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  • 1.
    Agde Tjernlund, Jessica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Length-scale effects in yielding and damage development in polymer materials2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Fretting fatigue of a shrink-fit pin subjected to rotating bending: Experiments and simulations2009In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 1559-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fretting fatigue initiation was studied for a shrink-fit pin at rotating bending. Eight assemblies with four different grips were manufactured from soft normalized steel and tested at loads well below bending endurance. All pins displayed rust-red fretting oxides deep into the contact and black oxidised fretting scars with fretting fatigue cracks at the rim. The slip evolution was simulated in a three-dimensional FE model including assembly, bending and sufficiently many rotations to reach a steady-state. The extension of cyclic slip agreed with the black oxidised scar. Deeper into the contact a monotonic slip developed to the positions with rust-red oxides. Asymmetric slip and traction on the interface sides together with a slight twist of the pin in the hub and the slip development process, illustrated that a three-dimensional analysis was required for the interface. Both the stress amplitude and the Findley multi-axial criterion predicted fretting fatigue of the pin although the rotating bend stress was well below the endurance limit.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Olsson, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Multi-axial fatigue initiation at inclusions and subsequent crack growth in a bainitic high strength roller bearing steel at uniaxial experiments2012In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 41, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The behaviour of inclusion initiated fatigue was studied for a high strength bearing steel with a bainite micro-structure. The analysis included experiments and numerical simulations. It was realized that the stress-state was multi-axial in the matrix material that met the inclusion also for a uniaxial far field stress. Fatigue initiation risk at the interface between the inclusion and matrix material was therefore predicted with the Findley multi-axial critical plane criterion. The fatigue parameters were determined from independent experiments on smooth specimens with tensile surface stress gradients. Crack growth from the inclusion to final rupture was modelled as a penny shaped crack with closure compensated effective material parameters. The growth simulations suggested that the majority of the fatigue life was consumed as fatigue crack initiation at the non-metallic inclusion.

  • 4.
    Almgren, Karin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Stress-transfer mechanisms in wood-fibre composites2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Daniel C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Material Characterization of Powder Materials using Inverse Modeling2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Daniel C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Cadario, Alessandro
    Lindskog, Per
    On the influence from punch geometry on the stress distribution at powder compaction2010In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 202, no 1-3, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical analysis, using the finite element method, of the mechanical behavior at powder compaction at higher densities was performed. In this investigation the material behavior is modeled using an advanced macroscopic constitutive description initially presented by Brandt and Nilsson [1]. This material model, like many other models describing powder compaction at higher densities, includes a large number of constitutive parameters and as a result, a complete material characterization is a difficult task to perform or at least requires a large number of different experiments. A remedy to this problem is to apply inverse modeling, i.e. optimization, for determination of relevant material properties from comparatively simple experiments. It is then of course important, in order to achieve high accuracy results from the optimization procedure, that the stress fields produced during the experiments involves high gradients of stress. Adhering to simple uniaxial die compaction experiments the main parameter that can be used in order to achieve such a feature is the geometry of the punch used for load application. In the present investigation a number of punch profiles are studied and it is found that a skewed punch geometry is the most appropriate one to be used for experimental die compaction aiming at a constitutive description of the powder material based on inverse modeling. The main efforts are devoted towards an analysis based on the previously mentioned material model by Brandt and Nilsson [1] but also relevant results for another type of constitutive model will be presented. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Daniel C.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Lindskog, Per
    Staf, Hjalmar
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    A Numerical Study of Material Parameter Sensitivity in the Production of Hard Metal Components Using Powder Compaction2014In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 2199-2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling of hard metal powder inserts is analyzed based on a continuum mechanics approach. In particular, one commonly used cutting insert geometry is studied. For a given advanced constitutive description of the powder material, the material parameter space required to accurately model the mechanical behavior is determined. These findings are then compared with the corresponding parameter space that can possibly be determined from a combined numerical/experimental analysis of uniaxial die powder compaction utilizing inverse modeling. The analysis is pertinent to a particular WC/Co powder and the finite element method is used in the numerical investigations of the mechanical behavior of the cutting insert.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Determination of yield surfaces in advanced constitutive powder models using inverse modeling2011In: Proceedings of the Euro PM 2011 Congress and Exhibition, European Powder Metallurgy Association , 2011, Vol. 3, p. 247-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to decrease the extensive experimental work in product development of WC/Co powder tooling equipment, an investigation of the applicability of inverse procedures to industrially relevant material models is performed. The powder die compaction process of WC/Co powder is modeled using the finite element method and an advanced plasticity-based constitutive model. An angled indenter is used to increase the sensitivity of constitutive parameters with respect to the measurable data from experiment, which is done using an instrumented die. Here, the inverse modeling (optimization) is performed (using iterative reduction of variable space and a combination of genetic (GA) and gradient search algorithms) in order to determine the yield surface of the investigated material. The results indicate that inverse modeling can be a useful tool in order to reduce the experimental efforts at material characterization of powder materials described by advanced material models.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Cadario, Alessandro
    Sandvik Tooling AB, Sweden.
    Lindskog, Per
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Inverse modeling for parameter determination when using advanced material models to describe powder compaction2010In: Proceedings of the World Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, World PM 2010, European Powder Metallurgy Association , 2010, Vol. 5, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to decrease the amount of experimental work at material characterization of powder mixtures, optimization procedures are often used. In the present study, characterization of WC/Co powders described by an advanced plasticity model is at issue. In particular, uniaxial die compaction is analyzed numerically in order to determine the correlation between material parameters, scalar and functional, and measurable information from experiments. Such information include radial (contact) pressure between powder and die walls, press force as function of indentation depth and frictional effects between powder and die walls. The commercial finite element solver LS-Dyna and the optimization module LS-OPT are used in the present investigation.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Cadario, Alessandro
    Sandvik Tooling AB, Sweden .
    Lindskog, Per
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Parameter Sensitivity at Advanced Constitutive Modeling of Powder Materials2009In: Proceedings of the Euro International Powder Metallurgy Congress and Exhibition, Euro PM 2009, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2009, Vol. 3, p. 293-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry pressing powder compaction is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) and in particular then the explicit commercial FEM program LS-DYNA. The aim is then to determine the sensitivity of mechanical local and global parameters with respect to different constitutive as well as geometrical variables. A very advanced constitutive description (not available as standard in commercial FEM packages but implemented into LS-DYNA for the present investigation) is used in the numerical analysis, Brandt and Nilsson [1], and the results are particularly helpful for a forthcoming inverse analysis where it is crucial, for reasons of efficiency, to reduce the number of variables in the optimization procedure aiming at a accurate description of the mechanical behavior of the powder material. It should be clearly stated that the geometrical parameters to be investigated include different possible press geometries to be used for experimental verification of the results.

