Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 112
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Aaltonen, Jaana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Ground Monitoring using Resistivity Measurements in Glaciated Terrains2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The most common method of monitoring and mapping groundwatercontaminants is to extract and analyse a number of groundwatersamples from wells in the investigation area. However, thereare a number of limitations with this type of point-wiseinvestigation, as it is hard to acquire an adequate picture ofa heterogeneous and anisotropic subsurface using a fewpoints.

    To overcome the limitations of point investigations and toimprove ground monitoring investigations in a cost-effectiveway, support can be provided by direct current resistivitymeasurements, which give a characterisation of the electricalproperties of a ground volume.

    The main objective with this work was to investigate theusability of the resistivity method as a support in monitoringgroundwater contaminants in glaciated terrains and underdifferent seasons, both in long-term monitoring programmes andintracer tests.

    The work comprised field investigations at several differentsanitary landfills and four tracer tests in differentgeological environments, around the Stockholm region. The maininvestigations have been done at Högbytorp, Stockholmwhich has been used for long-term investigations of theresistivity variation, together with a field set up formonitoring and measurements on seasonal variation in soilmoisture, ground temperature and precipitation.

    It can be concluded that the use of resistivity measurementssupplies valuable information in the case of mapping andmonitoring conductive groundwater contaminants andfurthermore:

    The variation in resistivity (in shallow investigations<1 m) can be extensive between different seasons (around30 % compared to a mean value in till and clay soils) andshould be considered, so that anthropogenic affects can beseparated from natural resistivity variation. For deeperinvestigations (>5 m) the seasonal resistivity variationwas more moderate (around 15% compared to a mean value intill and clay soils).

    Soil moisture variation shows a strong relationship toresistivity variation in the investigated clay and tillsoils. Together with temperature correction 47 to 65% of thevariation has been explained.

    Three types of monitoring systems can be applied:Permanently installed, partly installed and fully mobilesystems. For the actual measurements, all three types can useeither high-density techniques such as CVES (ContinuousVertical Electrical Sounding) or low-density measuring withone or some different electrode spacings.

    The suggested evaluation tool for monitoring programmesshowed that it was possible to detect a decrease of 15 % inthe mean value at a specific site using Modified Double Masscalculations between resistivity time series and time seriesat a reference site with a comparable seasonalvariation.

    Resistivity measurements may be used as a valuablecomplement to groundwater sampling in tracer tests. Adecrease in resistivity, a minimum and a recovery phasereflect the passage of a NaCl-solution, which can be used toestimate flow velocity and flow patterns of the investigatedaquifer. The achieved recovery of NaCl in the tracer testscarried out was estimated to 20 to 70 %.

    The measurement system for long-term monitoring or tracertests, which should be chosen with regard to layout andfrequency, depends on the purpose of measurement and onsite-specific conditions and therefore no standard solutioncan be proposed.

    Key words:Resistivity, Direct Current, Monitoring,Groundwater, Contaminant, Tracer test, Geophysics.

  • 2.
    Aaltonen, Jaana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The use of direct current resisitivity methods in landfill investigations: a study on glaciated terrains1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Correcting NDP for SO2 and NOx emissions: Implementation of a theoretical model in practice2003In: The Review of Income and Wealth, ISSN 0034-6586, E-ISSN 1475-4991, no 3, p. 425-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical and the practical studies in the field of environmental accounting are often two separate lines of work. In this study, we develop an optimal control theory model for adjusting NDP for the effects of SO2 and NOx emissions, and subsequently insert empirically estimated values. The model includes correction entries for the effects on welfare, real capital, health and the quality and quantity of renewable natural resources. In the empirical valuation study, production losses were estimated with dose-response functions. Recreational and other welfare values were estimated by the contingent valuation (CV) method. Effects on capital depreciation are also included. For comparison, abatement costs and environmental protection expenditures for reducing sulfur and nitrogen emissions were estimated. The theoretical model was then utilized to calculate the adjustment to NDP in a consistent manner. The estimated damage value of sulfur is close to the Swedish sulfur tax.

  • 4. Ahmed, K.M
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Hasan, M.A
    Akhter, S.H
    Alam, S.M.M
    Bhuyian, M.A.H
    Imam, M.B
    Khan, A.A
    Sracek, O
    Arsenic contamination in grounwater of alluvial aquifers in Bangladesh: An overview2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 181-200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Arm, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Egenskaper hos alternativa ballastmaterial2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 6.
    Ask, Daniel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Inversion and interpretation of hydraulic and overcoring stress measurements in the Äspö region, Sweden2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Ask, Maria V.S.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    In-situ and laboratory stress investigations using borehole data from the North Atlantic Ocean1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral thesis presents results from investigations ofin-situ and laboratory stress from borehole logging andlaboratory deformation experiments on drill-cores. The datacome from hydrocarbon exploration and production wells in theDanish Sector of the North Sea, and from boreholes drilled bythe Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The drill-core samples werecollected from two ODP boreholes in the equatorial and easternAtlantic Ocean.

