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  • 1.
    Abele, Andreas
    et al.
    Continental Gmbd, Germany.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    Hull University, UK.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical Univ of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA, France.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Technische Universit¨at Berlin, DE.
    The CVM framework: A prototype tool for compositional variability management2010In: Proceeding of: Fourth International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-Intensive Systems, 2010, 101-105 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article announces the first public release ofan experimental research tool for variability management,called “CVM framework” and provides an overview of thetool’s capabilities and architecture.

  • 2.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Pelc, Mariusz
    University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Context-Aware Adaptation in DySCAS2009In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DySCAS is a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotivecontrol systems. The addition of autonomic, context-aware dynamic configurationto automotive control systems brings a potential for a wide range of benefits in termsof robustness, flexibility, upgrading etc. However, the automotive systems representa particularly challenging domain for the deployment of autonomics concepts, havinga combination of real-time performance constraints, severe resource limitations,safety-critical aspects and cost pressures. For these reasons current systems are staticallyconfigured. This paper describes the dynamic run-time configuration aspectsof DySCAS and focuses on the extent to which context-aware adaptation has beenachieved in DySCAS, and the ways in which the various design and implementationchallenges are met.

  • 3.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009In: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, 169-210 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 4.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Leonhardi, Alexander
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Burton, Simon
    Redell, Ola
    Enea Data AB.
    Weber, Alexander
    Vollmer, Vasco
    A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System2008In: Proceedings of the Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current systems employ a static run-time environment; due to the difficulty and cost involved in the development of dynamic systems in a high-integrity embedded control context. A dynamic system, referring to the system configuration, would greatly increase the flexibility of the offered functionality and enable customised software configuration for individual vehicles, adding customer value through plug-and-play capability, and increased quality due to its inherent ability to adjust to changes in hardware and software. We envisage an automotive system containing a variety of components, from a multitude of organizations, not necessarily known at development time. The system dynamically adapts its configuration to suit the run-time system constraints.This paper presents our vision for future automotive control systems that will be regarded in an EU research project, referred to as DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems). We propose a self-configuring vehicular control system architecture, with capabilities that include automatic discovery and inclusion of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, self-diagnostics and ultimately self-healing. Such an architecture has benefits extending to reduced development and maintenance costs, improved passenger safety and comfort, and flexible owner customisation.Specifically, this paper addresses the following issues: The state of the art of embedded software systems in vehicles, emphasising the current limitations arising from fixed run-time configurations; and the benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration, giving rise to opportunities for self-healing, self-optimisation, and the automatic inclusion of users’ Consumer Electronic (CE) devices. Our proposal for a dynamically reconfigurable automotive software system platform is outlined and a typical use-case is presented as an example to exemplify the benefits of the envisioned dynamic capabilities.

  • 5.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Towards a Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Control System Architecture2007In: Embedded System Design: Topics, Techniques and Trends, 2007, 71-84 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a vehicular control system architecture that supports self-configuration. The architecture is based on dynamic mapping of processes and services to resources to meet the challenges of future demanding use-scenarios in which systems must be flexible to exhibit context-aware behaviour and to permit customization. The architecture comprises a number of low-level services that will provide the required system functionalities, which include automatic discovery and incorporation of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, and self-diagnostics. The benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration and the automatic inclusion of users' Consumer Electronic (CE) devices are briefly discussed and the self-management and control-theoretic technologies that will be used are described in outline. A number of generic use-cases have been identified, each with several specific use-case scenarios. To demonstrate the extent of the flexible reconfiguration facilitated by the architecture, some of these use-cases are described, each exemplifying a different aspect of dynamic reconfiguration.

  • 6.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Ward, Paul
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Hawthorne, James
    The University of Greenwich.
    Mariusz, Pelc
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Middleware Approach to Dynamically Configurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008In: ISVCS 2008: The First Annual International ICST Symposium on Vehicular Computing Systems, EUDL - European Union Digital Library , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an advanced dynamically configurable middleware for automotive embedded systems. The layered architecture of the middleware, and the way in which core and optional services provide transparency and flexible platform independent support for portability, is described. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, performance and safety challenges of the automotive domain. The use of policies to achieve flexible run-time configuration is explained with reference to the core policy technology which has been extended and adapted specifically for this project. The component model is described, focussing on how the configuration logic is distributed throughout the middleware and application components, by inserting ‘decision points’ wherever deferred logic or run-time context-sensitive configuration is required. Included in this discussion are the way in which context information is automatically provided to policies to inform context-aware behaviour; the dynamic wrapper mechanism which isolates policies, provides transparency to software developers and silently handles run-time errors arising during dynamic configuration operations.

  • 7.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 8.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial VehiclesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-­‐driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-­‐operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability.

