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  • 1.
    Ageng, Pandu SW
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Jeneberang River Basin Management Capacity: Establishing of a Public Corporate in South Sulawesi Province in INDONESIA2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A multi purpose dam called Bili bili have been built in Jeneberang river basin in easternIndonesia in 1999 and providing water available to all customers. In 2004 a landslide occurredand impact to the quality of raw water, especially the amount of turbidity, dramaticallyincreased. Landslide problems started with high sedimentation rates to water infrastructures.Technically the lifetime of Bili bili multi purpose dam and reservoirs will be shorter thanplanned. In contrast, we understand and agreed that sustainable development and ensuring thecurrent use of a water resource as well as a dam should compromise its use by future generation.To reach progress in sustainability we need to establish governance structures and practices thatcan foster, guide and coordinated positive work by a host of actors on a complex of issues.Today, Indonesian Central Government is planning to establish a public corporate participationto comprehensive water resources management in eastern Indonesia. The important significant ofstakeholders in order to develop comprehensive approaches, are water agencies: regional andlocal water institution that will manage catchments areas, water infrastructures and water utilitiesas provider of drinking water to municipalities. They will be acquainted to the water and waterinstitutional capacity problems.

    This research examines both the current impacts on and potential future for water management ineastern Indonesia. One of the objectives of this research will be to described the current of waterresource organization, which is related to establishing of a public corporate, not onlystakeholders involvement; management and organization; but also finances and investments;operation; distribution; regulation and policy. One objective of this research will be measured byconducting interactive interviews and dialogue with the representatives of the stakeholders. Thelast objective is evaluating the Human Resources Development performances of water resourcesmanagement by a series of workshops. Additionally, some recommendations for a future watersupply system will be provided as an input for the government and local authority in order toimprove the capacity and water resources management in eastern Indonesia.

    The results conclude that to meet the Millennium Development Goals, the establishment of apublic corporate for supporting Indonesia’s process of decentralization is necessary where thelocal level include customers can be a much more dynamic interaction between providers ofservices and water users. A participatory method is useful to raise problems, so while the CentralGovernment can mandate a minimum service standard and the achievements of these standardscan be monitored directly at the local level.

    Accountability of water resources development should be considered as a vehicle when aproblem occurs with insufficiency of the existing water facilities and a big demand of waterpurposes.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Toqeer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Environmental Management in a Pakistani Textile Company with Focus on Trade2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on the relationship between trade and environment has always been aheated one particularly in the context of varying economic and environmental conditionsbetween developed and developing countries. The economies of developing countriesdepend on their export to the Western countries and they are sensitive about anydevelopment, which is likely to affect their export capacity.A study has been conducted to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threatsof a textile company in Pakistan exporting textile products to E.U countries with specificfocus on the issue of current and emerging environmental trade barriers.The study is divided into four major sections. Chapter 1 opens the debate on the issue oftrade and environment, recent developments and perspectives of major actors involvedi.e. business, environmentalists and the third world countries. Chapter 2 defines thepremises, aim, objectives and methodology. Chapter 3 outlines the detailed companyprofile. Chapter 4 deals with identification of current and emerging environmental tradebarriers that the company is facing or will face in the future. They are five namely, theNational Environmental Laws of the country, International Environmental Standards,Eco-Labeling Schemes, Intellectual Property Rights and Environmental Tariff. Chapter 5discusses the availability of resources in the company in term of information, humancapital and technology. Chapter 6 analyses the relationship between the company and itsinternational buyers in term of demand from the Western world and the supply from thethird world.This study is an example of how a Pakistani company is underpinned with the lack offinancial, technical and human resources. It also presents a case that demandingenvironmental obligations from this company for trade purposes, may create adversetrade barriers. There might be some standards, which this company may not be able tomeet in a given situation, but it does not rule out the possible improvements in theenvironmental management that can be worked upon within the given financial, technicaland human resources of the company.The study shows that the textile products in Pakistan are not cheap but have deliberatelybeen made cheaper by the policy makers at the expense of people’s health and thephysical environment. The installation and operation of primary and secondary treatmentplant, which is considered the most costly option to improve environmental condition ofthe factory, increases the cost merely up to approximately USD 0.01per square meter ofprocessing fabric. Similarly, the presence of other measures such as emission controldevices, use of environment-friendly chemicals, the recycling of waste water, exercisingfresh water consumption etc as discussed in this study would have minimal effect on theprice of the product. Considering the affluence of the European society, even the increasein product price cannot be regarded too much when converted into European currencies.This company fears that due consideration of the environmental issues will affect theprice of products which is true to some extent. But this fear is often exaggerated. The lackof environmental provisions in the company is a result of the poor environmentalbehaviour, which is due to the absence of effective communication and co-ordinationbetween the parties concerned. If this study is projected on a major scale, covering anumber of textile companies in the third world, there is a possibility of similar nature of4findings and results. If trade is part of the problem causing environmental damages, it canalso be used as a part of the solution.

  • 3.
    Ahmadi Moghaddam, Elham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Comparison of Biogas and Bioethanol for Sweden Transportation Fleet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels were recently seen as a solution for the predicaments of our age; the “energy crisis” and the” climate change”. Today biofuels derived from food crops are a subject of debate for food hunger of the world’s poor and one of the main reasons of increased food prices. Latest studies also show that biofuels have no significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions. Today many attentions have been focused on biofuels extracted from biomass of different residual material such as agriculture residuals. Sweden produces biogas from different sources and also is one of the main users of Brazil’s bioethanol.

    In this report we aim to study two biofuel alternatives for Sweden transportation fleet; biogas from sugar beet residues in Sweden and imported bioethanol from sugarcanes from Brazil. The study is based on a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the two mentioned biofuels. Three main units of agriculture, industrial production process and transportation is studied in the life cycle of the mentioned fuels.

    Based on energy inputs and emissions biogas from sugar beets in Sweden is a better alternative for Sweden transportation fleet. Bioethanol from Brazil is a crop-based fuel and highly energy consuming in the agricultural operations and industrial production process. Biogas fuel production requires increase in production capacity and technological developments.

  • 4.
    Ahmned, Sragadin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Reningsmetoder för minskning av oljelukt från bergrummen i Oxelösunds Hamn AB2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation of technology and the costs of limiting emissions of volatile organic substances that have caused oil odor problems with different procedures has been made on behalf of Oxelösund Hamn AB. In Oxelösunds Hamn AB heavy oil and VGOoil is handled. The oil is unloaded from ships to caverns and then re-loaded from the caverns to ships. The port has seven caverns; six of them are in use while the seventh is not.