    The objectives for this project are: (1) to collect datafrom the North Atlantic Ocean where few or no stressmeasurements exist, and to incorporate the data into the WorldStress Map (WSM); (2) to determine the source of stress thatgenerates the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stressin individual boreholes in ocean areas; and (3) to study themechanical responses of sediments and rocks in order tounderstand the nature of stress and stress paths that producedeformation of the ocean floor.

    The orientations of in-situ horizontal stresses weredetermined from analyses of borehole breakouts anddrilling-induced fractures (DIFs) as determined from four-armcaliper and Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data. Logging datawere analyzed using graphical and automated programs, usingbreakout and DIF criteria, directional statistics, and theborehole data were ranked according the WSM ranking system.

    Stress data from 44 oil wells and ODP boreholes in the NorthAtlantic Ocean represent important additions to the WSM fromareas where few stress data were available. Despite of theirrelatively shallow total depths, it is suggested that thestress orientation in many of the ODP boreholes are influencedby plate boundary forces. The observed variation in downholedistribution of breakouts in the oil wells and the lack ofregional trends indicate that local and regional stress sourcescontrol the stress field in these wells.

    Detailed laboratory stress measurements were conducted in atriaxial cell mounted in a servo-hydraulic load frame, usingreconsolidation and triaxial tests on small sub-samples fromtwo drill-core samples of different lithologies.

    Results from tests on a claystone from the basal section ofthe ocean-continent transition in West Iberia margin suggestthat the in-situ effective stresses are low because of the highpore pressure. The fractured nature of the underlying basementand breccia suggest that the pore fluids originate from deepersections. Results from tests on a calcarenite from about 1 kmdepth show that the elastic versus elastic-plastic behaviordiffers significantly, but that the rock behavior can bedescribed by critical state soil mechanics.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Gary
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Long-term set-up of driven piles in non-cohesive soils1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Gary
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Long-term set-up of driven piles in sand.2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Bahrekazemi, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    With, Christoffer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Bodare, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Semi-Empirical Model for Prediction of Train Induced Ground Vibrations2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Gontier, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Biodiversity and EIA for roads and railway projects: a review in European Union2004In: The 24th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment, Theme: Whose business is it? Impact assessment for industrial development, 24-30 April 2004, Vancouver, Canada., 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Banwart, S. A.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrochemical modelling for preliminary assessment of minewater pollution2001In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 74, no 03-jan, p. 73-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual model for preliminary assessment of minewater pollution within the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework for environmental management is developed. The model aims to assist classification of a site regarding the potential threat to the environment and help assess whether the assumptions used in this classification are appropriate. The model estimates contamination source strength, longevity and possible future changes in discharge quality and can be applied with sparse data sets. The model relates solute export in the discharge to source minerals which includes sulphide phases that produce acidity and metals contamination and carbonate and aluminosilicate phases which provide natural attenuation to neutralise acidity and immobilise metals. We present and apply limited data from three sites representing a mine rock waste deposit located above the water table, a flooded abandoned coal mine with deep workings and a mine tailings deposit. Results from the rock waste deposit indicate that calcite no longer provides significant attenuation of the present acidity load and that acid generation and associated loads of Cu2+ may persist for a period of up to two centuries. The abandoned coal mine has a discharge that is presently alkaline, with calcite depletion expected to occur before pyrite is consumed, possibly yielding a future drop in pH. The lifetime for these minerals is similar at this site, and on the order of several centuries, thus rendering the estimate of future water quality evolution very uncertain. The mill tailings deposit is expected to produce acidic discharge on a time scale of one century. However, conclusive quantification of calcite weathering was not possible, leaving open the possibility that the weathering of Mg-silicate minerals provides important attenuation of the present acidity load.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Groundwater contamination: significance of hydrochemical processes for remediation and impact evaluation1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Berntsson, Stefan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Dam safety risk management2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Bigün, Helen
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Risk analysis of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 16.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Air-borne transport of de-icing salt and damage to pine and spruce trees in a roadside environment1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 17.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    De-icing salt and the roadside environment: Air-borne exposure, damage to Norway spruce and system monitoring2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    After decades of investigation, we still have to deal withthe problem of environmental effects of the use of de-icingsalt on roads. Lacking useful indicators of the system, westill do not know the environmental utility of ameliorativemeasures taken. The thesis aims at

    i) describing the system of de-icing practices and theirenvironmental effects with special reference to the exposure ofthe roadside environment to air-borne salt and damage to Norwayspruce seedlings and ii) at proposing indicators for afollow-up system. By collecting bulk deposition and relatingthe deposition pattern to factors concerning wind androad-maintenance characteristics, the influence of thesefactors on air-borne exposure is investigated. By exposingNorway spruce (Picea abies(L.) Karst.) seedlings to roadsideconditions the influence ofsalt exposure on the degree ofdamage is investigated. Based on a comparison of severalsystems of monitoring, improvements are suggested by proposingnew indicators for salt use and its environmental effects.