  • 9.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, 136-150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

    Objective

    This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

    Method

    Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

    Results

    The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

    Conclusion

    The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 10.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecting Autonomous Automotive Systems: With an emphasis on Cooperative Driving2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing usage of electronics and software in a modern automobile enables realization of many advanced features. One such feature is autonomous driving. Autonomous driving means that a human driver’s intervention is not required to drive the automobile; rather, theautomobile is capable of driving itself. Achieving automobile autonomyrequires research in several areas, one of which is the area of automotive electrical/electronics (E/E) architectures. These architectures deal with the design of the computer hardware and software present inside various subsystems of the vehicle, with particular attention to their interaction and modularization. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how automotive E/E architectures should be designed so that 1) it ispossible to realize autonomous features and 2) a smooth transition canbe made from existing E/E architectures, which have no explicit support for autonomy, to future E/E architectures that are explicitly designed for autonomy.The thesis begins its investigation by considering the specific problem of creating autonomous behavior under cooperative driving condi-tions. Cooperative driving conditions are those where continuous wireless communication exists between a vehicle and its surroundings, which consist of the local road infrastructure as well as the other vehicles in the vicinity. In this work, we define an original reference architecture for cooperative driving. The reference architecture demonstrates how a subsystem with specific autonomy features can be plugged into an existing E/E architecture, in order to realize autonomous driving capabilities. Two salient features of the reference architecture are that it isminimally invasive and that it does not dictate specific implementation technologies. The reference architecture has been instantiated on two separate occasions and is the main contribution of this thesis. Another contribution of this thesis is a novel approach to the design of general, autonomous, embedded systems architectures. The approach introduces an artificial consciousness within the architecture, that understands the overall purpose of the system and also how the different existing subsystems should work together in order to meet that purpose.This approach can enable progressive autonomy in existing embedded systems architectures, over successive design iterations.

  • 11.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecture support for automobile autonomy:A state of the art survey2012Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Reference Architectures for Highly Automated Driving2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated driving systems promise increased road traffic safety, as well as positive impacts on sustainable transportation by means of increased traffic efficiency and environmental friendliness. The design and development of such systems require scientific advances in a number of areas. One area is the vehicle's electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. The E/E architecture can be presented using a number of views, of which an important one is the functional view. The functional view describes the decomposition of the system into its main logical components, along with the hierarchical structure, the component inter-connections, and requirements. When this view captures the principal ideas and patterns that constitute the foundation of a variety of specific architectures, it may be termed as a reference architecture. Two reference architectures for highly automated driving form the principal contribution of this thesis. The first reference architecture is for cooperative driving. In a cooperative driving situation, vehicles and road infrastructure in the vicinity of a vehicle continuously exchange wireless information and this information is then used to control the motion of the vehicle. The second reference architecture is for autonomous driving, wherein the vehicle is capable of driver-less operation even without direct communication with external entities. The description of both reference architectures includes their main components and the rationale for how these components should be distributed across the architecture and its layers. These architectures have been validated via multiple real-world instantiations, and the guidelines for instantiation also form part of the architecture description. A comparison with similar architectures is also provided, in order to highlight the similarities and differences. The comparisons show that in the context of automated driving, the explicit recognition of components for semantic understanding, world modeling, and vehicle platform abstraction are unique to the proposed architecture. These components are not unusual in architectures within the Artificial Intelligence/robotics domains; the proposed architecture shows how they can be applied within the automotive domain. A secondary contribution of this thesis is a description of a lightweight, four step approach for model based systems engineering of highly automated driving systems, along with supporting model classes. The model classes cover the concept of operations, logical architecture, application software components, and the implementation platforms. The thesis also provides an overview of current implementation technologies for cognitive driving intelligence and vehicle platform control, and recommends a specific setup for development and accelerated testing of highly automated driving systems, that includes model- and hardware-in-the-loop techniques in conjunction with a publish/subscribe bus. Beyond the more "traditional" engineering concepts, the thesis also investigates the domain of machine consciousness and computational self-awareness. The exploration indicates that current engineering methods are likely to hit a complexity ceiling, breaking through which may require advances in how safety-critical systems can self-organize, construct, and evaluate internal models to reflect their perception of the world. Finally, the thesis also presents a functional architecture for the brake system of an autonomous truck. This architecture proposes a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems of the truck in a way that provides dynamic, diversified redundancy, and an increase in the system reliability and availability, while meeting safety requirements.

  • 13.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scoop Technical Report: Year 20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the technical solution that was implemented for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2011. The GCDC involved developing a system to drive a vehicle autonomously in specific situations. Some reflections on the design process are also included. The goal of the report is to make the user understand the technical solution and the motivations behind the design choices made.

  • 14.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides insights into architecture and systems engineering for autonomous driving systems, through a set of complementary perspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of the art to define a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving, consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and off-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed within a broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which we define four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture, Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classes aid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects. Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologies that combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomous driving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Future evolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspective looking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousness and self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practices shows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporating elements of so-called \emph{constructivist} architectures. The impact of autonomy on systems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verification, while implementations shall continue experiencing an influx of technologies from non-automotive domains.

