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  • 1.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On the foundations of pragmatic arguments2003In: Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0022-362X, E-ISSN 1939-8549, Vol. 100, no 8, p. 383-402Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Using Goals in Environmental Management: The Swedish System of Environmental Objectives2004In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, environmental policy is essentially carried out through a system of environmental objectives adopted by Parliament in the late 1990s. This system contains principles, objectives, interim targets, strategies, and follow-up mechanisms, which together provide a solid ground for increased efficiency and improved prioritization in environmental policies. Despite the ambitious approach of the Swedish Parliament, the system of environmental objectives suffers from certain shortcomings. Some of the objectives are imprecise and difficult to evaluate, and there are no rules or principles that may be used to solve goal conflicts and to prioritize between different objectives. As a consequence, the environmental objectives tend to differ in their degrees of operationalizability, and the priority-setting between different objectives is often unclear.

  • 3.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Tekniska hjältedåd och bestrålad forskning2004In: Artefakter / [ed] Sven Widmalm, Hedemora: Gidlund , 2004, p. 343-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fjæstad, Maja
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The Swedish Debate over Breeder Reactors and Plutonium2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Grandin, Karl
    et al.
    Wormbs, NinaKTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.Widmalm, Sven
    The Science-Industry Nexus: History, Policy, Implications2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Grüne-Yanoff, Till
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The problems of testing preference axioms with revealed preference theory2004In: Analyse & Kritik. Zeitung für linke Debatte und Praxis, ISSN 0171-5860, E-ISSN 2365-9858, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 382-397Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gullberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    City-building regimes in post-war Stockholm2004In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 13-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology. KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    A Theoria Bibliography: Swedish Theses in Philosophy 20032004In: Theoria, ISSN 0040-5817, E-ISSN 1558-5816, Vol. 70, no 2-3, p. 303-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Choosing priority-setting criteria for carcinogens2001In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 475-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For priority-setting purposes, simple criteria are needed to estimate, provisionally, the inherent properties of potential carcinogens for which adequate data are not available. Expected utility analysis is used to evaluate three such criteria from a decision-theoretic point of view: (1) the species criterion, which assigns lower priority to experimental than to epidemiological carcinogens, (2) the genotoxicity criterion, which prioritizes substances known to be genotoxic, and (3) the potency criterion, which apportions priorities according to carcinogenic potencies that are derived from animal experiments. The outcome of this analysis is favorable to the potency criterion. It is concluded that considerations of potency should have a much more prominent role than what they have in current regulatory practice.

  • 10.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Ethical criteria of risk acceptance2003In: Erkenntnis, ISSN 0165-0106, E-ISSN 1572-8420, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 291-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream moral theories deal with situations in which the outcome of each possible action is well-determined and knowable. In order to make ethics relevant for problems of risk and uncertainty, moral theories have to be extended so that they cover actions whose outcomes are not determinable beforehand. One approach to this extension problem is to develop methods for appraising probabilistic combinations of outcomes. This approach is investigated and shown not to solve the problem. An alternative approach is then developed. Its starting-point is that everyone has a prime facie moral right not to be exposed to risk. However, this right can be overridden fi the risk-exposure is part of an equitable system for risk-taking that works to the advantage of the individual risk-exposed person.

  • 11.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Fallacies of risk2004In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to traditional fallacies such as ad hominem, discussions of risk contain logical and argumentative fallacies that are specific to the subject-matter. Ten such fallacies are identified, that can commonly be found in public debates on risk. They are named as follows: the sheer size fallacy, the converse sheer size fallacy, the fallacy of naturalness, the ostrich's fallacy, the proof-seeking fallacy, the delay fallacy, the technocratic fallacy, the consensus fallacy, the fallacy of pricing, and the infallibility fallacy.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Formalization in philosophy2000In: Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, ISSN 1079-8986, E-ISSN 1943-5894, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 162-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.

  • 13.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Kvantsprång i bakugnen2004In: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Mirakulös godtrogenhet2004In: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, no 1Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rapporter från religionens bakgata2004In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Replacing the no-effect level (NOEL) with bounded effect levels (OBEL and LEBEL)2002In: Statistics in Medicine, ISSN 0277-6715, E-ISSN 1097-0258, Vol. 21, no 20, p. 3071-3078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From experiments or epidemiological studies designed to search for a particular toxic effect, it is in general possible to determine an upper bound for that effect. This observed bounded effect level (OBEL) is defined for both positive and negative experiments. It is non-zero even for negative experiments, and it is inversely related to the size of the exposed group. The OBEL can be used to determine the linearly extrapolated bounded effect level (LEBEL) for various effect doses. Contrary to no-observed-effect' levels (NOELs), LEBEL values are designed to protect against type 11 (false negative) errors. It is proposed that LEBEL values replace NOELs as a tool for decision-making.