    A large part of the salt that is applied on the road surfacewill be transported by air and deposited on the ground in theroadside. While the vast majority of the salt will be depositedwithin some tens of metres of the road, some may still be windtransported several hundred metres away. The wind directionplays an important role for the deposition already at adistance of some ten metres from the road. Wind speedinfluences the distance to which the salt is transported.Chloride concentration in unwashed needles collected after thesalting season is positively related to the bulk deposition ofCl during the exposure. The degree of damage can be describedby a sigmoid curve of response to the Cl concentration inneedles. Improvements to the follow-up system are suggested byproposing indicators of the driving forces, pressures, states,impacts and possible responses as regards the undesired impactson water resources, vegetation and the roadside scenery as asocietal asset.

    Keywords:road, de-icing salt, air-borne, environmentalimpact, vegetation damage, Norway spruce, seedling, follow-up,monitoring, indicator

  • 18.
    Brantberger, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Metodik vid förinjektering i uppsprucket hårt berg2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 19.
    Brantmark, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Rock support in weak rock: a study on the URI project1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Cesano, Daniele
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Prediction of groundwater flows into underground conctructions in hard rocks1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    Cesano, Daniele
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Water leakage into underground construction in fractured rocks2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Chaudhary, Vikas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Groundwater resources management and protection policies in India2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic human need, afinite source of life support system, having its economicvalues being the key to the prosperity. The effects ofindustrial-pollutant sources on the groundwater system wereevaluated at Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The quality ofgroundwater in the region has been affected negatively due tothe discharge of untreated effluents and wastes onto open land,depressions, low lying areas and into soak pits causing directpollution of groundwater. Improper drainage in industrial areaof the city causes infiltration of the effluents down into theaquifer system through highly permeable sediment. High valuesof electrical conductivity (EC), concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3-, Cr, CN-, and NO3-N indicate the impact of industrial effluents.Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater is classified asmixed cation-bicarbonate types and its unsuitability fordrinking has been assessed. The present studies made itpossible to demarcate areas of contaminated groundwater andthose prone to contamination in the near future. Thegroundwater quality in and around the industrial areas atLudhiana-Ambala G.T road and Janta Nagar (to a depth of 30 to50 m) has become hazardous. Industrial effluents with highCr(VI) and CN-has spread vertically and laterally andcontaminated the groundwater, which is the source of domesticwater supply (Paper I). The main roots of the problem are thesmall dyeing and electroplating units, which are scattered inthe town. The economic as well as physical possibilities toattach these units to common treatment plants are remote. Somepossible remedial measures are suggested.

    The evapotranspiration ofgroundwater with residual alkalinity is the mechanism for theformation of high fluoride groundwater in India (Paper III).The increasing exposure to fluoride depends partly onalkalinisation of soils due to irrigation projects. Thecombination of water harvesting with soil treatment to decreasethe alkalinity of the area to be recharged could be viable insitu method to reduce the fluoride concentrations.

    In spite of that the groundwaterrecharge is quite well known in India, overdraft occursespecially in hard rock terrains. The 'water rights' undercommon law in India belong to the landowner, which has resultedinto the quantitative threats to the groundwater in terms ofuncontrolled exploitation for industrial and agricultural use.Depletion of several aquifers caused shortage of drinking waterand serious problem for other water uses. The populationgrowth, rapid urbanisation, unplanned industrialisation andlack of infrastructure for water supply, disposal of wastes,industrial effluents and sewage has given rise to qualitativethreats, due to uncontrolled entry of pollutants into thegroundwater affecting the aquifers.

    During the study of groundwaterpollution at Ludhiana, Punjab an effort has been made throughthis research work to correlate the results with findings atother places through different case studies in India. Itisrevealed that there had been a considerable lack from theauthorities in bringing changes into the existing waterpolicies and measures to control water pollution for propermanagement and utilisation of the water resources (Paper II).Water must be considered as a national asset and a basic humanright to be provided to all the citizens. It requiresprotection for the sustainable development and distributionwith equity and fairness amongst the users. The measures toresolve the groundwater problem are suggested in the Paper Iand II. The accomplishment of the object demands properawareness of the resources, causes of depletion and pollution.To mitigate the problems co-ordination at all levels in thefederal set up need to be mobilised along with the stakeholdersnot least the women. With this understanding of the problem,the co-operation of the politicians, administrators and thepublic at large is the need of the hour.