  • 15.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, 1669-1681 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

  • 16.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Liljeqvist, Björn
    EIS by Semcon.
    Towards Autonomous Architetures: An Automotive Perspective2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of embedded computers in modern automobiles is enabling increasingly autonomous features. Electronic power train management and applications in active safety, cooperative driving and navigation show an underlying trend of the transfer of responsibilities from the human driver to a vehicle's (semi-)autonomous subsystems. The logical culmination ofthis trend would be a completely autonomous vehicle. How should existing vehicle architectures be evolved to sustain the development and growth of autonomous functions? We explore the principal problems with existing architectures, caused due to ad hoc addition of (semi-) autonomous features and argue that it is time to rethink automotive architectures from an autonomous systems perspective. We introduce a pattern that can help architects and designers to think in terms of autonomy and suggest where the application of autonomous systems thinking should begin, in the context of architecture development.

  • 17.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 18.
    Berntsson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    Siemens VDO.
    Donandt, Jörg
    Daimler AG.
    Eklund, Ulrich
    Volvo Cars.
    Freund, Ulrich
    ETAS GmbH.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Jansson, Pontus
    Mecel AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Selin, Dennis
    Volvo Cars.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Tessier, Patrick
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    EAST-ADL 2.0 Specification2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This specification of the EAST ADL 2.0 is based on the EAST-ADL developed in the EAST EEA projectand has been further refined and harmonized with on-going modelling appraches in the automotiveindustry. It presents the modeling infrastructure, i.e. how the modeling elements should be represented inthe language and the UML representation. For each package a usage example is provided.The EAST-ADL 2.0 is harmonized with AUTOSAR.The metamodel and UML profile of EAST ADL 2.0 is defined in two steps: A domain (automotive)metamodel is defined, capturing only the domain specific needs of the language, without adding the UML2details. The basic concepts of UML are used for this purpose, such as classes, compositions andassociations. Based on the domain metamodel, a UML2 profile for the domain metamodel is defined,specifying stereotypes with properties and constraints.Comments on the content of this document are welcomed, and should be directed to <coordinator@atesst.org>.Please download the latest available specification and the XMI file ready for use in UML2 tools from the <atesst.org> website.

  • 19.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Modeling Language for the Description and Development of Tool Chains for Embedded Systems2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of embedded systems is typically supported by a number of diverse development tools. To achieve seamless tool support throughout the embedded systems development process, tool chains are constructed as software solutions that integrate the development tools. Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, since they need to support distributed engineering, integration conventions, a specific set of tools and the complete product development process used in a company. In practice, the development of tool chains that fulfill these needs is difficult and time-consuming, since it is a largely unsupported, manual engineering task. In addition, tool chains are typically described using general purpose modeling languages or languages borrowed from other domains, which contributes to the accidental complexity of tool chain development. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic, targeted description and development approach for tool chains.

    This thesis contributes with a language for the systematic description of tool chains and semi-automated techniques to support their development.

    The Tool Integration Language (TIL) is a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) for tool chains that allows describing tool chains explicitly, systematically and at an appropriate level of abstraction. TIL concepts are from the domain of tool integration and express the essential design decisions of tool chains at an architectural level of abstraction. A TIL model serves as a basis for the development of a tailored tool chain.

    Semi-automated techniques for the specification, analysis and synthesis support the development of tool chains that are described as TIL models. Specification techniques support the creation and refinement of a tool chain model that is aligned to a given development process and set of tools. Domain-specific analysis techniques are used to check the alignment of the tool chain model with the supported process. Synthesis techniques support the efficient realization of the specified tool chain model as a software solution that conforms to integration conventions.

    Experiences from case studies are presented which apply TIL to support the creation of tool chains. The approach is evaluated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by comparing it to traditional development methods for tool chains. The approach enables the efficient development of tailored tool chains, which have the potential to improve the productivity of embedded systems development.

  • 20.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    On the modeling and generation of service-oriented tool chains2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 2, 461-480 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, which often have a service-oriented architecture. With service-oriented tool integration, development tools are made available as services, which can be orchestrated to form tool chains. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic development approach for service-oriented tool chains. We propose a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) that allows us to describe the tool chain on an appropriate level of abstraction. We present how this language supports three activities when developing service-oriented tool chains: communication, design and realization. A generative approach supports the realization of the tool chain using the service component architecture. We present experiences from an industrial case study, which applies the DSML to support the creation of a service-oriented tool chain. We evaluate the approach both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparing it with a traditional development approach.

  • 21.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Gu, Wenqing
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Model-based Service Discovery and Orchestration for OSLC Services in Tool Chains2012In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Volume 7387 LNCS, 2012, 283-290 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally distributed development of complex systems relies on the use of sophisticated development tools but today the tools provide only limited possibilities for integration into seamless tool chains. If development tools could be integrated, development data could be exchanged and tracing across remotely located tools would be possible and would increase the efficiency of globally distributed development. We use a domain specific modeling language to describe tool chains as models on a high level of abstraction. We use model-driven technology to synthesize the implementation of a service-oriented wrapper for each development tool based on OSLC (Open Services for Lifecyle Collaboration) and the orchestration of the services exposed by development tools. The wrapper exposes both tool data and functionality as web services, enabling platform independent tool integration. The orchestration allows us to discover remote tools via their service wrapper, integrate them and check the correctness of the orchestration.