    The caverns have a common ventilation system for breathing. When the oil is unloaded from the ships to the caverns, the hydrocarbon air volume are corresponding the volume of oil being over-pumped will be squeezed out from the caverns, creating oil odor problems. The oil's odor problem also arises when a change of temperature, i.e. when the temperature rises outside, the oil smell increases and vice versa. There are also other factors influencing the odor problem and these are pressure change, in other words the air circulation in the caverns and the draft. In order to identify what the smell of Oxelösunds Hamn AB consists of an air sampling has been made both in the caverns and outdoors, by the chimney (the caverns common exhaust pipes). Air samples have shown high concentrations of various VOC s 13,000 ppm.

    According to § 8 a For the protection of human health in the Environmental Protection Act may benzene belonging to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after 1 January 2010 not be present in outdoor air by more than an average of 5 g/m3 air as an annual average. Regulation (2003:112). Emissions of volatile organic compounds in Europe are regulated by the Directive (2001/81/EC), the so-called ceiling directive. Ceiling directive of VOC means that Sweden is committed to reach an emission level of 241 000 tons per year by 2010.

    In this diploma work reports on the different solution techniques are available to reduce oil odor problem. Established methods of emission treatment consist of a catalytic or thermal incineration, adsorption, absorption, condensation and bioremediation techniques. After a technical evaluation of various alternatives incineration and adsorption have been found to be appropriate techniques in this case. To be sure that the selected treatment technology is appropriate for the situaV tion, incineration technology in the form of catalytic combustion is the recommended treatment technology for reduction of oil odor problem and VOC limits. As combustion technologies, there different techniques to choose from such as catalytic- and conventional thermal combustion or incineration in the combustion heat exchanger. Both catalytic and thermal incineration has its advantages and disadvantages.

    The catalytic combustion is auto-thermal at much lower VOC levels than the thermal incineration and thus requires less support fuel supply. The less support fuel needed the less carbon dioxide emissions. Economically and environmentally, catalytic combustion is preferred over thermal incineration at low VOC levels.

    When using adsorption in this case, you must dry the gas from the moisture as the relative moisture content measures up to 95%. If you do not wipe the air from the moisture the moisture will limit the coal beds adsorptions-capacity. When the coal beds starts becoming saturated it is regenerated in its place and desorbate (VOC limits and water) needs to be taken care of. Desorbate is in this case small and can be brought back to the caverns, but can also be treated with appropriate treatment technology.  

  • 5.
    Aid, Graham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Industrial Ecology Methods within Engagement Processes for Industrial Resource Management2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global use of resources such as materials, energy, and water has surpassed sustainable levels by many accounts.  The research presented here was explicitly normative in its aim to improve the understanding of, and make sustainable change toward highly systemic issues of resource management.  The core methods chosen to work toward this aim were bottom up action research procedures (including stakeholder engagement processes) and industrial ecology analysis tools.  These methods were employed and tested in pragmatic combination through two of the author’s case study projects. The first case study, performed between 2009 and 2012, employed a multi-stakeholder process aimed at improving the cycling of construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  The second case study produced a strategic tool (Looplocal) built for facilitating more efficient regional industrial resource networks. While the highly participative aim of the cases required a larger contribution of resources than that of more closed studies, it is arguable that the efficacy of approaching the project aims is improved through their employment. 

  • 6.
    Aid, Graham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Potential technology for the advanced utilization of construction, demolition, and industrial waste2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Action Research In Waste Management: Application to construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region2010In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH ´10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Linnaeus University , 2010, p. 1009-1019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The action research methodology and several of its methods have previously been highlighted and described by the authors as a fitting and rigorous framework approach for complex waste management systems.  This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of traditional empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in such complex systems which often involve strong human and political factors.   Several of the action research methods described have recently been utilized in a case study around mineral (aggregate) construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project members from several private and public sectors.  Leaving the problem fuzzy (loosely defined) in the beginning; utilizing convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus.  Indicator creation and a dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of salience around these problem areas.  These resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of verification.  Each indicator was then analyzed by what was deemed to be appropriate and transparent means.  It is argued that this approach may create better communication, transparency, and understanding by the stakeholders.  These factors in turn allowing stronger stakeholder ownership of the process and assisting in more informed decisions and help to provide stability for desired change. However the process was not without its drawbacks such as intense communication and time requirements.

  • 8.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Bygg- och rivningsavfall: Action Research vid KTH2010In: Återvinnare För Industrin / [ed] Kjell-Arne Larsson, Stockholm: Rekord Media och Produktion AB , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative2012In: WASCON 2012 Conference proceedings / [ed] M. Arm, C. Vandecasteele, J. Heynen, P. Suer and B. Lind, 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009 until 2011 project BRA (Bygg-och Rivningsavfall i Stockholms Län) “Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Stockholm County” was coordinated from the division of Industrial Ecology, KTH. This project was focused on actively improving (from plural perspectives) the cycles of C&D (specifically non-metallic inert) materials in the region. In response to the normative aim and inter-systems complexity, a highly participative action research procedure was adopted. Through processes of network communication, workshops, a course, and an international symposium - a number of issues (such as market development, recycled product quality, greenhouse gas impacts, collaborative planning, and statistics) were prioritized, researched, and acted upon. Indicators for measuring progress in selected areas were developed and preliminary action plans created. At a final co-organized symposium Swedish delegates laid the groundwork for the establishment of a Swedish C&D recycling b ranch organization. This initiative of continued collaboration between and within sectors is seen as a vehicle for the priorities and action requirements identified in BRA to be further enabled and held in focus. Furthermore, these actors taking ownership of the process is seen as a success in accordance to the original aims and the need for further cycles of evaluation, planning, and action.