  • 11.
    AZİZOĞLU, YAĞIZ
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Micromechanical Numeric Investigation of Fiber Bonds in 3D Network Structures.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing of paper and paperboard, optimized fiber usage has crucial importance for process efficiency and profitability. Dry strength of paper is one of the important quality criteria, which can be improved by adding dry strength additive that affect fiber to fiber bonding. This study is using the micromechanical simulations which assist interpretation of the experimental results concerning the effect of strength additives.

    A finite element model for 3D dry fiber network was constructed to study the effect of bond strength, bond area and the number of bonds numerically on the strength of paper products. In the network, fibers’ geometrical properties such as wall thickness, diameter, length and curl were assigned according to fiber characterization of the pulp and SEM analyses of dry paper cross-section. The numerical network was created by depositing the fibers onto a flat surface which should mimic the handsheet-making procedure. In the FE model, each fiber was represented with a number of quadratic Timoshenko beam elements where fiber to fiber bonds were modelled by beam-to-beam contact. The contact model is represented by cohesive zone model, which needs bond strength and bond stiffness in normal and shear directions. To get a reasonable estimate of the bond stiffness, a detailed finite element model of a fiber bond was used. Additionally, the effect of different fiber and bond geometries on bond stiffness were examined by this model since the previous work [13] indicated that the bond stiffness can have a considerable effect on dry strength of paper.

    The network simulation results show that the effect of the strength additive comes through improving the bond strength primarily. Furthermore, with the considered sheet structure, both the fiber bond compliance and the number of bonds affect the stiffness of paper. Finally, the results of the analyses indicated that the AFM measurements of the fiber adhesion could not be used directly to relate the corresponding changes in the bond strength.

    The fiber bond simulation concluded that fiber wall thickness has the most significant effect on the fiber bond compliance. It was also affected by micro-fibril orientation angle, bond orientation and the degree of pressing.

  • 12.
    Baradaran, Mohammad Ali
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Hydrogen Embirttlement in Weldox 1300 and Hardox 5002014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Upon trying to reach higher strengths, when designing steels, inevitably susceptibility to one

    type of cracking known as hydrogen cracking increases. In present work, this complexity with

    regard to high strength structural steel of Weldox 1300 and wear plate of Hardox 500 was

    studied.

    Effect of low temperature tempering (200 ) and hard leveling on hydrogen embrittlement was

    qualitatively explored by fracture toughness testing. Tests were performed on SENB specimens of two types of Weldox 1300 in air and 3.5% NaCl solution. In-situ testing of as-quenched Weldox caused K value for crack growth initiation to drop to almost 20% of that for reference specimen tested in air. However, Weldox 1300 in tempered and leveled condition exhibited considerably improved resistance against hydrogen cracking by almost 50% compared to asquenched condition.

    It is believed that formation of transit carbides acting as strong traps due to tempering, and alteration in dislocations’ structure and level of tensile residual stresses thanks to combined effects of tempering and leveling have considerable impact on crack growth kinetics which results in improved resistance. The influence of tempering and leveling was not investigated separately.

    Additionally, by using four-point-bending test it was attempted to screen a method suitable for study of hydrogen embrittlement. Test variables were tried to be adjusted to meet the failure criteria. Precharged samples were subjected to bending stresses and left in outdoor atmosphere. Hydrogen measurement after passing 41 days on one of the samples containing a stress concentrator showed that hydrogen had been trapped and still present into the sample. Although hydrogen measurement showed the effect of stress fields on hydrogen trapping, test results along with FEM simulation indicated that such a test method might not be practicable for this special combination of materials and expectations.

  • 13.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Numerical investigation of folding of coated papers2005In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 383-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folding of coated paper is examined numerically using the finite element method. Particular emphasis is put on the behaviour of field variables relevant for cracking of the coating layers. In the numerical analysis, the basepaper is modelled as an anisotropic elastic-plastic material (both elastic and plastic anisotropy is accounted for) while the constitutive behaviour of the coating layers are approximated by classical (Mises) elastoplasticity. The numerical results suggest, among other things, that particular forms of plastic anisotropy can substantially reduce the maximum strain levels in the coating. It is also shown that delamination buckling, in the present circumstances, will have a very small influence on the strain levels in the coating layer subjected to high tensile loading.

  • 14.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    On dynamic effects at folding of coated papers2005In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folding of coated papers is examined numerically using the finite element method. The analysis is focused on the influence from dynamic effects on the folding process. In particular, the behaviour of field variables relevant for cracking of the coating layers are studied in some detail. The results presented indicate that dynamic effects are of little importance as regards maximum strain levels in the coating but will influence the stress and strain distributions. Accordingly, a quasi-static analysis of the problem will be sufficient in order to describe many of the important features related to cracking.

  • 15.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    On the effect of high anisotropy at folding of coated papers2006In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element procedure, developed in order to account for the effect of high anisotropy at folding of coated papers, is presented. The anisotropic behaviour (with very low stiffness in the thickness direction) is modelled using stiff structural elements (trusses and beams). The numerical results indicate that high elastic anisotropy leads to lower strain levels at folding than reported in previous analyses where this effect was not accounted for. High plastic anisotropy, on the other hand, will contradict this result.

