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  • 1.
    Afaneh, Mashour
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    En utvärdering av IT-investeringar på banker med fokus på IT-styrningsmetoder2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the IT archetypes "governance strategy" and how it could be linked to the IT benefits at the company. The study is based on IT investments that have taken place in ten banks operating in Sweden today, where the reality was modeled on the basis of a questionnaire survey and an additional interview. The aim was to examine whether it is possible to find any correlation between the governance in the banks and obtained benefits for an IT investments.

    While the competition is intensifying in most companies there is a greater demand for efficiency in IT. The need for IT solutions is greater than ever and the number of IT investments is increasing significantly in most workplaces today, especially on banks. But even if the investments are increasing in numbers it does not necessarily mean that all types of investments are effective and beneficial to the company. The benefits of IT investments are often difficult to measure, and the calculations become even more complex the larger the organization is.

    According to the framework Val IT Framework 2.0, from 2008, there was a global study made by Price Waterhouse Coopers in Belgium. The surveys, which were based on the response of 750 IT executives and managers, showed that the importance of IT is increasing and that there is much room for improvements in terms of returns on IT investments.

    To make it easier finding the underlying structures the study was divided into two parts, one benefit study and one archetype study. The structure of both the studies is based on research done by Peter Weill and Jeanne Ross in the field of IT governance and research in IT benefits by Gunasekaran.

    The main purpose of this report is to present a new way of thinking - where banks can predict the benefits of an IT investment just by viewing their corporate governance and invest in the most profitable IT investments only.

    The results of this study shows that there are some relations between received benefits in IT investments on the examined banks and their archetype. Most of the banks have an archetype that is similar to the IT duopoly and investments which generally results in strategic benefits.

  • 2.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Human and Organizational Aspects of Cyber Security: From a System Suppliers Perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SCADA systems have been successfully implemented in industries like oil, gas and electricity for maintenance,

    monitoring and control. While these systems provide immense advantage in terms of productivity, management

    and performance, they are also prone to exploitation and problems.

    These SCADA systems largely consist of network infrastructure which is subject to cyber security issues. Most

    of the weaknesses, or threats posed to these systems can be eliminated or reduced if the human aspect

    associated with them can be explored and corrected if needed. Because of human involvement in planning,

    designing, developing, deployment and operating of such systems, probability of flaws will always be present.

    This study focuses on such human aspects which effect cyber security in SCADA systems. We identified

    common mistakes which can be attributed to human error or negligence. A set of causes was then identified by

    use of interviews and finally, a Bayesian model was developed to simulate the identified cases and mistakes. We

    analyzed the influence and probability of occurrence of mistakes using this model.

    Our results prove that causes of the mistakes resulting in security problems for SCADA systems are directly

    related to human aspects. Furthermore, we identified some of the most prominent of these causes in this study.

    Based on the identified causes and mistakes, we suggested mitigation strategies to cater the problems faced.

  • 3. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Buckl, Sabine
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gleichauf, Bettina
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Schweda, Christian M.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Survival Analysis of Application Life Spans based on Enterprise Architecture Models2009In: Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, EMISA 2009, 2009, Vol. P-152, p. 141-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern enterprises face the challenge to survive in an ever changing environment. One commonly accepted means to address this challenge and further enhance survivability is enterprise architecture (EA) management, which provides a holistic model-based approach to business/IT alignment. Thereby, the decisions taken in the context of EA management are based on accurate documentation of IT systems and business processes. The maintenance of such documentation causes high investments for enter-prises, especially in the absence of information on the change rates of different systems and processes. In this paper we propose a method for gathering and analyzing such in-formation. The method is used to analyze the life spans of the application portfolio of three companies from different industry sectors. Based on the results of the three case studies implications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  • 4. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Ekstedt, MathiasKTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.Matthes, FlorianProper, ErikSanz, Jorge
    Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research and Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation: 7th Workshop, TEAR 2012, and 5th Working Conference, PRET 2012, Held at The Open Group Conference 2012, Barcelona, Spain, October 23-24, 2012. Proceedings2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Al Karim, Miftah
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    PMU Data Mining in and analysis of suitable algorithm for fault pattern recognition.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor measurement unit (PMU) is getting much attention in recent days to acquire power system data. It is because PMU provides the opportunity to collect high resolution system. Having a high resolution data provides scopes to monitor a system with different computational methods. Data mining is one of the effective methods. In the age of power system automation high resolution power system data storage and management has become more feasible. Data mining can be implemented on high resolution PMU data and many advantages can be achieved from such an operation.  

    Data mining is a scientific process through which a knowledge or patterns are identified from a large amount of data base. Data mining in power system based on PMU data is getting much focus in the recent years. Some of the prominent research on mining power system data and finding pattern is already going on in this field.

    There are different pattern recognition algorithms deployed in data mining field. Research has also been done to check the efficacy of those algorithms in action.

    In this thesis implementation of existing pattern recognition algorithms based on background study is carried out. Along with it one work-process is proposed to check out the possibilities of data mining in power system regarding fault pattern recognition. The mining process proposed here is a mixture of different existing algorithms and a new algorithm for fault classification. The work here mostly offers a broad perspective of data mining in power system rather than dealing with a specific application.

  • 6.
    Al Karim, Miftah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Synchrophasor-based data mining for power system fault analysis2012In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2012 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6465843-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor measurement units can provide high resolution and synchronized power system data, which can be effectively utilized for the implementation of data mining techniques. Data mining, based on pattern recognition algorithms can be of significant help for power system analysis, as high definition data is often complex to comprehend. In this paper three pattern recognition algorithms are applied to perform the data mining tasks. The deployment is carried out firstly for fault data classification, secondly for checking which faults are occurring more frequently and thirdly for identifying the root cause of a fault by clustering the parameters behind each scenario. For such purposes three algorithms are chosen, k-Nearest Neighbor, Naïve Bayes and the k-means Clustering.