    Keywords:Groundwater, pollution, protection, chromium,fluoride, management, measures, stakeholders, water policy,Ludhiana, India.

  • 23.
    Dalmalm, Thomas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Grouting prediction systems for hard rock: based on active design2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    Edsfeldt, Cecilia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Radium distribution in soils, analysed with chemical sequential extraction, and its effect on radon emanation1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Edsfeldt, Cecilia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The radium distribution in some Swedish soils and its effects on radon emanation2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to clarify how the radiumdistribution in soils affects the radon emanation. Thedistribution of radium, uranium and thorium has been determinedusing sequential extractions. In the study, soils from twodifferent locations were investigated.

    In the first part the applicability of the sequentialextraction method for determining Ra distribution in differentsoil types was investigated, using a simple sequentialextraction method. Sampled soils were clay, sand and till fromthe vicinity of the Stockholm Esker. The main part of Rnemanating Ra was associated with Fe oxides in the soil. Themethods applied provided information about the radon risk ofthe soil, but, inorder to gain more information on theprocesses governing Ra distribution and radon emanation insoils, a more detailed sequential extraction procedure would bedesirable.

    The second part consisted of a detailed study of theradionuclide distribution and the geochemistry in a podzolisedglacial till from Kloten in northern Västmanland. A moredetailed sequential extraction procedure was used, and thespecific surface area of samples was measured. Samples weretaken from E, B, and C horizons; radium and thorium wereenriched in the B horizon, whereas uranium had its maximumconcentration in the C horizon. Extractable radium primarilyoccurred in the exchangeable pool, possibly organicallycomplexed, whereas extractable uranium and thorium were mainlyFe oxide bound. Oxide-bound Ra was important only in the Bhorizon. The radon emanation was not correlated with the amountof exchangeable Ra, but instead with the oxide bound Ra.However, the amount of oxide-bound Ra was too small to accountfor all the emanated Rn, thus, exchangeable Ra was interpretedas the main source of emanated Rn. This exchangeable Ra wasmore emanative in the B horizon than in the C horizon. Theexplanation is the larger surface area of the B horizonsamples; the specific surface area appears to be the maingoverning parameter for Rn emanation in this soil. The surfacearea is largely created by the precipitation of amorphous Feoxides, thus, Fe oxides has a significant effect on Rnemanation.

    Comparing the two studies, the Stockholm samples had thesame amounts of oxide-bound Fe and surface-bound Ra. Still theradon emanation was much smaller for these samples than in theKloten soil. The amount of organic matter in the B horizon ofthe Kloten soil is however, much larger than the organic mattercontent in the Stockholm samples. It is suggested that thelarge Rn emanation in the B horizon of Kloten is caused by thecombined effect of Fe oxides and organic matter.

    The variability of226Ra distribution in soils was also investigated.The226Ra distribution was determined for samples from60-70 cm and 80-90 cm depth, from three adjacent soil profilesin a podzolic glacial till. Ra distributions, and estimationsof Rn risk based on the Ra distributions, of a single soilprofile, are likely to be representative for a similar area,provided that the samples are taken from a sufficientdepth.

    KEYWORDS: distribution, emanation, extraction, glacial till,podzol, Ra, radium, radon, Rn, sequential soil, spodosol, Th,thorium, U, uranium, variability

  • 26.
    Eliasson, Åse
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Groundwater impact assessment and protection2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decades, therehave been frequent conflicts between groundwater waterresources and environmentally hazardous activities. Newmethodologies for aiding decision-making in groundwater impactassessment and protection areneeded and in which issues ofincreased awareness, better understanding of the groundwaterresources processes, and validation of predictive mathematicalmodels are addressed.

    A framework fordecision–aid, based on predictive simulations that a)predicts the environmental impacts b) provides the totaleconomical value c) visualises the impacts and the groundwaterproperties and d) describes the uncertainties in the results isproposed herein. The framework can be applied in environmentalimpact assessments, strategic environmental assessments andprotection and management of water resources. The results ofthe model are used as feedback for determining new scenarios,depending on the required uncertainties, and if the plannedactivity is sustainable, and/or fulfils the legislative andpolicy measures. This framework is applied to a particular casestudy, Nybroåsen, in the south-eastern part of Sweden,where the highway E22 is constructed through the importantglaciofluvial esker aquifer, passing the protection zone of thewater supply for the Kalmar municipality.

    The impacts from the new highwayand the existing road have been predicted by two-dimensionalphysically based time-variant flow and solute groundwatermodelling. The results, breakthrough curves of contaminantconcentration in wells and maps of concentration distributions,as well as travel times, flow paths, and capture zones forwells determined by particle tracking have been presented.