  • 16.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Hallbäck, N.
    Karathanasis, M.
    On material characterization of paper coating materials by microindentation testing2005In: Journal of Coatings Technology Research, ISSN 1547-0091, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microindentation as a method for determining important material properties of paper coating materials is studied experimentally and numerically The bulk of the investigation is concentrated upon the short-lived elastic part of a spherical indentation test, but determination of the failure stress of the coating is also discussed. The results indicate that microindentation can be a powerful tool for material characterization of these materials, but only if careful efforts arc, made to account for the influence from plasticity as well as from boundary effects.

  • 17.
    Barrskog, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Implementation of methods for computation of Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a company like Scania CV AB, a vast number of laws and regulations has to be considered when developing a truck. In the constant struggle to keep the generated noise below the allowed levels, the gears are made more slender and flexible. The slenderness in combination with case hardening has brought a new type of gear fracture into the light.The Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture, TIFF. A 2D-method, and a tool for engineers, was developed in the early 2000’s. However, this tool did not provide sufficient accuracy andcompatibility with the current design process to be adopted by the engineers at Scania.This thesis expands on the current 2D-model and attempts to improve the accuracy by bringing the analysis to 3D. Furthermore, the computational tool is developed in Pythonto allow for a more streamlined interface with the current workflow.The proposed method approximates the tooth as a cantilever-beam, and is only evaluated for this case. However, the stresses are computed with good accuracy. The onlydiscrepancy is one of the stress components, where the error is about 50%. This error isderived from the decision to, in torsion, model the cross-section of the gear tooth as an ellipse. The method has potential to be incorporated into the current design process, but the accuracy of the stresses due to torsion has to be improved, and some of the equations has to be adapted before real gear geometries can be considered.

  • 18.
    Barsoum, Imad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Ductile failure and rupture mechanisms in combined tension and shear2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is generally concerned with the ductile failure and rupture mechanisms encountered under combined tension and torsion loading. In the first part entitled Paper A, an experimental investigation of the rupture mechanisms in a mid-strength and a high strength steel was conducted employing a novel test configuration. The specimen used was a double notched tube specimen loaded in combined tension and torsion at a fixed ratio. The effective plastic strain, the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter was determined in the centre of the notch at failure. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured surfaces revealed two distinctively different ductile rupture mechanisms depending on the stress state. At high stress triaxiality the fractured surfaces were covered with large and deep dimples, suggesting that growth and internal necking of voids being the governing rupture mechanism. At low triaxiality it was found that the fractured surfaces were covered with elongated small shear dimples, suggesting internal void shearing being the governing rupture mechanism. In the fractured surfaces of the high-strength steel, regions with quasi-cleavage were also observed. The transition from the internal necking mechanism to the internal shearing mechanism was accompanied by a significant drop in ductility.

    In the second part entitled Paper B, a micromechanics model based on the theoretical framework of plastic localization into a band introduced by Rice is developed. The model employed consists of a planar band with a square array of equally sized cells, with a spherical void located in the centre of each cell. The periodic arrangement of the cells allows the study of a single unit cell for which fully periodic boundary conditions are applied. The micromechanics model is applied to analyze failure by ductile rupture in experiments on double notched tube specimens subjected to combined tension and torsion carried out by the present authors. The stress state is characterized in terms of the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter. Two rupture mechanisms can be identified, void coalescence by internal necking at high triaxiality and void coalescence by internal shearing at low triaxiality. For the internal necking mechanism, failure is assumed to occur when the deformation localizes into a planar band and is closely associated with extensive void growth. For the internal shearing mechanism, a simple criterion based on the attainment of a critical value of shear deformation is utilized. The two failure criteria capture the transition between the two rupture mechanisms successfully and are in good agreement with the experimental result.

  • 19. Barsoum, Imad
    et al.
    Faleskog, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Micromechanical analysis on the influence of the Lode parameter on void growth and coalescence2011In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, E-ISSN 1879-2146, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 925-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A micromechanical model consisting of a band with a square array of equally sized cells, with a spherical void located in each cell, is developed. The band is allowed a certain inclination and the periodic arrangement of the cells allow the study of a single unit cell for which fully periodic boundary conditions are applied. The model is based on the theoretical framework of plastic localization and is in essence the micromechanical model by Barsoum and Faleskog (Barsoum, I., Faleskog, J., 2007. Rupture mechanisms in combined tension and shear-micromechanics. International Journal of Solids and Structures 44(17), 5481-5498) with the extension accounting for the band orientation. The effect of band inclination is significant on the strain to localization and cannot be disregarded. The macroscopic stress state is characterized by the stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter. The model is used to investigate the influence of the stress state on void growth and coalescence. It is found that the Lode parameter exerts a strong influence on the void shape evolution and void growth rate as well as the localized deformation behavior. At high stress triaxiality level the influence of the Lode parameter is not as marked and the overall ductility is set by the stress triaxiality. For a dominating shear stress state localization into a band cannot be regarded as a void coalescence criterion predicting material failure. A coalescence criterion operative at dominating shear stress state is needed.