  • 17.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Review of Hans Rott, Change, choice and inference: A study of belief revision and nonmonotonic reasoning2004In: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, ISSN 0039-3215, E-ISSN 1572-8730, Vol. 77, p. 145-147Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Seriös bluffbok2004In: Folkvett : organ för Vetenskap och folkbildning, ISSN 0283-0795, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Spiritistprofessorn på Karolinska Institutet2004In: Folkvett, ISSN 0283-0795, no 43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Ten philosophical problems in belief revision2003In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces ten open problems in belief revision theory, related to the representation of the belief state, to different notions of degrees of belief, and to the nature of change operations. It is argued that these problems are all issues in philosophical logic, in the strong sense of requiring inputs from both logic and philosophy for their solution.

  • 21.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The ethics of biobanks2004In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The modes of value (Decision theory)2001In: Philosophical Studies, ISSN 0031-8116, E-ISSN 1573-0883, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the received view, decision theory is not primarily devoted to instrumental (ends-to-means) reasoning. Instead, its major preoccupation is the derivation of ends from other ends. Given preferences over basic alternatives, it constructs preferences over alternatives that have been modified through the addition of value object modifiers (modes) that specify probability, uncertainty, distance in time etc. A typology of the decision-theoretical modes is offered. The modes do not have (even extrinsic) value, but they transform the value of objects to which they are applied. A rational agent's total set of preferences should be coherent, but from this it does not follow that her preferences over mode-containing objects have to be derivable from her preferences over mode-free objects.

  • 23.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Uncertainties in the knowledge society2002In: International Social Science Journal, ISSN 0020-8701, E-ISSN 1468-2451, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 39-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern industrialised societies have been described both as knowledge societies and as risk societies. The article analyses the relations between the terms knowledge, information, data, uncertainty, ignorance, and risk, and discusses the sense in which a society can be characterised by one of them. The role of uncertainty and risk in modern society is further examined. An explanation is offered why it need not be contradictory to describe present-day societies as both knowledge societies and societies characterised by risk or uncertainty.

  • 24.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Weighing risks and benefits2004In: Topoi (Dordrecht), ISSN 0167-7411, E-ISSN 1572-8749, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is almost universally acknowledged that risks have to be weighed against benefits, but there are different ways to perform the weighing. In conventional risk analysis, collectivist risk-weighing is the standard. This means that an option is accepted if the sum of all individual benefits outweighs the sum of all individual risks. In practices originating in clinical medicine, such as ethical appraisals of clinical trials, individualist risk-weighing is the standard. This implies a much stricter criterion for risk acceptance, namely that the risk to which each individual is exposed should be outweighed by benefits for that same individual. The different choices of risk-weighing methods in different policy areas seem to have emerged from traditional thought patterns and social relations, rather than from explicit deliberations on possible justifications for the alternative ways to weigh risks against benefits. It is not obvious how the prevalent differences in risk-weighing practices can be reconstructed in terms of consistent underlying principles of preventive health or social priority-setting.

  • 25.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    What are opportunities and why should they be equal?2004In: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 305-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to clarify the concept of equal opportunities we need an accurate definition of opportunity. Opportunities can be defined in terms of qualifying actions through which an agent can achieve an advantageous position. It is concluded that equal opportunities is often used as a catchword in cases when opportunities are not really equal, and no one tries seriously to make them so. In many of these cases it would have been more accurate to speak of open opportunities and procedural justice. These are important enough aspects of social justice, that should be appreciated for what they are, rather than being falsely represented as equal opportunities.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Ferme, E. L.
    Cantwell, John
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Falappa, M. A.
    Credibility limited revision2001In: Journal of Symbolic Logic (JSL), ISSN 0022-4812, E-ISSN 1943-5886, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 1581-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five types of constructions are introduced for non-prioritized belief revision, ie:, belief revision in which the input sentence is not always accepted. These constructions include generalizations of entrenchment-based and sphere-based revision. Axiomatic characterizations are provided, and close interconnections are shown to hold between the different constructions.