  • 22.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Hong, Jiarui
    Loiret, Frederic
    A Generative Approach for Developing Data Exchange in Tool Chains2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hong, Jiarui
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Automated Construction of Data Integration Solutions for Tool Chains2012In: ICSEA 2012 : The Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances, 2012, 102-111 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software development relies increasingly on the orchestrated use of development tools in the form of seamless, automated tool chains. Tool chains are becoming complex software systems themselves, however, the efficient development of tool chains is a largely unsupported, manual engineering task. We propose both a domain specific modeling language for systematically specifying tool chains and generators for efficiently realizing the tool chain as software. Tool chain software consists of diverse components, such as service-oriented applications, models and model transformations, which we produce by different generative techniques. We study both the separate generative techniques and the dependencies between the generated artifacts to ensure that they can be integrated. We evaluate the approach both quantitatively and qualitatively, and show in a case study that the approach is practically applicable when building a tool chain for industrially relevant tools.

  • 24.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A cost-efficiency model for tool chains2012In: Global Software Engineering Workshops (ICGSEW), 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 6-11 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seamless integration of development tools can help to improve the productivity of software development and reduce development costs. When tool chains are used in the context of global software engineering, they are deployed as globally distributed systems. Tool chains have the potential to bring productivity gains but they are also expensive to realize. The decision to introduce a tool chain is often made based only on a qualitative analysis of the situation. More precise analysis of the trade-offs would be possible if a quantitative model describing the cost-efficiency of tool chains would be available. We apply the COCOMO model for cost analysis in combination with the TIL model for tool chain design to create a generic quantitative estimation model for predicting the cost-efficiency of tool chains. We validate the cost-efficiency model with a case study of an industrial tool chain.

  • 25.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Nuremberg Institute of Technology.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture Description Language for Automotive Software-Intensive Systems2013In: Embedded Computing Systems: Applications, Optimization, and Advanced Design / [ed] M. Khalgui, O. Mosbahi, & A. Valentini, Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an Architecture Description Language (ADL) initially defined in several European-funded research projects and subsequently refined and aligned with the more recent AUTOSAR automotive standard. It provides a comprehensive approach for defining automotive electronic systems through an information model that captures engineering information in a standardized form. Aspects covered include vehicle features, requirements, analysis functions, software and hardware components, and communication. The representation of the system’s implementation is not defined in EAST-ADL itself but by AUTOSAR. However, traceability is supported from EAST-ADL’s lower abstraction levels to the implementation level elements in AUTOSAR. In this chapter, the authors describe EAST-ADL in detail, show how it relates to AUTOSAR as well as other significant automotive standards, and present current research work on using EAST-ADL in the context of fully-electric vehicles, the functional safety standard ISO 26262, and for multi-objective optimization.

  • 26.
    Caspi, Paul
    et al.
    Verimag, France.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
    Trento Univ, Italy.
    Almeida, Luiz
    Univ of Porto.
    Benveniste, Albert
    Inria, France.
    Buttazzo, Giorgio
    Univ. of Pisa, Italy.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    MDH, Västerås.
    Damm, Werner
    Offis, Germany.
    Kopetz, Hermann
    Vienna Univ, Austria.
    Sifakis, Josef
    Verimag, France.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Wellings, Andy
    York Univ, UK.
    Wilhelm, Reinhard
    Univ. of Saarbrucken, Germany .
    Guidelines for a curriculum on embedded software and systems2005In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 4, no 3, 587-611 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of embedded real-time systems requires skills from multiple specific disciplines, including, but not limited to, control, computer science, and electronics. This often involves experts from differing backgrounds, who do not recognize that they address similar, if not identical, issues from complementary angles. Design methodologies are lacking in rigor and discipline so that demonstrating correctness of an embedded design, if at all possible, is a very expensive proposition that may delay significantly the introduction of a critical product. While the economic importance of embedded systems is widely acknowledged, academia has not paid enough attention to the education of a community of high-quality embedded system designers, an obvious difficulty being the need of interdisciplinarity in a period where specialization has been the target of most education systems. This paper presents the reflections that took place in the European Network of Excellence Artist leading us to propose principles and structured contents for building curricula on embedded software and systems.

  • 27.
    Chen, De Jiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Maffei, Antonio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    De Sousa Dias Ferreira, João
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Akillioglu, Hakan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Khabazzi, Mahmood Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Virtual Environment for the Management and Development of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems2015In: IFAC DCDS15, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, 29-36 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are often cyber-physical system-of-systems controlled by intelligent controllersfor collaborative operations on the productions of complex products. To assure theefficiency and effectiveness, a consolidation of concerns across managerial levels, product lifecyclestages, and product lines or families becomes necessary. This calls for a common informationinfrastructure in terms of ontology, models, methods and tools. For industrial manufacturerssubjected to increased cost pressure and market volatility, the availability of such an informationinfrastructure would promote their abilities of making optimized and proactive decisions andthereby their competitiveness and survivability. This paper presents a virtual environment thatconstitutes an information infrastructure for the management and development of evolvableproduction systems (EPS) in manufacturing. It adopts mature modeling frameworks throughEAST-ADL for an effective model-based approach. The contribution is centered on a meta-modelthat offers a common data specification and semantic basis for information management acrossproduct lifecycle, models and tools, both for resource planning and for anomaly treatment. Aprototype tool implementation of this virtual environment for validation is also presented.