  • 20. Bauer, Margit
    et al.
    Mazza, Edoardo
    Jabareen, Mahmood
    Sultan, Leila
    Bajka, Michael
    Lang, Uwe
    Zimmermann, Roland
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Assessment of the in vivo biomechanical properties of the human uterine cervix in pregnancy using the aspiration test A feasibility study2009In: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, ISSN 0301-2115, E-ISSN 1872-7654, Vol. 144, p. S77-S81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To date no diagnostic tool is yet available to objectively assess the in vivo biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix during gestation. Methods: We show the first clinical application of an aspiration device to assess the in vivo biomechanical properties of the cervix in pregnancy with the aim to describe the physiological biomechanical changes throughout gestation in order to eventually detect pregnant women at risk for cervical insufficiency (CI). Results: Out of 15 aspiration measurements, 12 produced valid results. The stiffness values were in the range between 0.013 and 0.068 bar/mm. The results showed a good reproducibility of the aspiration test. In our previous test series on non-pregnant cervices our repetitive measurements showed a standard deviation of > 20% compared to <+/- 10% to our data on pregnant cervices. Stiffness values are decreasing with gestational age which indicates a progressive softening of cervical tissue towards the end of pregnancy. Three pregnant women had two subsequent measurements within a time interval of four weeks. Decreasing stiffness values in the range of 20% were recorded. Discussion: This preliminary study on the clinical practicability of aspiration tests showed promising results in terms of reproducibility (reliability) and clinical use (feasibility). Ongoing studies will provide further insights on its usefulness in clinical practice and in the detection of substantial changes of the cervix in pregnancy indicative for threatened preterm birth or cervical insufficiency.

  • 21.
    Bergstedt, Joel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Connecting casting simulations with strength analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The finite element method and casting simulations have reached higher popularity and accuracy partly due to increase in computer power over the last couple of years. The increase in computer power has led to better simulations and hence a better reflection of reality. The development in simulations has made it possible to connect different kinds of physics and simulation tools, a type of multiphysics. In this work the connection between casting simulations and strength analysis (with finite element method) has been evaluated with focus on improving the computation accuracy at Scania.This work indicates that by implementing data from casting simulation into a strength analysis the result changes. These changes are local and often located in areas where the stress levels are large. This emphasise the importance of using casting simulation data in strength analyses. Furthermore there are a large room for improvement and some calibration should be executed before usage.A method has been developed on how to implement casting simulations into a strength analysis. This method requires a interdisciplinary connection between different groups at Scania. The result of this connection is not only a better simulation but also an exchange of knowledge regarding the product that is of interest for all involving groups.

  • 22.
    Blanchard, Pierre
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Residual stresses and indentation.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The correlatioin between residual stresses and the global properties from an indentation test, i.e. hardness and size of the contact area, has been studied frequently in recent years. The investigations presented have been based on experimental, theoretical and numerical methods and as a result, the basic features of the problem are fairly well understood in the case of residual equi-biaxial surface stresses. The more general case, when the principal surface stresses are not necessarily equi-biaxial, has received nuch less attention and it is therefore the aim of the present study to remedy this shortcoming. In doing so, qualitative results are of immediate interest in this initial study but possible ways of quantitative descriptions are also discussed for future purposes. The present analysis is based on numerical methods and in particular the finite element method (FEM) is relied upon. Classical Mises elastoplastic material behavior is assumed throughout the investigation.

  • 23.
    Bogren, Karin M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Neagu, R. Cristian
    Åkerholm, Margaretha
    Lindström, Mikael
    STFI–Packforsk AB.
    Dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-fibre reinforced polyactide: experimental characterization and micro-mechanical modelling2006In: Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, ISSN 0892-7057, E-ISSN 1530-7980, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 613-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood-fiber reinforced polylactide is a biodegradable compositewhere both fibers and matrix are from renewableresources. When designing new materials of this kind, itis useful to measure the influence of fiber–matrixinterface properties on macroscopic mechanicalproperties. In particular, a quantitative measure of thedynamic stress transfer between the fibers andthe matrix when the material is subjected tocyclic loading would simplify the development of wood-fibercomposites. This is obtained by comparing themechanical dissipation of the composite with avalue predicted by a viscoelastic micromechanical model basedon perfect interfacial stress transfer. Theloss factors predicted by the model are 0.12 and 0.16 at dryand humid conditions, respectively, which amountto 63 and 66% of the experimentally determinedvalues. For Young's moduli the predicted values are 1.01 and0.88 GPa, which correspond to 92% of the experimentallydetermined values. The mismatch between thepredicted and experimental values may be attributed toimperfect interfaces with restrained stress transfer.Loss factors are also determined for specificmolecular bonds using dynamic Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy. These values show the sametrends with regard to moisture content as themacroscopically determined loss factors.

  • 24.
    Bonnaud, Etienne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    On mechanical modeling of composite materials2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bonnaud, Etienne L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Issues on Viscoplastic Characterization of Lead-Free Solder for Drop Test Simulations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable drop test simulations of electronic packages require reliable material characterization of solder joints. Mechanical properties of lead-free solder were here experimentally investigated for both monotonous and cyclic loading at different strain rates. With regards to the observed complex material behavior, the non-linear mixed hardening Armstrong and Fredrick model combined with the Perzyna viscoplastic law was chosen to fit the experimental data. This model was subsequently implemented into a commercial finite element code and used to simulate drop tests. Actual drop test experiments were conducted in parallel and experimental results were compared to simulations. Prediction discrepancies were analyzed and explanations suggested.

  • 26.
    Bonnaud, Etienne L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Faleskog, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Explicit, Fully Implicit and Forward Gradient Numerical Integration of a Hyperelasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Amorphous Polymers Undergoing Finite Deformation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the growing use of amorphous polymers in an expanding range of applications, interest for polymer mechanical modeling has greatly increased. Together with reliable constitutive models, stable, accurate and rapid integration algorithms valid for large deformations need to be developed. Here, in a framework of hyperelasto-viscoplasticity and multiplicative split formulation, three integration algorithms (explicit, fully implicit and forward gradient) are applied to the polymer model developed by Anand and Gurtin (2003) and respective stability is investigated. The explicit and fully implicit algorithms were furthermore implemented in a commercial Finite Element code and simulations of a simple tensile test are shown to capture the actual deformation behavior of polymers.