  • 7. Al-Hammouri, A.T.
    et al.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Virtualization of synchronized phasor measurement units within real-time simulators for smart grid applications2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6344949-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) provide GPS-time tagged high-sampling rate positive-sequence voltage and current phasors. When placed in high-voltage substations in power networks, PMUs can provide real-time information that is necessary for the development of Smart Transmission Grid software applications for improving power system monitoring, control and protection. The development of these applications, particularly for use within control centers for on-line purposes, is limited by the availability of and access to real-time PMU data and other information. One attractive approach for application development is the use of real-time simulators to which PMUs can be interfaced as hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) devices to harvest PMU data. However, this approach has technical and economical limitations, which can be tackled by the virtualization of PMU devices. This article describes the development of an entirely software-based synchronized phasor measurement unit for use within real-time simulators that will allow the emulation of a large number of real-life PMUs, which in turn can be used for creating new phasor-based applications.

  • 8. Almeida, J. P. A.
    et al.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lapalme, J.
    Message from the TEAR 2013 workshop chairs2013In: 2013 17th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops (EDOCW), IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 287-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief overview of the 8th Workshop on Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research (TEAR) held at EDOC 2013. The paper introduces the Workshop research topics and presents the accepted papers.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Sundmark, Thomas
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Swedish Defense Research Agency.
    Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis of a Cyber Defence Exercise2011In: Proceedings of the International Defense and Homeland Security Simulation Workshop (DHSS) 2011, Caltek s.r.l. , 2011, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Cyber Shield 2010 (BCS), a multi-national civilmilitary cyber defence exercise (CDX), aimed to improve the capability of performing a CDX and investigate how IT attacks and defence of critical infrastructure can be studied. The exercise resulted in a massive dataset to be analyzed and many lessons learned in planning and executing a large-scale multinational CDX. A reconstruction & exploration (R&E) approach was used to capture incidents such as attacks and defensive counter-measures during the exercise. This paper introduces the usage of R&E combined with exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA) and discusses benefits and limitations of using these methods for analyzing multi-national cyber defence exercises. Using ESDA we were able to generate statistical data on attacks from BCS, such as number of reported attacks by the attackers and the defenders on different type of services. Initial results from these explorations will be analyzed and discussed.

  • 10.
    Antonsen, Egil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    ORGANIZATIONAL ANTECEDENTS FOR INFORMATION SECURITY KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of information Security Knowledge Transfer in general, and specifically information security awareness training for overall security in organizations, makes factors benefitting information security knowledge transfer processes in the organization an important area for study. This has previously been explored in case studies but not tested in a quantitative way. This thesis investigates how Security Knowledge Transfer is affected by the factors of Organizational Structure, Business-based Information Security and Information Security Processes. After initial analysis, the Information Security Processes construct was divided into three different constructs: Performance Monitoring, Risk Assessment and Holistic Structure of Information Security. Holistic Structure of Information Security is a state in which structures with the purpose of coordinating information security across the organization exist. Both Holistic Structure of Information Security and Performance Monitoring were shown to have positive effects on Security Knowledge Transfer, however, Holistic Structure of Information Security had a relatively large effect, while Performance Monitoring had a relatively small effect. The effect of Holistic Structure of Information Security is due to that knowledge transfer in general is enabled by organizational structures. Performance Monitoring’s effect can be attributed to its property as a way to signal the importance of information security from top management to the rest of the organization and therefore act to motivate Security Knowledge Transfer among organizational members.  That two hypotheses were not supported means that two of the constructs have no direct effect on Security Knowledge Transfer. This is probably due to that one or more of the constructs that were shown to directly affect Security Knowledge Transfer mediates the effect of these constructs. To test this is left for further research.

  • 11.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Brodén, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Method to Identify Exposed Nodes in Low Voltage Distribution Grids with High PV Penetration2015In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015, Denver, CO. July 26-30, 2015. / [ed] IEEE, IEEE Press, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of introducing distributed energyresources at the low voltage side of the distribution grid iscurrently raising new challenges for utilities. In particular, thehigh penetration of photovoltaic panels (PVs) in radial grids isincreasing the active power losses in the branches and thevoltage level at some of the nodes. Principally nodes next to PVarray installations. This paper presents a methodology based ondesign of experiments (DOE) to detect such exposed nodes andbranches, together with the identification of the main scenariosthat cause such problems, characterized by: season, type of day,solar radiation and outdoor temperature levels. Themethodology is simulated on a LV network based on the Cigrebenchmark Grid with real utility data. The exposed nodes areclassified for each feeder from most to least problematic andshowed (as expected) sensitivity to seasonality (summertime),characterized by high solar radiation and outdoor temperatures.

  • 12.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    A co-simulation platform for medium/low voltage monitoring and control applications2014In: 2014 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, ISGT 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 6816369-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for electricity and the penetration of renewable energy resources into the electrical grid are triggering the electric power system to undergo changes and complex modifications at high, medium and low voltage levels. There are large and complex projects such as Smart Grid Gotland to deploy solutions to address such challenges. However, there are several scenarios that could be more practical to be first studied via simulations. As such, the purpose of this paper is to propose and develop a co-simulation platform that allows performing real-time monitoring and control tests and simulations for MV/LV grids. This platform combines both electrical, and information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure simulations. It consists of a real-time power system simulator (Opal-RT) connected to a communication network simulator (OPNET) through an automatic meter reading interface that is based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and low cost devices such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino boards. The platform allows the analysis of realistic MV/LV grids and communication networks, and will facilitate the simulation and comparison of low voltage control strategies for real-time test scenarios that could be more complicated to test otherwise in real-life due to cost and complexity aspects , i.e., high power losses on the low voltage grid.

  • 13.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Brugeron, Mathieu
    Grenoble INP.
    Facilitating Distribution Grid Network Simulation Through Automated Common Information Model Data Conversion2015In: IEEE PowerTech Conference 2015, Eindhoven (Netherlands), 29 June - 2 July 2015 / [ed] IEEE, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In R&D projects as well as in development work,simulations of grid configurations and control methods are acommon tool for assessing different technical options. At thesame time, these simulations are often limited by difficulties indata exchange, simply due to the fact that systems are notcompatible and data format in operational systems is not alignedwith data in simulation and analysis tools. To this extent a toolhas been developed that allows large scale import of real-worldgrid data using CIM XML to state of the art simulation toolsbased on MATLAB. The tool is used in a large FP7 projectinvolving leading European DSOs.