  • 10.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkova, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 11.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkovac, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Looplocal: a Heuristic Visualization Tool for the Strategic Facilitation of Industrial Symbiosis2012In: Greening of Industry Netowrk Proceedings / [ed] Leo Baas, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as ‘self organized’, ‘facilitated’, and ‘planned’. This article introduces a tool that has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. ‘Looplocal’ is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) the identification of regions prone to new industrial symbiosis activities 2) market potential exchanges to key actors and 3) assist aspiring facilitators to assess the various strategies and social methodologies available for the initial phases of a facilitated industrial symbiosis venture. This tool combines life cycle inventory (LCI) data, waste statistics, and national industrial data (including geographic, activity, economic, and contact information) to perform a heuristic analysis of raw material and energy inputs and outputs (wastes). Along with an extensive list of ‘waste to raw material’ substitutions (which may be direct, combined, or upgraded) gathered from IS uncovering studies, IS organizations, and waste and energy professionals; heuristic regional output to input ‘matching’ can be visualized. On a national or regional scale the tool gives a quick overview of what could be the most interesting regions to prioritize resources for IS facilitation. Focusing in on a regional level, the tool visualizes the potential structure of the network in that region (centralized, decentralized, or distributed), allowing a facilitator to adapt the networking approach correspondingly. The tool also visualizes potential IS transfer information, along with key stakeholder data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool in the ‘industrial disperse’ context of Sweden. In its early stages of application, the method has proven capable of identifying regions prone to the investment of facilitators’ resources. The material focus and custom possibilities for the tool show potential for a wide spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies (using the tool as a strategic market analysis tool) to national or regional authorities looking to lower negative environmental impacts, to ‘sustainable’ industry sectors looking to strengthen market positioning. In conjunction with proper long term business models, such a tool could be reusable itself over the evolution of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 12.
    Alexandersson, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Treatment of Waste Water from Coke Production Feasibility Study of Huaxi Jiohua Ltd, Wuhai,2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is the most populous country in the world and has an increasing economy. A growingeconomy enhances the electricity requirement, product demands and so on, which affects both the surrounding environment but also the global environment.Wuhai is an industrial city and the most polluted city in Inner Mongolia, China. Numerous amounts of the industries are lacking in the emission treatment and the PM10 is more then 10 times the allowed amount of European Union.This master thesis is a part of a bigger project, a corporation between IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd and Environmental Protection Bureau in Wuhai.The Coke Company Huaxi Jiohua Ltd. was founded 1992, and has a producing capability of300.000 tons coke per year. The treatment station is a model of an ASP, without a sludge recycling and a sludge thickener instead of sedimentation basin. The treatment efficiency is failing in phenol removal.The aim of this thesis is to perform a feasible study of the wastewater treatment methods foran improvement of the separation of pollutions in coke wastewater and to give a proposal forimprovement of energy efficiency from wastewater treatment.Treatment efficiency of methods such as A2/O, A/O, SBR, and ASP was taken inconsideration.Due to the lack of basic treatment, a first suggestion is to optimize the biological parameters,and introduce sludge recycling to the system together with either a following sedimentationpool or a MBBR as a pre-treatment step.To gain energy from the wastewater treatment station, a replacing of the current aerator system in the aeration unit to fine bubble diffusers and introduce a heat exchanger in the cooling of gas step could be done.

  • 13.
    Allobergenova, Inobat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Anaerobic fermentation of organic waste from juice plant in Uzbekistan2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis work was done at the Master’s Programme in SustainableTechnology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in study period 2005-2006.The aim of this Thesis work was to analyze if fermentation process is a proper methodfor processing organic waste from juice production process and if so to design a fermentationprocess of organic waste from juice plants in Uzbekistan taking into account the economical,environmental and technical aspects.In this report apple juice producing process and organic waste from juice productionin Uzbekistan were overviewed. Two juice processing plants of Uzbekistan “Bagat-Sharbat”and “Meva” and their generated organic waste were overviewed.Also different treatment methods of organic waste and their advantages anddisadvantages were analyzed and compared with anaerobic fermentation process. The studiedorganic waste management methods are animal feeding, incineration, direct land spreading,land filling, composting and anaerobic fermentation. Anaerobic fermentation of organic wastegenerated from fruit juice production was studied.Suggestions and recommendations were done to implement organic wastemanagement for fruit juice industry in Uzbekistan according to studies and calculations.Advantages and disadvantages of different waste management methods are discussedand compared with anaerobic fermentation. Economical and environmental calculations ofanaerobic fermentation process were done. Different biogas plant types all over the world andtheir construction costs were studied and compared. According to studies and calculationsseveral suggestions and recommendations are made.By studying and comparing different waste treatment methods with anaerobic digestion oforganic waste from juice plants following conclusions are made:

    The benefits of the biogas plant on the fruit juice plant:

    • Solution of the organic waste-disposal problems

    • Reduction of obnoxious smells from the organic wastes

    • Own, stable, self-sufficient energy production (heat, steam and electricity)

    • Cheap energy, which yields financial savings in the longer term.

    • Possibility of selling energy or biogas surplus - a source of extra income forthe plant.

    • Production of high-volume fertiliser that carries a higher content of nitrogen(15% or more) than artificial fertilisers, and that does not burn the crops, asuntreated slurry can do. This reduces the need for expensive artificialfertilisers. By selling this natural fertiliser additional income for the plant canbe obtained.

    Local benefits:

    • Better control of the waste from fruit juice processing organic waste meansless pollution of local environment and water sources.

    • Removal of chemical fertilisers from the fields and recirculation of nutrients.

    • Local power plants contribute to creating permanent local jobs in the area.

    On a global additional, replacing fossil fuels to biogas reduces emissions of CO2. Atthe same time, the emission of methane, a greenhouse gas that is 20 times more aggressivethan CO2 is reduced due to controlled anaerobic digestion.

     

  • 14.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Xu, Yixuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Waste of Opportunities - A Holistic Study of the Current Situation of Municipal Waste Management in Shandong Province, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China’s growth and development have opened the door to a new world. Shandong province’s 90 million inhabitants are entering into a consumption society and the waste stream from households, restaurants and commercials has become a challenge. So far, the waste has mostly been burned in backyards, thrown into rivers, put on open dumps or taken to landfills. The environmental consequence is strong. This study was carried out in Shandong province and presents the current situation of the municipal waste management. The result of the study is organised into social, economical, technical and environmental parameters. It mostly covers the years 2006 to 2010. In the discussion, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats to the management are analysed, which gives an overview of the complex situation.

    The final conclusion is that there are a lot of opportunities in developing municipal solid waste management in Shandong province since the work and planning is new and economy is good. Threats are for example a larger waste stream. The municipal waste management has some strengths, such as a lot of projects going on, but also a lot of weakness for instance implementation of the regulations and laws.

