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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Product Developer: Education and Professional Role2007In: Proceedings of ICED 2007, the 16th International Conference on Engineering Design, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present results from a study examining the relation between the educational background and professional roles with engineers engaged in product development. Derived from previous studies, the product development engineer ought to be a multifaceted engineer, knowledgeable and skilled in several fields. This engineer should work interdisciplinary, integrative and with the aim to be creative and innovative. By using a substantial data set consisting of 300 engineers in Swedish product development organizations, we derive some important research propositions. The data shows that there are correlations between organizational responsibilities and educational program, in particular regarding focus on design, system integration, project management and technical coordination. If we want to understand how the engineering education affects the professional role of an engineer; we believe that it is critical to further investigate the developed propositions. One example is mechanical engineers; the data shows that the studied mechanical engineers rarely work with design. Our proposition is therefore to investigate the identity and legitimacy of these programs to further clarify the professional role.

  • 2.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Model-based design of haptic devices2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient engineering design and development of high precision and reliable surgical simulators, like haptic devices for surgical training benefits from model-based and simulation driven design. The complexity of the design space, multi-domains, multicriteria requirements and multi-physics character of the behavior of such a product ask for a model based systematic approach for creating and validating compact and computationally efficient simulation models to be used for the design process.The research presented in this thesis describes a model-based design approach towards the design of haptic devices for simulation of surgical procedures, in case of hard tissues such as bone or teeth milling. The proposed approach is applied to a new haptic device based on TAU configuration.The main contributions of this thesis are:

    • Development and verification of kinematic and dynamic models of the TAU haptic device.
    • Multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach for optimum design of the TAU haptic device by optimizing kinematic performance indices, like workspace volume, kinematic isotropy and torque requirement of actuators.
    •  A methodology for creating an analytical and compact model of the quasi-static stiffness of haptic devices, which considers the stiffness of; actuation system;flexible links and passive joints.
  • 3.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Khan, Suleman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A stiffness modeling methodology for simulation-driven design of haptic devices2014In: Engineering with Computers, ISSN 0177-0667, E-ISSN 1435-5663, Vol. 30, no 1, 125-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient development and engineering of high performing interactive devices, such as haptic robots for surgical training benefits from model-based and simulation-driven design. The complexity of the design space and the multi-domain and multi-physics character of the behavior of such a product ask for a systematic methodology for creating and validating compact and computationally efficient simulation models to be used in the design process. Modeling the quasi-static stiffness is an important first step before optimizing the mechanical structure, engineering the control system, and performing hardware in the loop tests. The stiffness depends not only on the stiffness of the links, but also on the contact stiffness in each joint. A fine-granular Finite element method (FEM) model, which is the most straightforward approach, cannot, due to the model size and simulation complexity, efficiently be used to address such tasks. In this work, a new methodology for creating an analytical and compact model of the quasi-static stiffness of a haptic device is proposed, which considers the stiffness of actuation systems, flexible links and passive joints. For the modeling of passive joints, a hertzian contact model is introduced for both spherical and universal joints, and a simply supported beam model for universal joints. The validation process is presented as a systematic guideline to evaluate the stiffness parameters both using parametric FEM modeling and physical experiments. Preloading has been used to consider the clearances and possible assembling errors during manufacturing. A modified JP Merlet kinematic structure is used to exemplify the modeling and validation methodology.

  • 4.
    Aftab, Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khan, Suleman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Kinematics and Dynamics of a novel 6-DoF TAU Haptic Device2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on MechatronicsInternational Conference on Mechatronics, April 13-15, 2011, Istanbul, Turkey, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 719-724 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the kinematics and dynamics modeling of a novel hybrid kinematic concept, i.e. the TAU haptic device. This new concept was obtained from the modification of TAU-2 structure proposed by Khan et al. First a kinematic model for inverse and forward kinematics was developed and analyzed. Then an algorithm to solve the close form inverse dynamics is presented using Lagrangian formulation. Numerical simulation was carried out to examine the validity of the approach and accuracy of the technique employed. A trigonometric helical trajectory of 5th order spline was developed in Cartesian space for each degree of freedom of the moving platform in order to verify and simulate the inverse dynamics; the motion of the platform is such that the tool centre point remains on this trajectory while its orientation is changing constantly in roll, pitch and yaw.

  • 5.
    AHLIN HÖGFELDT, SIMON
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    SÖDERMAN, DANIEL
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Human controlled robotic arm: Improving usability with haptic feedback2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In our modern society, the usage of robotic arms are increasing. Much of the

    work in the industry is now done by robots. Even though they are able to do

    very precise work, difficulties appear when trying to do some of the tasks that

    humans do. This can be changed by making it easy for a human to control the

    robotic arm and to "teach it" how it’s done.