  • 14.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modeling of Wide Area Monitoring System as a Cyber Physical System2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operating the large-scaled electric power grid closer to parameters limit as a solution to restriction on transmission lines expansion, or electrical marketing issues such as reregulation which brought the connection of national grids to surrounding neighbor’s grid may make the control of the power system more complicated than before. In this situation, technologies like PMU-based Wide Area Monitoring and Control System are developed to improve the monitoring of power grid across large geographic areas and accordingly controlling grid in more efficient and intelligent way. WAMC system bring a new opportunity for applications in terms of data availability, accuracy and high sampling rate which in turns cause applications to improve or re-design their algorithms. In order to have confidence on correctness, performance and reliability of WAMC applications in real world scenarios, a pseudo-real test bed of whole WAMC system which mirrors the characteristic of both communication and power systems as real as possible seems to be required for designing/testing such applications. The purpose of this study is to put effort on proposing and developing a WAMC testing platform to facilitate the real time emulation of the dynamic power grid, the ICT infrastructure that overlays the grid and WAMS applications. The proposed platform consists of OPNET as a powerful communication simulator/emulator which is connected to Power Simulator (SIMULINK) on one side, and connected to end point stations such as PDC or application on the other side through OPNET’s real-simulation gateway called SITL. As an assessment to performance of developed platform architecture, different scenarios has been carried out to find out the effects of communication protocols i.e. UDP and TCP on network metrics such as data delay.

  • 15.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Survey on the Factors Required in Design of Communication Architecture for Future DC grids2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, p. 58-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims first to survey various aspects of DC grids from grid topologies to TSOs structure which has been carried out in several studies, and second try to highlight the factors to be considered in the design of the universal communication architecture for DC grid control and protection purposes. The result of the survey will be used as the first step to introduce the possible communication solutions such as network and data transfer protocols in order to ensure the reliable data delivery in operation of multi-national DC grids.

  • 16.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Real-Time Smart Grid Application Testing using OPNET SITL2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phasor -based Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system promise to improve the monitoring of power grid across large geographic areas and accordingly controlling grid in more efficient and intelligent ways. In order to have confidence on the correctness, performance and reliability of applications used in WAMC system in real world scenarios, pseudo-real test beds where the requirements for the applications and their supporting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be quantified and analyzed. In this paper, a WAMC system testing platform is proposed to facilitate the real-time simulation of dynamic power grid, the ICT infrastructure that overlays the grid and WAMC applications. The proposed platform consists of OPNET as a powerful communication network simulator connected to real-time power system simulator on one side through virtualized Phasor Measurement Unit device, and linked to end point stations such as Phasor Data Concentrator or application on the other side through OPNET’s real-simulation gateway. A set of proof of concept scenarios using this framework is presented.

  • 17.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Department of Network Engineering and Security, Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    A Platform for Wide Area Monitoring and Control System ICT Analysis and Development2013In: 2013 IEEE Grenoble Conference PowerTech, POWERTECH 2013, IEEE , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PMU-based Wide Area Monitoring and Control(WAMC) system is introduced to improve the monitoring ofpower grid across large geographic areas and control the gridusing more efficient and smart applications. The performance ofWAMC applications in real power system scenarios and impactof their supporting Information and Communication Technology(ICT) on the data quality can be quantified and analyzed bypseudo-real co-simulation test beds. The purpose of this study isto propose and develop a WAMC testing platform to facilitate thereal-time simulation of dynamic power grid, the ICTinfrastructure that overlays the grid and WAMS applications.The platform consists of OPNET, a powerful communicationnetwork emulator, connected to a real-time power systemsimulator through virtualized PMU device. The end pointstations such as Phasor Data Concentrator or PMU-basedapplications are also linked to the platform through OPNET’sreal-simulation gateway called SITL (System-In-The-Loop). Toassess the performance of the platform architecture, a case studyhas been performed with five PMUs which collect the data from apower model and deliver to PMU-based mode-estimationapplication over a typical communication network. In this study,the results explicitly intend to quantify the effect of networkprotocols on data delay.

  • 18.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Farhad, Freizadeh
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Distributed Ancillary Service Support for Independent AC-Areas through HVDC Grid2015In: 2015 IEEE EINDHOVEN POWERTECH, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to study different ancillary servicessuch as frequency support, rotor angle stability and voltagestability that can be provided to independent AC areas throughMulti-Terminal HVDC grid. An agent-based control scheme hasbeen suggested to support the frequency of the imbalanced ACarea using other intact areas during a disturbance. The frequencysupport is carried out through some agents/controller, wherethe objective of the agents is to reach a common value fora given state, i.e. frequency, using the local and neighbouringinformation. In this scheme, the concept of Adaptive Graph (AG)has been introduced to the consensus problem to deal with thelimitation of original scheme in considering the rated capacityof HVDC converters. In this case, the frequency consensus canbe reached to a new stable value by removing one or severalconverters from the communication graph when reaching ratedactive power capacity. In order to test the proposed scheme,a model of 7-terminal dc-grid and corresponding AC areas isdeveloped in real time simulator OPAL-RT. The results showthat the adaptive graph scheme improves the reliability of thesystem during distributed frequency support.

  • 19.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nazari, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Fidai, Muhammad Hassan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Implementation of agent-based power flow coordination in AC/DC grids using co-simulation platform2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2014, 2014, p. 188-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work on the coordination of power sharing contribution of converters in an overlaid HVDC grid using a Multi-Agent System (MAS) approach. This approach is further implemented in a real-time co-simulation platform in order to study the proposed control scheme including the supporting information and communication Technology (ICT) systems. The platform consists of OPNET, a communication network simulator, connected to a real-time power system simulator through virtualized and real devices. Furthermore, the impact of different supporting system parameters such as bit-error rate has been studied using this real-time co-simulation platform.

  • 20.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Agent-based Control of VSC-HVDC Transmission Grid: A Cyber Physical System Perspective2014In: MSCPES 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a control scheme to coordinatethe DC voltage of converters in a HVDC grid using a Multi-agentSystem concept. Such interactions between agents, converters,and communication units are approached from a Cyber-PhysicalSystem (CPS) perspective. The Multi-agent based control schemetries to update the DC voltage set-points of the converters basedon local and neighboring information. The information exchangebetween the agents and communication delay tolerance of thecontrol scheme is studied by means of graph theory. The multiagentcontrol scheme has been implemented for a seven-terminalHVDC grid in a real time simulator and the impact ofcommunication delay on this distributed control approach hasbeen studied and is presented in the result.