  • 15.
    Anbratt, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Miljörevisionsmanual för byggprojekt2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public awareness concerning environmental issues is increasing, which in turnleads to an increased pressure on the companies to carry out environmentalimprovements. Although there are laws that regulate the activity within the buildingindustry, there is still a need also for the public to make environmental demands, forchanges to take place. It is not enough for companies to fulfil the existingenvironmental regulations. New knowledge within the environmental area increases ina faster rate than any changes in the law. This can be applied to the future proprietorand the entrepreneur. In order for changes to take place and to get a prosperous result,the future proprietor has to make the proper environmental demands and also do thefollow up on the demands.In this paper the environmental work in the building industry have been investigated.Mainly concerning their environmental management system, environmental demands,value systems for tenders, the follow up on the environmental demands and also theexistence of any internal environmental glossary.The purpose with the investigation is to get a description of the environmental situationin the companies. And with this as a background come up with a manual forenvironmental audits. The manual for environmental audits is supposed to be used atenvironmental audits in construction projects, and in order to ask the proper questions,it is necessary to know how far the companies have come with their environmentalwork.By investigating whether the companies have an internal glossary for environmentalwords, and the possibility to get copies of them, have made it possible to put togetherthe different definitions of the environmental words. This in turn makes it possible tocome up with a common environmental glossary for the building industry in the nearfuture. Although this was the intention to do with this thesis there was not enough timeto finish it.To summarise what emerged from the investigation of the environmental situation onbuilding construction companies. Environmental management system, all of theinterviewed companies had a, or was about to bring about an environmentalmanagement system. Few of the companies where certified according to the ISO 14001standard. However a number of the companies have the intention to be certified withinthe near future. Reasons not to be certified, were that the companies regards it to beenough to work according to the ISO 14000 standard. There are so far noenvironmental demands including certification of environmental management systems.Such an environmental demand is difficult to make since there are so far only a fewcertified companies. Most of the companies show their environmental work publicly intheir annual report.What emerged regarding the environmental demands was that most of the companiesstated that they made environmental demands. A number of them take theenvironmental demands into consideration when valuing the tenders. A majorityMiljörevisionsmanual för byggprojekt Sara Anbratt6replied however that the prise still carries most weight when valuing the tenders.Generally speaking the big companies have come furthest, although there areexceptions, concerning incorporation of environmental aspects in tender value systems.The tender value systems are in other respects the area where most resources areneeded in the future. Many of the companies regard it difficult to follow up on theenvironmental demands, they say they haven’t got enough resources to do it. Most ofthe companies nevertheless state that they have some form of follow up. Some of themuses environmental audits and other companies have a final inspection. Some haveboth. Most of the companies that use environmental audits have not yet done it in anylarger extent. There are also en differences between large and small projects. Thefollow up seems to be better in the larger projects. To apply sanctions when theenvironmental demands are not fulfilled seems to be difficult since only half of themhave some form of sanctions, and few of them have applied the sanctions at any time.The investigation of the environmental situation in the companies was necessary inorder to come up with the manual for environmental audits for construction projects.The manual consists of two parts, where the first part contains instructions of how toperform the actual audit. It also contains instructions of how to prepare for the auditand what to do after the visit to the construction plant. The second part consists of thequestions to ask on the actual audit. The questions are arranged in to 13 areas:

    • The construction plant• Building materials• Machines and vehicles

    • Transportation

    • Emissions into air, noise and vibration

    • Chemical products

    • Waste• Water

    • Emergency

    • Personnel

    • Report

    • Supplier

    • Sub-supplier

  • 16.
    Andersson, Elin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Use cases and Business Models: Urban Smart Grid2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has established a climate and energy package that includes solutions of the threatening climate changes and is called the 202020 package. The goal is to reduce the greenhouse gases with 20 % until the year 2020. The energy use should be lowered with20 % and the energy efficiency will be 20% higher.

    On account of this, Stockholm city is developing a new city district which is called Stockholm Royal Seaport. The vision of Stockholm Royal Seaport is to develop a sustainable city district that should contribute to innovation, development and promotion of the Swedish environmental technology. Through a new and more efficient grid, Smart Grid, the total energy usage will be lowered, the load optimized and it will be possible to connect decentralized electricity recourses as well as integrate electric vehicles. To make the Smart Grid implementation as good as possible use cases have been a big part of the preparatory work. A use case is a document consisting of one or several scenarios that describe how actors, who could be a human or a piece of hardware, interact with the system to reach a specific goal.

    This master thesis has been performed at and assigned by Fortum. The aim of the study was to deliver ideas and suggestions for new markets and business models and create new incitements, which will be needed to succeed with the implementation of Smart Grid; this will be done especially with regards to sustainable development. During the project around 170 existing use cases were organised depending on which area in the grid they belonged to. This was done so that an area in Stockholm Royal Seaport could be picked out to be deeper analysed. The use cases concerning the integration and use of the electric vehicle went through a closer study to evaluate what changes are needed in management, regulation etc., in order to success with the development of the new grid. The "new" aim of this study became to show the differences in how much carbon dioxide the electric vehicle emits and how much its owner pays in taxes compared to a regular vehicle. The two vehicles that have been compared are both from Renault. The emissions from the electric vehicle are considerate to be equal to the emission from production of the used electricity. The emissions have been calculated using historical electricity production data together with a production forecast of the year of 2020. The outcome of the calculations differs depending on if the vehicle "uses" the total production mix or the electricity produced on the margin. The results show that the electric vehicle pays a third less in taxes: if one looks at the total costs for the vehicles, the investment of the electric vehicle has a payback time of ten years. Substitute a conventional vehicle for the electric vehicle reduces the carbon dioxide emissions between 0,54 and 1,67 ton a year. This indicates that a differentiated carbon dioxide tax would be favouring the electric vehicle and also makes one pay for what one emits.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Emilia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    GIS as a method for handling environmental data from Antarctica2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat wants to compile all data from the Swedishenvironmental monitoring programme in Antarctica and present it using a Geographical Information System, GIS, in order to get a better follow-up on performed activities. The assignment of this master’s thesis has been to build a database containing geographic information for the areas around the Swedish research stations Wasa and Svea in Dronning Maud Land. The geodatabase will serve as a platform for future GIS-applications used by theSwedish Polar Research Secretariat.The work is divided into three parts, project planning, project development and an analysis. Apart of the project planning consisted of a survey of the environmental monitoring programmeand the existing data. A number of shortcomings in the existing data were discovered duringthe survey, it was therefore decided to amend the environmental monitoring programme andupdate the data handling methods in order to get better-suited data to use in a GIS.The choice of GIS-software fell on ArcGIS ArcView 9.2 from ESRI and data from theAntarctic Digital Database was used as a basemap. Additional data from the Antarctic DigitalDatabase was used in order to build the database. A file geodatabase structure was chosen which consists of a number of feature datasets containing all the geographical information.An analysis and a discussion about the existing monitoring programme have been performed and proposals on how to improve the monitoring programme have been presented.