    The purpose of this project is to develop a robotic arm that is easily controlled

    by the user. This is done by using the users own arm movement to

    control the robot. To make the usage more intuitive, a simple haptic feedback

    system will be implemented. This creates a greater experience where the user

    is able to "feel what the robot feels". To be able to create such a system,

    development of an easy control unit, robotic arm and feedback system has to

    be made. The steering of the robotic arm is created from reading the user’s

    arm movement with potentiometers, and mapping these values to servos on

    the robotic arm. Sensors on the robotic claw and on the user’s hand makes it

    possible for a DC motor to create a counter torque that gives a feel for the size

    of the object being lifted.

    The feedback system seemed to improve the overall experience of using a

    robotic arm and with further work, today’s robotic industry could be improved.

  • 6.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 7. Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bourrouilh, Quentin
    Breunig, Michael
    Farfeleder, Stefan
    Hein, Christian
    Oertel, Markus
    Wallner, Alfred
    Zoier, Markus
    Integrated tool chain for improving traceability during the development of automotive systems2012In: ERTS2 2012 | Embedded Real Time Software and Systems, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool integration is a key factor for improving development efficiency and product quality during the development of safety-relevant embedded systems. We present in this work a demonstrator based on the most recent outcomes of the CESAR project. The proposed integrated tool-chain aims at better linking development activities together, thus improving traceability during requirements engineering, system design, safety analysis and V&V activities using a model-based development approach. We analyze the proposed tool-chain from three different points of view: (1) tool integrator, (2) technology provider, and (3) end-user. These different points of view enable the description of the different technologies used at the different levels and the analysis of the benefits for the end-user.

  • 8.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    AVL List GmbH.
    Bonnet, Stephane
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Duffau, Laurent
    Airbus Operations SAS.
    Fenu, Gianfranco
    Universita degli Studi di Trieste.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V..
    Keis, Andreas
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Kundner, Ingrid
    AVL List GmbH.
    Lau, Kung-Kiu
    The University of Manchester.
    Malot, Marc
    Sagem Défense Sécurité.
    Örtel, Markus
    OFFIS e. V..
    Paganelli, Fabien
    Sagem Défense Sécurité.
    Pantel, Marc
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Priggouris, Nikolaos
    Hellenic Aerospace Industry S.A..
    Rajan, Ajitha
    Oxford University.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Rossignol, Alain
    ASTRIUM SAS.
    Silva, Adeline
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vasaiely, Parham
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Wahl, Thomas
    Oxford University.
    Introduction2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficient Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems / [ed] Ajitha Rajan, Thomas Wahl, Springer, 2013, 1-14 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The embedded safety-critical system design and development industries are facing ever-increasing demands regarding the variety and flexibility of systems and devices from society. At a technical level, these demands result in more and more complex solutions that, at the same time, need to abide by stringent regulatory requirements and economic challenges, such as cost, performance and time to market.  

  • 9.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Safety and Tool Integration, A System-Theoretic Process Analysis2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I detail a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis of the tool integration of development environments for embedded systems. Building on results from previous studies I generalize and expand on earlier findings regarding the relationship between safety and tool integration.

    To prepare for the analysis I customized STPA for the context of tool integration. This customization allowed me to subsequently design and analyze three versions of a tool chain originally provided by an industrial partner. A net result of 85, 98 and 73 risks was identified, in comparison to 25 integration weaknesses identified through expert knowledge. The design of the different versions of the tool chain and a comparison of the identified risks with the integration weaknesses allowed me to validate the usefulness of STPA for both identifying and correctly categorizing risks and causes in the context of tool integration. An analysis of my results also points out the fact that STPA is not a silver bullet, without enough expertise it is easy to omit important parts of process models and thus arrive at incomplete conclusions.

    In regard to the relationship between safety and tool integration nine properties were identified, properties that need to be supported correctly to avoid hazards in the context of tool integration. These properties require support throughout a noticeable part of a development environment to have an impact and derive much of that impact from the possibility to centralize them. They also interrelate, so that often several of them need to be handled to mitigate one type of risk. However, introducing support for them across a whole development environment is likely to be costly, or even impossible. Furthermore, introducing support for these properties will mitigate some risks, but also create other risks at higher levels of organization.

    These properties therefore point to the size a development environment, the number of contexts towards which the development environment can be verified and the effort required to ensure the added requirements at higher levels of organization as deciding factors on whether the effort to support them should be made (other efforts, more efficient in those particular cases, could otherwise be considered). The existence of these properties also point to the possibility of developing and pre-qualifying tools and tool chains based on the assumption that some or all of these properties will be supported by the final development environment. This could potentially lower, or at least distribute, the cost of the final qualification.

