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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Hassan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Energy need assessment and preferential choice survey of rural people in Bangladesh2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of a poly generation project which will use animal waste or agricultural waste to produce biogas and will provide cooking gas, electricity and arsenic free clean water for drinking in rural areas of Bangladesh.  The study mainly analyzes the cooking and lighting energy demand of households across different income groups in a village named “Pani Para” in the Faridpur district in Bangladesh and also looks at the potential of biogas in the village. It has been done by adopting case study method and conducting a survey in the village using a questionnaire.

    Fuel mix across different income groups for meeting their cooking and lighting energy needs have also been studied along with socio-economic situation of the villagers and their preferences to change their current cooking fuel utilization patterns. Various scenarios like variation in fuel consumption patterns, priority of income expenditure and access to fuel with income level have been examined. The study also focuses to analyze the awareness of the villagers about biogas technology and their willingness to contribute for the poly generation project along with the willingness of households to pay for embracing change in current cooking and lighting fuels. Biomass potential i.e. cow dung and agricultural waste is also calculated in the surveyed village along with the production of biogas from the available biomass resources. The scenarios to provide the cooking gas, electricity and clean water through biogas poly generation project from the available resources are also investigated.

    Analysis reveals that the total energy consumption (cooking and lighting) increases with the increase in the income level among the households. Average household cooking and lighting energy demand by low, medium and high income groups is 8492 kWh/yr, 9789 kWh/yr and 14806 kWh/yr respectively. Cooking energy demand and agricultural waste consumption also show an increasing trend with the increase in land holding size. Among the income expenditure priorities food is one of the most important priorities and energy being less important due to availability of biomass at little or no cost. Awareness of biogas technology among the households and willingness to contribute for the poly generation plant shows an increasing trend with the increase in education level. The study shows that there is a positive response of the villagers for being willing to embrace the change in the current cooking patterns as well as welcoming new technologies that could support such a change.

    It was found that the cow dung resource in the village is not enough to produce sufficient biogas for the poly generation project. With the incorporation of the agricultural waste with the cow dung, biogas production comes quite close to requirement of the poly generation plant but however could not suffice it completely due to the lack of raw material in the studied village. In that case the scenario of providing electricity and clean water to all the villagers and providing all the three facilities to the 2/3rd of households is investigated. 1/3rd of the low income households then could meet their cooking demands by provision of improved cooking stoves as cooking gas could not be provided to them due to limited feedstock. The study shows that despite of the fact that cooking and lighting energy needs increase with income but there is not much variation in the fuel mix and almost everyone in the village rely on biomass to meet their energy demand. It is because there is very limited access to the modern fuel for cooking and no electricity access in the village, so the households have to rely on the traditional fuels. 

  • 2.
    Akter, Nasrin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Energy Need Assessment and Preferential Choice Survey o fMatipukur Village in Bangladesh: Energy Need Assessment and Preferential Choice Survey of Rural People in Bangladesh2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to perform a baseline energy survey to understand the existing energy demand and usepattern and to verify the feasibility of a small scale poly-generation project supported by renewable sources ofenergy (biogas based) in a rural area of Bangladesh. A poly-generation solution shall provide multiple outputservices of clean gas, electricity and arsenic free water supply. The project requires using animal dung oragricultural waste to produce biogas and electric energy. The study has analyzed the demand of domesticenergy and water of the village named ‘Matipukur’ in the Jessore district in Bangladesh. The study alsoconsidered available biomass feedstock and energy potential surrounding the village area, as well as the socioeconomicstatus of villagers. The case study included a door to door survey to collect relevant information.Three different economic groups in terms of income scale were investigated throughout the study to obtainbetter insight of the energy-water access situation, requirements and related problems in the village.

    Almost 98% household of this village relies on biomass for energy due to limited access of modern fuel. Thevillage has various biomass potential in the form of animal dung, fuel wood and agricultural waste which can beused for cooking or serve as the basis for other energy carriers. Kerosene is used for lighting. Among thedifferent fuels, dung meets about 44% of the total demand. The contribution of other fuels for domestic use is24% firewood, 22% agricultural waste, and 2% kerosene. The analytical observation found that the annualaverage energy demand of the village is 8.45 GJ per capita. The share of average demand for cooking and3lighting energy is 8.24 GJ per person/year and 0.21 GJ per person/year respectively. The energy consumptionvaries within different income groups. This study has examined the income per capita, family size, education,agricultural land holding per capita, priorities of their annual expenditure etc. which have direct influence onthe fuel consumption pattern of the household. It could be observed that expenses on energy changes as theincome level increases. About awareness of biogas opportunities and willingness to provide feedstock for apoly generation project, the majority of households answered positively, that is, indicating that they wouldcontribute. Educated respondents showed more positive attitude. Regarding changing of traditional cooking,about 95% of the respondents want to change to a more efficient and reliable cooking system to avoid healthand environmental problems associated with indoor biomass cooking.

    The study has revealed that only cow dung is not enough to produce clean energy according to demand so theco-digestion method is considered to producing biogas from various energy potentials (animal manure &agricultural waste). The poly-generation system could work with the scenario providing electricity and watersupply for the entire household and cooking gas is limited only for 2/3rd household. Rest 1/3rd household fromlow income group then could be supplied with improve cook stove to meet their daily cooking demand and tominimize indoor pollutions. It is observed that, majority of household has expressed their willingness toprovide raw materials for poly-generation plant though they are using.

  • 3.
    Al Naami, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-economic Feasibility Study of a Biogas Plant for Treating Food Waste Collected from Households in Kartamantul Region, Yogyakarta2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the potential of biogas production using food waste collected from the region of Kartamantul in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Biogas can be used for cooking and generating electricity. The study compares two different end uses or markets for utilizing the biogas in the region. The daily food waste collected in the region of Kartamantul is 120 tonnes. This corresponds to a daily biogas production of 13 087 m3. Electricity generated from biogas can replace fossil-based coal electricity while cooking biogas can substitute the common fossil fuel liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). The price for selling one kWh of electricity to the state owned enterprise PLN is 16.5 USD cents. The price for selling one m3 of biogas for cooking is 38.5 USD cents, which is equivalent to the available price of LPG. The study finds that the avoided emission due to the substitution of fossil-based coal electricity and cooking LPG-gas is around 64 GgCO2-eq per year.

    Considering the economical results for a life span of 20 years in the first utilization option Biogas for Electricity gives a net present value (NPV) of 2 MUSD while for the utilization option Biogas for Cooking gives a net present value (NPV) of 5.82 MUSD. The breakeven for Biogas for Electricity is 13.8 USD cents per kWhe while for Biogas for Cooking is 25.5 USD cents per m3-biogas. The study concludes that it is feasible to invest in AD plant in the region of Kartamantul where both markets are profitable and environmentally friendly. 