  • 18.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Determination of sorption properties of intact rock samples: New methods based on electromigration2009In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 103, no 3-4, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new methods for determining sorption coefficients in large rock samples have been developed. The methods use electromigration as a means to speed up the transport process, allowing for fast equilibration between rock sample and tracer solution. An electrical potential gradient acts as a driving force for transport in addition to the concentration gradient and forces the cations through the rock sample towards the cathode. The electrical potential gradient induces both electromigration and electroosmotic flow with a resulting solute transport that is large compared to diffusive fluxes. In one of the methods, the solute is driven through the sample and collected at the cutlet side. In the other, simpler method, the rock sample is equilibrated by circulating the solute through the sample. The equilibration of rock samples, up to 5 cm in length, with an aqueous solution has been accomplished within days to months. Experiments using cesium as a sorbing tracer yield results consistent with considerably more time demanding in-diffusion experiments. These methods give lower distribution coefficients than those obtained using traditional batch experiments with crushed rock. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Rapid surface area determination of crystalline rock using impedance spectroscopyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Specific surface area determinations on intact drillcores and evaluation of extrapolation methods for rock matrix surfaces2009In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in crystalline bedrock is investigated in several countries. For this storage scenario, the host rock is the third and final barrier for radionuclide migration. Sorption reactions in the crystalline rock matrix have strong retardative effects on the transport of radionuclides. To assess the barrier properties of the host rock it is important to have sorption data representative of the undisturbed host rock conditions. Sorption data is in the majority of reported cases determined using crushed rock. Crushing has been shown to increase a rock samples sorption capacity by creating additional surfaces. There are several problems with such an extrapolation. In studies where this problem is addressed, simple models relating the specific surface area to the particle size are used to extrapolate experimental data to a value representative of the host rock conditions. In this article, we report and compare surface area data of five size fractions of crushed granite and of 100 mm long drillcores as determined by the Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET)-method using N-2-gas. Special sample holders that could hold large specimen were developed for the BET measurements. Surface area data on rock samples as large as the drillcore has not previously been published. An analysis of this data show that the extrapolated value for intact rock obtained from measurements on crushed material was larger than the determined specific surface area of the drillcores, in some cases with more than 1000%. Our results show that the use of data from crushed material and current models to extrapolate specific surface areas for host rock conditions can lead to over estimation interpretations of sorption ability. The shortcomings of the extrapolation model are discussed and possible explanations for the deviation from experimental data are proposed.

  • 21.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Measuring sorption coefficients and BET surface areas on intact drillcore and crushed granite samples2008In: Radiochimica Acta, ISSN 0033-8230, E-ISSN 2193-3405, Vol. 96, no 9-11, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general sorption coefficients, K-d cat ion exchange capacity, CEC, and BET surface areas are measured on crushed rock samples because it is very time consuming to measure K-d and CEC on larger rock pieces as it takes a long time for the sorbing species to penetrate into and equilibrate a large sample. Also conventional sample holders for BET measurements are too small to hold a large sample. We have manufactured large sample holders for BET measurements and modified the equipment so that it is possible to measure BET surface areas on samples with 50 mm diameter and LIP to 100 mm length. Results are presented for intact pieces and compared to results on crushed material from the same drillcore. For K-d and CEC measurements we have developed a technique and equipment by which ions can be made to rapidly intrude into and equilibrate the internal surfaces of the same size samples as mentioned above. The method is based on electro-migration where the sample is placed between two vessels one with an anode and other with a cathode. The electric potential gradient drives the ions into and through the sample very much faster than molecular diffusion does. With Cs as the sorbing ion a few weeks were sufficient to equilibrate the 50 mm long sample. In previous diffusion experiments it took more than a year to equilibrate a 15 mm thick sample. A special mixing technique eliminates the development of low and high PH in the electrode compartments. K-d results from measurements on an intact drillcore are presented and comparison is made with results obtained on crushed material from the same bore core. The results from the sorption experiments are compared with the results from the BET surface area determinations in an attempt to evaluate the use of the BET surface area as a proxy for sorption behaviour.

  • 22.
    Antunes Dias Batista, Edgard
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Bicycle Sharing in Developing Countries:: A proposal towards sustainable transportation in Brazilian median cities2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bicycle-sharing programs are a new trend in urban transportation. The main difference of a bicycle-sharing program with a regular bicycle rental is that is possible to get a bicycle in one station and return it in any other station. There are many models of bicycle sharing, each model with its pros and cons. This study analyzes the bicycle-sharing models in order to build a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities. The study begins with an overview of bicycle transportation, followed by the analysis of different bicycle-sharing programs. The last chapter formulates a proposal of a bicycle-sharing program suitable for Brazilian median cities.

    This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The analysis includes a case study on the bicycle-sharing program in Stockholm. This case study is based on interviews with the manager of the program in the company in charge, and with the responsible official in Stockholm municipality. A questionnaire was moreover handed out to users of the program. This case study is complemented with a questionnaire sent by email to managers of bicycle-sharing programs in some cities around the world, this in order to provide more examples on how bicycle sharing can be organized. Finally, another case study was carried out in a Brazilian median city in order to evaluate the local awareness concerning bicycle transport, and the possibility of implementing a bicycle-sharing program there. A questionnaire was handed out to a sample of the local population and an interview was made with the local transport authority.

    The analysis of all data results in a proposal for a bicycle-sharing program suitable for the Brazilian context. The proposal comprises the choices of bicycles, stations, equipment related to the hiring process and service vehicle. It includes a complete financial appraisal with the necessary capital for implementing and managing the program. It shows that it is possible to build an affordable bicycle-sharing program adapted to Brazilian median cities. The program will create job opportunities and can contribute to a changed view of bicycle transportation in these cities. The proposal could also be applied in countries with the same characteristics as Brazil.

  • 23.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Opportunities for Industrial Symbiosis Between CHP and Waste Treatment Facilities: Case Study of Fortum and Ragn Sells, Brista2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing the possibilities of increasing efficiency, saving costs and improving environmental performance more and more companies today are looking into the possibilities of industrial synergies between companies and processes.

    This study is considering the possibilities of industrial symbiosis between combined heat and power plant (Fortum) and a waste sorting facility (Ragn Sells). The paper shows possible scenarios of utilization heat from CHP for the various processes within the waste treatment facility. The work includes the overview of previous research done in this area as well as theoretical analysis and estimation of the probable economic and environmental effects from the application of industrial symbiosis.

    The study covers several possibilities for the industrial symbiosis between CHP and waste treatment facility in form of heat application for the waste streams upgrading. The study proposes the heat application for the following processes: composting speed-up, anaerobic digestion, sludge drying, waste oil treatment and concrete upgrading.

    In the result of the work the conclusions are made concerning the possibility and feasibility of application of the proposed scenarios and their environmental and economic effects.