  • 21.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Multi-Stage Network Processor for an Independent and Integrated HVDC grid Supervisory Control Architecture2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the integration of renewable energy resources has introduced new requirements to the structure of electric power transmission grids. In addition to distributed renewable production, electric power exchange between neighboring countries also leads to development of transmission grids. Since AC grid solution is limited by legislative issues and long distance transmission capacity, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology with its different benefits compared to AC such as lower power losses, controllability and visual impact is being considered as appropriate alternative solution. Different aspects of HVDC technology from technical and economic challenges regarding the selection of proper HVDC grid topology to detailed control schemes are addressed extensively in the literature. Regarding the control of HVDC grids, the concept of centralized DC slack converter has been presented with the task to control the DC voltage level of the grid within the defined value and keep DC power flow in the grid balanced in real-time. Beside the centralized DC slack concept, a distributed DC slack concept called DC voltage droop is proposed and investigated. Similar to primary frequency control in AC grid, the controller uses the local DC voltage deviation as indication of power mismatch and tune the power production based on this local signal. An alternative agentbased control scheme has been also proposed to coordinate the power sharing in HVDC grids. On top of this fast control design, a supervisory controller is needed to guarantee the optimal operation of the HVDC grid in normal or abnormal states. This supervisory controller can be integrated to available AC Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) in the case of HVDC grid embedded in a single AC area. When it comes to HVDC grid connecting different AC areas, an “independent HVDC SCADA” can be defined which coordinates with connecting AC areas’ SCADA or it again can be integrated to one of the AC Area’s SCADA system called “integrated HVDC SCADA”. Regardless of system operation architecture, in order to monitor and operate the HVDC grid, supervisory control needs to be equipped with state estimation including the topology processor. Topology processor uses the real-time circuit breaker status within the substation to determine the system level topology. In the case of HVDC grid, the importance of such topology processor is bolder when it comes to detection of different islands. The islanding case should be recognized as real-time as possible in order to assign the DC slack bus, if not available in the island. In the literature, different algorithms and challenges have been investigated for topology analysis in the context of AC grid. This includes presentation artificial intelligence methods (e.g. artificial neural network) or integration of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) information in the process. Considering the future attentions toward overlay or interconnecting HVDC grid, the similar detailed methodology for HVDC grid with particular challenges seems to be vital. This work presents a multi-stage network processor as part of independent supervisory control in HVDC grid connecting or overlaying AC areas which can be extended to integrated supervisory control architecture. The proposed approach consists of two levels: 1) process of AC or DC substation topology locally and 2) the secondary process at HVDC grid central supervisory controller. At the substation level, the local topology processor determines the branch/bus model of the substation including the possible standalone HVDC converter using breaker status in the form of support matrix which is the combination of substation matrix and standing alone matrix. Substation Matrix holds information regarding this simplified substation model and the lines connected to it and number of logical buses/vertexes per substation. Standing alone matrix is created when the converter in the substation is not connected to DC grid and just standing alone. This can be useful for operator for starting the SVC functionality of the VSC stations. The same analysis is performed on all the substations locally and then the support matrices are sent to the network processor at SCADA level. At central level, the processor creates the general adjacent matrix based on the support matrix of the substations for whole HVDC grid to form the admittance matrix (Y). For the islanding analysis, the corresponding Laplacian Matrix is built from the adjacent matrix and clustering method is used to analysis the corresponding Eigen vectors of the Laplacian matrix. Besides, an extended version of current algorithm has been studied and presented for the integrated HVDC supervisory control architecture in which one AC area is responsible for the operation of HVDC grid.

  • 22.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Tonti, Alessio
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Borghetti, Alberto
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nucci, Carlo Alberto
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Two-stage Network Processor for an Independent HVDC Grid Supervisory Control2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a two-stage network processorfor the supervisory control of multi-terminal HVDC grid thatconnects different AC areas. The proposed network processorprocesses the DC substation topology locally in the first stageand analyzes the HVDC grid connectivity at the supervisorycontroller. The processor uses the k-means clustering methodto detect the islands in HVDC grid and prepares requiredinformation to carry out the converter control mode assignation.The performance of the method has been tested for an isladingscenario in a 7-terminal HVDC grid using a real-time cosimulationplatform. The output of network processor helps thecontrol application at the supervisory level to make decisionsbased on the control modes of the available converters in theislands. This two-stage architecture has been compared with thecentralized architecture in terms of computational complexity.

  • 23.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    ELECTA Research Group, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Belgium.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Study of Centralized and Distributed Coordination of Power Injection in Multi-TSO HVDC Grid with Large Off-shore Wind Integration2016In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 136, p. 281-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies centralized and distributed schemes for the coordinationof power injection in an HVDC grid connected to large wind generation.This coordination of power injection aims to keep the power balanced withinthe HVDC grid especially during large wind disturbances. Furthermore, thecoordination tries to follow the converters’ schedules set by the connectingAC-TSOs every 15−minutes. This schedule comes from an overall combinedAC/DC economic dispatch calculation with lower resolution compared to thiscoordination. In this paper, the coordination of power injection has been formulatedas a non-linear constrained optimization problem for the centralizedarchitecture. Next, the centralized optimization problem is decomposed tosub-problems using the Auxiliary Problem Principle (APP) method for thedistributed architecture. This distributed optimization problem is solved byexchanging the required information between the AC TSOs. These two differentapproaches have been evaluated for a 5-terminal HVDC grid. Furthermore,a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to find the optimal updatingrate of power injection set-points. The result shows that the more frequentupdating of power injection coordination in the centralized architecture improvesthe generation reserves in each AC area.