    The constructed model of theNybroåsen study area was calibrated by comparing observedand simulated groundwater levels for 15 observation wells forten years of measurements. The model has been evaluated bothgraphically and numerically and the calibration target wasfulfilled for 13 of the 15 observation wells. The model workincludes investigations of the catchment information, a waterbalance study, simulation of the groundwater recharge,consideration of the unsaturated zone by a numerical columnsimulation, and sensitivity analysis.

    From the sensitivity analysis ofthe flow and transport parameters, it has been shown that theuncertainties are mainly due to the hydraulic conductivity.Comparison of the derived conductivity from the steady-stateautomatic calibration and the time-variant calibration showedthat there are major differences in the derived parameters,which illustrates the importance of a time dependentcalibration over both wet and dry periods and in more than onepoint in the area of interest of the model predictions.

    In addition, a multi-criteriadecision analysis has been carried out for four roadalternatives (including the new highway E22) and the existingroad in the case study concerned. The multi-criteria decisionaid is applied as an illustration of how it can be used in thestudy area to identify a) interest groups of actors and theirconcerns b) ranking of alternative road scenarios according toactors’preferences and c) coalition groups of actorsi.e.groups that have similar views with regard to theroad alternatives.

    Keywords:Physically-based groundwater modelling,contamination, flow and solute transport, glaciofluvialdeposits, Nybroåsen, Sweden, and multi-criteriadecision-aid.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Model for prediction of grouting results: spreading, sealing efficiency and inflow1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental management of road maintenance2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 29.
    Fardin, Nader
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Scale dependency, hetrogeneity and anisotropy of surface roughness of rock fractures2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Feng, Quanhong
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Geodetic total station for measuring geometry of discontinuities atexposed rock faces1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 31.
    Feng, Quanhong
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Novel methods for 3-D semi-automatic mapping of fracture geometry at exposed rock faces2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    To analyse the influence of fractures on hydraulic andmechanical behaviour of fractured rock masses, it is essentialto characterise fracture geometry at exposed rock faces. Thisthesis describes three semi-automatic methods for measuring andquantifying geometrical parameters of fractures, and aims tooffer a novel approach to the traditional mapping methods.

    Three techniques, i.e. geodetic total station, close-rangephotogrammetry and 3-D laser scanner, are used in this studyfor measurement of fracture geometry. The advantages of thesetechniques compared with the traditional method are: i)fracture geometry is quantified semi-automatically in threedimensions; ii) fracture measurements are obtained withoutphysically touching the rock face; iii) the accuracy offracture measurements is improved comparing with thetraditional method; iv) both quantitative and spatial analysisof fracture geometry is possible; v) it offers a way todigitally record the rock surface in three dimensions and invisual format as a database for other applications.

    The common approach for fracture mapping by using the noveltechniques comprises three main steps: i) capturing 3-Dco-ordinates of target points; ii) quantifying geometricalparameters of fractures from the recorded co-ordinates; iii)documenting the results of fracture mapping. The details ofcapturing 3-D co-ordinates of target points are introduced. Anew algorithm is developed for computing orientation offracture planes. A multiple approach for documenting thefracture mapping results is presented. Application of thesetechniques for measuring and quantifying the geometricalparameters of fractures, such as orientation, trace length andsurface roughness, are demonstrated.

    The presented methods can greatly improve the quality offracture measurements and avoid the drawbacks inherent intraditional methods. However, it can not replace the humancapacity to filter out and interpret the large amount ofgeometrical information displayed on the rock faces. Themethods may offer an assistance to engineers or geologists inobtaining as much information as possible about the geometryand orientation of rock fractures for rock engineeringapplications.

    Keywords:3-D laser scanner, close-range photogrammetry,engineering geology, fracture geometry, fracture mapping, rockengineering, rock faces, rock mechanics, three-dimension, totalstation.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Transport of sediment associated contaminants in channels1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 33.
    Frycklund, Cristina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Artificial recharge of groundwater for public water supply: potential and limitations on boreal conditions1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    It is motivated by the intentions of Agenda 21 to findalternatives to the increasing dependence on chemical treatmentin the production of public water. Conventional waterworkscommonly include chemicals for removal of organic compounds,for reduction of corrosiveness and for disinfection. Thispractice has drawbacks which may be lessened or avoidedaltogether with the use of artificial groundwater recharge.However, the mechanisms active in the quality change of thewater during artificial groundwater recharge are not fullyunderstood. In this thesis the factors which affect theretention of natural organic matter (NOM), iron, manganese andsuspended and colloidal matter were studied. The extent andlocation of their retention in infiltration ponds wasinvestigated. Furthermore, the potential for using limestonefilters in infiltration ponds for increasing hardness andalkalinity of the water was investigated. The water quality wasmonitored over time periods between 7 months and 5 years andthe filter sand was examined before and after study periods.The studies were carried out at field sites or in columns atpublic waterworks in Sweden. It was found that retention of NOMwas affected by climatic variations. The highest eliminationrate was found in the uppermost part of the porous media andduring the late summer. The retention of iron and manganese wasnot affected by climatic variations. This retention took placeto a greater extent and at shallower levels than that for NOM.Unsaturated flow conditions were found to be more effective forremoval of suspended and colloidal matter, thansaturated flowconditions. Limestone filters embedded in the filter sand werefound to increase the pH, alkalinity and hardness in thepercolating water. The degree of the effect on this water wasdependent on the infiltration rate, the specific surface areaof the limestone and the specific dose of limestone, as well ason the degree of undersaturation of calcite in the infiltrationwater. These findings contribute to the knowledge andunderstanding of the processes involved in the water qualitychanges during artificial groundwater recharge. They may enablewell adapted adjustments of the design and operating conditionsat artificial groundwater recharge schemes.