  • 11.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Risks Related to the Use of Software Tools when Developing Cyber-Physical Systems: A Critical Perspective on the Future of Developing Complex, Safety-Critical Systems2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity and size of modern Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) has led to a sharp decline in productivity among CPS designers. Requirements on safety aggravate this problem further, both by being difficult to ensure and due to their high importance to the public.

    Tools, or rather efforts to facilitate the automation of development processes, are a central ingredient in many of the proposed innovations to mitigate this problem. Even though the safety-related implications of introducing automation in development processes have not been extensively studied, it is known that automation has already had a large impact on operational systems. If tools are to play a part in mitigating the increase in safety-critical CPS complexity, then their actual impact on CPS development, and thereby the safety of the corresponding end products, must be sufficiently understood.

    An survey of relevant research fields, such as system safety, software engineering and tool integration, is provided to facilitate the discussion on safety-related implications of tool usage. Based on the identification of industrial safety standards as an important source of information and considering that the risks posed by separate tools have been given considerable attention in the transportation domain, several high-profile safety standards in this domain have been surveyed. According to the surveyed standards, automation should primarily be evaluated on its reliable execution of separate process steps independent of human operators. Automation that only supports the actions of operators during CPS development is viewed as relatively inconsequential.

    A conceptual model and a reference model have been created based on the surveyed research fields. The former defines the entities and relationships most relevant to safety-related risks associated with tool usage. The latter describes aspects of tool integration and how these relate to each other. By combining these models, a risk analysis could be performed and properties of tool chains which need to be ensured to mitigate risk identified. Ten such safety-related characteristics of tool chains are described.

    These safety-related characteristics provide a systematic way to narrow down what to look for with regard to tool usage and risk. The hypothesis that a large set of factors related to tool usage may introduce risk could thus be tested through an empirical study, which identified safety-related weaknesses in support environments tied both to high and low levels of automation. The conclusion is that a broader perspective, which includes more factors related to tool usage than those considered by the surveyed standards, will be needed.

    Three possible reasons to disregard such a broad perspective have been refuted, namely requirements on development processes enforced by the domain of CPS itself, certain characteristics of safety-critical CPS and the possibility to place trust in a proven, manual development process. After finding no strong reason to keep a narrow perspective on tool usage, arguments are put forward as to why the future evolution of support environments may actually increase the importance of such a broad perspective.

    Suggestions for how to update the mental models of the surveyed safety standards, and other standards like them, are put forward based on this identified need for a broader perspective.

  • 12.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration and Safety: A Foundation for Analysing the Impact of Tool Integrationon Non-functional Properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems development is becoming difficult to handle with development environments based on disjoint engineering tools. Support for interactions between various engineering tools, especially through automated means, has therefore received an increased amount of attention during the last few years. The subsequent increase in the amount of tool integration is leading to an increased impact of tool integration on non-functional properties of development efforts, development environments and end products. At the same time there is a lack of methods and tools for analysing the relationship between these properties and tool integration. To establish a foundation for analysing this generic relationship, the specific relationship between tool integration and the safety of end products is analysed in this thesis.

    A survey was conducted to analyze the State of the Art of tool integration as related to safety. This survey specifically identified the lack of an efficient handling of tool integration by modern safety standards as an important concern. In relation to this survey, three theories were identified as of specific importance. These are the school of thought known as Systems Thinking, the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) causality model and the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis technique.

    Building on these theories, this thesis provides original contributions intended to (1) describe concepts and models related to tool integration and safety (the first and second contribution), (2) link tool integration to safety in a way that reduces complexity during analysis (the third contribution) and (3) propose how to interpret and make use of the implications of the presented theories and the first three contributions (the fourth and fifth contribution).

    • The first contribution is a new conceptual model of a development effort that emphasizes tool integration.

    • The second contribution is a new reference model for tool integration in highly heterogeneous environments.

    • The third contribution consists of nine safety-related tool chain properties, i.e. properties of tool chains that could mitigate at least part of the risks introduced by tool integration.

    • The fourth contribution is a proposition on how to identify safety implications due to a high level of automation of tool integration.

    • The fifth contribution is a proposition for a new software tool qualification process.