  • 24.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    Esat-Electa, KU Leuven.
    Rabbat, Michael
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University,.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Coordination of Power Injection in HVDC Grids with Multi-TSOs and Large Wind Penetration2015In: ACDC 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes different architectures for the coordinationof power injection in interconnected hybrid AC/DC gridswith Multi-TSO. The power dispatch problem is first formulatedfor the HVDC grid with the aim of keeping the balancein real time and try to follow the 15-min schedules introducedby AC TSOs considering the ongoing changes in the HVDCgrid. Next, the Auxiliary Problem Principle (APP) method isproposed to decompose the dispatch problem and distributedbetween connected AC operators who control the local converters.Two different approaches are tested and the sensitivityof the OPF updating rate has been evaluated for a 5-areaHVDC grid with the wind production.

  • 25. Baccino, F.
    et al.
    Massucco, S.
    Sandels, Claes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Domestic heat load aggregation strategies for wind following in electric distribution systems2013In: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), IEEE , 2013, p. 6672610-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the operation of a domestic heat load aggregator on the Swedish island of Gotland. In the considered business case the aim of the aggregator is to minimize the losses on the HVDC connection with the mainland matching local wind generation and load. A network model is implemented and static power flow simulations are performed to evaluate the aggregator profit and the effects of its actions on the network behavior. Various aggregator strategies are simulated in different wind penetration scenarios, several indices are calculated to compare the different cases on a quantitative base.

  • 26.
    Baccino, Francesco
    et al.
    University of Genova – Italy.
    Massucco, Stefano
    University of Genova – Italy.
    Sandels, Claes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Technical analysis of an aggregator's operation for the Gotland power system2013In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013), 2013, p. 1017-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large scale deployment of distributed generation from renewable energy sources may undermine the network safe operation and may require network reinforcements. In order to avoid or postpone the infrastructural investments it is possible to exploit other resources. In this paper the operation of a load aggregator is simulated on the Swedish island of Gotland in different wind penetration condition to test two different business models, one oriented to the price following and the other oriented to the wind following. The adopted methodology is described and the results presented and commented.

  • 27.
    Bakhiet, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Automated Tests of Computer-based Interlocking Systems: Developing a test case generator2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated tests have become the most sought after method of testing

    in today’s market. Automating systems is generally found to be

    cheaper, faster and more reliable than manually operating them. For

    this reason many companies decide to make the switch over to this inexpensive

    yet efficient way of testing, only to realize that their costs

    have in fact gone up. The reasons for this could be poor planning, automating

    too much too soon or even automating unnecessary parts of

    the system. This study takes a closer look at the effects of automating

    tests used on interlocking systems. A tool has been developed as a part

    of the automated tests at Bombardier. The main function of the tool is

    to speed up the testing process by automatically generating test cases

    rather than having a worker write them down. The aim of this paper is

    to present this recently developed tool and show how its use significantly

    reduces testing time, costs and workload compared to the manual tests

    used today.

  • 28.
    Bazatolle, Thibaut
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Logistical Issues in a Transnational Supply Chain Project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a current context of important material deliveries, mostly produced in Europe and shipped to China, many standards need to be set, rules to be established, liabilities to be defined. However, most of the time, to implement these concepts, the issues need to be faced first, and that is the situation at the moment in the Taishan project.

    The choice in this master thesis has been made to focus on the overall delivery process, as well as the package opening once delivered to China, to detail the transmission of responsibilities and the actions to be implemented in case of problems.

    This issue is of the greatest importance in such a project of Engineering and Procurement of two complete EPRTMreactors1. It is not the same treatment when a problem occurs on a simple valve and when it occurs on a several thousands euros worth element. The thorough study of the supply chain illustrates the theory to point out the main elements of concern.

    From Sub-suppliers until building erection, the main points are discussed to give the reader an insight of integrated supply chain.

    As a consequence this master thesis introduces and discusses the supply chainrelated processes in the Taishan project, to give a clear overview of the reality.

  • 29.
    Beijar Sohlström, Jessica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Undersökning av ramverket IF/ELSE:s applicerbarhet på vården2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations are dependent on communication between individuals within and outside the

    organization to function. The effectiveness is often reflected by the quality of this communication.

    There are many parameters that influence the communication situation (jargon: interoperability)

    within an organization, such as corporate culture, working practices, languages, IT systems and

    communication medium. In order to influence the situation it is required to identify the parameters

    involved and the relationships between them. The framework IF/ELSE, developed by PhD student

    Johan Ullberg at the department Industrial Information and Control Systems (ICS) at the Royal

    Institute of Technology (KTH), describes a method and a meta-model to be able to do this. Using this

    framework a quantitative value of interoperability can be calculated.

    In this study, the framework IF/ELSE was used to investigate the interoperability at two radiology

    departments in västra götalandsregionen (VGR) in order to test the framework's applicability to

    healthcare-related communication situations.

    The study showed that there, most probably, was a lack of communication within the surveyed

    radiology departments but also that IF/ELSE in its current version is not fully applicable to healthcare

    organisations.

  • 30.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Norgren, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Skog, Isaac
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Developing and Implementing a Program Interfacing Project Course in Electrical Engineering2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the ideas behind a second-year Design-Build course in Electrical Engineering. Electrical Engineering is a theoretical subject, and in such it is difficult to maintain the theoretical level in project courses introduced too early in the program, especially when core subjects like electromagnetic field theory are involved. This issue is addressed and we also describe our approach for the assessment of the students. We also discuss the different goals that were set up prior to the course from a program perspective; how we reasoned when designing the course, the assessment structure, and the output once the course was implemented

  • 31.
    Bergström, Sofia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modelling Business Capabilities withEnterprise Architecture: A Case Study at a Swedish Pension Managing Company2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis looks at the use of business capabilities within enterprisearchitecture, and investigates how the concept is used within the Swedish pension managingcompany Folksam. Based on interviews with stakeholders an enterprise architecture metamodelcentred on the business capability is constructed. The meta-model is then edited andrevised according to a questionnaire aimed at removing irrelevant elements, and a secondset of interviews discussing a capability's health status and well being. This second set ofinterviews resulted in the removal of elements not aecting the well being of a capability.The nal meta-model has the business capability and the capability health status at itscore. It consists of the Capability element, with two attributes, surrounded by nine otherelements connected by eleven relations in total.