  • 27.
    Bonnaud, Etienne L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Gudmundson, P.
    Lead-free solder cyclic plasticity characterization for drop test simulations2006In: 7th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems. EuroSimE 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical behaviour of lead-free solder has been investigated experimentally and thereafter modelled analytically. Material test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic loadings at different strain rates exhibit noticeable properties: viscoplasticity, non-linear mixed hardening within each cycle and hardening followed by softening between consecutive cycles. To accurately describe these behaviours, a modified Armstrong and Fredrick model was combined to the Perzyna viscoplastic evolution equation. The set of parameters was determined by both curve-fitting and use of analytical relations. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 28.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Micromechanical Behavior of Fiber Networks2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper is used in a wide range of applications, each of which has specific requirements on mechanical and surface properties. The role of paper strength on paper performance is still not well understood. This work addresses the mechanical properties of paper by utilizing fiber network simulation and consists of two parts.In the first part, we use a three-dimensional model of a network of fibers to describe the fracture process of paper accounting for nonlinearities at the fiber level (material model and geometry) and bond failures. A stress-strain curve of paper in tensile loading is described with the help of the network of dry fibers; the parameters that dominate the shape of this curve are discussed. The evolution of network damage is simulated, the results of which are compared with digital speckle photography experiments on laboratory sheets. It is concluded that the original strain inhomogeneities due to the structure are transferred to the local bond failure dynamics. The effects of different conventional and unconventional bond parameters are analyzed. It has been shown that the number of bonds in paper is important and that the changes in bond strength influence paper mechanical properties significantly.In the second part, we proposed a constitutive model for a fiber suitable for cyclic loading applications. We based the development of the available literature data and on the detailed finite-element model of pulp fibers. The model provided insights into the effects of various parameters on the mechanical response of the pulp fibers. The study showed that the change in the microfibril orientation upon axial straining is mainly a geometrical effect and is independent of material properties of the fiber as long as the deformations are elastic. Plastic strains accelerate the change in microfibril orientation. The results also showed that the elastic modulus of the fiber has a non-linear dependency on a microfibril angle,with elastic modulus being more sensitive to the change of microfibril angle around small initial values of microfibril angles. These effects were incorporated into a non-linear isotropic hardening plasticity model for beams and tested in a fiber network in cycling loading application model, using the model we estimated the level of strains that fiber segments accumulate at the failure point in a fiber network.The main goal of this work is to create a tool that would act as a bridge between microscopic characterization of fiber and fiber bonds and the mechanical properties that are important in the papermaking industry. The results of this work provide a fundamental insight on mechanics of paper constituents in tensile as well as cyclic loading. This would eventually lead to a rational choice of raw materials in paper manufacturing and thus utilizing the environment in a balanced way.

  • 29.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Constitutive modelling of a paper fibre in cyclic loading applications2013Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Galland, Sylvain
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Stress-strain curve of paper revisited2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 318-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated a relation between micromechanical processes and the stress-strain curve of a dry fiber network during tensile loading. By using a detailed particle-level simulation tool we investigate, among other things, the impact of "non-traditional" bonding parameters, such as compliance of bonding regions, work of separation and the actual number of effective bonds. This is probably the first three-dimensional model which is capable of simulating the fracture process of paper accounting for nonlinearities at the fiber level and bond failures. The failure behavior of the network considered in the study could be changed significantly by relatively small changes in bond strength, as compared to the scatter in bonding data found in the literature. We have identified that compliance of the bonding regions has a significant impact on network strength. By comparing networks with weak and strong bonds, we concluded that large local strains are the precursors of bond failures and not the other way around.

  • 31.
    Borodulina, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Motamedian, Hamid Reza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Effect of fiber and bond strength variations on the tensile stiffness and strength of fiber networks2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As fiber and bond characterization tools become more sophisticated, the information from the fiber scale becomes richer. This information is used for benchmarking of different types of fibers by the paper and packaging industries. In this work, we have addressed a question about the effect of variability in the fiber and fiber bond properties on the average stiffness and strength of fiber networks. We used a fiber-scale numerical model and reconstruction algorithm to address this question. The approach was verified using the experimental sheets having fiber data acquired by a fiber morphology analyzer and corrected by microtomographic analysis of fibers in these sheets. We concluded, among other things, that it is sufficient to account for the average bond strength value with an acceptable number of samples to describe dry network strength, as long as the bond strength distribution remains symmetric. We also found that using the length-weighted average for fiber shape factor and fiber length data neglects the important contribution from the distribution in these properties on the mechanical properties of the sheets.

  • 32.
    Bremberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Automatic Mixed-Mode Crack Propagation Computations using a combined Hexahedral/Tetrahedral-Approach2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Bremberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Dhondt, Guido
    Automatic 3-D crack propagation calculations: a pure hexahedral element approach versus a combined element approach2009In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 157, no 1-2, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an evaluation of two different crack prediction approaches based on a comparison of the stress intensity factor distribution for three example problems. A single edge notch specimen and a quarter circular corner crack specimen subjected to shear displacements and a three point bend specimen with a crack inclined to the mid-plane are examined. The stress intensity factors are determined from the singular stress field close to the crack front. Two different fracture criteria are adopted for the calculation of an equivalent stress intensity factor and crack deflection angle. The stress intensity factor distributions for both numerical methods agree well to available reference solutions. Deviations are recorded at crack front locations near the free surface probably due to global contraction effects and the twisting behaviour of the crack front. Crack propagation calculations for the three point bending specimen give results that satisfy intuitive expectations. The outcome of the study encourages further pursuit of a crack propagation tool based on a combination of elements.

  • 34.
    Bremberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Dhondt, Guido
    Automatic crack-insertion for arbitrary crack growth2008In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 75, no 3-4, p. 404-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crack-insertion tool for automatic non-planar crack propagation calculations is under development. The final volume mesh of the cracked structure is achieved by a new approach. The cracked structure boundary is modelled as a discretized skin. A tube-like domain enclosing the crack-front is traced and filled with hexahedral elements while the remaining cracked structure is meshed with tetrahedral elements. The two separate meshes are finally connected by linear MPC equations. Results show that the method works very well for curved crack shapes in complex structures.