  • 28.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture-centric Approach to the Design, Analysis, Verification and Validation of Complex Embedded Systems2012In: Architecture-Driven Semantic Analysis of Embedded Systems, Dagstuhl Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 7 / [ed] Feiler, Peter ; Hugues, Jérôme ; Sokolsky, Oleg, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany, 2012, 34-34 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-criticaland software-intensive embedded systems. The language enables a formalized and traceabledescription of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of systems.This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools forthe development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamlessand cost efficient way.This talk focuses on the recent advances of EAST-ADL in supporting the description,analysis, verification&validation of complex embedded systems for the purposes of require-ments engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecturecentric as all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardizeddesign artifacts existing at multiple levels of abstraction. This talk presents the languagedesign, its theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. From a bigger perspective, thecontribution makes it possible for embedded system and software developers to maintainvarious engineering concerns coherently, while exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologiesfrom computer science and other related domains for a model-based design.

  • 29.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Model-based Contract and Service for Self-managed Components in Cyber-Physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of cyber-physical systems that are inherently safety&time-critical. Future automotive technology will to an increasingly large extent be based on an integration of general purpose components for shortening the innovation loops and enabling efficient product evolution. Nevertheless, the adoption of general purpose solutions in automotive vehicles will not be a trivial task. Currently, while domain-specific frameworks like AUTOSAR and ISO26262 facilitate component-based system development based on well-formulated assumptions and interfaces, challenges remain in the areas of contract synthesis, conformity assessment, and diagnostics when issues like mode behaviors, timing, and failures are of concern.  This talk presents the EAST-ADL modeling framework and discusses an EAST-ADL based approach to system modularity and risk analysis in order to integrate separately developed electronic components into safety-critical automotive systems. Special attention is paid to the synthesis of both component contracts and the associated runtime services for lifecycle and quality management, anomaly treatment according to ISO26262.

  • 30.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    An Architectural Approach to Autonomics and Self-management of Automotive Embedded Electronic Systems2008In: 4th European Congress ERTS: Embedded Real Time Software 2008, SIA (Société des Ingénieurs de l'Automobile - French Automotive Engineers Society) , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded electronic systems in vehiclesare of rapidly increasing commercial importance forthe automotive industry. While current vehicularembedded systems are extremely limited and static,a more dynamic configurable system would greatlysimplify the integration work and increase quality ofvehicular systems. This brings in features likeseparation of concerns, customised softwareconfiguration for individual vehicles, seamlessconnectivity, and plug-and-play capability.Furthermore, such a system can also contribute toincreased dependability and resource optimizationdue to its inherent ability to adjust itself dynamicallyto changes in software, hardware resources, andenvironment condition. This paper describes thearchitectural approach to achieving the goals ofdynamically self-configuring automotive embeddedelectronic systems by the EU research projectDySCAS. The architecture solution outlined in thispaper captures the application and operationalcontexts, expected features, middleware services,functions and behaviours, as well as the basicmechanisms and technologies. The paper alsocovers the architecture conceptualization bypresenting the rationale, concerning the architecturestructuring, control principles, and deploymentconcept. In this paper, we also present the adoptedarchitecture V&V strategy and discuss some openissues in regards to the industrial acceptance.

  • 31.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Developing a Context-aware Architecture in DySCAS2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current vehicular embedded systems exhibit a fixed software structure and the possibilities for software upgrades are limited. Due to increasing expectations of context-awareness, dependability, flexibility, cost efficiency and time-to-market; we argue that it is now necessary to enable advanced features that are based on dynamic configuration.To reach the goals of dynamically self-configuring automotive systems, we propose an architecture which is currently being developed in the EC funded DySCAS project. We describe the proposed architecture, with a focus on its support for adaptive behavior. To illustrate the type and extent of adaptability achievable, a set of generic use case classes are briefly described and the requirements they place on the architecture and in particular the adaptive aspects, are discussed.The architecture is based on a distributed hierarchical control and decision strategy, which through the policy-based middleware functions and underlying technologies allows separation-of-concerns, on-line reconfiguration, seamless connectivity, plug-and-play capability, and also increased dependability and resource optimization. Decision points are concerned with both application and resource aspects and are dispersed throughout a distributed platform, allowing the embedding of numerous policies to make context-aware decisions whilst avoiding excessive complexity. The approach is scalable and provides additional freedom for engineers to define the dynamic configuration characteristics.The developed architecture is so far on a functional level and has been validated against system requirements. Current work concentrates on defining the corresponding software architecture, considering automotive platforms and constraints.