  • 32. Bian, D.
    et al.
    Kuzlu, M.
    Pipattanasomporn, M.
    Rahman, S.
    Wu, Yiming
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Real-time Co-simulation Platform using OPAL-RT and OPNET for Analyzing Smart Grid Performance2015In: 2015 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present a real-time co-simulation platform for analyzing electric power grid operation, taking into account integrated communication systems. This paper discusses how a co-simulation platform can be set up using OPNET and OPAL-RT as communication and power system simulators, respectively. A simplified distribution automation case study is demonstrated to show how the cosimulation platform can be used to analyze performance of the smart grid operation in real-time.

  • 33.
    Björkman, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hadeli, Hadeli
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    SCADA system architectures2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of deliverable 2.3 in the VIKING is to catalogue architecture patterns or reference architectures, i.e. commonly deployed solutions, for SCADA systems. These patterns are represented as a set of descriptions that capture the vast majority of SCADA systems’ architecture on a high level. The patterns developed in this report focus on: - Software services in SCADA systems and software services which SCADA systems exchange data with. - Data flows among these services. - How services are placed in different security zones (network zones). The purpose of the SCADA architecture patterns is to clarify how SCADA systems are commonly designed by employing a stringent model framework. Internal in the project the SCADA patterns will be used to develop SCADA system design models that reflect some typical systems deployed in industry. These models will be used in other work packages and deliverables in the VIKING project.

  • 34.
    Björkman, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Information system architectures in electrical distribution utilities2010In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Electricity Distribution and Asset Management Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerized control systems have been used in many years to supervise and control power distribution. These systems, which often are referred to as SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems, have in recent been more and more interconnected to other systems in recent years. In modern utilities various kinds of data are exchanged between the distribution management systems and the administrative systems located in the office network. For example are operational statistics, trouble reports and switch orders often communicated between the office systems and the systems inside the control center. This paper desccribes a survey over state-of-practice architectures in electrical distribution utilities. A set of system-services have been identified together with the interfaces that typically exists between these services. How these services are located within different zones within utilities is also identified. The set services, the data flows, and the location of these has been reviewed and validated by vendors of SCADA systems in the electric utility industry.

  • 35.
    Blaauwbroek, Niels
    et al.
    TU/Eindhoven.
    Nguyen, H.P.
    TU/Eindhoven.
    Slootweg, J.G.
    TU/Eindhoven.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Interfacing solutions for power hardware-inthe- loop simulations of distribution feeders for testing monitoring and control applications2017In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for advanced monitoring and control applications (MCAs) in future distribution networks calls for highly accurate and fully integrated simulation solutions for the purpose of performance assessment of these MCAs. Offline simulation using models of the power system, measurement equipment, local controllers and the information and communication infrastructure do not always resemble reality accurate enough. Therefore, power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulations are considered a cost-effective approach to overcome these challenges. This study presents the design of a PHIL-interface that allows to integrate a physical low-voltage feeder within a larger real-time simulated distribution network. Using the combination of the physical network and the larger simulated network, MCAs can be tested for scalability as well as accuracy. A data acquisition and processing system is presented that acquires all the true system states of both the physical feeder and the real-time simulated network, such that the MCAs can be verified in real-time. The functioning of the PHIL-interface is validated using practical results and illustrated using a test case for the performance assessment of a branch current state estimation algorithm.

  • 36.
    Bottura, Riccardo
    et al.
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering (DEI), University of Bologna.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Borghetti, Alberto
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering (DEI), University of Bologna.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nucci, Carlo Alberto
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering (DEI), University of Bologna.
    SITL and HLA Co-simulation Platforms: Tools for Analysis of the Integrated ICT and Electric Power System2013In: 2013 IEEE EUROCON, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the necessity of developing analysis tools inthe integrated ICT and power system domain, this paperdescribes and compares the architecture and configuration oftwo different co-simulation approaches called SITL and HLACo-simulation platforms. We provide several details on theirimplementation and present their features by means of theresults obtained for two test cases. The paper aims at clarifyingthe type of analysis that can be effectively carried out by usingthe two different platforms. Both platforms make use of thecommunication network simulator OPNET (Optimum NetworkPerformance). One of the two platforms operates in real time, inorder to perform system-in-the-loop (SITL) simulations. Theother platform is based on the interface between OPNET and thepower network simulation environment EMTP (ElectromagneticTransient Program). The interface is based on the application ofthe High-Level Architecture (HLA) standard.

  • 37.
    Brodén, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of Demand Response Solutions for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union, 50 percent of the Swedish electricity share is to be provided by renewable energy sources by 2020. The Smart Grid Gotland (SGG) project has emerged as a response to this target. The project aims at demonstrating a proof of concept on how smart grid solutions can be used to integrate large

    quantities of renewable energy sources in an existing network. The outcomes of the project are intended to pave the way for future renewable energy integration projects in Sweden.

    The Thesis focuses on one of the technical objectives of the SGG project, i.e. to increase the hosting capacity of wind power on Gotland from 195 MW to 200 MW by using Demand-Response (DR) from households and industries. DR consist of shifting peak-loads to peakproduction hours. The integration of additional wind power causes a risk of exceeding the transmission capacity of the power export cable between Gotland and the Swedish mainland.

    The approach considered for this Thesis is to use an Ancillary Service (AS) toolbox scheme based on multi-agent systems. The AS toolbox consist of flexibility tools such as DR on long-term, short-term, a battery energy storage system and a wind curtailment scheme. The DR activity includes space heating and domestic hot water consumption from detached houses on Gotland.

    The simulation results indicate that 1900 household participants are sufficient to balance the additional 5 MW for worst case scenarios. Furthermore, it is shown that the DR participation from industries contributes in some cases to a reduction of 700 household participants.

    The findings helped conclude that using an AS toolbox solution on Gotland is fully possible from a technical perspective. However, barriers that stand against its realisation are of economical nature and need to be investigated in future studies.

  • 38.
    Brodén, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sandels, Claes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Congestion Management Potential in Distribution Networks using Demand-Response and Battery Energy Storage2015In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of large shares of renewable energy sources in distribution grids runs the risk of outpacing the capacity of the network. Thus, high investment costs are expected at distribution system level to expand the existing grid to manage, among other challenges, anticipated congestion. This paper involves a study of the technical feasibility of using an ancillary service toolbox including day- and hour-ahead demand-response and battery energy storage as an alternative to grid expansion. The ancillary service toolbox is applied on radial distribution grids having large shares of renewable generation, controllable loads and power export capability to the overlaying power grid. The toolbox is simulated for a real use case presenting results on required demand-response participants and operation of flexibility resources for different congestion scenarios. The study concludes that the ancillary service solution is technically feasible for the use case, which may imply network investment deferral for distribution system operators.