  • 24.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Opportunities for Industrial Symbiosis BetweenCHP and Waste Treatment Facilities: (Case Study of Fortum and Ragn Sells, Brista)2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pursuing the possibilities of increasing efficiency, saving costs and improving environmental performance more and more companies today are looking into the possibilities of industrial synergies between companies andprocesses.

    This study is considering the possibilities of industrial symbiosis between combined heat and power plant (Fortum) and a waste sorting facility (Ragn Sells). The paper shows possible scenarios of utilization heat fromCHP for the various processes within the waste treatment facility. The work includes the overview of previous research done in this area as well as theoretical analysisand estimation of the probable economic and environmental effects from the application of industrial symbiosis.

    The study covers several possibilities for the industrial symbiosis between CHP and waste treatment facility in form of heat application for the waste streams upgrading.The study proposes the heat application for the following processes: composting speed-up, anaerobic digestion, sludge drying, waste oil treatment and concrete upgrading.

    In the result of the work the conclusions are made concerning the possibility and feasibility of application of the proposed scenarios and their environmentaland economic effects.

  • 25.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 26.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Environmental Systems Analysis of Waste Management: Prospects of Hydrogen Production from Waste for use in FCVs2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ORWARE, an evolving systems analysis based computer model is used to assess the performance of different waste management options from a life cycle perspective. The present version of the model consists of different submodels for transport, treatment, and disposal of different types of liquid and solid wastes and recycling of materials. Flows between submodels are described by a vector of several substances of different relevance to the system. The model calculates emissions to water and air, amount of residues returned to arable land and energy flows using the tools of life cycle analysis (LCA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). In going in the direction of stringent environmental standards and policies, there is a need for maximizing energy recovery from waste for both environmental and economic benefits. Sweden has already experience of recovering energy from waste for district heating. Recovering energy not only of high value but also of higher quality from waste would be of interest. Hydrogen is one carrier of such energy. The possibility of using hydrogen from waste as a fuel in the transport sector would contribute in heading for creating a clean environment. In this thesis a new submodel for steam reforming of biogas recovered from an anaerobic digester is developed and used with other submodels within the ORWARE framework. Four scenarios representing alternative ways of energy recovery from the organic waste in Stockholm have been simulated to compare the associated energy turnover and different environmental impacts. Digestion of the organic waste and using the biogas to fuel cars is compared against steam reforming of biogas to hydrogen or thermal gasification of the waste and processing the product gases to hydrogen. In the latter two cases hydrogen produced is used in fuel cell cars. Avoided impacts of using the biogas and hydrogen are analyzed using the fourth scenario where the waste is incinerated to generate heat and electricity. Functional equivalence between scenarios is achieved by external supply of heat, electricity and petrol. While recognizing the uncertainties during modelling and simulation, it is possible to conclude that the results indicate that there is advantage of reduced environmental impact and high energy turnover in introducing the technologies of producing hydrogen from waste into the waste management system. Further and thorough investigation is recommended to come up with a sound and firm conclusion. Key words: Systems analysis, Life cycle analysis, Substance flow analysis, Waste management, Environmental impact, Steam reforming, Thermal gasification, Fuel cell vehicles, Hydrogen

  • 27.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Global Industrial Ecology - the North-South Link: lessons from research and education2007In:  , 2007, p. (abstract)-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Identifying Areas for Optimisation of Water Management at the Building and Urban Level2008In:  :  , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    On Sustainability Assessment of Technical Systems: Experience from Systems Analysis with the ORWARE and EcoEffect Tools2006In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling: ICSMM 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Some Reflections on Six Graduate Programs from the Perspective of Education for Sustainability.2006In: Proceedings of the Fourth African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP). May 29-31, 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Systems Analysis of Waste Management: The Swedish Experience Something for Waste Management Studies in Africa?2006In: Proceedings of the Fourth African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ARSCP). May 29-31, 2006, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

  • 33.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A systematic approach for addressing input data uncertainties in technology assessment of new technologies: the case of ORWAREManuscript (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A systematic approach for addressing input datauncertainties in technology assessment of new technologies: the case of ORWARE.In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Social sustainability and social acceptance in technology assessment: a case study on energy technologies2007In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses an approach for assessing indicators for the social sustainability of technical systems developed within a Swedish technology assessment tool called ORWARE. Social sustainability is approached from the perspective of one of its ingredients, namely social acceptance. The research takes the form of a case study on energy technologies conducted in the municipality of Kil in west central Sweden. Three indicators—knowledge, perception, and fear associated with four chains of energy technologies—are assessed using a questionnaire.

    The questionnaire results indicate that respondents have such a low level of information and knowledge about new energy technologies that they are unable to discriminately rank them. This was found to hamper participation in discussions and decision making about technologies for which public funds would be spent.

    The importance of assessing social indicators by engaging members of society is discussed, and an assessment approach is developed. The need to present results together with ecological and economic indicators is emphasised in order to avoid suboptimization.

  • 36.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Technology Assessment in the Journey to Sustainable Development2005In: Handbook of Sustainable Development Policy and Administration / [ed] Gedeon, M., Desta, M., Shamsul, M. H., Bosa Roca, USA: CRC Press Inc , 2005, illustrated edChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Towards a Sustainability Assessment of Technologies: Integrating Tools and Concepts of Industrial Ecology2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden: Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Development of a Damage-based System for Weighting Environmental Impacts from Buildings2008In: Proceedings of the World Sustainable Building Conference:  , 2008, p. 1719-1724Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Eriksson, O.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact.

  • 40.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Strandberg, Larsgöran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Industrial Ecology as a Working Concept in a Spatial and Temporal "NIMBY" Situation2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Assefa, Getashew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE2005In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 797-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view.

    The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h).

    Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production.

    This research was done in connection with an empirical R&D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.

  • 42.
    Atilio Vega Moreno, Guido
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    The rural agribusiness development and environmental conservation in highland areas of Peru: An analysis of the current and future situation of organic farming in three districts of the Lurin River Basin2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rural agro-industry gives added value to peasant’s agricultural production. In Peru, many small farmers from highland areas are linked in this activity as a means of subsistence. These farmers, since ancient times, have performed all their field activities in balance with nature. In fact, the rural agribusiness has mostly been developed under agroecological principles.

    The main objective of this thesis the description of the characteristics of rural agribusiness and how this activity based on agroecology contributes to the conservation of the environment in the highland areas of Peru. The situation of rural agribusiness is reviewed from the global and local context of organic agriculture. It has also been taken the region of Lurin River Basin as a case study, where environmental, productive, marketing and institutional characteristics are described. Moreover, a study of the current and future situation using the scenario methods, and an analysis of sustainability is carried out for an organic farmers’ organization called “Association of Ecological Producers of the Lurin River Basin ‘Monticielo’”.