  • 32.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Kenneth, Östberg
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A Systematic approach to Risk Management in ITS Context: Challenges and Research Issues2014In: Radioelectronic and Computer Systems, 2014, No 5 ( 69 ), Ukraine, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) with autonomic functions that are cyber-physical in nature is of rapidly increasing importance for traffic efficiency and safety. Current engineering approaches to such functions often rely on worst-case assumptions, originally used for safety engineering, due to the difficulty and cost involved in precisely modeling and analyzing the system boundaries and emergent behaviors in a highly dynamic configuration of system-of-systems. This can lead to the loss of many of the benefits in regard to traffic efficiency, but also to conditions where the transport system as a whole is prone to unacceptable high risks. We envisage a systematic approach to the development of autonomous functions in ITS resting on the basis of a formal modeling framework. This paper presents our vision for achieving such a goal on the basis of EAST-ADL, which is an ISO26262 compatible architecture modeling language and methodology for the development and management of automotive Electrics & Electronics systems. Especially, this paper elaborates on some key challenges and outlines related research issues to be regarded in a Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 33.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Brezhniev, Eugene
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Towards an Ontology-Based Approach to Safety Management in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems2015In: Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland / [ed] Zamojski, W., Mazurkiewicz, J., Sugier, J., Walkowiak, T., Kacprzyk, J., Springer, 2015, Vol. 365, 107-115 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in transports of people and goods across Europe will aggravate the problems related to traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. As new road infrastructure alone would not solve such problems, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has been considered as new initiatives. Due to the complexity of behaviors, novel methods and tools for the requirements engineering, correct-by-construction design, dependability, product variability and lifecycle management become also necessary. This chapter presents an ontology-based approach to safety management in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS), primarily in an automotive context. This approach is supposed to lay the way for all aspects of ITS safety management, from simulation and design, over run-time risk assessment and diagnostics. It provides the support for ontology driven ITS development and its formal information model. Results of approach validation in CarMaker are also given in this Chapter. The approach is a result of research activities made in the framework of Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 34.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Trucks Technology.
    Tolvanen, Juha-Pekka
    MetaCase.
    Advances in Automotive System Modeling: EAST-ADL2013In: EETimes Europe Automotive, 222902939Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    An architectural approach to the analysis, verification and validation of software intensive embedded systems2013In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 95, no 8, 649-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-critical and software-intensive embedded systems. The language allows a formalized and traceable description of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of system development. This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamless and cost efficient way. This paper focuses on the recent advancement of EAST-ADL in supporting an architecture-centric analysis, verification&validation of complex behaviors for the purposes of requirements engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecture centric because all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardized design artifacts sitting at multiple levels of abstractions. We present the language design to support this, the theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. To show the capability of EAST-ADL, we also introduce an algorithm and its implementation for transforming the EAST-ADL behavior models to SPIN models for logic model checking. Exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologies from computer science, electronic engineering, and other related domains for a model-based incremental system development, the contribution enables the developers of embedded systems and software to maintain various engineering concerns coherently using EAST-ADL.

  • 36.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB, Sweden.
    Integrated safety and architecture modeling for automotive embedded systems2011In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 128, no 6, 196-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an architecture description language (ADL) for model-based development of automotive embedded systems.The formalization of domain-specific engineering information and methodology brings a potential for a wide range of benefitsfor information management, system design and integration, tool interaction, documentation and communication. This paper describesthe EAST-ADL language support for safety requirements, faults/failures, hazards and safety constraints in the context of ISO/DIS 26262reference safety lifecycle. Based on the language support, the safety related information can be derived and managed seamlessly alongwith its target nominal system architecture model with multiple abstraction levels and view extensions. Through model transformationand tool integration, automated safety analysis is allowed.

  • 37.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Modelling Support for Design of Safety-Critical Automotive Embedded Systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and demonstrates an approach that promises to bridge the gap between model-based systems engineering and the safety process of automotive embedded systems. The basis for this is the integration of safety analysis techniques, a method for developing and managing Safety Cases, and a systematic approach to model-based engineering - the EAST-ADL2 architecture description language. Three areas are highlighted: (I) System model development on different levels of abstraction. This enables fulfilling many requirements on software development as specified by ISO-CD-26262 (2) Safety Case development in close connection to the system model (3) Analysis of mal-functional behaviour that may cause hazards, by modelling of errors and error propagation in a (complex and hierarchical) system model.

  • 38.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Developing Dependable Automotive Embedded Systems using the EAST-ADL2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systemscalls for a more rigorous approach to systemdevelopment compared to current state of practice. Acritical issue is the management of the engineeringinformation that defines the embedded system. TheEAST-ADL1 is an architecture description languagefor automotive embedded systems. The languageemphasizes information management as a basis forsystematic design and verification. It is currently beingrefined in the ATESST2 project.