  • 27.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Helgesson, G.
    What is stability?2003In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stability is a central notion in several academic disciplines, the parallels remain unexplored since previous discussions of the concept have been almost exclusively subject-specific. In the literature we have found three basic concepts of stability, that we call constancy, robustness, and resilience. They are all found in both the natural and the social sciences. To analyze the three concepts we introduce a general formal framework in which stability relates to transitions between states. It can then be shown that robustness is a limiting case of resilience, whereas neither constancy nor resilience can be defined in terms of the other. Hence, there are two basic concepts of stability, both of which are used in both the social and the natural sciences. This congruence in the concepts of stability is of particular interest for endeavours to construct models that represent both natural and social phenomena.

  • 28.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, ChristinaKTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    BETTER CHEMICALS CONTROL WITHIN REACH2004Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    Improving the incentives for toxicity testing2003In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal systems for the classification and labelling of chemical substances have an incentives structure that discourages rather than encourages companies to test their products. This is shown in a logical analysis of the European classification system and also in an analysis of recent changes in the classification of individual substances. Finally two methods to improve the incentives structure are proposed and discussed: the introduction of negative clauses that allow new information to lead to less strict classifications, and a new danger-class and a symbol (a question mark) that indicates serious lack of data.

  • 30. Higson, D. J.
    et al.
    Wikman, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On effects of low doses (multiple letters) [3]2004In: Journal of Radiological Protection, ISSN 0952-4746, E-ISSN 1361-6498, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 427-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Att konstruera ett industriellt arv: Moderna berättelser om förflutet och framtid på Göteborgsutställningen 19232004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Industri blir historia: Göteborgsutställningen 1923 och industriarvets musealisering2004In: Daedalus: Tekniska museets årsbok / [ed] Helene Sjunnesson, Stockholm: Tekniska museet , 2004, 72, p. 10-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Modernity and technology2004In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 471-473Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Signs of Modernism2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Smälthammarens resa2004In: Artefakter: Industrin, vetenskapen och de tekniska nätverken / [ed] Sven Widmalm, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag, 2004, p. 315-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Taking Place: Locating Science, Technology and Business Studies2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Houltz, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    The Aesthetics of Linearity: History and Technological Rhetoric at the Gothenburg Exhibition in 19232004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kaijser, Arne
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    System building from below - Institutional change in Dutch water control systems2002In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 521-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    A survey on requirements and needs in the field of environmental technology2000In: Environmental Management and Health, ISSN 0956-6163, E-ISSN 1758-7085, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 369-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Levin, Rikard
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Indicators of uncertainty in chemical risk assessments2004In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most of the chemical substances that are subject to regulatory and industrial decision making, important toxicological data are missing. The available dataset is often difficult to interpret, and the differences between alternative, scientifically reasonable interpretations may have major impact on decision making. Since such uncertainties are an important factor in decision making it is essential that they be reported in a transparent and understandable way. In order to clarify how toxicologists report uncertainties, 30 risk assessments for one and the same substance (trichloroethylene) from the years 1973-2001 were searched for phrases indicating uncertainty. These phrases can be divided between four categories: contentual, epistemic, conditionalising, and inferential uncertainty indicators. A typology of uncertainty indicators, based on these categories, is proposed. It is concluded that the use of uncertainty indicators in these texts is not transparent and that the development of standardised uncertainty indicators should significantly improve communications both within the scientific community and between scientists and policymakers.

  • 41. Lindblom, L
    et al.
    Clausen, J
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hayenhielm, M
    Fröding, Barbro
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Palm, Elin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Wikman, P
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    How Agencies inspect: A comparative study of inspection policies in eight Swedish government agencies2003Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lindblom, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hansson, Sven-Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Evaluating workplace inspections2004In: Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, ISSN 1477-3996, E-ISSN 1477-4003, no 2, p. 77-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework for the evaluation of workplace inspections with respect to their effects on working conditions. The choice of a concept of efficiency is discussed, and its relation to criteria for a good working environment is clarified. It concludes that in order to obtain reliable information on the effects of different inspection methods, it is necessary to perform controlled comparative studies in which different methods are used in different workplaces. Given the ease with which such studies can be performed, it is surprising how few have been made. The studies that are available provide sufficient evidence that inspections can increase compliance with regulations and that they can also increase workplace safety, but not much can be concluded about the relative efficiency of different inspection methods.