    Results of this thesis indicate that rural agribusiness in highland areas of Peru, specifically in the Lurin River Basin, is crucial sector it contributes to food security and generating income for rural families, conserve biodiversity and farmers` traditional knowledge has been used to address emerging issues of climate change. However, the main problems facing small producers are productivity, technology, marketing and organization.In the scenario analysis it has been identified that "Organic-point of sale" scenario can become a marketing point of eco-business efficiently, which could increase sales and improve the quality of life for farmers and for the environmental conservation.

    In conclusion, being closely linked to ecological farming practices, rural agribusiness is an important tool that contributes to the welfare of rural small farmers and environmental conservation.

  • 43. Bagdonavičiūtė, I.
    et al.
    Blažauskas, N.
    Brezezinska, A.
    Chubarenko, B.
    Cieslak, A.
    Dailidiene, I.
    Domnin, D.
    Gajewski, J.
    Gajewski, L.
    Szefler, K.
    Visakavičius, Erikas
    CORPI.
    Gulbinskas, Saulius Gulbinskas
    CORPI.
    Kalas, M.
    Matczak, M.
    Mikelenaitė, J.
    Mileriene, Rosita
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Rybka, K.
    Staskiewicz, A.
    Stawicka, I
    State of the Coast of the South East Baltic: an indicators-based approach to evaluating sustainable development in the coastal zone of the South East Baltic Sea2008Book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Bajpai, Atish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    An Environmental Risk Management Framework for a Nordic Construction Firm2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is one of the oldest of industries in the world, with the first establishedconstruction company being established around 230 BC. One of the biggest industries inEurope, at an estimated €900 billion a year, it also accounts for 40% of total energy consumption and 40% of total waste generation in the EU1 . Although the majority ofthese are from the use phase of the built environment, there is a lack of a comprehensiveenvironmental risk management system for the construction phase. This study proposesan environmental risk management framework based on the Beer-Ziolkowski model of risk management for both site specific and non-site specific construction operations witha stakeholder centric approach. It proposes stakeholder involvement to identify the risksaided with trend analysis of strategic regulatory implications from the concernedauthority - Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development and thecurrent orgnisational practice of objective environmental risk identification from ISO14001 guidance. Scope of site specific and non-site specific risks are narrowed down tosite operational setup and construction materials respectively, consistent with theorganisations view of the most important risks from those two classes of risks. Riskassessment is suggested through Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for site specific risksand European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES) for non-sitespecific risks. Total Cost Accounting (TCA) of project alternative evaluation isrecommended with a view to internalise the external costs. A two tiered integration ofrisk information in the buisess process is suggested – categorised risk reduction processat the level of projects and general good practice aided with risk information at the policylevel. Being a framework for management of environmental risk as opposed to a methodfor a specific environmental risk, the principles and suggestions are broadly scoped withcase studies for identification and analysis of risks.Through the practice of prudent engagement of stakeholders and scientific risk assessments, this framework would help the organisation enable safer operational practices in the context of environmental effects. In foresight this in turn will have rendered the host firm more competent in terms of making sustainable business decisions.

  • 45.
    Balode, Agnese
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Implementation of an Integrated Environmental Management System in a Latvian Construction Company2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agnese Balode, “Implementation of an Integrated Environmental Management System in a Latvian Construction Company” MSc Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, 2007, pp. 70, April 2007.

    This thesis essayed to find an approach to environmental aspect and indicator identification in order to establish a valid base for implementation of an integrated environmental management system in a Latvian construction company. The construction industry has been selected as the area of interest because its “product” is affecting humans, the environment and other industries in the most direct and significant way. A management system is required for achieving a balance between development driving forces. By examining existing environmental management systems - their weaknesses and strengths - opportunities for improvement were determined and used during development of the approach. The thesis includes a review of legislation, international standards, and research. The result of the thesis is a 2-Level Matrix, which serves as an environmental aspect identification and relevant indicator selection tool. Within the theoretical framework, the established approach was tested at construction sites and discussed amongst construction experts. The matrix allows performance of environmental aspect ranking and provides support for the decision-making process, while establishing an Integrated Environmental Management System.

  • 46.
    Batumbya Nalukowe, Barbara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable Industrial Development in Uganda through Cleaner Production: Case Study of Sugar Corporation of Uganda Ltd (SCOUL)2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis provides an assessment of Cleaner Production (CP) implementation in Ugandan industries, using Sugar Corporation Of Uganda Limited (SCOUL) as a case study. The thesis covers the time the CP programme was implemented in 2004 to date. The study is primarily concerned with the sustainability of CP in Ugandan industries. Using the local Uganda Cleaner Production Centre (UCPC) Assessment Approach, both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to explore the trend (progress) of environmental and economic performance of CP in SCOUL. Several indicators are used to gain better understanding of the raw materials, products and waste in SCOUL.

    The thesis sets out to assess the environmental and economic performance of CP in Uganda, identify barriers to CP and make recommendations for Sustainable CP in Uganda.

    The findings show that both the environmental and economic performance of SCOUL continues to improve, in line with raw material, products and wastereduction. This improvement can be attributed to the different CP optionswhich were implemented. These options include reduction, reuse and recycling.

    From the findings, it can also be argued that CP is a practical way towards sustainable industrial development as demonstrated in the progress made by SCOUL and that CP has good potential for application in other industries in Uganda. This is because CP is simple to implement and yet it has both economical and environmental performance benefits. As such, it can be argued that CP will lead to sustainable industrial development in Uganda.

    The long term aim of this study is to contribute towards promotion of sustainable industrial development in Uganda by showing that the implementation of Cleaner Production is simple and yet it has both financial and environmental benefits.

  • 47.
    Berglund, Christina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    End of life treatment requirements of materials content for electronics2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of this project work are to:

    *Get the threshold values for maximum acceptable weight and economic penalty levels of elements in electronic scrap from the most important copper smelters in the world.

    *Investigate the elemental content for the largest Ericsson products.

    *Decide on design rules or guidelines for Ericsson electronics.

    The copper smelters accepting electronic scrap (2000) has been identified and their threshold values for maximum acceptable weight of elements and economic penalty levels of electronic scrap have been listed. The four smelters are Norddeutsche Affinerie, Noranda, Union Miniere and Boliden. A representative sample of Ericsson’s products was investigated regarding elemental content by SGAB Analytica. Products included are the ones with the largest mass during 1999. The represented products are printed board assemblies from ECS Mobile phones, EBC MD110, ERA Radio base stations, ETX access products AXE910 and AXE10 and finally UAB switches. Elemental content was compared to the copper smelters demands to see how this applies to Ericsson’s products.