    Keywords:drinking water, NOM, TOC, iron, manganese,calcium carbonate, alkalinity, colloids, infiltration ponds,Sweden.

  • 34.
    Fujii, Dan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of biological nutrient removal at Käppala wastewater treatment plant2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 35.
    Graham, Phil L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Large-scale hydrologic modeling in the Baltic basin2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 36.
    Gupta, Archana
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The Lagrangian Stochastic Advective-Reactive Approach to Modeling Solute Transport in Hydrological Systems2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lagrangian stochastic advective-reactive modelingapproach has been used for analyzing transport of bothnonreactive and reactive solutes in different hydrologicalsystems (structured soil, groundwater, mining waste rockdeposits and surface waters including single stream and networkof streams) and at different spatio-temporal scales (rangingfrom laboratory column-scale to catchment-scale). Further, afirst step has been taken to extending the Lagrangianstochastic advective-reactive modeling methodology to integratethe soil-groundwater-stream transport through a catchment.

    The modeling approach enabled us to explicitly quantify theeffects of solute transport through subsurface preferentialflowpaths in both laboratory and field scales, throughexperimental results from tracer tests in structured soil andmining waste rock deposits. Rapid preferential transport andassociated diffusional mass transfer of solute between mobileand immobile water regions yield the characteristicnonequilibrium behavior of early initial breakthrough and longtailing in solute breakthrough curves. The occurrence ofpreferential flow may considerably increase the total leachedmass of sorptive water pollutants, such as phosphorus that wasspecifically investigated in this thesis.

    Temporal moment analysis of solute transport in a singlestream and a network of streams has been carried out,accounting for heterogeneity in hydraulic geometry variablesand physicochemical mass transfer parameters. The resultsindicate that mass transfer processes in the bed sediment arerelatively more important than processes in the storage zonesof the streams. The probability of any percentage of solutemass arriving at the outlet is sensitive to the diffusive masstransfer rate in the bed sediment. This mass transfer rate isan uncertain parameter, which implies uncertainty also inpredictions of the solute transport process.

    The modeling of coupled solute transport through anintegrated soil-groundwater-stream system shows thatsignificant solute transport by groundwater to streams, and thepossible existence of subsurface preferential flowpaths withassociated diffusional mass transfer processes extend therelevant time scales for the catchment-scale process overseveral orders of magnitude. Furthermore, increasinggroundwater recharge from the unsaturated zone and decreasingratio of average groundwater to stream velocity impliessmoother solute breakthrough curves that approach theobservations of fractal stream chemistry by Kirchner et al.(Nature, Vol. 403, pp. 524-527, 2000).

    The overall results show that the various mass transferprocesses that take place in different hydrological systemsresult in reduction of peak mass flux and increase in meanarrival time, relative to the stream and groundwater advectionprocesses only, due to prolonged tails. Such tailing impliesconsiderably increased temporal spreading of solute mass,further extending the relevant time scales for thecatchment-scale transport process and leading to low levelcontaminant concentrations leaching from the catchment for avery long time. Better understanding and quantification of thecatchment-scale transport process are essential for correctpredictions of possible adverse effects on water quality andfor judging the performance of different measures for waterquality protection or remediation.