  • 39. Buckl, S.
    et al.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holschke, O.
    Matthes, F.
    Schweda, C. M.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A pattern-based approach to quantitative enterprise architecture analysis2009In: 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009, 2009, p. 2314-2324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) management involves tasks that substantially contribute to the operations of an enterprise, and to its sustainable market presence. One important aspect of this is the availability of services to customers. However, the increasing interconnectedness of systems with other systems and with business processes makes it difficult to get a clear view on change impacts and dependency structures. While management level decision makers need this information to make sound decisions, EA models often do not include quality attributes (such as availability), and very rarely provide quantitative means to assess them. We address these shortcomings by augmenting an information model for EA modeling with concepts from Probabilistic Relational Models, thus enabling quantitative analysis. A sample business case is evaluated as an example of the technique, showing how decision makers can benefit from information on availability impacts on enterprise business services.

  • 40. Buckl, Sabine
    et al.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Matthes, Florian
    Schweda, Christian M.
    A meta-language for Enterprise Architecture analysis2011In: 12th International Conference on Business Process Modeling, Development and Support, BPMDS 2011 and 16th International Conference on Exploring Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Design, 2011, p. 511-525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) management is a commonly accepted instrument to support strategic decision making. The objective of EA management is to improve business IT alignment by making the impact of planned changes explicit. The increasing interconnectivity of applications with other applications and with business processes however makes it difficult to get a complete view on change impacts and dependency structures. This information is nevertheless required to support decision makers. Current meta-languages proposed for the context of EA management provide only limited support for modelling qualitative and quantitative dependencies. In this paper we propose a meta-language, which builds on the Meta Object Facility (MOF). This meta-language specifically accounts for the requirements of EA analysis. We discuss existing meta-languages from the field of EA management and related areas against these requirements. Building on the standard of the OMG, we present an extension of MOF designed to support EA analysis. The theoretic exposition of the extension is complemented by an example illustrating the applicability of the presented meta-language.

  • 41.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Tool Support for Enterprise Architecture Analysis: with application in cyber security2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s companies, business processes and information technology areinterwoven. Old and new systems as well as off-the-shelf products and tailoredsolutions are used. This results in heterogeneous, often complex ITlandscapes. The impact of changes and the affected systems are difficult toidentify. However, volatile business environments and changing customer requestsrequire organizations to adapt quickly and to frequently make decisionsabout the modifications of their information technology.

    IT management aims at generating value from the usage of informationtechnology. One frequently used IT management approach is Enterprise Architecture.Company-wide models are used to obtain a holistic picture. Thesemodels are usually created using Enterprise Architecture modeling tools.These tools frequently have strong documentation capabilities. However, theyoften lack advanced analysis functionality. Specifically, such tools do not offersufficient support for the analysis of system properties, such as cyber security,availability or interoperability. The ability to analyze a set of possible scenariosand predict the properties of the modeled systems would be valuablefor decision-making. Changes or extensions could be evaluated before theirimplementation. In other domains, for example, in architecture in its classicalmeaning or in the development of machines, the analysis of models is a commonpractice. Typically, CAD tools are used to perform analysis and supportdecision-making. It is thereby possible to investigate the stability of buildingsor the performance of engines without the need for empirical testing.

    The contribution of the research work documented in this thesis is a softwaretool with a particular focus on the analysis of Enterprise Architecturemodels and thereby support for decision-making. This tool combines stateof-the-art Enterprise Architecture tooling with advanced analysis capabilitiesthat, until now, were only offered by modeling tools for other domains. Thepresented tool possesses two components. One component allows the creationof a metamodel capturing Enterprise Architecture analysis theory, for example,relevant concepts in the context of cyber security and how they relateto each other. The other component supports the instantiation of the metamodelinto an Enterprise Architecture model. Once a model is in place, itcan be analyzed with regards to the previously specified theory so that, forinstance, a cyber security evaluation can be conducted.

    The analysis tool was partly developed within the context of a larger researchproject on cyber security analysis. However, the tool is not restrictedto applications within this field. It can be used for the evaluation of numeroussystem properties. Several authors contributed to the tool both on an implementationlevel and in the development and design of the tool’s features. Theperformed research followed the Design Science methodology. First, the objectivesof a tool for Enterprise Architecture analysis were defined. Next, anartifact was designed and developed in terms of a software tool. This tool wasthen demonstrated and evaluated against the objectives. Lastly, the resultswere communicated to both academic and non-academic audiences.

  • 42.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Grunow, S.
    Hauder, M.
    Matthes, F.
    Roth, S.
    Automating enterprise architecture documentation using an enterprise service bus2012In: 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012: Volume 6, 2012, 2012, p. 4213-4226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently the documentation of Enterprise Architectures (EA) requires manual collection of data resulting in an error prone, expensive, and time consuming process. Recent approaches seek to automate and improve EA documentation by employing the productive system environment of organizations. In this paper, we investigate a specific Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) considered as the nervous system of an enterprise interconnecting business applications and processes as an information source. We evaluate the degree of coverage to which data of a productive system can be used for EA documentation. A vendor-specific ESB data model is reverse-engineered and transformation rules for three representative EA information models are derived. These transformation rules are employed to perform automated model transformations making the first step towards an automated EA documentation. We evaluate our approach using a productive ESB system from a leading enterprise of the fashion industry.

  • 43.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A tool for automatic enterprise architecture modeling2011In: Proceedings of the CAiSE Forum 2011, 2011, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture is an approach which aim to provide decision support based on organization-wide models. The creation of these models is however cumbersome as multiple aspects of an organization need to be considered. The Enterprise Architecture approach would be significantly less demanding if data used to create the models could be collected automatically. This paper illustrates how a vulnerability scanner can be utilized for data collection in order to automatically create enterprise architecture models. We show how this approach can be realized by extending an earlier presented Enterprise Architecture tool. An example is provided through a case study applying the tool on a real network.