  • 13.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The future of software tool chain safety qualification2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, Vol. 74, 37-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High profile systemic safety standards for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) development within the transportation domain have commonalities with regard to their view of the safety-related implications of tool usage. Their guidelines on tool qualification favor a bottom-up approach in which tools are dealt with in isolation and mostly if they may directly introduce faults into end products. This guidance may ignore risk introduced by the integration of software tools, especially if these risks are related to low levels of automation - such as process notifications and improper graphical user interfaces. This paper presents a study that ties weaknesses in support environments to software faults. Based on the observed weaknesses guidelines for a top-down software tool chain qualification are suggested for inclusion in the next generation of safety standards. This has implications not only for the surveyed standards in the transportation domain, but also for other standards for safety-critical CPS development that do not include a broader view on risks related to tool usage. Furthermore, given the type of omission identified in the surveyed standards, it is suggested that researchers interested in the safety-related implications of tool integration should approach organizational research in search of possibilities to set up theory triangulation studies.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-14 10:35
  • 14.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 270-281 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 15.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012In: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 392-399 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

  • 16.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 340-351 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

  • 17.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

  • 18.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 106, 117-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

  • 19.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 20.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015In: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 273-274 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 21. Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    BARKER, TODD
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Åkerblad, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    User-Aided Tracking Robot2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of domestic robots seems strikingly sparse in comparison to other fields of modern technology. It is plausible to assume that the lack of pull within the area is due to an unbalance between necessity and cost for the average customer, which in turn could be caused by a prevailing belief that complete autonomy is a must for a domestic robot. This thesis considers a simplified take on tracking and a robot that on the contrary is completely de-pendent on user involvement. Three sides to such an application were stud-ied; the prospect of using infrared light for directional sensing, the di↵erence in performance between infrared and ultrasonic distance-measurement and the complications that are related to omni-wheel maneuvering. The bulk of the research was conducted with the help of a robotic prototype that was constructed by the authors.The outcome of the research boils down to three conclusions. Utilizing infrared communication in a long range while maintaining an angular re-ception field that is narrow poses many difficulties, it can however not be dismissed as a way of determining the desired direction of travel for the kind of tracking application that is considered. The results indicate that a distance-measuring sensor using ultrasonic sound performs more consistently than one using infrared light, wherefore ultrasonic technology is deemed to be preferable within the context. Finally, although a non-regulated motor-drive has an eminently negative affect on the dynamics of an omni-wheel setup, there is reason to believe that it would not pose an issue in a func-tioning tracking applicationFrom a broader perspective the outcome of this research might point a finger in a whole new direction of domestic robotics.

  • 23.
    BATOR, CHRISTOFFER
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    SVENSSON, RICKARD
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Exoskeleton arm: How to construct a smart support structure for an arm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to find an optimal way to construct and control a product that could help those who suffer from muscle weakness or a muscle sickness. The device was made out of two major parts (upper arm and lower arm) which were connected through a motorized joint. The focus was on finding a satisfying construction that could handle the forces and with the help of sensors measure movement of the users arm relative to the construction and then control it using that information. The device needed to be fast and reliable and react to small movements to be as comfortable for the user as possible.  The result was a construction controlled by measuring the forces from the user’s movement with the use of force sensors placed at the wrist. The construction managed to follow the users’ arm, fast and in a satisfactory way.

  • 24.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A functional reference architecture for autonomous driving2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, no C, 136-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As autonomous driving technology matures toward series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.ObjectiveThis paper describes a functional reference architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.MethodEngineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a 5 year period to the construction of prototype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.ResultsThe architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.ConclusionThe concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 25.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2017In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Watzenig, Daniel, Horn, Martin, Springer, 2017, 313-351 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of architecture and systems engineeringfor autonomous driving system, through a set of complementaryperspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of theart to dene a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving,consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and o-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed withina broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which wedene four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture,Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classesaid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects.Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologiesthat combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomousdriving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Futureevolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspectivelooking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousnessand self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practicesshows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporatingelements of so-called constructivist architectures. The impact of autonomy onsystems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verication,while implementations shall continue experiencing an in ux of technologiesfrom non-automotive domains.

  • 26.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A functional architecture for autonomous driving2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of self-driving vehicles increase, it is necessary to investigate the Electrical/Electronic(E/E) system architectures for autonomous driving, beyond proof-of-concept prototypes. Relevant patterns and anti-patterns need to be raised into debate and documented. This paper presents the principal components needed in a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with reasoning for how they should be distributed across the architecture. A functional architecture integrating all the concepts and reasoning is also presented.

  • 27.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Educating embedded systems hackers: A practitioner's perspective2014In: 2014 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2014 - Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some practical skills which bridge the gap between a sound theoretical education in embedded systems and the skillset acquired by experienced practitioners in the field. The presentation of each skill is accompanied by common solution patterns, state-of-practice technologies, and a set of exercises to provide practical uptake of each skill.