  • 43.
    Peterson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    From consequentialism to utilitarianism2003In: Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 0022-362X, E-ISSN 1939-8549, Vol. 100, no 8, p. 403-415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Peterson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    On the application of rights-based moral theories to siting controversies2004In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how rights-based moral theories can increase our understanding of siting controversies. It is argued that the notion of residual obligations can be used to overcome, at least in part, the conflict between the individual right not to be exposed to involuntary risks arising from e.g. the establishment of a new industry, and the rights of industries and other large organizations to build plants that are associated with risks for people living nearby. Use is made of a typology of residual obligations according to which the types are obligations to compensate, to communicate, to improve, to search for knowledge, and to have an appropriate attitude. Each of these types of residual obligations can be shown to be relevant in siting controversies.

  • 45. Rudberg, Eva
    et al.
    Bergman, Bosse
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Caldenby, Claes
    Gullberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Tage William-Olsson: Stridbar planerare och visionär arkitekt2004Book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Acrylamide and cancer risk - expert risk assessments and the public debate2004In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 335-349Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two parts. In the first part, fourteen carcinogen risk assessments of acrylamide made by different expert groups during the years 1976-2002 are compared in terms of their overall conclusions and their use of primary data. In the second part, the public debate on acrylamide and cancer risks and the questioning of the expert risk assessment, that arose as a reaction to the identification of this substance in staple food is discussed. In the first part it is shown that the expert risk assessors concur to a large degree about the assessment of the acrylamide potential to cause cancer. Three risk assessors have concluded that acrylamide is neither carcinogenic to humans nor to animals, while eleven risk assessors have concluded that acrylamide is carcinogenic in animals and is likely to be carcinogenic in humans. The differences in the overall conclusions seem to a large extent be explained by an evolving database. The risk assessors agree considerably on how to interpret and evaluate the available primary data, but the coverage of the available references is low. These results are also compared to those previously published on risk assessments of trichloroethylene. In the second part the arguments used in the public debate to question the expert risk assessment are summarized and it is argued that they are not based on the principles generally accepted in toxicological risk assessment.

  • 47.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Science and transscience in carcinogen risk assessment - The European Union regulatory process for trichloroethylene2003In: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews, ISSN 1093-7404, E-ISSN 1521-6950, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 257-277Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of carcinogen risk assessment of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene within the European Union existing substances program and the classification and labeling process. The focus is on the most active and influential participants of this process, namely, those from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Sweden, and from industry. The member state and other experts have different opinions regarding the appropriate classification of trichloroethylene for mutagenicity (no classification or category 3) and carcinogenicity (category 3, 2, or 1). In this article these differences are described, as well as how the primary carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data have been interpreted and evaluated by these participants. It is concluded that underlying the different assessments are disagreements about issues that to some degree lie outside the scope of purely scientific considerations.

  • 48.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Scrutinizing ACGIH risk assessments: The trichloroethylene case2003In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs)for occupational exposure to chemicals and physical agents have been very influential in the setting of occupational exposure limits in many countries. Methods Three ACGIH risk assessments of the chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) [ACGIH (1989): 5th edition; ACGIH (1992): 5th edition. Revised Vol II; ACGIH (1996): Suppl. 6th edition] are compared to 26 other risk assessments made of the same chemical substance. The documents are compared in terms of their overall conclusions and the data selected for assessment. Results It is shown that these ACGIH risk assessment documents were based on incomplete and biased data sets. Conclusions The data on which the ACGIH [ACGIH (1996): Suppl. 6th edition] base their TCE risk assessment do not adequately reflect the available scientific knowledge about TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity. This may have influenced their conclusion that TCE is not carcinogenic in either animals or humans which stand out compared to contemporary risk assessments.

  • 49.
    Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    How accurate are the European Union's classifications of chemical substances2003In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 159-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission has decided on harmonized classifications for a large number of individual chemicals according to its own directive for classification and labeling of dangerous substances. We have compared the harmonized classifications for acute oral toxicity to the acute oral toxicity data available in the RTECS database. Of the 992 substances eligible for this comparison, 15% were assigned a too low danger class and 8% a too high danger class according to the RTECS data. Due to insufficient transparency-scientific documentations of the classification decisions are not available-the causes of this discrepancy can only be hypothesized. We propose that the scientific motivations of future classifications be published and that the apparent over- and underclassifications in the present system be either explained or rectified, according to what are the facts in the matter.

  • 50.
    Rudén, Christina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Hansson, Sven Ove
    KTH, Superseded Departments, History of Science and Technology.
    Johannesson, M
    Wingborg, M
    Att se till eller titta på: om tillsynen inom miljöområdet1998Report (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 95
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