  • 4.
    António Soares, Castro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Energy Balance of Jatropha Plantation in Sun Biofuel Farm in Central Mozambique2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Aragaw, Zereay
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Mainstreaming sustainable energy access in the development planning proccess of Ethiopia2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For least developing countries with large rural population living in severe poverty such as Ethiopia, access to modern and sustainable energy services is a real challenge. Dealing with the lack of modern energy services at local level and the needs for economic development at national level is a major challenge in the policy and decision making process. This particular study takes the case of Ethiopia to investigate the existing challenges and future prospects of mainstreaming sustainable energy access into the country’s development planning process, and the consequences for international development financiers, national policy makers, private actors and local energy planners and experts. The roles and approaches of various developmental agencies are reviewed based on the effectiveness and sustainability of cooperation models with governmental institutions. To this end, this study establishes an understanding of institutional, financial and policy elements related to both state and non-state actors. Accordingly, readiness of the rural energy sector to adopt sector–perspective and national development approaches to mainstream sustainable energy access is investigated. The thesis emphasizes the need for all stakeholders to cooperate and take advantage of local potentials and external opportunities in light of the new momentum for sustainable energy access in the global agenda.

  • 6.
    Aue, Gabriela
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Possibilities for Biogas in Bolivia: Symbioses Between Generators of Organic Residues,  Biogas Producers and Biogas Users2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates the potential use of biogas from organic residues in the area of the cities of La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia. The two cities have currently a contamination problem and biogas emerges as opportunity for both waste management and energy generation. There are approximately 274 500 tonnes/year of residue that can be used to produce biogas. This amount of residue can generate approximately 33,500,000 m3 of biogas. The advantages and disadvantages of five different digester types (the smaller tubular digester, the fixed dome digester, the floating drum digester and the bigger German AEV digester and a Swedish digester) were investigated to see if they could be an option for use in Bolivia. The German AEV digester is better when compared to the Swedish unit from Flotech in case a larger biogas digester would be implemented. Among the smaller digesters, the tubular digester already has access to the necessary resources and knowledge, and they can be operated at a cheap price. The fixed dome digester and the floating drum digester are  not used in Bolivia at present, and there is no knowledge in the country about how to implement them.  There are technical, social and economic issues related to an eventual installation of a big digester in Bolivia including transportation logistics and costs, how to motivate the population to sort out the different residues, and also the state subvention of natural gas production that lowers the price of biogas required to make it competitive. To see if it is economically viable to build a functional biogas generator for this area, economic data were compared. The analysis shows that the fixed dome and floating drum digester are much better economic investment than the tube digester. The bigger digesters are economically viable without financial aid if there is a market for the by- product fertiliser in Bolivia. The data for this analyse also shows that the conditions that exist today in Bolivia make it economically viable to invest in a bigger digester but only the fixed dome and the floating drum digester are economically viable without a market from the fertiliser

  • 7.
    Barragán, Camila
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Reducing emissions in the Mexican power sector: Economic and political feasibility analysis of policy mechanisms2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    BEAUVISAGE, Audry
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Market opportunities to develop wind power in North Africa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Benichou, Léo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Future Energy Supply, Simulations with Limited Resources2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many different organizations publish energy scenarios, from International Energy Agencyto oilproducers, but also independent academic institutions or experts. Each of these scenarios presentsome particularities. They may also reflect the interests of the institutions producing them. Ifpolicy makers are to safely rely on some scenarios for planning and analysis, there is clear needfor awareness rising regarding energy scenarios and, more generally, the future energy constraint.

    The Shift Project think tank addresses energy and climate change constraints in the modern world.The double degree thesis work presented in this report is the result of a five month internshipwith the Shift Project. The work was dedicated to, on the one hand, the implementation of an onlineinformation platform gathering long term historical data and energy scenarios and, on the otherhand, the development of an analytical framework for energy scenarios. These tools bring a betterunderstanding of published scenarios first by providing a unique overview of the whole ‘scenariolandscape’ allowing making comparison on relative scales and questioning their credibility. Theobjective is to increase transparency around the assumptions and meaning of the scenarios. Thetools produced will help decision makers by providing transparent material and operative filters inthe wide information base of energy scenarios. Ultimately, they help highlight the keyissuesinfluencing the global energy agenda.

  • 10.
    Berraho, Driss
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Options for the Japanese energy mix by 2050: -2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Great East Japan earthquake and the resulting tsunami struck Japan east coast on March 11th 2011. All nuclear power plants on the east coast were automatically shut down, and several thermal plants were damaged: Japan was left with only 19% of its nuclear capacity available (i.e. 9 GW). The Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant underwent major incidents, with a fusion of the nuclear core and radioactivity leakage, the most important nuclear accident since Chernobyl.

    During the summer 2011, the Japanese government undertook emergency measures to offset the expected 20% capacity shortage in Tokyo and Tohoku areas. On the supply side, capacity was recovered by restarting and restoring fossil-fuelled power generation, and importing power from neighboring areas. On the demand side, stringent demand restriction measures led to a summer peak demand 10 GW lower in the Tokyo area and 3.1 GW lower in the Tohoku area, compared to 2010.

    In early 2012, only 2 reactors were still in operation, after further nuclear shutdowns. Market-driven electricity conservation reforms and subsidy-driven supply capacity additions aim to avoid emergency measures in the summer 2012 similar to those of summer 2011, and offset the expected 9% power deficit in the country.

    For the longer term, Japan government has launched various initiatives to review the 2010 Basic Energy Plan, which envisaged a nuclear expansion. In this study, a model was developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of three contrasted scenarios, reflecting different options for Japan’s electricity mix by 2050.

    The results show that a nuclear phase-out would induce additional costs of the order of €850bn to the power system over the period 2010-50, compared to the Basic Energy Plan, while also preventing Japan to reach its CO2 emissions’ reduction targets by 2050. A sensitivity analysis shows that a reduced renewables development would lower the cost of the power system, but put aside climate change mitigation and energy security of supply. On the other hand, a reduced electricity demand through energy efficiency measures would have a positive impact on both CO2 emissions and the security of supply.    

  • 11.
    Bubendorfer, Alwin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Adoption of effective improved cookstoves in sub-Sahara Africa: case study in the Arua District2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In rural areas of least developed countries, the preparation of meals remains the predominant energy consuming activity. Cooking is mostly performed with firewood – using the ancient “technology” of the 3-stone fire. This practice results in numerous challenges that hinder the transformation envisioned by the Millennium Development Goals and it therefore contributes towards slowing the development of rural areas. Activities focussing on amending this status-quo can be termed insufficient in scope- and sustainability.