  • 28.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles2016In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, sae international , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

  • 29.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Edin Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Importance of Prototyping for Education in Product Innovation Engineering2011In: 3rd International Conference of Research into Desgin 11', 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Johansson, Hans Bengt
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Soulard, Juliette
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Kjellgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    The Pedagogical Developers Initiative – Changing Educational Practices and Strengthening CDIO skills2015In: Proceedings of the 11th International CDIO Conference, Chengdu, China, June 8-11 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper put emphasis on change agents within the universities and how local initiatives can be systematically approached and ramped up. Rooted in the challenges and constraints that have been addressed in past educational program initiatives, the case consists of specific focus areas to leverage impact. Universities continuously strives to provide the best conditions for an inspiring and prosperous learning environment, and to provide educational programs with teaching of excellent educational quality. KTH is no exception and therefore the university management has initiated a pedagogical program starting in 2014. One of the first thing initiated within the framework of this pedagogical program is the creation of a group of 24 pedagogical developers.

    The focus for the pedagogical developers is to facilitate the opportunities for KTHs faculty to work together and create consensus on educational development in different teaching teams. This paper presents the University's pedagogical developers' initiative as a whole and how this has been outlined in detail to reach specific redesign targets. The School of Industrial Engineering and Management pedagogical group consists of five practicing teachers that besides this new role also engage heavily in various courses of the School's departments. Since the pedagogical initiative is aligned with several important CDIO aspects, e.g. the learning environment, formats of formative feedback, assessment and examination there is also importance to reassure this in the existing Master level programs.

    At KTH the five-year comprehensive Master of Science in Engineering programs concern distinct vocational educations in which the CDIO aspects are very important. At the same time the programs has been divided in a basic level (B.Sc. in Engineering) of three years and a advanced level (M.Sc.) of two years. This has for instance made it harder to align the progression between first cycle level and second cycle level regarding for instance the CDIO efforts (e.g. oral and written communication, teamwork). This paper will therefore discuss and enhance how the pedagogical programme, we as pedagogical developers, can support and strengthen the initiation and implementation of the CDIO aspects in the education.

  • 31.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Klasén, Ida
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Hanson, Mats
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Edin Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Changing Mindsets, Improving Creativity and Innovation in Engineering Education2011In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education E&PDE11 / [ed] Kovacevic, Ahmed, Ion, William, McMahon, Chris, Buck, Lyndon and Hogarth, Peter, 2011, 121-126 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities need to reconfigure and rethink existing engineering beliefs in order to keep promoting students that can target and capitalize on tomorrow’s opportunities. This put pressure on promoting the best possible Engineering Education, which means continuant upgrades and revisions to existing curricula’s and faculties’ pedagogical methods and processes. This paper summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from a nationwide initiative to rethink and redesign existing engineering programs towards more traceable innovative practices. The Swedish Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in particular have a long tradition of successful exchanges involving research and education. PIEp is committed to a system change towards innovation and entrepreneurship in institutes of higher education and research. From PIEp an organized network of senior researchers, PhD students, lecturers and students is seen as the seed for this change. Activities are conducted in three areas; research in product innovation, education for product innovation and industrial collaboration for product innovation. Turning away from one-timer and mere embryonic attempts, PIEp visions a systems shift through long term dedication to influence higher engineering education curricula design. KTH is currently performing a revision of all engineering program to fit the European Bologna higher education restructuring process. Encompassing both undergraduate and master level studies, the integration of engineering syllabus imperatives strive to converge with the internationally recognized CDIO standards and the new Swedish national degree specifications. The paper aims to summarize the initiative provided between PIEp, KTH and Stanford to stimulate Swedish Engineering faculty to embrace methods and tools for integrating creativity and innovation. Ultimately, building on the long experiences of successful workshops held by PIEp and KTH the overall ambition is to establish a change in mindsets, and by so influencing key participants to directly leave endurable footprints onto their respective Swedish Engineering Education Program. The paper has a descriptive character blending ‘best-of-both-worlds’ concepts as it reveals how a nationwide initiative has set up a learning hub overseas together with Stanford University. Utilizing this source of entrepreneurial and inspiring environment the ambition is to equip Swedish faculty with experiences, success stories, lessons learned, personal opinions, to provoke and challenge existing program and curricula design. In summary, the full paper version entails the set-up, reflections and actions outline by Swedish university representatives to address implementation of more transferability between innovation characteristics in respective education programs.

  • 32.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Analysis of Tool Chains2011Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Language (TIL)2011Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Literature study on the state of the art in model transformation technology2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model transformation is a central concept in model-driven development approaches,  as it provides a mechanism for automating the manipulation of models. In this document we survey and classify existing model transformation technology. The classification differentiates between the problem space, i.e. characteristics of the problem to be solved by model transformation technology, and the mechanism, i.e. characteristics of the model transformation language. We show typical usage scenarios for model transformations and identify characteristics of the problems that can be solved with the help of model transformations. We synthesize a unifying classification scheme for model transformation languages based on several existing classification schemes. We introduce a selection of model transformation tools available today and compare them using our classification scheme.