  • 35.
    Bremberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Faleskog, Jonas
    Mesh design for direct and indirect evaluation of mixed mode stress intensity factors in three dimensionsReport (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Cadario, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Fretting fatigue experiments and analyses with a spherical contact in combination with constant bulk stress2006In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 1248-1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fretting experiment with separate control of bulk stress, normal and tangential contact loads is presented. For the initial test series, constant normal and bulk loads were combined with a cyclic tangential load. Both the spherical indenter and the plane specimen were manufactured from alpha + beta titanium alloys. Strain gauges and acoustic emission measurements were employed for the determination of the time to crack initiation and the propagation life. The fretting cracks always initiated inside the slip zone at positions that were spread over the whole slip zone. Crack nucleation was investigated with five multiaxial fatigue criteria. It was concluded that macroscale stresses from the contact and bulk load alone could not explain all aspects of crack initiation. A possible explanation was found in the fretting-induced roughness. The growth of the fretting crack was simulated numerically by a parametrical description. It was noted that a cyclic bulk load was required to drive the crack growth through the specimen to final failure.

  • 37.
    Dahlberg, Carl F. O.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Modeling of the mechanical behavior of interfaces by using strain gradient plasticity2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Dahlberg, Carl F. O.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    On the Role of Interfaces in Small Scale Plasticity2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong evidence for a size dependence of plastic deformation in polycrystalline metalsis the basis for the research presented in this thesis. The most important parameter for this, and arguably also the most well known, is the grain size. As the size of the grains in a microstructure is decreased the yield stress increases. This is known as the Hall–Petch relation and have been confirmed for a large number of materials and grain sizes. Other structural dimensions may also give rise to a similar strengthening effect, such as the thickness of films and surface coatings, the widths of ligaments and localization zones and the diameter of thin wires, to mention a few. The work presented in this thesis is shown to be able to model these effects.

    Size dependent plastic deformation have here been modeled in a continuum mechanical setting by an extension of the standard theory of solid mechanics. Specifically, the work in this thesis is formulated in terms of the higher order strain gradient plasticity (SGP) theory presented by Gudmundson [Gudmundson, P., 2004. A unified treatment of strain gradient plasticity. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 52]. This allows size dependent plasticity phenomena to be modeled and a yield stress that is proportional to the inverse of the geometric dimension of the problem is predicted.

    The ability to model interfaces have been of specific importance to the work presented here. The state at internal interface is shown, via a physically motivated constitutive description, to be of great importance to capture size effects. The surface energy at grain boundaries is shown to influence both the local and the macroscopic behavior. At the smallest scales an additional deformation mechanism have been introduced at the internal boundaries. This allowed the strengthening trend associated with decreasing grains size to be halted, in qualitative agreement with reported experiments on the behavior of ultrafine and nanocrystalline polycrystals. In the later part of the thesis the focus is aimed at modeling grains structures to bring some insight into the different regions of deformation mechanisms in relation to grainsize and interface strength. A deformation mechanism map for polycrystals is suggested based on the results from structures with both hexagons and log-normal size distributed Voronoi tessellations, and the implication of a statistical variation in grain size have been explored.

    A finite element implementation of the theory have been developed that is a fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm with tangent operators consistent with the stress update scheme, which give excellent convergence properties and is numerically very stable. Higher order finite elements have been implemented for modeling of both bulk material and internal interfaces. A plane strain version have been used to model metal-matrix composites and explore the implication of some of the more exotic features of the theory.

  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Carl F. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Faleskog, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Energetic interfaces and boundary sliding in strain gradient plasticity; investigation using an adaptive implicit finite element methodArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Dahlberg, Carl F. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Gudmundsson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Hardening and softening mechanisms at decreasing microstructural length scales2008In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 88, no 30-32, p. 3513-3525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laminate structure with varying lamina thicknesses is used as a qualitative model of grain size dependence on yield behaviour in metallic materials. Both strain gradient plasticity and slip between layers are considered. It is shown that an inverse Hall-Petch effect can be generated in this way. For very small thicknesses, corresponding to very small grain sizes, sliding is the dominant mechanism and the strength then decreases with decreasing thickness. For larger thicknesses, strain gradient plasticity is controlling the deformation and the strength is, instead, increasing with decreasing thickness. Numerical examples are presented that demonstrate these mechanisms.

  • 41.
    Dahlberg, Carl F. O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.
    Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Reducing the Dispersion of Periodic Structures with Twist and Polar Glide Symmetries2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a number of guiding structures are proposed which take advantage of higher symmetries to vastly reduce the dispersion. These higher symmetries are obtained by executing additional geometrical operations to introduce more than one period into the unit cell of a periodic structure. The specific symmetry operations employed here are a combination of p-fold twist and polar glide. Our dispersion analysis shows that a mode in a structure possessing higher symmetries is less dispersive than in a conventional structure. It is also demonstrated that, similar to the previously studied Cartesian glide-symmetric structures, polar glide-symmetric structures also exhibit a frequency independent response. Promising applications of these structures are leaky-wave antennas which utilize the low frequency dependence.

  • 42.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    A numerical and experimental investifgation on surface and sub-surface initiation of contact fatigue cracks at cylindrical contacts2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 43.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    On the asperity point load mechanism for rolling contact fatigue2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contact fatigue is a damage process that may arise in mechanical applications with repeated rolling contacts. Some examples are: gears; cams; bearings; rail/wheel contacts. The resulting damage is often visible with the naked eye as millimeter sized surface craters. The surface craters are here denoted spalls and the gear contact served as a case study.

    The work focused on the asperity point load mechanism for initiation of spalls. It was found that the stresses at asperity level may be large enough to initiate surface cracking, especially if the complete stress cycle was accounted for.

    The gear contact is often treated as a cylindrical contact. The thesis contains experimental and numerical results connected to rolling contact fatigue of cylindrical contacts. At the outset a stationary cylindrical contact was studied experimentally. The stationary test procedure was used instead of a rolling contact. In this way the number of contact parameters was minimized. The cylindrical contact resulted in four different contact fatigue cracks. The two cracks that appeared first initiated below the contact. The other two cracks developed at the contact surface when the number of load cycles and the contact load increased.