  • 39.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    A Model-based Approach to Dynamic Self-Assessment for Automated Performance and Safety Awareness of Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: Model-Based Safety and Assessment - 5th International Symposium, Trento, Italy, September 11–13, 2017 / [ed] Marco Bozzano, Yiannis Papadopoulos, Springer, 2017, Vol. LNCS 10437, 227-240 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems) that are inherently time- and safety-critical. To justify the actions for quality-of-service adaptation and safety assurance, it is fundamental to perceive the uncertainties of system components in operation, which are caused by emergent properties, design or operation anomalies. From an industrial point of view, a further challenge is related to the usages of generic purpose COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) components, which are separately developed and evolved, often not sufficiently verified and validated for specific automotive contexts. While introducing additional uncertainties in regard to the overall system performance and safety, the adoption of COTS components constitutes a necessary means for effective product evolution and innovation. Accordingly, we propose in this paper a novel approach that aims to enable advanced operation monitoring and self-assessment in regard to operational uncertainties and thereby automated performance and safety awareness. The emphasis is on the integration of several modeling technologies, including the domain-specific modeling framework EAST-ADL, the A-G contract theory and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). In particular, we also present some initial concepts in regard to the usage performance and safety awareness for quality-of-service adaptation and dynamic risk mitigation.

  • 40.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Mahmud, Nidhal
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Systems Modeling with EAST-ADL for Fault Tree Analysis through HiP-HOPS2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes: (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, Vol. 4, 91-96 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain-specific modeling framework with methodology and language supportfor the engineering of automotive embedded systems. In regard to functional safety, it aims toprovide the maximum possible support for ISO 26262 so that all safety related information can beconsolidated seamlessly in a common system model together with the requirements specification.This paper describes the EAST-ADL support for the modeling of plausible error behaviors as anorthogonal system view. We introduce in particular an integration of such EAST-ADL modelswith the HiP-HOPS method for automated temporal fault tree analysis.

  • 41.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Baumann, Christoph
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Knowledge-in-the-Loop Approach to Integrated Safety&Security for Cooperative System-of-Systems2015In: IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-of-systems (SoS) is inherently open inconfiguration and evolutionary in lifecycle. For the nextgeneration of cooperative cyber-physical system-of-systems,safety and security constitute two key issues of public concernthat affect the deployment and acceptance. In engineering, theopenness and evolutionary nature also entail radical paradigmshifts. This paper presents one novel approach to thedevelopment of qualified cyber-physical system-of-systems, withCooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) as one target.The approach, referred to as knowledge-in-the-loop, aims toallow a synergy of well-managed lifecycles, formal qualityassurance, and smart system features. One research goal is toenable an evolutionary development with continuous andtraceable flows of system rationale from design-time to postdeploymenttime and back, supporting automated knowledgeinference and enrichment. Another research goal is to develop aformal approach to risk-aware dynamic treatment of safety andsecurity as a whole in the context of system-of-systems. Key basetechnologies include: (1) EAST-ADL for the consolidation ofsystem-wide concerns and for the creation of an ontology foradvanced run-time decisions, (2) Learning Based-Testing for runtimeand post-deployment model inference, safety monitoringand testing, (3) Provable Isolation for run-time attack detectionand enforcement of security in real-time operating systems.

  • 42.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Panfilenko, Dmitri Valeri
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sonntag, Daniel
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    A Model-Based Approach to Qualified Process Automation for Anomaly Detection and Treatment2016In: 21st IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology & Factory Automation, ETFA 2016, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 7733731Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are becoming complex cyberphysicalsystems with increasingly intelligent support for processautomation. For the dependability and performance, acombination of measures for fault avoidance, robust architecture,and runtime anomaly handling is necessary. These in turn callfor a formalization of knowledge across different system lifecyclestages and a provision of novel methods and tools for qualifiedsystem synthesis and effective risk management. This paperpresents a model-based approach to qualified process automationfor the operation and maintenance of production systems. Thecontribution is centered on the formalizations of a wide range ofsystem concerns, and thereby a consolidation of the rationalebehind the design of run-time process logic in BPMN2.0. Inparticular, the approach allows an integration of formal systemdescriptions, FTA and FEMA based anomaly analysis, andexecutable process models for effective anomaly detection andtreatment. The approach adopts mature modeling methods andtools through EAST-ADL. In this paper, a prototype tool-chainwith MetaEdit+ Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) Workbench,HiP-HOPS Analysis Tool and Camunda BPM Platform is alsopresented.

  • 43.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    DySCAS System Specification - Part II: Specification of DySCAS MiddlewareReference Architecture2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive definition of theDySCAS Middleware Reference Architecture, including the DySCASArchitecture Model together with the underlying DySCAS Component Model andDySCAS Information Model. The component model provides a standardizedapproach to the interfaces, internal structure and behaviours of middlewareservices. The information model constitutes an ontology and effective means forcapturing and formulating the meta-information of system configuration. Suchinformation is typically concerned with the system architecture specification andoperation status that is necessary for run-time configuration management.This document serves as a guide for understanding the functionalities andsemantics of this reference architecture in detail.