  • 35.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Literature study on design rationale and design decision documentation for architecture descriptions2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In this document we provide an overview of the state of the art in documentation of design rationale and design decisions for architecture descriptions. We define the terminology of the area and compare the concept of rationale to similar concepts. We provide an overview of areas of contemporary research in design rationale. For each of the identified areas, we describe both the challenge and proposed solutions. Based on the findings from the literature we present evaluations of rationale and design decision documentation. The findings from this survey are promising and many open research questions with respect to rationale and design decision documentation need to be addressed. In the literature reviewed in this document it is for example not addressed how design decisions and design rationale should be represented, captured and used in model-based and model-driven development approaches. A need for further research in this area exists.

  • 36.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Supporting model evolution in model-driven development of automotive embedded system2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative functions in cars, such as active safety systems and advanced driver assistance systems, are realized as embedded systems. The development of such automotive embedded systems is challenging in several respects: the product typically has several crosscutting system properties, experts of diverse disciplines need to cooperate and appropriate processes and tools are required to improve the effciency and the complexity management of development. Model-driven development captures the architecture of the embedded system in the form of models with well-defined metamodels. Model-driven development provides a partial solution to some of the challenges of embedded systems development, but it also introduces new challenges. Models do not remain static, but they change over time and evolve. Evolution can change models in two ways: (1) by making design decisions and adding, deleting or changing model elements, or (2) by reusing models in different tools. We propose support for both aspects of model evolution. (1) When models are changed, the design decisions and the justification for the change are usually neither captured nor documented in a systematic way. As a result, important information about the model is lost, making the model more difficult to understand, which hampers model evolution and maintenance. To support model evolution, design decisions need to be captured explicitly using an appropriate representation. This representation reduces the overhead of capturing design decisions, keeps the model and the design decision documentation consistent and links the design decision documentation to the model. As a result, the captured design decisions provide a record of the model evolution and the rationale of the evolution. (2) Several models and views are used to describe an embedded system in different life cycle stages and from the viewpoints of the involved disciplines. To create the various models, a number of specialized development tools are used. These tools are usually disconnected, so the models cannot be transferred between different tools. Thus, models may become inconsistent, which hampers understandability of the models and increases the cost of development. We present a model-based tool integration approach that uses a common metamodel in combination with model transformation technology to build bridges between different development tools. We apply this approach in a case study and integrate several tools for automotive embedded systems development: A systems engineering tool, a safety engineering tool and a simulation tool. As a part of future work, we plan to extend the tool integration approach to exchange not only models but also the attached documentation of design decisions. As a result, the design decision documentation is linked consistently to corresponding model elements of the various tool-specific models, supporting model evolution across several development tools

     

  • 37.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Early Automated Verification of Tool Chain Design2012In: Computational Science And Its Applications - ICCSA 2012, PT IV / [ed] Murgante, B; Gervasi, O; Misra, S; Nedjah, N; Rocha, AMAC; Taniar, D; Apduhan, BO, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 40-50 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are expected to increase the productivity of product development by providing automation and integration. If, however, the tool chain does not have the features required to support the product development process, it falls short of this expectation. Tool chains could reach their full potential if it could be ensured that the features of a tool chain are aligned with the product development process. As part of a systematic development approach for tool chains, we propose a verification method that measures the extent to which a tool chain design conforms to the product development process and identifies misalignments. The verification method can be used early in tool chain development, when it is relatively easy and cheap to perform the necessary corrections. Our verification method is automated, which allows for quick feedback and enables iterative design. We apply the proposed method on an industrial tool chain, where it is able to identify improvements to the design of the tool chain.

  • 38.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Documenting stepwise model refinement using executable design decisions2010In: International Workshop on Models and Evolution (ME2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During model refinement a wealth of knowledge about the model under development is accumulated that is only partly represented by the model itself. Design decisions and the considered modeling alternatives are neither represented by the model nor are they documented. During later lifecycle stages this information is often not available any more, which reduces the understandability of the model and potentially leads to inconsistencies and erosion of the model. We propose an approach to capture and store the design decisions in model-driven development. We represent design decisions as model transformations and propose tool support that applies this representation to capture design decision with low effort. The captured design decisions provide a record of the model evolution and the rationale of the evolution.