    The influence of a surface irregularity (asperity) was studied numerically with the Finite Element Method (FEM). Firstly, the stationary contact was modelled and investigated numerically. At the cylindrical contact boundary a single axisymmetric was included. The partially loaded asperity introduced a tensile surface stress, which seen from the asperity centre was radially directed. Secondly, FE simulations were performed where a single axisymmetric asperity was over-rolled by a cylindrical contact. The simulations were performed for pure rolling and rolling with slip. For both situations, tensile forward directed stresses in front of the asperity were found. The presence of slip and a surface traction greatly increased the stresses in front of the asperity. Finally, when rolling started from rest with applied slip, the distance to steady-state rolling was determined for elastic similar cylindrical rollers.

  • 44.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Influence of a single axisymmetric asperity on surface stresses during dry rolling contact2007In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 909-921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect from contact loading of some single axisymmetric asperities as a potential mechanism for surface initiated rolling contact fatigue was investigated numerically using FEM. Computational results were compared to properties of some rolling contact fatigue craters, or spalls, in the teeth surfaces of four driving gear wheels. The gears were geometrically identical but had experienced slightly varying load conditions. The residual surface stresses of a used teeth with spalls were measured using the hole drilling technique. The combined cylinder asperity contact was first modelled with a stationary model in which an asperity was introduced at the contact rim. By varying asperity height, width, position and contact load dangerous asperity configurations were sought for. The gear contact close to the rolling circle was modelled as two rolling cylinders. A single asperity was introduced into the contact surface of one of them. Due to the presence of the asperity a three-dimensional contact model was required. The simulation included residual stresses from heat treatment and plastic deformation due to the first roll cycle. Thus, the stress results were computed from the second roll cycle. The important overall conclusion was that a single asperity may serve as a stress raiser in the contact surfaces. Furthermore, the computed values of the increased surface stresses were comparable to those that are reported in the literature to give cracks. Example of dangerous asperity dimensions were noted and changes in residual stresses from moderate plastic deformation during rolling were estimated. The asperity deformed plastically during over-roll but remained sufficiently high. The trajectory of the largest principal stress was computed, starting from the position in front of a loaded asperity with maximum tensile stress. The trajectory was compared to the spalling entry angle of a representative spall. For some asperity-cylinder configurations a convex region with large stress was found in the surface. The presence of such a convex stress region was compared to the convex shaped of the spalling tip that sometimes could be found.

  • 45.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Standing contact fatigue with a cylindrical indenter2005In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 599-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hardened steel cylinder was repeatedly pressed against a flat case-hardened steel specimen that was equally wide as the cylinder was long. Some contact end effects were noted as a result of limited plastic deformation. A strain gauge on the contact surface, just outside the contact and oriented perpendicular to the cylinder detected a surface strain when the cylinder was loaded. The non-zero surface strain was the result of boundary effects of the finite specimen. Four different types of contact fatigue cracks developed in and below the specimen contact surface. The cracks were named lateral, median, contact end and edge cracks. Changes in the measured surface strain values could be used to determine when the lateral and edge cracks developed. The order in which all four crack types typically developed was determined from optical crack observation at test termination, strain measurements and stress computations. Numerical computations using finite-element (FE) analyses were used to verify the surface strain behaviour due to loading and cracking, to verify contact end effects; crack locations and crack orientation by aid of the Findley multi-axial fatigue criterion.

  • 46.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Surface stresses at an axisymmetric asperity in a rolling contact with traction2008In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 1606-1622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contact between a smooth cylinder and a cylinder with an axisymmetric surface asperity was modelled numerically. The influence of tangential slip and friction was investigated through relative contact movement between the cylinders. As the asperity entered the rolling contact it acted as a point type contact force, which gave a tensile surface stress in the forward rolling direction. The tensile stress maximum was greatly influenced by slip and coefficient of friction.

    Data for the simulations were captured from a gear example with surface initiated rolling contact fatigue or spalling. The cylindrical contact load and geometry corresponded to that at the roll-circle of the gear. The geometrical properties of the asperity were based on surface profiles of the gear flank. The combined isotropic and non-linear kinematic Chaboche material model was used with parameters determined from cyclic compression-tension tests on the gear material. The residual stress profile due to heat-treatment of the gear was included into the model.

    Two different frictional set-ups were investigated. One contained a non-zero coefficient of friction throughout the rolling contact. This was believed to compare to dry contacts. The other set-up was supposed to model lubricated rolling with asperity break-through to metal contact. Here friction was non-zero on the asperity and zero elsewhere in the contact. With traction throughout the cylindrical contact a sufficiently long start distance had to be travelled before the asperity interaction. Thus, the transient rolling distance was determined together with the slip limit for sliding in the cylindrical contact. Numerical predictions of residual stresses and surface distress angles suggested that the asperity friction model agreed with gear conditions.

    Evaluation of elastic-plastic asperity indentation suggested that the asperity deformation was approximately as severe as repeated macro-scale experiments with fatigue cracks. Since the stresses at the asperities were of the same size as those at the repeated indentations and since the Findley multi-axial fatigue criteria predicted fatigue damage, it was concluded that the stresses in front of the asperity could be sufficient to initiate rolling contact fatigue cracks in applications. The influences of some parameters on the stress maximum were also evaluated.