  • 44.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Pihl, Claes
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Granath, Johan
    Movimento AB.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Systemite AB.
    Helt, Albert
    Daimler AG.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    DySCAS System Architecture2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an architectural strategy and overall system design forthe DySCAS middleware system as a first step towards a complete systemspecification. The DySCAS Basic Architecture captures both the systemconceptualization and an initial function-level outline without consideringimplementation and technology details. It defines the middleware system in termsof its application and operational contexts, expected features, middleware servicesthat group functions, behaviours, as well as the structuring and implementationdecisions that are most crucial to satisfy the given set of requirements. In thisdocument, we also outline some fundamental strategies for binding themiddleware components to the target platforms and infrastructures and forhandling potential errors at both initialization-time and rum-time, while taking thetechnology support and domain needs into consideration.This deliverable also covers the rationale behind the architecture solutions andprovides a generic framework that relates architecture principles and styles, wellknownmechanisms, and reference models to the expected functionalities andqualities of DySCAS. The aim is to consolidate the proposed solutions and also tofacilitate the communications between DySCAS partners and to third-parties.

  • 45.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A metrics system for quantifying operational coupling in embedded computer control systems2004In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM international conference on Embedded software, 2004, 184-192 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One central issue in system structuring and quality prediction is the interdependencies of system modules. This paper proposes a novel technique for determining the operational coupling in embedded computer control systems. It allows us to quantify dependencies between modules, formed by different kinds of relationships in a solution, and therefore promotes a more systematic approach to the reasoning about modularity. Compared to other existing coupling metrics, which are often implementation-technology specific such as confining to the inheritance and method invocation relationships in OO software, this metrics system considers both communication and synchronization and can be applied throughout system design. The metrics system has two parts. The first part supports a measurement of coupling by considering individual relationship types separately. The quantification is performed by considering the topology of connections, as well as the multiplicity, replication, frequency, and accuracy of component properties that appear in a relationship. The second part provides a methodology for combining coupling by individual relationship types into an overall coupling, where domain specific heuristics and technology constraints are used to determine the weighting.

  • 46.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    System Architecture in a Mechatronics Perspective1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Elicitation of relevant analysis and V&V techniques2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this task is to collect engineering scenarios that is of particular concern for thelanguage and tool development work in ATESST. Such scenarios will form the basis for identifyingand formulating more detailed requirements as well as for supporting the verification and validationof project results.The task is carried out by both industrial and academic participants. The subtasks concerningscenario capturing are mainly performed by the industrial participants in order to embrace the endusers’demands and to ensure the industrial significances. The academic participants havecontributed a scheme for scenario description and consolidated the industrial inputs.This document provides a complete description of 36 engineering scenarios captured by theproject partners. It concludes with a list of requirements on EAST-ADL, which are derived eitherdirectly from these engineering scenarios or from other related domain and technologyconsiderations.

  • 48.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Towards Model-Based Engineering of Self-Configuring Embedded Systems2010In: Model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems / [ed] Giese, H; Karsai, G; Lee, E; Rumpe, B; Schatz, B, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, 1st Edition, Vol. 6100, 345-353 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In self-configuring embedded systems, upgrades, attachment of devices, relocation ofapplications and adjustment of performance parameters can be carried out during run-timefor the purposes of information/function integration, maintenance, performance, resourceefficiency, and robustness. We describe a model-based engineering approach to support thedevelopment of such systems. Essential ingredients include a combined usage of a systemmodel, simulation combined with a number of formal techniques, and run-time models used as a basis for on-line decision making, with the overall goal to ascertain flexible, yet dependable, system behavior.

  • 49.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Shi, Jianlin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Sébastien, Gérard
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Strömberg, Mikael
    Systemite AB.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University.
    Model integration in the development of embedded control systems - A characterization of current research efforts2006In: 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Vols 1 and 2, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, 283-289 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of advanced embedded control systems requires a systematic approach in handling their increasing complexity and in particular integration of the different aspects and parts of a product worked on by different experts. Several variants of model-based approaches are today advocated to facilitate systems integration. This paper describes a number of representative efforts that address multiple concerns or views including modeling languages such as AADL and EAST-ADL as well as model integration environments such as GeneralStore, ToolNet, and Fujaba. We present a characterization of the approaches and thereby highlight their commonalities and differences regarding basic integration mechanisms and engineering support. We conclude with a prospect for future work.

  • 50.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    et al.
    Siemens VDO.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    Managing Complexity of Automotive Electronics Using the EAST-ADL2007In: 12TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING COMPLEX COMPUTER SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, 353-358 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systems calls for a more rigorous approach to system development compared to current state of practice. A critical issue is the management of the engineering information that defines the embedded system. Development time, cost efficiency, quality and dependability all benefit from appropriate information management. System modeling based on an architecture description language is a way to keep the engineering information within one information structure. The EAST-ADL was developed in the EAST-EEA project (www.easteea.net) and is an architecture description language for automotive embedded systems. It is currently refined in the ATESSTproject (www.atesst.org). This paper gives an overview of the EAST-ADL and accounts for some recent refinements as developed in the ATESST project. Areas covered include the relation to other standardization initiatives such as UML2.0, AADL, AUTOSAR, SysML, Marte profile, requirements management and variability.

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