     

  • 39.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    De-Jiu, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating safety analysis into the model-based development tool chain of automotive embedded systems2010In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, ISSN 0362-1340, Vol. 45, no 4, 125-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has a growing demand for the seamless integration of safety analysis tools into the model-based development tool chain for embedded systems. This requires translating concepts of the automotive domain to the safety domain. We automate such a translation between the automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL2 and the safety analysis tool HiPHOPS by using model transformations and by leveraging the advantages of different model transformation techniques. By means of this integration, the safety analysis can be conducted early in the development process, when the system can be redesigned to fulfill safety goals with relatively low effort and cost.

  • 40.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Domain Specific Language for Generating Tool Integration Solutions2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development of complex systems requires toolsupport for the dierent phases of the system life cycle. To allow for anecient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated.Despite the availability of modern tool integration platforms and frameworks,it is complex, labor-intensive and costly to build tool integrationsolutions. For managing the growing complexity of tool integration solutions,a need for systematic engineering arises. A missing piece is thehigh-level architectural description of tool integration solutions. We proposethe domain specic language TIL for describing tool integrationsolutions at a high level of abstraction. We propose an approach thattakes advantage of modeling technologies to systematize and automatethe process of building tool integration solutions. By automatically generatingintegration solutions from a TIL model, we can reduce the manualimplementation eort.

  • 41.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gu, Wenqing
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Model-based Service Discovery and Orchestration for OSLC Services in Tool Chains2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Volume 7387 LNCS, 2012, 283-290 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally distributed development of complex systems relies on the use of sophisticated development tools but today the tools provide only limited possibilities for integration into seamless tool chains. If development tools could be integrated, development data could be exchanged and tracing across remotely located tools would be possible and would increase the efficiency of globally distributed development. We use a domain specific modeling language to describe tool chains as models on a high level of abstraction. We use model-driven technology to synthesize the implementation of a service-oriented wrapper for each development tool based on OSLC (Open Services for Lifecyle Collaboration) and the orchestration of the services exposed by development tools. The wrapper exposes both tool data and functionality as web services, enabling platform independent tool integration. The orchestration allows us to discover remote tools via their service wrapper, integrate them and check the correctness of the orchestration.

  • 42.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hong, Jiarui
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Automated Construction of Data Integration Solutions for Tool Chains2012In: ICSEA 2012 : The Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 2012, 102-111 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software development relies increasingly on the orchestrated use of development tools in the form of seamless, automated tool chains. Tool chains are becoming complex software systems themselves, however, the efficient development of tool chains is a largely unsupported, manual engineering task. We propose both a domain specific modeling language for systematically specifying tool chains and generators for efficiently realizing the tool chain as software. Tool chain software consists of diverse components, such as service-oriented applications, models and model transformations, which we produce by different generative techniques. We study both the separate generative techniques and the dependencies between the generated artifacts to ensure that they can be integrated. We evaluate the approach both quantitatively and qualitatively, and show in a case study that the approach is practically applicable when building a tool chain for industrially relevant tools.

  • 43.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A modular tool integration approach: experiences from two case studies2010In: 3rd Workshop on Model-driven tool and Process Integration (MDTPI2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In the model-driven development process of automotive embedded systems a number of specialized tools are used to support various development tasks. Each tool needs to work seamlessly with artifacts created by other tools to increase the efficiency of development. We identify desirable properties for integrating the data of different tools. We then propose an approach for decomposing the data integration into modular steps that fulfill these properties. We report our experiences from applying this approach to integrate simulation capabilities and functionality for safety analysis into a model-based development environment.

  • 44.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sosa, J. D.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Diaz, O.
    Efficient construction of presentation integration for web-based and desktop development tools2013In: 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), New York: IEEE , 2013, 697-702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering of software-intensive systems is supported by a variety of development tools. While development tools are traditionally desktop tools, they are more and more complemented and replaced by web-based development tools. The resulting blend of desktop and web-based tools is difficult to integrate into a seamless tool chain, which supports product development by data, control and presentation integration. Moreover, the construction of such tool chains is a significant engineering challenge. We propose an approach for the efficient, automated construction of tool chains, which integrate both web-based and desktop development tools; and provide a proof of concept of the approach in a case study. Our approach suggests that companies can selectively take advantage of hosted web-based development tools, while maintaining a seamless flow of integration with legacy desktop tools.

  • 45.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An executable design decision representation using model transformations2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, Lille, 2010, 131-134 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design decisions are often tacit knowledge of an architecture and consequently they are easily lost during software evolution, a phenomenon known as knowledge vaporization. As a countermeasure design decisions can be documented explicitly. However, documenting design decision is expensive because they need to be captured in addition to the changes in the architecture. We propose an executable representation for design decisions using model transformations which is independent of a particular component model or architectural description language. As a result we get all the advantages of explicitly captured design decisions such as the potential to reduce knowledge vaporization while preventing the high capturing cost since the corresponding architectural change can be computed automatically. The approach is illustrated by a case study in the context of embedded software architectures.

  • 46.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Constructing Tool Chains based on SPEM Process Models2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of embedded systems requires a number of tools and it is widely believed that integrating the tools into an automated tool chain can improve the productivity of development. However, tool chains are not accepted by practitioners if they are not aligned with the established development culture, processes and standards. Process models exist for a variety of reasons, i.e., for documenting, planning or tracking progress in a development project and SPEM is the standardized formalism by the OMG for this purpose. We explore in how far a SPEM process models can be used for creating the skeleton of a tool chain, which is aligned with the process. We identify a number of relationship patterns between the development process and its supporting tool chain and show how the patterns can be used for constructing a tool chain. In two case studies, we examine the practical applicability of the patterns, when tailoring the design of a tool chain to a development process.

  • 47.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An Estimation Model for the Savings Achievable by Tool Chains2012In: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2012 IEEE 36th Annual, 2012, 488-492 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are sought after by industry due to their promise to improve the productivity of software development by reducing costs. Despite these promises, there are few attempts to quantify costs and productivity improvements achievable with a tool chain. The decision for or against realizing a tool chain design requires a quantitative analysis of the economic benefits achievable with a tool chain. We apply the COCOMO model for cost estimation to create a quantitative model for predicting the cost-savings of tool chains. The cost-savings model can provide support for practitioners and decision makers when facing the decision to create a new tool chain.

  • 48.
    Björk Friström, Viking
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bjärkeback, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Autonomous Rubik's Cube Solver2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the industry is constantly getting more automated. Every machine need an algorithm to run and some even need to make decisions in how to perform their tasks in the best way. These problems can be as large as transportation systems, or as small as solving a puzzle. The 3D-puzzle known as Rubik’s cube have enticed millions of people since its release in mid 1970s. With 43 quintillion possible combinations the Rubik’s cube present a complex problem that requires both logical thinking and memorization. Recently Rubik’s Cube community has seen a rise of robots that can automatically solve a Rubik’s Cube.The goal of this Bachelor’s Thesis is to investigate the e˙ect of di˙erent solving algorithms on the energy consumption of a mechanical system. The Demonstrator system we will use is a Rubik’s cube solver that can solve any scrambled cube. This is done by optically scanning the cube and building a virtual image of it. Two di˙erent solving algorithms will be run in order to solve the cube and calculate the required permutations. The energy consumption in the two cases of the algorithms will be calculated and compared. From this data, conclusions regarding choice of algorithm will be made. A more complex algorithm that results in fewer moves will be more energy eÿcient, at least under the circumstances that the computation cost is ignored. When compared, the optimized algorithm only used 8% of the simpler version.

  • 49.
    Broman, David
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley and Linköping University.
    Lee, Edward A.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Tripakis, Stavros
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Viewpoints, Formalisms, Languages, and Tools for Cyber-Physical Systems2012In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Multi-Paradigm Modeling (MPM), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, 49-54 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are becoming indispensable in our modern way of life. As an application domain CPS is not new. As an intellectual discipline, however, it is. This paper focuses on CPS modeling, which is an essential activity in CPS design, with multiple challenges. In particular, stakeholders lack a systematic framework and guidelines to help them choose among the many available modeling languages and tools. We propose such a framework in this paper. Our framework consists of three elements: viewpoints, which capture the stakeholders’ interests and concerns; concrete languages and tools, among which the stakeholders must make a selection when defining their CPS design environments; and abstract, mathematical formalisms, which are the “semantic glue” linking the two worlds. As part of the framework, we survey various formalisms, languages, and tools and explain how they are related. We also provide examples of viewpoints and discuss how they are related to formalisms.

  • 50. Cancila, D.
    et al.
    Birk, W.
    Nuzzo, V.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stoycheva, M.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences and reflections on three years of CPS Summer schools within EIT digital2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of current European Commission effort in term of educational innovation to reduce the gap between research and industry which still is a barrier to the economic development. Entrepreneurial innovation & education driving Europe's digital transformation (EIT Digital for short) is an European-based initiative fostering I&E (innovation and entrepreneurship) by integrating education, research and business at different educational levels. For instance in EIT master programmes, students work together with industries and academics to have a faster go-to-market of research results. Summer schools are part of the master programs; three of them have been organised related to CPS (cyber-physical systems), critical infrastructure and, more recently, Industry 4.0. Past and present events are discussed and the experience from these events is reported. It is further analysed how the general setup of the summer school program is affecting the educational aspects and achievement of the intended learning outcomes.

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