  • 47.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Alfredsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Transient rolling of cylindrical contacts with constant and linearly increasing applied slip2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 1-2, p. 316-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transient start problem of a rolling cylindrical contact has been studied. The transient conditions were controlled by the applied relative slip. Two cases with start of rolling from stationary contact were investigated, with constant and with linearly increasing applied slip. At each instant during the transition stage, it was assumed that the traction distribution could be approximated with the Carter traction for steady-state tractive rolling. Based on this distribution, approximate expressions were derived for the transient rolling distance and transient behaviour of the tangential load. The transient period could end in gross sliding or steady-state creep with the Carter traction distribution and stick-slip regions in the contact. The expressions and the transient traction distributions were validated numerically using FEM. Simulations with constant applied slip showed that when rolling started from a tangentially unloaded and unstrained position, the steady-state traction distribution by Carter was a good approximation of the actual transient traction distribution. The solution was accurate for transient rolling lengths longer than a quarter of the contact width. The transient behaviour depended on the bulk geometry of the structures. For the relatively stiff structure with two elastic steel cylinders, small amounts of relative slip and high coefficients of friction, the transient rolling distance, L-0, could become large. In the present study, examples with L-0 approximate to 40 . a were identified. Thus, situations exist for which the transient conditions might be important. The transient distance increased with smaller slip, larger coefficient of friction, lower bulk stiffness, higher contact normal loads and for more compliant materials. The spur gear contact interaction with varying slip was considered as a case study.

  • 48.
    Dahlin, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Growth of fatigue cracks subjected to non-proportional Mode I and II2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with some aspects of crack growth in the presence of cyclic loading, i.e. fatigue. The cyclic load cases studied here are primary of non-proportional mixed mode type. Under non-proportional loading the principal stress directions rotate and, generally, the ratio between the principal stresses vary. A new criterion has been presented for prediction of incipient crack path direction after changes in load from steady Mode I to non-proportional loading.

    The criterion is based on FE-simulations which are used to compute the actual elasto-plastic stress state in the vicinity of the crack tip. The predictions of the criterion capture several phenomena observed in the literature, which indicates that plasticity effects have to be included in a criterion for crack path predictions under non-proportional loading. The effects of Mode II overloads on subsequent Mode I crack growth have been studied relatively little in the literature. Also, the results deviates substantially. In the present thesis, this load case has been investigated in detail, both experimentally and analytically. The results show that the Mode I crack growth rate decreases after a single Mode II load, if the R-ratio is not as high as to keep the entire Mode I load cycle above the closure level. This is based on the fact, shown in this thesis, that the reduction is caused by crack closure due to tangential displacement of crack-surface irregularities.

    A new loading device is presented. With this device, it is possible to apply sequential loading in Mode I and Mode II in an automated way, without having to dismount the specimens. This loading device is used to study the influence of periodic Mode II loading on Mode I crack growth. The main parameters concerning the influence of periodic Mode II loading on Mode I crack growth are; (i) the Mode I R-ratio, (ii) the Mode II magnitude and (iii) the Mode II periodicity, M (number of Mode I loads for every Mode II load). The mechanisms involved are mainly RICC (Roughness-Induced Crack Closure) and a Mode II mechanism that increases the growth rate temporary at every Mode II load. Hence, the latter becomes more significant for low M-values. The higher the Mode I R-ratio the smaller is the reduction.

  • 49.
    DE ARCOS GONZÁLEZ-TURMO, Irene
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    FUNDAMIX® VibromixerCharacterization2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The characterization of the vibromixer principles, in particular FUNDAMIX® technology produced bythe Swiss company Dr.Mueller AG, is the focus of this study. Tests varying the vibration’s frequencies andamplitudes, as well as the mixing plate geometry, in terms of number of holes and their diameter, are done.Interesting results regarding these parameters are obtained, proving problem complexity and previousexperience. Higher amplitudes and frequencies result in a better fluid dynamic performance of thevibromixer, i.e. flow rate formed due to pumping capacity of the plate and creating the liquid recirculation.The available total area of the holes should be limited too. Different fluid viscosities (up to 1212mPa/s) aretested and possible carbon fiber improvements in the shaft production briefly discussed. Finally, aComputational Fluid Dynamic approach is done and possible further researches are covered.

  • 50.
    Dersjö, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Methods for reliability based design optimization of structural components2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost and quality are key properties of a product, possibly even the two most important. Onedefinition of quality is fitness for purpose. Load-bearing products, i.e. structural components,loose their fitness for purpose if they fail. Thus, the ability to withstand failure is a fundamentalmeasure of quality for structural components. Reliability based design optimization(RBDO) is an approach for development of structural components which aims to minimizethe cost while constraining the probability of failure. However, the computational effort ofan RBDO applied to large-scale engineering problems has prohibited it from employment inindustrial applications. This thesis presents methods for computationally efficient RBDO.A review of the work presented on RBDO algorithms reveals that three constituentsof an RBDO algorithm has rendered significant attention; i ) the solution strategy for andnumerical treatment of the probabilistic constraints, ii ) the surrogate model, and iii) theexperiment design. A surrogate model is ”a model of a model”, i.e. a computationally cheapapproximation of a physics-based but computationally expensive computer model. It is fittedto responses from the physics-motivated model obtained via a thought-through combinationof experiments called an experiment design.In Paper A, the general algorithm for RBDO employed in this work, including the sequentialapproximation procedure used to treat the probabilistic constraints, is laid out. A singleconstraint approximation point (CAP) is used to save computational effort with acceptablelosses in accuracy. The approach is used to optimize a truck component and incorporatesthe effect that production related design variables like machining and shot peening have onfatigue life.The focus in Paper B is on experiment design. An algorithm employed to construct anovel experiment design for problems with multiple constraints is presented. It is based onan initial screening and uses the specific problem structure to combine one-factor-at-a-timeexperiments to a several-factors-at-a-time experiment design which reduces computationaleffort.In Paper C, a surrogate model tailored for RBDO is introduced. It is motivated by appliedsolid mechanics considerations and the use of the first order reliability method to evaluate theprobabilistic constraint. An optimal CAP is furthermore deduced from the surrogate model.In Paper D, the paradigm to use sets of experiments rather than one experiment at atime is challenged. A new procedure called experiments on demand (EoD) is presented. TheEoD procedure utilizes the core of RBDO to quantify the demand for new experiments andaugments it by a D-optimality criterion for added robustness and numerical stability.

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