variety of applications including organic coatings. The versatility of UV-irradiation over thermal initiation makes this method particularly suitable for green industrial synthesis processes via thiol-ene chemistry using limonene and multifunctional thiols. The thiol-ene system evaluated herein serves as a model example for the sustainable incorporation of natural diolefinic monomers into semisynthetic thiol-ene networks exhibiting a range of thermo-mechanical properties.

  • 47.
    Claudino, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    van der Meulen, Inge
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Trey, Stacy
    SP Trätek, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
    Heise, Andreas
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Photoinduced thiol-ene cross-linking of globalide/ε-caprolactone copolymers: curing performance and resulting thermoset properties2012In: Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 0887-624X, E-ISSN 1099-0518, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 16-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for bioderived polymers led us to investigate the potential use of the macrolactone globalide in thermoset synthesis via the photoinduced thiolene reaction. A series of six lipase-catalyzed poly(globalide-caprolactone) copolyesters bearing internal main-chain unsaturations ranging from 10 to 50 and 100 mol % were successfully crosslinked in the melt with equal amounts of thiol groups from trimethylolpropane-trimercapto propionate affording fully transparent amorphous elastomeric materials with different thermal and viscoelastic properties. Three major conclusions can be drawn from this study: (i) high thiol-ene conversions (> 80%) were easily attained for all cases, while maintaining the cure behavior, and irrespective of functionality at reasonable reaction rates; (ii) parallel chain-growth homopropagation of the ene monomer is insignificant when compared with the main thiolene coupling route; and (iii) high ene-density copolymers result in much lower extracted sol fractions and high T(g) values as a result of a more dense and homogeneous crosslinked network. The thiol-ene system evaluated in this contribution serve as model example for the sustainable use of naturally occurring 1,2-disubstituted alkenes in making semisynthetic polymeric materials in high conversions with a range of properties.

  • 48.
    Ek, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Chirat, Christine
    Fogelstrom, Linda
    Iversen, Tommy
    Li, Dongfang
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Norström, Emelie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Testova, Lidia
    Toivari, Terhi
    Wawro, Dariusz
    WOBAMA: wood based materials and fuels2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 773-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    WOBAMA - Wood Based Materials and Fuels is a biorefinery oriented scientific research project supported by Wood Wisdom-Net Research Programme and ERA-NET Bioenergy. In this project, the wood based raw materials were converted to a range of value added products through unconventional techniques. So far, many demonstrators have been prepared, such as the dissolving pulps with high cellulose content, the regenerated cellulose films with high tenacity, the hydrophobic materials based on cellulose and birch bark suberin, as well as the adhesives based on polysaccharides.

  • 49. El Ghaoui, Hanane
    et al.
    Raihane, Mustapha
    Rhouta, Benaissa
    Bitinis, Natacha
    Carlmark, Anna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Arroyo, Miguel
    Verdejo, Raquel
    Lopez-Manchado, Miguel A.
    Lahcini, Mohammed
    Bismuth complex catalysts for the in situ preparation of polycaprolactone/silicate bionanocomposites2014In: Polymer international, ISSN 0959-8103, E-ISSN 1097-0126, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 709-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solvent-free, bismuth-catalysed in situ polymerization of caprolactone in the presence of layered silicates enables the formulation of a series of polycaprolactone/silicate bionanocomposites. Three organophilic montmorillonites obtained by cationic exchange reaction with tetrabutylammonium iodide, benzyltriethylammonium chloride and vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride salts, respectively, were used as reinforcing reagents for these materials. The effects of clay and bismuth catalyst type (bismuth(III) acetate and triphenylbismuth) are discussed on the basis of composite morphologies and molecular weights of resulting polymers.

  • 50. Eldsäter, C.
    et al.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Binder Materials for Green Propellants2014In: Green Energetic Materials, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 205-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses binder materials for green solid composite and homogeneous rocket propellants. The propellant compositions considered are based on ammonium dinitramide, hydrazinium nitroformate, ammonium nitrate, guanyl urea dinitramide, or diamino-dinitroethylene. The chapter is divided into four sections; binder properties, inert polymers, energetic polymers, and energetic plasticizers. It ends with an outlook on how to design binders for green propellants.

12345 1 - 50 of 238
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