    The main deficiencies of most projects are that the prime focus of the mainstream of these endeavours has been on demand side management, mainly performed by disseminating cookstoves, and that there has been little innovation in respect to raising stove adoption rates. As the strict efficiency focus obviously only captures one side of the problem – merely focussing on treating symptoms rather than providing an effective solution, this thesis stresses the need for a paradigm shift towards more holistic interventions.

    This work very much focuses on the topic of stove adoption. This is a complex topic - very much linked to attaining behavioural change. Deliberations concluded that the identification of enabling factors for adoption, which can be termed a prerequisite for developing sustainable methods for stove projects, requires a mix of instruments. To suffice the required data demand the initial literature review was complemented by a thorough assessment of the kitchen environment and the cooking behaviour of stove owners. The fieldwork concentrated on 210 beneficiaries of an efficient cookstove project. The applied methods included interviews, observations and pictorial documentation.

    As a remedy to the challenges and current shortcomings identified during field work and literature review, the author herein develops a novel and more holistic implementation strategy for stove projects – the so- called 3-Step approach. This is based on the simultaneous implementation of availing cookstoves, building capacity in respect to kitchen management, as well as performing small-scale household level tree planting.

    The research, which further encompassed the piloting of the 3-Step approach, led to the overall conclusion that the proposed increase in project scope holds a multitude of opportunities for improving the livelihoods of the rural target groups. The main impact of this innovative strategy lies in a decrease of average transaction costs as well as in a considerable increase in project sustainability. As will be extensively elaborated, the former is achieved by a more effective utilisation of the extensive infrastructure of trained artisans. The latter refers to the expected income increase on household level, as well as to improvements in environmental- and human health. In combination these enable rural communities to better adapt to climate change. 

  • 12.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Achieving Universal Access to Electricity through Decentralized Renewable Energy Technologies in Minas Gerais, Brazil2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil started the Luz Para Todos (Light for all - LPT) program in 2003 aiming at universalization of electricity access in the country. The program uses three technological solutions to reach this goal: grid extension, decentralized power generation with isolated grids and stand-alone systems. This master thesis analyzes the role of decentralized renewable energy technologies in the Luz Para Todos program in the state of Minas Gerais. The factors that lead to the use of such technologies in the specific case of CEMIG (Energy Company of Minas Gerais) are considered. The study showed that regulatory framework and energy policy mechanisms are the most important determinants of the method of attendance in rural electrification. It is concluded that decentralized renewable energy technologies emerge as a strong alternative when it is not technologically and/or financially feasible to extend the grid. 

  • 13.
    Caille L'Etienne, Thibault
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Potential for Biogas Production from Residues of a Slaughter House at High Altitude in Bolivia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for biogas production with residues of a slaughter house in the climatic conditions of LaPaz has been determined during the master’s thesis. The project was carried out at a pilot plantconsisting of three tubular biodigesters made of polyethylene.

    The study showed that there is strong potential for biogas and biofertilizer production from residues ofslaughter houses at high altitude and cold climate in Bolivia, even by using blood which is the majorcomponent responsible of the water contamination. This production led to avoid water contamination,to limit the greenhouse effect by limiting the methane release into the atmosphere due to uncontrolledwaste management, and to improve the agriculture yields through the use of organic fertilizer. After afirst period of investigation, new parameters of operation of the pilot plant were defined in order tooptimize the biogas and biofertilizer production. But the tubular biodigesters made of polyethylenecould difficultly be further developed at industrial scale.

    Thus the final part of the project consisted in the design of a new type of low-cost pilot plant whichcould solve the environmental burden caused by slaughter houses residues in all Bolivia, whilegenerating more economical benefits from the biogas and biofertilizer production. This pilot plant wasintended to be further scaled-up and developed in all Bolivia if the new investigation carried out afterthe master’s thesis would give satisfactory results. The estimations of industrial plants based on theresults of the pilot plant of Achachicala showed that the slaughter houses could work only by usingbiogas resulting from the anaerobic digestion of their residues, while generating important amounts ofbiofertilizer which would be a source of important economical benefits.

  • 14.
    Cechin, Andrei
    et al.
    Wageningen University.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Economia verde: por que o otimismo deve ser aliado ao ceticismo da razão2012In: Estudos Avançados, ISSN 0103-4014, E-ISSN 1806-9592, Vol. 26, no 74, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy initiative carries with it the optimistic view that theeconomy can and should be driven by investments in clean activities as opposed to theextraction of natural resources and polluting industries. However there are limits to theemphasis that is often put on efficiency improvements and on the substitution betweensectors of an economy. For the economy to be green, the reduction in environmentalimpact per unit of GDP should be higher than GDP growth over a period. Even thoughrecent evidence shows that some countries aparently passed the peak in the use of materialsand energy, global extraction of natural resources and CO2 emissions has increased.A probable cause is that rich countries have outsourced polluting activities to poorercountries. It is time to bring the skepticism of reason to the debate and seriously discussdegrowth, not of GDP or of opportunities for human development, but of the globalresource extration and carbon emissions.

  • 15. Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA): An application for the industry2013In: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 1315-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the management in Colombian industrial sectors using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This method conceptualizes cases as combinations of attributes and use Boolean algebra to derive simplified expressions of combinations that lead to a specific outcome. In this analysis, we show the value of this method for studying the management in the industrial from different approaches.

  • 16. Cotte Poveda, Alexander
    et al.
    Pardo Martínez, Clara Inés
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Trends in economic growth, poverty and energy in Colombia: long-run and short-run effects2011In: Energy Systems, Springer Verlag, ISSN 1868-3967, E-ISSN 1868-3975, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 281-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research analyses the long run and short run relationships among economic growth, poverty and energy using the Colombian case. In this study, we use the time-series methodologies. The results regarding the relationship among economic growth, poverty and energy show that increases in gross domestic product and energy supply per capita should lead a decrease of poverty, which should demonstrate that access to modern and adequate energy services help to decrease poverty and to increase economic growth. Moreover, the improvements in energy efficiency have contributed to increase economic growth from an approach of sustainable development. These results are important for the adequate design, formulation and application of policies and strategies that encourage a better energy use to improve economic growth and decrease poverty, especially in developing countries.