  • 44.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Tool for automatic Enterprise Architecture modeling2012In: IS Olympics: Information Systems in a Diverse World, Springer, 2012, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture is an approach which aims to provide decision support based on organization-wide models. The creation of these models is however cumbersome as multiple aspects of an organization need to be considered. The Enterprise Architecture approach would be significantly less demanding if data used to create the models could be collected automatically. This paper illustrates how a vulnerability scanner can be utilized for data collection in order to automatically create Enterprise Architecture models, especially covering infrastructure aspects. We show how this approach can be realized by extending an earlier presented Enterprise Architecture tool. An example is provided through a case study applying the tool on a real network.

  • 45.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    The Enterprise Architecture Analysis Tool–Support for the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework2013In: 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013 - Hyperconnected World: Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, Association for Information Systems, 2013, p. 3350-3364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business of contemporary organizations is heavily dependent on information systems. Business processes and IT are interwoven and numerous technologies are in use. How the involved systems affect each other or impact the organizations' business domain is often uncertain, thus decision-making regarding information technology is challenging. Enterprise architecture (EA) is a holistic, model-based management approach. Many of the available EA software tools focus on documenting and have limited analysis capabilities. In this article, a tool for EA analysis is presented, supporting the analysis of properties such as business fit, security, and interoperability. The tool is implemented to support the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework to specify and apply assessment frameworks for performing property analysis on EA models.

  • 46.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Quartel, Dick
    Novay.
    Extending the method of Bedell for Enterprise Architecture2011In: Proceedings of the Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops (EDOCW), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If and where IT investments should be made can be determined with the help of IT portfolio valuation instruments. An interesting approach is Bedell?s method. However, this method originates from a time where enterprises were structured according to the classical silo architecture. Nowadays the importance of IT has increased, and IT systems and services are more and more interwoven with the business. Enterprise Architecture is a model-based approach that takes into consideration how companies are structured today and how they apply IT. In order to use Enterprise Architecture models in conjunction with Bedell?s method the method needs to be extended. This paper presents an updated version of Bedell?s method that exploits Enterprise Architecture models, in particular the information they contain about the alignment of IT support to the business. In addition, the paper illustrates the application of the method using an example.

  • 47.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A tool for enterprise architecture analysis using the PRM formalism2010In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture advocates model-based decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide decisionmaking support, enterprise architecture models should not only be descriptive but also enable analysis. This paper presents a software tool, currently under development, for the evaluation of enterprise architecture models. In particular, the paper focuses on how to encode scientific theories so that they can be used for model-based analysis and reasoning under uncertainty. The tool architecture is described, and a case study shows how the tool supports the process of enterprise architecture analysis.

  • 48.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Tool for Enterprise Architecture Analysis Using the PRM Formalism2011In: INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVOLUTION / [ed] Soffer P; Proper E, 2011, Vol. 72, p. 108-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture advocates for model-based decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide decision-making support, enterprise architecture models should not only be descriptive but also enable analysis. This paper presents a software tool, currently under development, for the evaluation of enterprise architecture models. In particular, the paper focuses on how to encode scientific theories so that they can be used for model-based analysis and reasoning under uncertainty. The tool architecture is described, and a case study shows how the tool supports the process of enterprise architecture analysis.

  • 49.
    Camara Jurado, Mercedes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Visual Planning in Lean Product Development2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis aims to provide a broader understanding of what Visual Planning is and how it can be combined with other methods to enhance the efficiency in product development projects.

    The investigation and empirical part of the study has been conducted by qualitative research based on interviews, observations and informal conversations with people from two different Swedish companies. The results were used in a comparative case study conducted with the purpose to provide an overview about how Visual Planning is used and applied in Lean product development projects inside the Swedish industry.

    It has been found that Visual Planning constitutes a useful and favorable method for enhancing different aspects such as communication and knowledge transfer among the team members, and for avoiding task overlapping, problems and misunderstandings during the project development.

    However the method has some limitations which become significant barriers to the progress of projects. These hurdles would be eliminated with the use of software tools that would make the project development run in a smoother and more efficient way.

  • 50.
    Candela, Esther
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of a Mid-size Industry Load Management Aggregator on the Swedish Nordic Control Market2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The vast amount of research on the global climate are converging to more homogeneous results and it becomes commonly accepted that the scientists' warnings has to be taken into account. As a result, politicians set high goals for the penetration of \green electricity", trying to limit the global warming by phasing out fossil fueled power plants.

    The European Union has set the \20{20{20"-targets that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase the share of renewable energy and also increase the eciency of the energy use.

    This has led to increases of wind power, solar power and other innovative forms of Distributed Generation (DG) on the electricity grids. In order to successfully integrate this power, the need for Balance power increases due to the unreliability of forecasts of nature's forces. In the Nordic countries, there is abundant quantities of hydro-power to balance the system, but there is a discussion on how much DG it can cover which has not lead yet to any denite conclusions.

    The rapid development of ICT has opened up a broad range of possibilities for Smart Grid solutions. This thesis was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic potential for an Aggregator to act on the Nordic Control market. The Aggregator is an actor that pools consumers in order to gather a signicant amount of power and then use their exibility for dierent purposes. This thesis will deal with exibility provided by Swedish midsize industries.

    Through a literature study, an understanding of the Nordic electricity system and the market was acquired. Interesting electricity-heavy processes were found within a few dierent branches by performing interviews and a couple of study visits. But because of the limited time that was assigned to the project, it was chosen to focus on freeze storages, that seemed like the most promising load.

    The study of the market and the chosen load led to the construction of a few dierent mathematical models. First of all the Aggregator business case was applied on deterministic data from the year 2012. The Aggregator prot was maximized for the whole year, to give an approximation of the magnitude of the prot. Then, a model that generated realistic, stochastic scenarios of the relevant parameters in the system was constructed to enable further analysis of the possibilities in dierent future scenarios.

    The results showed that there is a prot to be made, without too extensive investments. Though, due to the problematics of forecasting the Control Market, the Aggregator needs to have a carefully worked through strategy for its bidding on the Control Market. . .

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