    Key words:solute transport, groundwater transport,unsaturated zone, stream hydrology, stream networks, stochasticprocesses, mass transfer kinetics, preferential flow, temporalmoments, catchment hydrology, Lagrangian transport model.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Lewan, E
    van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.
    Viterbo, P
    Grelle, A
    Lindroth, A
    Cienciala, E
    Mölder, M
    Halldin, S
    Lundin, L-C
    Boreal-forest surface parameterisation in the ECMWF model: 1D test with NOPEX long-term data.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Gustafsson, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Stahli, M
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The surface energy balance of a snow cover: comparing measurements to two different simulation models2001In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 70, no 1-4, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared two one-dimensional simulation models for heat and water fluxes in the soil-snow-atmosphere system with respect to their mathematical formulations of the surface heat exchange and the snow pack evolution. They were chosen as examples of a simple one-layer snow model and a more detailed multiple-layer snow model (SNTHERM). The snow models were combined with the same one-dimensional model for the heat and water balance of the underlying soil (CoupModel). Data from an arable field in central Sweden (Marsta), covering two years (1997-1999) of soil temperature, snow depth and eddy-correlation measurements were successfully compared with the models. Conditions with a snow pack deeper or shallower than 10cm and bare soil resulted in similar discrepancies. The simulated net radiation and sensible heat flux were in good agreement with that measured during snow-covered periods, except for situations with snowmelt when the downward sensible heat flux was overestimated by 10-20 WM-2. The results showed that the uncertainties in parameter values were more important than the model formulation and that both models were useful in evaluating the limitations and uncertainties of the measurements.

  • 39.
    Hall, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Simulations and analyses of train-induced ground vibrations2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 40.
    Hansson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The interaction of gaseous contaminants with indoor materials: modelling and development of an experimental technique1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 41.
    Isaksson, Therese
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Tunneldrivning med sköld: riskbaserad beslutmodell1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Ismodes, Amparo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    The social challenge of hydropower: the option of popular participation2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 43.
    Janson, Thomas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Calculation models for estimation of grout take in hard jointed rock1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of thls thesis is to descrrbe a method for thedetermination of an expec[ed grouting process, i.e. to have abetter understanding of the most important mechanisms ingroutlng. The aim of groutlng is, to create a watertight zoneagainst water flow. The zone must satisfy the specifiedwatenightnesh requirements with the aid of a specificpenetration and joint filling. However. owing to the complexstructure of the rock, it is difficult to check groutpenetration and joint filling in a simple way. Grout take canon the other hand be checked easily by measuring the amountpumped into the rock. The expected take can be calculated usingthe penetration length and the porosity of the rock withrespect to the grout used. It is further assumed that theporosity of the rock can be described easily by means ofsimpllfied joint geometrles. On the basis of the abovereasoing, it should therefore be possible to control indirectlythe penetration and joint filling by means of a model thatdescribes the grout rake. Three calcularlon models of varyingcomplexity have been developed. The first calculation modelsimulated joints to by grouted as circular discs. The secondcalculation model described the grouting in the same way as thefirst model but the grout only penetrates a certain section ofthe disc. The last calculation model, the most complex one,described the grout as penetrating a system of channels with ageometry characterised by a number of geologlcai descriptionparameters. The calculation models have been tested by fieldstudies and in laboratory tube models. The analysis of thetests confirms the importante of the three principal factorswhich together control the grouting : groutmg technology(pressure and grout properties). hydrogeology and geologydescriptions of the rock The calculation models show a goodagreement as regards the medium value of grouted volumes, for anumber of grouting holes. The most complex model gave the bestresults in the studies compared with the other models. For allmodels a good evaluation of the yield value of the groutingmaterial and the transmissivity of the rock mass are veryimportant. The tests in laboratory models yield differentdegrees of agreement between measured and calculated volumes.The greater the penetration of grout into the laboratory model,the better is the agreement. The reason is that the calculatlonmodels take no account of lotal variations tn the laboratorymodel. Further simulated tests show that when the variation ofthe tube radius is small the calculation models give a goodagreement with simulated volume and reverse.

    Key words: grouting. rock, joint, aperture, Binghamflow. penetration length. grout take

  • 44.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydraulic conductivity relations in soil and fractured rock: fluid component and phase interaction effects1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydraulic conductivity of soil and fractured rockdetermines the rate at which fluids and dissolved chemicals flowthrough the subsurface, for given conditions at the boundary.Hence, the estimation of relevant parameters for quantificationof hydraulic conductivity relations constitutes a critical basisfor accurate model predictions. This dissertation addressesdifferent phenomena affecting hydraulic conductivity.Specifically, hydraulic conductivity relations in the presence ofa non aqueous phase in soil are investigated through laboratory,field and model studies. Results show that the volatilisation ofa multicomponent non-aqueous phase liquid (NARL) can lead toconsiderable changes in the chemical NAPL tomposition and thephysical NAPL properlies, such as viscosity. Apart from theexpected influence of changed viscosity, the changes in chemicalNAPL tomposition greatly influence the NAPL conductivity ininteracting soils (clay and peat). Moreover, pore sizeheterogeneity and macropore existence atTect relative hydraulicconductivity. A relatively simple procedure is presented fordetecting such heterogeneities in the laboratory. The procedureprovides consistent evidente of pore-size homogeneity in pornusmedium samples.