  • 17.
    Courboin, Matthieu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Programmatic Joint Implementation Mechanism: an Efficient Way to Mitigate Non-Concentrated CO2 Emissions in Europe?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many sectors of the European economy are out of the scope of any climate mitigation systems despite the fact that they emit significant amounts of non-concentrated greenhouse gas emissions. This is the case for agriculture, housing and transportation. At the same time, the Joint Implementation mechanism, one of the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, is compatible with theprogrammatic approach, which is well adapted to non-concentrated emissionsreduction as it allows wider flexibility in the replication of small-scale projects. Nevertheless, ambitious mitigating programs need a significant amount of investment and the risk for credit deliveries is often not coverable by a uniqueinvestor. Carbon funds seem to be a good solution to this issue since they raise asignificant amount of public and private capitals and share the risk among severalinvestors. A last barrier remains though. The regulation context is not yet welldefined for the post-2012 period thus preventing investments to increasesignificantly in joint implementation projects. This mechanism should be kept andimproved in the next phase to become an important tool to decarbonize theEuropean societies and reach the target for 2020.

  • 18. de Carvalho, Carolina Monteiro
    et al.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    La Rovere, Emilio Lebre
    Iwama, Allan Yu
    Deforested and degraded land available for the expansion of palm oil for biodiesel in the state of Para in the Brazilian Amazon2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 44, p. 867-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper maps the availability of deforested and degraded land in the state of Para in the eastern Amazon and discusses the feasibility of using this land for the expansion of palm crops for biodiesel production. The ultimate objective is to highlight land that is suitable for palm oil and its availability/distribution, so that the palm oil expansion envisaged by the Brazilian Government's Sustainable Palm Oil Program can be achieved in a sustainable way. The analysis is developed with the support of geoprocessing techniques that pull data together from different sources, including the Agroecological Zoning (ZAE) developed for palm oil in Brazil and degraded land data. The analysis identifies some of the challenges faced when planning and monitoring the expansion of palm oil in the Amazon, including the need for an operational concept to identify and use degraded land.

  • 19.
    de Lange, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The impact of Noise & Air Pollution on property prices in Stockholm2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    de Maio, Pasquale
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimization analysis of secondlifebatteries integration in fastchargersfor electric vehicles inSpain2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project investigates the viability of using reconditioned batteries, which have lost part of their original

    capacity while powering electric vehicles (EVs), to minimize the expenses of fast-charging infrastructures

    under the three charging scenarios where fast-charging mode is likely to be needed the most. The analysis

    is conducted for the Spanish scenario and considers the retail electricity tariff that best suits the requirements of a FCS. The economic analysis is performed on an annual basis and is tackled with an optimization algorithm, formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem and run on MATLAB. The expected lifetime of the ESS, being made of reused automotive cells, is estimated with a semi-empirical approach, using an iterative process and implemented in MATLAB. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on three input parameters that were identified to have a considerable impact on the system design and performance.

     

    Overall, results show that with current figures energy storage integration in FCSs is viable as it effectively

    reduces the infrastructure expenses in all scenarios. Peak-shaving is identified as the main source of cost

    savings while demand shifting is not effective at all. The latter is further discussed in the sensitivity analysis

    and some considerations are elaborated. The most profitable scenario for storage integration is the case of

    a fast-charger located in a urban environment while, surprisingly, the lowest cost savings are obtained in the highway case. The sensitivity analysis illustrates the impact and effects that electricity prices and specific cost of both the power converter and the second-life batteries produce on the optimal system design. Moreover, charging demand profiles are deeply analyzed and their main implications highlighted.

  • 21.
    De Silva, Tharukara Sudath Priyantha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Develop strategies to increase the Non Conventional Renewable Energy power generation in Sri Lanka above 10% level by the year 20152012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    World’s energy needs are increasing day by day and meeting that ever increasing demand by fossil fuels is becoming difficult due to factors like scarcity of the resource, vulnerability of supply due to political unrest of fuel rich countries, and environmental implications of usage. As a result, Usage of renewable energy resources as alternatives is becoming popular and important.

    Sri Lanka has already committed to achieve 10% of grid connected electricity energy from Non Conventional Renewable Energy sources by the year 2015 and launched many programs to support that initiative.

    Under this dissertation, a broad study on present and future electricity generation and transmission network of Sri Lanka are carried out referring the most recent CEB publications like Long Term Generation Expansion Plan and Transmission Expansion plans and further using the expert opinions. Special attention is given to calculate present and future (2015) Non Conventional Renewable Energy share of power generation considering the constraints and mentioning the assumptions. Existing policies to promote NCRE power generation are reviewed while discussing the barriers.

    Wind has identified as the viable potential candidate as future NCRE power generation option even though the near term capacity is limited due to grid constraints and inadequate transmission and distribution network. It is recommended to the government to start an accelerated wind power harness program by addressing the issues pertaining to the technology. The strategies developed under the study are all about to achieve more than 10% target by the year 2015.

  • 22.
    Dharmala, Nikhilesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    A decentralized energy option for rural electrification - Using polygeneration in India2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity access is undeniably linked to equity and economic development especially among the rural communities. Clean cooking energy and safe drinking water are also essential for their socio-economic progress. When addressed in an integrated manner, interventions on these systems could have a wider impact. In this context, this study explores the feasibility and potential impacts of a polygeneration system that provides electricity, cooking gas and clean water to a rural village in India. Developed through a case study methodology, this thesis examines the potential of local resources for power generation and cooking. The system considers the use of electricity for water purification. With the help of a socio-economic survey and a field visit, the demand of electricity in the village is calculated. Based on the results from the resource estimation and demand survey, a polygeneration system with solar and biogas technologies has been designed using the techno-economic optimization software HOMER. The study also estimates ability and willingness to pay of the rural households for electricity. The willingness to pay estimate was based on a bidding game approach, and the influence of price and availability of existing fuels was also analyzed. Based on the existing socio- economic status and attitudes of the local population towards electricity use, potential impacts of polygeneration system on the lives of the villagers have been identified. The analysis concluded that a polygeneration system based on solar PV and biogas technologies is ideal for the village. The project has the potential to supply biogas to 60 % of the households. The levelized cost of electricity from such a system is calculated to be $/kWh 0.262, about five times higher than electricity paid by users connected to the national grid. Yet, the system provides an opportunity to bring energy and clean water services to the village where grid extension is unfeasible due to the particular topography of the region. With access to uninterrupted electricity, cleaner cooking fuels and clean water, the villagers are estimated to primarily benefit in terms of health, education, income generation, safety, entertainment, and comfort.

  • 23.
    Dias Batista, Edgard
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Etanolens hållbarhet – en litteraturöversikt2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Etanol är ett omdebatterat bränsle bland miljödebattörer och politiker, men även bland forskare. I denna studie har 192 vetenskapligt granskade artiklar om etanol studerats och slutsatserna kvantifierats. Slutsatserna har delats in i sex frågeområden, utöver de övergripande slutsatser om etanol som hållbart drivmedel. Litteraturstudien visar att en majoritet av artiklarna har slutsatser som är positiva till att använda etanol som biodrivmedel. Sammanställningen över artiklarnas övergripande slutsatser, som är den viktigaste frågan i studien, visar att 65 procent av slutsatserna är positiva eller mycket positiva, 10 procent av artiklarna är neutrala eller ofullständiga, medan summan av de negativa och helt negativa slutsatserna är 25 procent. Inom samtliga sex områden är andelen positiva slutsatser högre än de negativa. Frågan där fördelningen är jämnast gäller den om etanolens inverkan på livsmedelspriser och livsmedelsproduktion där 54 procent av artiklarna var positiva eller mycket positiva till använda etanol som drivmedel. 43 procent var negativa eller mycket negativa.

  • 24.
    Dreier, Dennis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Assessing the potential of fuel saving and emissions reduction of the bus rapid transit system in Curitiba, Brazil2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector contributes significantly to global energy use and emissions due to its traditional dependency on fossil fuels. Climate change, security of energy supply and increasing mobility demand is mobilising governments around the challenges of sustainable transport. Immediate opportunities to reduce emissions exist through the adoption of new bus technologies, e.g. advanced powertrains. This thesis analysed energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of conventional, hybrid-electric, and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses including two-axle, articulated, and biarticulated chassis types (A total of 6 bus types) for the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel) in Curitiba, Brazil. The systems analysis tool – Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) and a carbon balance method were applied. Seven bus routes and six operation times for each (i.e. 42 driving cycles) are considered based on real-world data. The results show that hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses consume 30% and 58% less energy per distance (MJ/km) compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (i.e. 17.46 MJ/km). Additionally, the energy use per passenger-distance (MJ/pkm) of a conventional biarticulated city bus amounts to 0.22 MJ/pkm, which is 41% and 24% lower compared to conventional and hybrid-electric two-axle city buses, respectively. This is mainly due to the former’s large passenger carrying capacity. Large passenger carrying capacities can reduce energy use (MJ/pkm) if the occupancy rate of the city bus is sufficient high. Bus routes with fewer stops decrease energy use by 10-26% depending on the city bus, because of reductions in losses from acceleration and braking. The CO2 emissions are linearly proportional to the estimated energy use following from the carbon balance method, e.g. CO2 emissions for a conventional two-axle city bus amount to 1299 g/km. Further results show that energy use of city bus operation depends on the operation time due to different traffic conditions and driving cycle characteristics. An additional analysis shows that energy use estimations can vary strongly between considered driving cycles from real-world data. The study concludes that advanced powertrains with electric drive capabilities, large passenger carrying capacities and bus routes with a fewer number of bus stops are beneficial in terms of reducing energy use and CO2 emissions of city bus operation in Curitiba.

  • 25.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart City Concepts in Curitiba - innovation for sustainable mobility and energy efficiency: Project NEWSLETTER, January 20162016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart City Concepts in Curitiba - innovation for sustainable mobility and energy efficiency: Project NEWSLETTER, November 20162016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, K. V. O.
    Nieweglowski, R.
    Schepanski, R.
    Well-to-Wheel analysis of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric city buses in the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 58, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates Well-to-Wheel (WTW) fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for six types of city buses with conventional, hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains, including two-axle, articulated and bi-articulated chassis in the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) system in Curitiba, Brazil. Particular emphasis is put on the operation phase (Tank-to-Wheel, TTW) of the city buses using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR). The simulations are based on real-world driving patterns collected from Curitiba, comprising 42 driving cycles that represent city bus operation on seven BRT routes with six operation times for each. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric two-axle city buses use 30% and 75% less WTW fossil energy per distance compared to a conventional two-axle city bus (19.46 MJfossil,WTW/km). This gives an absolute reduction of 1115 gCO2e,WTW/km in WTW GHG emissions when operating a plug-in hybrid-electric city bus instead of a conventional two-axle city bus (1539 gCO2e,WTW/km). However, a conventional bi-articulated city bus can be environment-friendlier than hybrid-electric city buses in terms of WTW fossil energy use and WTW GHG emissions per passenger-distance, if its passenger capacity is sufficiently utilised. Nonetheless, the plug-in hybrid-electric city bus remains the most energy-efficient and less polluting option. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric powertrains offer the possibility to achieve much higher levels of decarbonisation in the BRT system in Curitiba than the blending mandate of 7%vol biodiesel into diesel implemented in Brazil in 2016. In addition, the simulations show that TTW energy use can considerably vary by up to 77% between different operation times, BRT routes and types of city buses. In conclusion, advanced powertrains and large passenger capacity utilisation can promote sustainability in Curitiba's BRT system. The results of this analysis provide important insights for decision makers both in Curitiba and other cities with similar conditions.

  • 28.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Fonseca, Keiko V.O.
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieweglowski, Rafael
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Schepanski, Renan
    Volvo Bus Corporation, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Energy use and CO2 emissions of city buses in Curitiba, Brazil2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Dreier, Dennis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Ramos, Silvia Mara dos Santos
    URBS – Urbanization of Curitiba S/A, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Scenarios for the Bus Rapid Transit System in Curitiba, Brazil: a well-to-wheel analysis2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Düllmann Vasques Pereira, Joana Lena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Decarbonizing Public Bus Transport – a case study on Curitiba, Brazil2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is becoming a major issue in cities across the world, its common cause being the use of fossil fuel combustion engines in both private and collective transport modes. However, alternative technologies, such as biofuels, hybrid and battery electric vehicles, are on the rise.

    The objective of this thesis is to assess the optimal system’s configuration – a combination of electric traction and the use of biofuels – in a sub-group of Curitiba’s public bus network through the application of two optimisation models – least energy consumption and least cost. Based on these models, total energy, cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be calculated for different scenarios to identify the advantages of switching to a low-carbon system. Furthermore, these models can be used by planners and decision makers as a starting point in defining the path towards a cleaner transport system.

    The results from the energy optimisation indicate that electrification is key in reducing total energy consumption, as this technology is by far the most energy efficient. A 12% reduction could be achieved, when compared to the current scenario (only using diesel B7), and CO2 emissions could be cut by 74%.

    The cost optimisation shows that electrification is not yet cost competitive compared to other biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas), as biodiesel is the only technology selected by the model due to its overall lower cost. Nonetheless, if electricity costs are reduced, which can be achieved, for example, through a reduction or abolition of taxes, electrification becomes an attractive alternative to biofuels. Under these conditions (40% lower electricity price), energy consumption is reduced by 5% and GHG emissions are cut down to 30%.

    Political will and strategies to decrease the cost of vehicles turn out to be essential in supporting electrification in public transport. Furthermore, adaptations in the time schedules and the organisation of the main transport hubs are required to accommodate battery electric buses.  The number of fast charging stations is usually on a par with the number of bus routes to be electrified. Cost synergies achieved by sharing the cost of a charger among electrified routes with a common start/end stop are crucial to secure the attractiveness of e-mobility. This underlines the importance of analysing infrastructure needs in public transport networks holistically.

  • 31.
    Egeskog, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Scheer, Jannik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Life Cycle and Water Footprint Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Indonesia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Emran, Saad Been
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Study on the climate change mitigation potential of a poly-generation system in Bangladesh – a supply chain analysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Livestock and poultry are two growing subsectors of global farming economy with an impact on the environment and thus deserving closer attention. While the farms play a major role in providing protein essential for human diets, they are also sources of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Hence, the sectors need to improve their environmental performance and mitigate their negative impacts on climate.

    To estimate the annual GHG emissions from a dairy and poultry farm, a case study was conducted in the rural area of Bangladesh. The study has considered the supply chains of both farms while estimating the emissions.  The study also estimated the GHG emission reduction potential of a small biogas based polygeneration system aimed at providing energy services in the rural area. LCA (lifecycle assessment) has been used as the main tool while estimating the emissions.

  • 33.
    Essendrup, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Wennberg, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Etanol från Brasilien till Sverige - Hinder för en ökad användning och import av biobränslet etanol.2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of ethanol as fuel in Sweden and Europe has led to increased trade and managementneeds. The ethanolused in Sweden and Europe origins from Brazil, Europe and Sweden.

    Ethanol is surrounded by many restrictions on the Swedish, as well as the Brazilian and theEuropean market. In some cases these can be seen as trading obstacles. The purpose of this reportis to find the obstacles that appear in the chain with an increase in the use and import of ethanolas fuel. These obstructions can be divided into three main types of obstacles.

    Reasons caused by rules, agreements and standards that have emerged between countries in the world,within the EU as well as within Sweden and Brazil. An example is the import tax, which is set veryhigh so that the Brazilian ethanol cannot compete with the European produced ethanol despiteoffering economical and ecological advantages.

    Secondly, obstacles have emerged from purely technical and logistical difficulties in the chainfrom Brazil to Sweden. An example is the gasoline companies who do not have the right to trade withethanol in the same way that they do with gasoline. The main obstruction in the logistical chain isthe lack of tanks to store ethanol. As ethanol can be solved in wat er the ethanol requires ahigher standard on the tank which there is a major lack of both in Brazil and Sweden. These obstacles are being worked at as this report is being written; new tanks are being built all over theworld to store new fuels and new recommendations are to be presented this year (2008) regarding theinternal trade logistics.

    The third obstacle is the debate in the Swedish media which is mostly negatively twisted and oftencompletely wrong. Unfortunately this has led to a decrease in flex fuel car sales. There need to bemore rightful information coming out to the people. It is good that all the different fuels arecompared to each other to show that none of them is perfect but even moreimportant to show how important it is to choose the best available option in the market.

  • 34.
    Faraggi, Paul
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Smart Grids: Evolution of the networks' economic steering modes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electric grid is undergoing significant changes to meet challenges of improved load control and increased generation from renewables, as well as provision of new services. The main goal of this work is to study the impact of grid’s smartening on the electricity value chain. For this, we built a model to assess investments to come on the grid during the period 2010-2030, both on traditional equipments such as lines and substations and on smartening elements. According to the French example, yearly investments would double on average in the twenty years to come compared to 2010. In the three countries considered in this study, namely France, Italy and Sweden, most investments (between 61% and 76%) occur on the distribution area. Moreover, investments on traditional equipment stand for the lion’s share (68% to 80%) of the total, even if they are partly made possible by the smaller investments on smartening elements, which enable the network to be better controlled. The share of investments on smartening elements is 2.6 to 3.1 times higher on the distribution side than on the transmission side: this denotes the fact that the needed increase in control on the grid is larger on distribution than on transmission. Differences may exist between countries regarding forecasted investments and are mainly due to the number of customers, grid’s size and the chosen generation mix. The study ends with a discussion on the repartition of the value brought by forecasted investments between traditional stakeholders and players that may appear on markets driven by new business models.

  • 35.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: Effects on nature protection and socioeconomic development2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 68, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian native vegetation supports essential ecosystem services and biodiversity for the global society, whileland use competition may intensify around the increasing needs for food, fibre and bioenergy. The Brazilian Forest Actof 2012 amplified a market-based mechanism for offsetting native vegetation deficits in private farmlands. Thismechanism enables a large-scale trading system allowing landholders to offset their own deficits of native vegetationby purchasing certificates associated with a surplus of native vegetation from other landholders. This mechanism is analternative for the more expensive restoration of native vegetation on own land. The launching of the mechanism nowdepends on specific regulations at state level, which may include geographical restrictions for offsetting deficits. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the effects in nature protection and socio-economic development of different offsettingimplementation alternatives. Our findings suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario the offsetting mechanism mayhave little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation, because most of the offsetting is likely to takeplace where native vegetation is already protected by prevailing legislations. We concluded that it is possible tomaximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism without undermining productiveland. This would be possible if regulations ensure additionality in nature protection while enabling a self-sustainingmechanism for income generation for small-scale family farmers in the poorest region of Brazil, protecting biodiversityand counteracting major trade-offs between ecosystem services.

  • 36.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    University of São Paulo, Soil Dep..
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Nutrition and Food Systems Division.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: effects on nature protection and socioeconomic developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Fuso Nerini, Francesco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    POSSIBILITIES OF RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON: A Multi Criteria Analysis To Compare The Most Promising Technological Solutions2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 20% of the world population still does not have access to electricity, approximately 1.411 billion people (IEA, 2011). Brazil represents a facet of this reality: electricity access has been recognized as a citizen right, and thanks to the program Luz Para Todos (Light for all) approximately 14 million people have received electricity access since 2003 in the country (ANEEL, 2010).

    However, further extension of the interconnected grid is no longer an option in the Amazon region, due to the long distances that need to be covered and a very difficult topography. There is a need for a new delivery model in which the demand-­‐‑side is privileged and decentralized solutions based on local renewable resources are well investigated. (Gómez and Silveira, 2012). More than 700.000 households still have to be served in Brazil with an off-­‐‑grid connection, most of those in the north of the country (ANEEL 2011). In addition,

    most of the local grids are unsustainably fuelled with Diesel fuel. Diesel generators (DG) are cheaper than renewable solutions in the short term but their operation is costly: The cost of diesel for isolated communities, once the transportation costs are considered, may be two or three times higher than prices charged at gas stations (Silva et al., 2010).

    This study explores the possibility of integrating renewable energy in the Amazon region, both for new installations and for hybridization of the existing diesel generators. For doing that a multi criteria analysis have been developed, to explore all the main aspects that should influence aware decisions among the various systems that can provide Energy services to rural populations in the Amazon. Economic, technologic, environmental, social and institutional factors are explored.

    With this methodology for each system compared the main positive and negative aspects for providing energy services to rural communities with a determined system are studied and commented. DG solutions, considered as benchmark, are compared with hybrid diesel systems (DG + PV), and with renewable systems chosen for their potential in the area (PV, Micro Hydro Installations and Biomass systems).

    The methodology and the conclusions are especially targeted to help decision makers in the region to make more informed choices, with the possibility of looking at a variety of different parameters during the decision process. 

  • 38. Gan, J. B.
    et al.
    Rauscher, H. M.
    Smith, C. T.
    Ashton, S.
    Biles, L.
    Cassidy, D.
    Foster, D.
    Howell, M. R.
    Hubbard, W. G.
    Jackson, B.
    Mayfield, C.
    Mead, D. J.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Taylor, E.
    The southern US forest bioenergy encyclopedia: Making scientific knowledge more accessible2008In: Southern journal of applied forestry, ISSN 0148-4419, E-ISSN 1938-3754, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of forest biomass in sustainably managed forests in the southern United States has great potential to improve forest health, make energy supplies more secure, and increase the social and economic welfare of rural communities. The awareness and access of landowners and forestry and natural resource professionals to new knowledge and market development opportunities must be increased, and new technological advances in knowledge dissemination systems can be very useful in this connection. The Encyclopedia of Southern Bioenergy was developed within The Forest Encyclopedia Network (www. forestencyclopeclia.net/) to facilitate the transfer of useable knowledge from scientific experts in bioenergy and bio-based products to natural resource professionals, landowners, and the general public. Using the encyclopedia as a base, a team of bioenergy and extension education experts has developed several new educational products. These materials are designed as components of an overall biomass training program for the South that is being disseminated through the Southern Regional Extension Forest network.

  • 39.
    Ghiandelli, Marco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Development and implementation of small-scale biogas balloon biodigester in Bali, Indonesia2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Indonesia, due to its abundant resource of organic waste and a climate characterized by elevated and constant temperatures, is perfectly suited for anaerobic degradation and biogas production without applying expensive technologies. A huge number of household-level fixed-dome biodigesters installed in the last years in Indonesia have manifested problems such as costs, complex logistics, a bad follow-up strategy, the poor quality of the material and lack of farmers’ knowledge to operate and maintain the system. For this reason, a local company started to develop a prototype of a household balloon biodigester technology as an alternative to the common system, as a solution for the identified problems. Starting from a deep understanding of the issues shown by the prototype pilot test, a literature review of the anaerobic degradation process and similar technologies applied in developing countries was conducted, and the balloon biodigester was improved and a final product implemented. A second pilot test was carried out to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the technology. Its results showed that, compared with the prototype, the developed balloon design led to an increased time to carry out the installation steps due to the excavation process, but a reduced time to complete the operational activities and higher stability of the balloon. Moreover, the system provided almost the same output as the fixed-dome digester, achieving biogas to cook for almost three hours per day with no weight system required to achieve a sufficient pressure to cook. The biogas production was considerably faster than the first prototype, due to the sunlight irradiation. The material used for the bag, PVC 550, appeared sturdy and elastic, therefore offering an effective solution for the balloon digester technology. However, the technology should be tested for a longer period of time to ensure that no problem occurs in the material and in the anaerobic degradation process. Additionally, the economic assessment showed that, with a final cost of 637 dollars, the developed technology is not advantageous for the farmers as a substitute for LPG for cooking and more expensive than a fixed-dome digester. This is due to the expenses that cover the installation and the cost of the material. However, if part of the biogas could be used to cover the electricity needs for lightning, the NPV could slightly increase. The sensitivity analysis showed that at least the investment cost should be reduced by 20% to 500 dollars or the LPG price would need to increase by 80%, reaching 0.86 dollars per kg to make the system profitable for the farmers.

  • 40.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Peck, Philip
    Lund University.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Larsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.
    Khedkar, Prasad
    Lund University.
    Policy Instruments Directed at Renewable Transportation Fuels: An International Comparison2013Report (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Electricity access for human development in the Brazilian Amazon2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity access is widely recognized as a driver of development. The Brazilian government has incorporated this principle into its national rural electrification program, Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), which has already benefited more than 14 million people in the country since its inception in 2003. But a different electrification model is required if remote areas in the Amazon region are to fully benefit from the program.

    In general, LPT has been implemented through a grid-based technology. However, the program has been less successful in providing electricity access in the Amazon region. In this region, about 24% of the rural population has no access to electricity. Key challenges are related to the exhaustion of the grid-extension model in isolated areas.  Extending the grid in these areas is neither realistic because of the local topography and natural conditions, nor cost-effective because expensive investments would be required to benefit a small number of citizens with low income and consumption rates.

    This study suggests an adapted LPT model for delivering electricity access in isolated areas of the Amazon region. In particular, the study offers a policy maker perspective and details the specific needs of isolated communities. It was developed in the form of a case study and included a variety of data sources, gathering techniques and analysis approaches, including an extensive literature review, the collection of in-situ evidence through direct observations and semi- structured interviews.

    Conclusions draw attention to the need for more local and site-specific solutions. Three issues will be decisive in achieving universal, reliable and affordable access to electricity in the Amazon region. Firstly, harmonization with the regional context is essential as the Amazon is a vast and unique environment. Secondly, there is need for adapting the existing institutional structures to appreciate the conditions and specific needs of rural populations in the Amazon region. Thirdly, securing financial resource allocation and distribution will be decisive in a LPT model aimed at universal electrification in the Amazon.

  • 42.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Social technology: impacting development through electricity access in the Amazon Region2013In: IAMOT 2013 Proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actual Brazilian rural electrification program has benefited more than 14 million people since its inception in 2003. However, 900 thousand people are still without electricity services in the isolated areas of the Amazon region. In general, the program has used a grid-based technology to provide electricity to new users in Brazil. In the Amazon, challenges are related to the provision of services in isolated areas where grid extension is not viable. Reaching this population in their local environment and promoting their development is important. Aware of the importance of electricity services to the country’s development, the Brazilian government has recognized the need for implementing different energy technologies to generate power in isolated areas. However, there is an institutional gap that needs to be addressed.

    This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyzes how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. This concept provides a different view on how the relationships between institutions and technology could evolve in the Amazon region. In this direction, we elaborate on twelve implications of Social Technology implementation and analyze how they can contribute to deliver electricity services and guarantee valuable social impacts for the region. Can Social Technology principles help to identify concrete tasks to overcome the actual institutional shortcoming to achieve universal access in the Amazon? How to effectively incorporate them into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative, considering local realities of isolated communities?

    The fact that achieving universal energy access has a significant impact on human development provides a starting point for our analysis. In the first section, we introduce challenges that the Brazilian government are facing in connection to universal access achievements in isolated areas, in the second section, we present the Social Technology concept and discuss its implications using the case of the isolated areas in Brazil to exemplify them. In the third section we analyze interconnections between structural components of Social Technology and the Brazilian rural electrification program and identify key actions to enhance rural electrification in isolated areas. Finally, we conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas and boost national development targets. First, local knowledge needs to be recognized, systematized and included in planning, implementation and monitoring of rural electrification projects. Second, effective communication channels need to be considered in the process. Participatory activities are crucial and transversal to possible solutions and provide the basis for a new and comprehensive institutional framework. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  • 43.
    Gómez, Maria F
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Universal Electricity Access in Remote Areas: Building a pathway toward universalization in the Brazilian Amazon2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, policymakers face important challenges in relation to the provision of reliable electricity services in remote areas. Brazil is not an exception. The Brazilian rural electrification initiative Luz Para Todos – LPT (Light for All) has attracted attention internationally due to its ambitious targets and significant achievements in a relatively short period. The initiative has proved effective in its first phase, which has been developed through the extension of the grid. However, there are still important challenges in connection with the operationalization of LPT in remote areas.

    The ultimate objective of this research is to propose a pathway to facilitate the achievement of universal electricity access in remote areas within the context of the Brazilian Amazon. The analysis was developed using a Mixed Methods Research (MMR) involving tools such as Causal Loops Diagrams (Consideo Modeller ®) and the energy modeling software for Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HOMER ®).

    This thesis addresses three key questions. The first question is concerned with the strengths and weaknesses of the national rural electrification initiative. The second question investigates institutional, technology and funding structures that specifically support the Brazilian rural electrification initiative in remote areas. The third question involves the identification of leverage points within these structures.

    The study concluded that the existing LPT scheme is not capable of achieving full electricity access in remote areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Important challenges remain when it comes to providing the service to inhabitants of these areas. There is a need to i) adapt the existing institutional structures; ii) harmonize technologies within the regional context and, iii) use government funds more effectively. In line with these challenges, identified leverage points indicate that i) rules guiding the relationship among new agents and communities; ii) implementation of small-scale power generation technologies based on local resources; and iii) optimized subsidies are essential to achieve universalization goals in remote areas.

    The research proposes a new pathway to activate the identified leverage points within the institutional, technology, and funding structures of LPT. The pathway requires well-informed decision making for the implementation and operation of off-grid solutions that can help to cover the last mile. Within this context, results of the study are expected to provide insights for policymakers, technology providers, project developers, researchers, and communities in general as they seek to increase electricity access in remote areas.

  • 44.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Sanches-Pereira, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Technology for social inclusion: the case of electricity access in the Brazilian Amazon2013In: Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, ISSN 1848-9257, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the Social Technology concept and analyses how it can support the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative. It addresses the question: ‘can Social Technology principles serve to identify concrete tasks to overcome the challenges of universal access in the Amazon? If so, how can they be effectively incorporated into the current Brazilian rural electrification initiative?’ We conclude with the identification of two concrete actions to achieve universal access in isolated areas. First, the recognition, compilation and systematization of local knowledge are important tasks ahead. Second, effective communication channels and methods are needed to spread local knowledge and support the design, implementation, and operation of innovative solutions. Participatory activities are crucial to enable these concrete actions. We highlight the role of the government at central and local levels for the purpose of setting up the appropriate environment for these changes to happen.

  • 45.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2011In: 6th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy Water And Environment Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon2012In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, more than 14 million people have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through grid-extension. A new off-grid model is now required if remote areas in the Amazon region are to fully benefit from the program. In this paper, we explore the institutional and financial schemes that support LPT and their suitability for delivering off-grid solutions in the Amazon region. Our conclusions draw attention to the need for more local and site specific solutions, and new regulatory frameworks to allow the participation of new actors. We argue that the uniqueness of the Amazon region justifies renewable technologies focused on local needs and potential, adaptation of the LPT institutional framework and rethinking of funding channels. An off-grid approach will enhance the inclusion of remote areas in universal access goals while adjustments will help guarantee the sustainability of the electrification program.

  • 47.
    Gómez, Maria F
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Electricity access and human development in isolated communities of the Amazon region2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 6251-6260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  • 49.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The Brazilian electrification program LPT (Light for All) – what lessons have been learnt?2010In: Renewable Energy for Development, ISSN 1101-8267, Vol. 23, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development. Between 2003 and 2009, 11 million people have benefited from the electrification program Light for All (LPT). The success of policies for electricity access cannot be measured only in terms of the number of connections. Instead, the impact of electrification on development must be determined as a way to justify resource allocation and confirm welfare improvement. Although two million people have been connected through grid extension, one million inhabitants still lack electricity access in the Amazon. The results of LPT can be considered a great achievement for a nation that has recently been considered as a developing country. However, one million people still lack electricity in the Amazon. Other challenges ahead include concerns on the economic and social sustainability of the electrification system being put in place.

  • 50.
    Gómez, Maria F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    The institutional dimension for off-grid rural electrification in the Amazon region2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden, 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Moshfegh, Bahram, Linköping University Electronic Press, Linköpings universitet , 2011, p. 3444-3451Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian government aims at providing complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to achieve development and reduce poverty. More than 2 million people living in the Amazon have benefited from the rural electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT – Light for all), mainly through a grid-extension approach. Yet, there is general agreement on the need for an off-grid scheme in order to supply isolated areas. How can the actual institutional framework support the process of supplying electricity to these communities so that the trend of improving electricity access and quality of life continues? We aim at exploring the existing institutional dimension connected to LPT and identifying potential forms of organization for decentralized solutions in the Amazon region. Our analysis is based on current energy policy in Brazil, existing institutional framework, achievements of LPT and potentialities of the isolated areas in terms of resources. Our conclusions draw attention to potential approaches for the next step within LPT context. We argue that the off-grid approach must be based on the uniqueness of the isolated areas in the Amazon. We emphasize the relevance of renewable energy sources in the process of supplying electricity and securing inclusion of isolated areas in universal access.

123456 1 - 50 of 268
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