    The identified elements causing problems in some cases are Aluminum, Antimony, Beryllium, Bismuth, Bromine, Cadmium, Nickel, Thallium and Zinc. Design rules regarding the maximum allowed elemental content and regarding limits to avoid economic penalty on PBA level are suggested.

  • 48.
    Bergqvist, Haidi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Undersökningar av metoder att minska utsläppen av molybden från reningsverket och deponin för metallhydroxidslam på Sandvik AB i Sandviken2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the thesis work conducted with the ambition to decrease the outlet of molybdenum from the water treatment plant and metal hydroxide sludge at Sandvik AB in Sandviken. The purpose of the thesis work was to gain more knowledge on processes like precipitation and flocculation in order to increase the separation of molybdenum from the waste water and to decrease the amount of molybdenum that leaches from the deposited metal hydroxide sludge. Molybdenum is added in steel products with the purpose of enhancing the materials’ toughness, hardness and resistance to corrosion.

    After a search through literature, articles and reports on the matter, there were a couple of statements to be made; the knowledge about molybdenum and the different molybdenum containing species partly made out thereof has been somewhat neglected in research and therefore is relatively unknown compared to most other common metals. This is likely due to molybdenum not being considered a very serious threat to health and environment. Following the exploration of written information, a series of laboratory tests were conducted:

    Based on an existing treatment plant for waste water from a closed mine, Brenda Mines, experiments were performed where molybdenum was adsorbed onto precipitated ferric hydroxide at pH-values 4.5 and 5.0. This co-precipitation is perhaps one of the most common ways to separate molybdenum from water. The experiments gave promising results where the remaining concentration of molybdenum in the treated water was in the order of 0.1 % of the original concentration. This can be compared to a 50 % separation in the existing process used in the water treatment plant.

    Experiments done with addition of different amounts of the polymer used for the flocculation in the water treatment plant indicates that if you add less polymer, causing more particles in the treated water, you also end up with more molybdenum in the water. This is however not shown by the results from experiments with different types of polymers added to the water. The same polymer that formed the biggest clusters of sludge particles and therefore resulted in the fastest sedimentation of the sludge and seemingly least turbid water, did however not lead to the lowest concentration of molybdenum in the treated water.

    Precipitation of molybdenum sulphide and calcium molybdat has also been investigated during the course of this thesis work. The conditions in the water treatment plant are not the best for formation of molybdenum sulphide; the redox-potential is probably too high. Using the method of forming sulphides to reduce the metal content in acid water can also cause problems by formation of toxic hydrogen sulphide. This seems especially to be in the case of molybdenum where none of the chemicals developed not to form hydrogen sulphide during sulphide precipitation seem to work very well. The calculations made to investigate the alternative of precipitation of calcium molybdat show that it is in theory possible to do so if a big enough surplus of calcium is added.

  • 49.
    Besnard, Jean-François
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Implementation of Environmental Management Systems in the Thai Industry2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the hot topic of the climate change effects a desperate change is needed in the world ofthe national and global industry. A good start is an environmental management system, EMS.The main focus of the on-going process of an EMS is to organise the company’s work, to decrease the use of raw materials and energy, and to severely reduce pollutions to air, water and land. The EMS is a part of a sustainable development and a valuable tool for everyindustry who wants to better their image and keeping environmental concerned customers. Asia and Thailand are growing markets where SME and large-scale industries have started tointroduce ISO standards. The top management of these organisations have opened their eyes to the demand of the clients regarding less environmental impact from their products and services. The motive for this study, carried out as an MFS is to get an insight of the Thai industries and how well they have implemented their EMS.

  • 50.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Alternativa tillsatser för stabiliseringsmedlen di- och trifosfat E450/E451 i Kronfågels produkt Salladskyckling2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years there have been discussions in, for example media, about food additives, and whether there is a risk of using it in opposition to the purpose it fulfills. There have been investigations about the consumers’ attitude against food additives. This has shown that the consumers are worried about the additives and no longer want them in their food. This is a driving force for the food industry to make a revaluation of the additives to establish how important their purposes are against the potential risk.

    This thesis is part of this kind of work for the Swedish company Lantmännen Food R&D together with Lantmännen Kronfågel, focusing on one additive. Kronfågel is currently using the additive di- and triphosphate E450 and E451 in one of their products, Salad Chicken. The purposes of this additive are to enhance the yield by retaining water in the chicken; the current yield is 94 %. It has been showed that the juiciness of the chicken decreased by removing the hosphates in the product; resulting in a dry and tasteless product. The goal is to find a natural alternative that achieves the same yield and that is not classified as an additive.

    Phosphates lowering the pH of the chicken and avoids the isoelectric point (IP). The IP is the

    pH when the net charge of a protein is zero, which means that the amount positive and negative charges are equal. When this occurs the structure of the protein is the most contracted and has little space for the water to exist in. By the negative charge of the phosphates the molecules can interact with the actives sites on the proteins, and turn the positive charges into negative. This changes the net charge of the protein which opens up the structure of the protein and makes more space for the water.

    The main alternative additives that have been investigated in this project are different kinds of fibers together with starch from potato and corn. The fibers from vegetables have a water retention capacity and can absorb up to 15 times its own weight. The fibers also have an emulsifying capacity and can stabilize for instance water and fat emulsions and can therefore go by the term fat binder. The fibers together with the starch that gelatinize at a characteristic temperature have a water retention capacity in chicken. By mixing brine with fibers, starch, salt and water and tumble the brine into the chicken 20 % water is absorbed by the chicken. Afterwards the chicken is cooked and the yield is calculated by taking the weight of the chicken after being cooked divided by the weight of the raw chicken.

    At the inner temperature of 72º C the yield was 98 % from potato fibers and potato starch in the smaller trials. But the inner temperature was showed to been risen in the larger scale, 89º C, and the fiber and starch brine could not retain the water as good as the phosphates at this temperature. The reason for rising the temperature at the larger scale was because the chicken parts in the plant have been larger lately. To lower the risk of uncooked chicken the inner temperature has been risen by 10 degrees. On the other hand an inner temperature of 72º C is more convenient for the quality and juiciness of the chicken and all the trials in this project have been based on 72º C.

    There are more trials that can be made; Gluten hydrolysate, protein from chicken, citrate together with fibers and starch. Even more kinds of starch as rice, wheat, tapioca and corn should be tested at the high temperature as 90 º C. As the fiber and starch mixture seems to work at 72 º C and not at 90 º C another trial could occur where the chicken parts are splitted into smaller parts so that the inner temperature could be lowered to 72 º C.

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