    Methods are developed for the measurement and estimation ofunsaturated transmissivity relations in fractured rock. They areapplied to the case of degassing of deep groundwater, which is aphenomenon that may influence the characterisation of fracturehydraulic properties, e.g., in investigations related to thefinal storage of radioactive nuclear waste in deep bedrock.Modelled relative transmissivities are found to be sensitive toassumptions regarding phase occupancy in different fiactureaperture regions. The asauroption that both water and gas canco-exist in wide aperture regions is consistent with laboratoryobservations of both the actual gas phase occupancy and relativetransmissivities in transparent rock fracture replicas underdegassing conditions. Derived model resuhs are also consistentwith field observations of the occurrence, or the absente, ofdegassing effects for different boundary pressures and bubblepressures. The statistical description of fi-acture aperturevariability used in the developed models provides an alternativeapproach to tommon porous medium type of relative hydraulicconductivity relations for unsaturated flow. It may also beuseful in various applications involving two-phase flow infiactured rock. For groundwater degassing applications, resultsimply that degassing effects in borehole tests of singlefiactures should generally be small.

    Keywords:hydraulic conductivity, unsaturated flow,transmissivity, NAPL, multi component liquid, mass transfer,soil, pore size distribution, drainage curve, fractured rock,aperture distribution, bubble pressure, degassing, nuclearwaste.

  • 45.
    Jelinek, Tomas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Fuel road pressure in nuclear power reactors. Draft version2000Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 46.
    Jelinek, Tomas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Fuel road pressure in nuclear power reactors: statistical evaluation of the fuel road internal pressure in LWRs with application to lift-off prbability2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 47.
    Johansson, Lena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Phosphorus sorption to filter substrates: potential benefits for one-site wastewater treatment1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 48.
    Johansson, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Digital image processing of borehole images for determination of rock fracture orientation and aperture1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 49.
    Johansson, Sam
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Seepage monitoring in embankment dams1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal erosion, which is one of the major reasons forembankment dam failure, causes an increased seepage flow due toloss of fines. A seepage measuring system is therefore a vitalpart of an embankment dam’s monitoring system. Manyexisting seepage monitoring systems are not however sensitiveenough to detect small changes in the seepage flow. Temperatureand resistivity measurements represent two methods for seepagemonitoring in embankment dams. They are able to detect effectscaused by time dependent processes such as internal erosion,where the relative accuracy is more important than the absoluteaccuracy. Temperature can normally be easily measured inexisting standpipes. Resistivity measurements are morecomplicated; they require a computer-based monitoring systemand minor technical installations on the dam.

    The temperature in an embankment dam depends mainly on thetemperature in the air and the water temperature in theupstream reservoir. These two temperatures vary seasonally andcreate temperature waves propagating through the dam. Theseepage rate, and its change with time, can be evaluated frommeasurements repeated at regular intervals. The sensitivity ofthe method depends mainly on the distance between the dam crestand the measurement point, the size of the dam, the location ofthe standpipes, and the temperature variation in the reservoirat the inflow level. The seepage detection level of the methodis about 1 ml/sm2 for a typical Swedish dam with a height ofabout 30 m. The detection level depends linearly on the damheight. Results from field measurements show that the methodgives reasonable information concerning the condition of thedam. Zones with anomalous seepage rates have been located andseepage flow rates have been quantified. Changes in the seepageflow rate as well as the seepage pathway have also beenobserved.

    The resistivity of the ground depends mainly on theporosity, saturation and clay content. When reservoir waterseeps through a dam, the properties of the water in thereservoir will also affect the resistivity in the dam. Theresistivity of the reservoir water is temperature dependent,but it is also a function of the total dissolved solids. Boththese parameters vary seasonally and this causes variations inthe dam. The seepage flow can be evaluated from the resistivitydata using methods similar to those employed for seepageevaluation from temperature data. The sensitivity is similar tothat of the temperature method but the resolution and accuracyis lower. Zones with anomalous leakage can be located. Groundpenetrating radar and borehole radar methods are based on themeasurement of material dependent properties. These are lesssensitive to seepage changes than flow dependent parameters.The relatively high accuracy obtained by borehole radarmeasurements compensates however for their lower sensitivity toporosity changes. Borehole radar based on tomographic analysiscan be a valuable method for mapping areas with increased andanomalous porosity formed as a consequence of increased seepageand internal erosion.

    Key words:embankment dams, internal erosion, seepagemonitoring, temperature, resistivity, ground penetratingradar

  • 50.
    Jonsson, Daniel K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Hur hanteras indirekta miljöeffekter i länstransportplanerna?2004In: Plan : tidskrift för planering av landsbygd och tätorter, ISSN 0032-0560, no 2-3, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 112
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf