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  • 1. Adams, Sophie
    et al.
    Kuch, Declan
    Diamond, Lisa
    Fröhlich, Peter
    Henriksen, Ida-Marie
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Ryghaug, Marianne
    Yilmaz, Selin
    Social license to automate: A critical review of emerging approaches to electricity demand management2021In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 80, no October, p. 102210-12, article id https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.20102210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs are becoming increasingly important to energy system managers in advanced industrialized countries, especially those with high renewable energy penetration. As energy user participation is paramount for their success but has proven to be difficult to obtain, we explore the usefulness of the ‘social license’ concept, originally developed in the mining sector, to refer to the process of creating acceptance in DSM programs aimed at managing or controlling household energy resources such EVs, batteries, and heating and cooling devices. We argue that analyzing the attainment or lack of ‘social license’ may be useful to energy policy-makers and researchers for understanding public concerns with not only supply-side energy resources, but also DSM. We do so by (1) drawing attention to potential frictions between demands for flexibility on the one hand and social practices and habits on the other; (2) attending to the ways that users’ engagement in DSM programs is influenced by their sense of control and agency, and their trust in program providers; and (3) exploring the ways that users may understand their stake in the energy system and may participate in programs as collectives rather than simply as individuals. We argue that a ‘social license to automate’ could not only describe a set of tools to manage participation in DSM projects, but rather assess the ways users effectively feel part of new energy systems designed to serve them. 

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    Szejnwald Brown, Halina
    Isenhour, Cindy
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Stevis, Dimitris
    Vergragt, Philip
    Why achieving the Paris Agreement requires reduced overall consumption and production2018In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological solutions to the challenge of dangerous climate change are urgent and necessary but to be effective they need to be accompanied by reductions in the total level of consumption and production of goods and services. This is for three reasons. First, private consumption and its associated production are among the key drivers of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, especially among highly emitting industrialized economies. There is no evidence that decoupling of the economy from GHG emissions is possible at the scale and speed needed. Second, investments in more sustainable infrastructure, including renewable energy, needed in coming decades will require extensive amounts of energy, largely from fossil sources, which will use up a significant share of the two-degree carbon budget. Third, improving the standard of living of the world’s poor will consume a major portion of the available carbon allowance. The scholarly community has a responsibility to put the issue of consumption and the associated production on the research and policy agenda.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    Real capital investments and sustainability: - The case of Sweden2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 161, p. 216-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real capital investments are important for a transition to a more sustainable economy and for the continuous process of creative destruction and economic development. At the same time investments have negative environmental effects. In this paper we analyze to what extent the current investments in real capital (i.e.,buildings, machinery and infrastructures) in Sweden are sustainable in regard of the most important resources used in investments and in terms of CO2 emissions. This is evaluated based on Sweden's share of a sustainable use of these resources and our share of the remaining carbon budget for achieving the Paris agreement. In the analysis we have used best publicly available data and methods to indicatively establish sustainable levels of resource use and emissions. We find that 1 million invested SEK (US$ 110,000) generate 15–75 tonnes of CO2 emissions and use 80–260 MWh of energy, and on average 4.8 tonnes of iron, 0.2 tonnes of aluminum, 260 tonnes of gravel and sand and 6 tonnes of timber. Our analysis shows that within 50 years current investment would use up Sweden's CO2 budget available for achieving the Paris agreement, leaving no room for emissions from consumption. The use of timber, gravel and sand is above Sweden's share of a global yearly sustainable production. The current use of iron and aluminum can be maintained for 20–50 years, but approaches the sustainability criteria with a 200 year perspective.

  • 4. Bengtsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Cohen, Maurie
    New Jersey Inst Technol, Newark, NJ 07102 USA..
    Lorek, Sylvia
    Sustainable Europe Res Inst, Cologne, Germany..
    Schroeder, Patrick
    Inst Dev Studies, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Transforming systems of consumption and production for achieving the sustainable development goals: moving beyond efficiency2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1533-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations formulated the sustainable development goals (SDGs) in 2015 as a comprehensive global policy framework for addressing the most pressing social and environmental challenges currently facing humanity. In this paper, we analyse SDG 12, which aims to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. Despite long-standing political recognition of this objective, and ample scientific evidence both on its importance and on the efficacy of various ways of promoting it, the SDGs do not provide clear goals or effective guidance on how to accomplish this urgently needed transformation. Drawing from the growing body of research on sustainable consumption and production (SCP), the paper identifies two dominant vantage pointsone focused on promoting more efficient production methods and products (mainly through technological improvement and informed consumer choice) and the other stressing the need to consider also overall volumes of consumption, distributional issues, and related social and institutional changes. We label these two approaches efficiency and systemic. Research shows that while the efficiency approach contains essential elements of a transition to sustainability, it is by itself highly unlikely to bring about sustainable outcomes. Concomitantly, research also finds that volumes of consumption and production are closely associated with environmental impacts, indicating a need to curtail these volumes in ways that safeguard social sustainability, which is unlikely to be possible without a restructuring of existing socioeconomic arrangements. Analysing how these two perspectives are reflected in the SDGs framework, we find that in its current conception, it mainly relies on the efficiency approach. On the basis of this assessment, we conclude that the SDGs represent a partial and inadequate conceptualisation of SCP which will hamper implementation. Based on this determination, this paper provides some suggestions on how governments and other actors involved in SDGs operationalisation could more effectively pursue SCP from a systemic standpoint and use the transformation of systems of consumption and production as a lever for achieving multiple sustainability objectives.

  • 5.
    Bergame, Nathalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Acknowledging Contradictions – Endorsing Change. Transforming the Urban Through Gardening2022In: Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, ISSN 1045-5752, E-ISSN 1548-3290, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contradictions of commoning practices have recently gained increasing attention in critical research. As such, research has shown that collective practices of gardening in common produce contradictory effects not necessarily in line with progressive ideas of the common. Instead of a general dismissal of commoning due to its documented contradictions, I suggest looking beyond the naïve wishing away of contradictions by way of deploying Marxist dialectics as a research perspective from which to explicate and understand underlying processes. Rather than undermining the common's potential as a post-capitalist alternative, this article uses contradictions as an analytical lens through which the meaning of six contradictions of urban garden commons identified in the academic literature is explored. This article concludes that a conceptual focus on contradictions allows for a reflexive and critical research practice revealing the complexity of dialectical relations through which the practice of gardening propels changes but also the reproduction of existing relations.

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  • 6.
    Bergame, Nathalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Cultivating commoner subjectivities and transforming agency in commoned urban gardens2023In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 141, article id 103725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commoning as a mechanism for transforming agency and subjectivities is relevant in a contemporary urban context structured by neoliberal capitalist relations that work to alienate people, suppress agency and enclose spaces. Despite wide agreement that commoning practices mediate subject formation and agential change, little has been written on the epistemological and ontological grounds for understanding how commoning practices achieve this. Grounded in the social realist theory put forward by Archer (2000), which suggests understanding transformations linked to agency and subjectivity as outcomes of the dialectical relation between agency and structure, mediated by practice in space and over time, this paper analyses the burgeoning practice of urban gardening in common in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, with respect to its potential to transform agency and subjectivity. I find that (i) conditioned by structural context, gardeners assume a variety of (contradictory) subjectivities (the commoner, the white encloser, the unpaid public manager and hobby gardener), and (ii) that through the collective nature of the gardens, roles are created and a corporate agency emerges, which (iii) allows some gardeners to become social actors whereby they can live out their personal identities and change the structural context for others.

  • 7.
    Bergame, Nathalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    More than flowers!: On the transformative practice of commoning urban gardens2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban gardening is a burgeoning practice that increasingly takes place in urban centres of the world. In this thesis, I define urban gardens as socially mediated yet materially rooted phenomenon through which social and material relations are elaborated in common through time and space. And, I understand the garden not as an object, but as an entity that emerges out of the relationships between gardeners and non-human nature. I draw on the recent turn in commons’ theory shifting the focus on commoning, and not, as in earlier commons research, on the commons as structure. Grounded in the case of a new wave of urban gardening initiatives in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, I examine how commoning urban gardens transforms the people doing the gardening, the commoners, including their agency, subjectivity, and identity. But also how the commoners shape their structural environment.

    Ontologically, I deploy a critical realist social theory perspective which means that I acknowledge the a priori existence of structures and agency and their conditioning by each other relationally. This means that I (i) look at how spatial, societal and temporal structures affect the agency of gardeners (ii) how those gardeners are affecting their structural environment through the practice of urban gardening, as (iii) well as how their agency is conditioned by the practice.

    I deploy a qualitative mixed methods approach, comprising of interviews, a questionnaire, observations, participatory dissemination and poetic inquiry and find that high green public space availability in the City of Stockholm, municipal policies in favour of urban gardening, and a rich historic culture of associational life in Sweden provide a supportive context for urban gardening. I find that commoning gardens in public spaces bring together people and build collective relations despite a context of neoliberal individualisation. It emancipates individuals by reorganising the management of urban space, and changes how the City of Stockholm is urbanising towards more collective organising. Among those that partake in urban gardening, some remain grounded in a need-fulfilment (“I want to garden to be more in nature”), whereas others change through the commitment of being part of an urban garden, become political and collective subjectivities with a social identity that overlaps with their personal identity. This shows that structures condition people differently, and do not deterministically affect agency in the same way for everyone. Yet many remain entirely excluded from the new urban garden commons, such as people of colour, indicating that urban gardening, while it can be transformative for those that partake, is reproductive of structures of whiteness in urban public space. At the same time, historical structures of patriarchy in public spaces are being transformed. At the expense of the unpaid social reproductive labour of female gardeners, who make out the majority of urban gardeners, public green space is being transformed into spaces of care and community.

    I conclude that urban gardening deserves a critical analysis of its immanent contradictions to safeguard against unwanted and unintentional reproduction of injustices and for the promotion of practices that emancipate and empower people.

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  • 8.
    Bergame, Nathalie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    The reproductive fix: urban gardening and gendered relations of social reproduction under patriarchal capitalist urbanisationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the City of Stockholm, for more than a decade, engaged women transform public green spaces collectively into commoned urban gardens, based on affective relations and care. Drawing on Sylvia Federici’s work on the role of oppression and marginalisation of female subjects and the destruction of the commons, I discuss, in this paper, how collective forms of urban gardening condition current processes of urbanisation, and, how patriarchal capitalist urbanisation conditions urban gardening as collective practice of social reproduction. Based on the case of a greening city that draws on the free labour of women, and by making use of the feminist method of poetic inquiry, I contribute to the debate on the gendered and spatial forms of urbanisation through a dialectical analysis of the relation between public forms of social reproduction and urbanisation. I argue that urban gardening can be understood as a ‘reproductive fix’ of capitalist urbanisation that continues to exploit subjects of social reproduction – in an invisible manner. 

  • 9.
    Bergame, Nathalie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Borgström, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Preparing the grounds for emancipation. Explaining commoning as an emancipatory mechanism through dialectical social theory2022In: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, ISSN 2514-8486, E-ISSN 2514-8494 , p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is evidence that commons have the potential to counteract socio-spatial injustices unleashed by neoliberal and capitalist forms of urbanisation, less is known about how commons lead to emancipatory change. Anchored in dialectical social theory, this article explains commoning as a mechanism through which people reproduce/transform their structural context and agency, arguing that the potential for emancipation through commoning lies in the commoners’ ability to induce processes of structural/agential transformation. Empirically grounded in interviews with urban community gardeners in the City of Stockholm, Sweden, we show that collective gardening conceptualised as practice of commoning contributes to structural change in that female volunteer labour collectivises the mandate over municipally managed public space, transforming socio-spatial relations. Yet, garden commoning proves to reproduce structural whiteness and middle-class agency in public space, fails to establish autonomy from waged-labour relations, and is unable to abolish the separation from the sources of reproduction and subsistence.

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    Bergame, et. al (2022) Preparing the Grounds
  • 10. Bergmark, Pernilla
    et al.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Donovan, Craig
    A Methodology for Assessing the Environmental Effects Induced by ICT Services: Part II: Multiple Services and Companies2020In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, p. 46-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) can make existing products and activities more efficient or substitute them altogether and could thus become crucial for the mitigation of climate change. In this context, individual ICT companies, industry organizations and international initiatives have started to estimate the environmental effects of ICT services. Often such assessments rely on crude assumptions and methods, yielding inaccurate or even misleading results. The few existing methodological attempts are too general to provide guidance to practitioners. The starting points of this paper are i) a high-level standard from the European Telecommunication Standardisation Institute (ETSI) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and ii) its suggested enhancements for single service assessment outlined in A Methodology for Assessing the Environmental Effects Induced by ICT Services Part I: Single services (Part I in short). Building on the assessment of single services, the current article identifies and addresses shortcomings of existing methodologies and industry practices with regard to multiple services assessment. For a collection of services, it addresses the goal and scope definition, the so-far ignored aggregation of effects among several services, and the allocation between several companies contributing to one or more services. The article finally brings these considerations together with those of Part I into a workflow for performing such assessments in practice.

  • 11. Biermann, F.
    et al.
    Hickmann, T.
    Sénit, C. -A
    Beisheim, M.
    Bernstein, S.
    Chasek, P.
    Grob, L.
    Kim, R. E.
    Kotzé, L. J.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Ordóñez Llanos, A.
    Okereke, C.
    Pradhan, P.
    Raven, R.
    Sun, Y.
    Vijge, M. J.
    van Vuuren, D.
    Wicke, B.
    Scientific evidence on the political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals2022In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 795-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the United Nations agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals as the central normative framework for sustainable development worldwide. The effectiveness of governing by such broad global goals, however, remains uncertain, and we lack comprehensive meta-studies that assess the political impact of the goals across countries and globally. We present here condensed evidence from an analysis of over 3,000 scientific studies on the Sustainable Development Goals published between 2016 and April 2021. Our findings suggests that the goals have had some political impact on institutions and policies, from local to global governance. This impact has been largely discursive, affecting the way actors understand and communicate about sustainable development. More profound normative and institutional impact, from legislative action to changing resource allocation, remains rare. We conclude that the scientific evidence suggests only limited transformative political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals thus far.

  • 12.
    Bieser, Jan C. T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    A Framework for Assessing Impacts of Information and Communication Technology on Passenger Transport and Greenhouse Gas Emissions2022In: Advances And New Trends In Environmental Informatics: A Bogeyman Or Saviour For The Un Sustainability Goals? / [ed] Wohlgemuth, V Naumann, S Behrens, G Arndt, HK, Springer Nature , 2022, p. 235-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) provides unprecedented opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger transport by avoiding, shifting or improving transport. Research on climate protection through ICT applications in passenger transport mainly focuses on theoretical potentials, is assuming that digitalmobility services replace GHG-intensive transport modes (e.g. car travel), and does not specify the conditions under which decarbonization potentials will materialize. It is known that digitalmobility services can also take a complementary (as opposed to substituting) role in travel or replace non-motorized travel, which can increase GHG emissions. Based on existing literature, we develop a conceptual framework to guide qualitative and quantitative assessments of the relationship between ICT use, passenger transport and GHG emissions. The framework distinguishes three types of effects: (1) First-order effects, GHG impacts of producing, operating and disposing the ICT hardware and software, (2) second-order effects, impacts of ICT on properties of transport modes, transport mode choice and travel demand, and (3) third-order effects, long-term structural changes due to ICT use (e.g. residential relocation). We qualitatively demonstrate the framework at the example of automated driving and discussmethodological challenges in assessments of ICT impacts on passenger transport such as the definition of system boundaries, consideration of socio-demographic characteristics of individuals and the inference of causality. The framework supports researchers in scoping assessments, designing suitable assessment methods and correctly interpreting the results, which is essential to put digitalization in passenger transport at the service of climate protection.

  • 13.
    Bieser, Jan C. T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmuehlestrasse 14, Zurich, 8050, Switzerland.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Kramers, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Informat, Binzmuehlestr 14, CH-8050 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Toward a method for assessing the energy impacts of telecommuting based on time-use data2022In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 27, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most telecommuting (TC) studies focus on travel impacts and do not consider changes in time spent on non-travel activities (e.g. 'leisure') and the energy impacts of these changes. We demonstrate a time-use approach to assess interrelations between changes in commuting time and time spent on travel and non-travel activities and associated energy impacts. Time-use data analysis shows that spending less time on commuting is associated with more time spent on 'sleep', 'leisure', 'personal, household and family care', 'private travel' and 'eating and drinking'. Substituting car commuting with 'sleep', 'eating and drinking', common 'leisure' and 'personal, household and family care' activities is likely to reduce energy requirements as these are associated with less energy requirements than car commuting. This is different for 'private travel', 'meal preparation at home', and energy-intensive or out-of-home 'leisure' activities, which are associated with relatively high energy requirements. The commute modal split is a key variable in energy impacts of TC, because transport modes differ in their energy requirements. While car commuters can realize high energy savings through TC, for people who usually bike or walk to work, direct energy savings through reduced commuting are zero. Thus, any additional energy impact due to substitute activities, increases net direct energy requirements. Future research should further investigate the relationship between TC and time spent on (non-)travel activities and the marginal energy requirements of these activities. If so, the time-use approach can become key for assessing energy impacts of TC and other applications which impact individual time allocation.

  • 14.
    Bieser, Jan C. T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Kriukelyte, Erika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    The digitalization of passenger transport: Technologies, applications and potential implications for greenhouse gas emissions2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet internationally agreed climate protection targets, a drastic reduction of passenger transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required. The “Avoid-Shift-Improve”-Approach suggests to meet future transport demand by avoiding unnecessary travel, shifting travel to more environmentally-friendly transport modes and improving the environmental performance of transport modes. Digital applications can contribute to both an increase or a decrease of passenger transport GHG emissions, e.g. by avoiding travel, increasing travel or shifting travel to more GHG-intensive or GHG-efficient transport modes. In view of the large number of digital applications in passenger transport and their uncertain impacts on GHG emissions, the aim of this report is to present a review of (1) digital technologies that are used in passenger transport, (2) applications that are supported by digital technologies and (3) their potential impacts on GHG emissions.

    We identified nine central categories of digital technologies that shape passenger transport, namely (mobile) end user devices and apps, telecommunication networks, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and big data, geospatial technologies, digital sensors, computer graphics, automation and robotics and blockchain. These technologies support various applications in passenger transport which can be categorized into digital traveler information systems (e.g. trip planning and booking apps), digital shared mobility services (e.g. car or ride sharing), digitally-enabled transport modes that would not exist without digital technologies (e.g. virtual mobility, taxi drones), digital in-vehicle applications (e.g. automated driving), and digital applications for traffic and infrastructure management (e.g. traffic simulations and mobility pricing).

    All described applications can have reducing and increasing effects on GHG emissions. Main levers to reduce GHG emissions are (1) a reduction of number of vehicles produced (e.g. through vehicle sharing), (2) a reduction of total travel distances (e.g. through virtual mobility), (3) an increase in the attractiveness of and shift to more GHG-efficient transport modes (e.g. through multimodal mobility platforms), (4) an increase in the utilization of transport modes and a reduction of vehicle kilometers traveled (e.g. through ride sharing), and (5) an increase in the fuel efficiency of vehicles (e.g. through automated driving systems).

    In a real-life setting, the impacts of digital applications depend on the interplay between the applications and their design, existing travel patterns and the policy framework in place. In order put digital applications in passenger transport at the service of climate protection, applications and policies have to be aligned in a way that they promote GHG reducing levers. Otherwise, there is a risk that these applications lead to an increase in GHG emissions, e.g. by inducing additional travel or promoting more GHG-intensive transport modes.

    Future research should empirically assess the impacts of digital applications on passenger transport and identify the conditions under which decarbonization potentials will materialize. This will support policy makers and market actors to jointly create conditions under which offering digital applications in passenger transport contributes to a net GHG emission reduction and is economically-feasible.

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    Bieser and Kriukelyte_Digitalization of passenger transport
  • 15.
    Bieser, Jan C. T.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    Linda, Burkhalter
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, .
    Lorenz M., Hilty
    University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    Basil, Fuchs
    University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    Yann, Blumer
    Zurich University of Applied Sciences, .
    Lifetime extension of mobile internet-enabled devices: measures, challenges and environmental implications2021In: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Product Lifetimes and the Environment (PLATE), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the service lifetime of mobile Internet-enabled devices (MIEDs) such as smartphones, tablets and laptops is a promising strategy to reduce the number of devices that need to be produced and reduce environmental impacts associated with device production. A broad spectrum of lifetime-extending measures has been explored in literature and in industry practice. In this article, we present an overview of explored measures, discuss challenges in their implementation and environmental impacts of lifetime extension. We find that measures can be distinguished into measures aiming at (1) the improvement of the device design (e.g. modular or durable design of smartphones), (2) device retention (increasing the time a user keeps a device, e.g. by offering repair services or fostering emotional attachment to devices), and (3) recirculation (creating a second life with a different user and/or in a different context, e.g. by refurbishing and reselling devices). The implementation of measures is challenged by trade-offs faced by organizations in the MIED value chain, which specifically occur when revenues depend on the number of new devices produced and sold. Furthermore, measures are subject to rebound and induction effects (e.g. imperfect substitution, re-spending effects), which can compensate for the (theoretical) environmental gains from service lifetime extension. In particular, it is uncertain to what extent a measure actually leads to lifetime extension and eventually reduces primary production of devices (displacement rate). Thus, more systematic research is needed on the feasibility of measures and the conditions under which they effectively contribute to a net reduction of environmental impacts. 

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Bieser, Jan C. T.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Informat, Binzmuehlestr 14, CH-148050 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Vaddadi, Bhavana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kramers, Anna H
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Informat, Binzmuehlestr 14, CH-148050 Zurich, Switzerland.;Empa Mat Sci & Technol, Technol & Soc Lab, Lerchenfeldstr 5, CH-9014 St Gallen, Switzerland..
    Impacts of telecommuting on time use and travel: A case study of a neighborhood telecommuting center in Stockholm2021In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 23, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While telecommuting (TC) research heavily discusses travel impacts of home-based TC, little is known about impacts of working from a neighborhood TC center on travel and non-travel activities and their energy requirements. We conduct a case study on the impacts of the work location (employer's office, TC center, home) on time use and travel using data collected in a neighborhood TC center in Stockholm. Our results show that telecommuters more frequently replaced working from the TC center for working from the more distant employer's office than for working from home. On TC center and home office days, diarists spent less time traveling, and on home office days more time on chores and leisure than on employer office days. When working from the TC center instead of the employer's office, telecommuters frequently used the same or more energy-efficient commute modes, e.g. biking instead of the car, which was feasible because the TC center is in the local neighborhood. However, when working from home, diarists mainly used the car for private travel. Thus, energy savings of TC can be increased by providing energy-efficient transport options or local access to non-work destinations to telecommuters. TC energy impacts depend also on changes to energy requirements for nontravel activities, for space heating/cooling/lighting at all work locations, and systemic TC effects (e.g. residential relocation), which can only be observed in the long term. Thus, future TC assessments should take an even broader perspective in terms of travel and non-travel activities, their energy requirements, and systemic effects.

  • 17.
    Bisander, Iza
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Environmental strategies.
    Låga parkeringstal i utbyte mot grön mobilitet: erfarenheter från och jämförelse mellan kommuner i Sverige2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt hur flexibla parkeringstal ser ut och motiveras i olika kommuner men har även undersökt ett specifikt fall där flexibla parkeringstal har tillämpats. Studien hade tre syften varav det första var att undersöka hur kommuner motiverar övergången till mer flexibla parkeringstal och det andra syftet var att undersöka hur kommunerna utformar principerna för flexibla parkeringstal för att tillmötesgå deras motiv. Det sista syftet var att analysera om mobilitetsåtgärder som införs i samband med flexibla parkeringstal påverkar de boendes resmönster och vardagsliv.

    För att besvara studiens syften användes kvalitativa forskningsmetoder. För att undersöka olika kommuners utformning och motivering av flexibla parkeringstal har en kvalitativ dokumentanalys genomförts. Alla kommuner använder inte flexibla parkeringstal utan det är ett relativt nytt fenomen. Denna studie identifierade 24 kommuner som tillåter flexibla parkeringstal i deras policydokument. När kommunernas parkeringspolicys jämfördes märkes en stor variation av utformningen av flexibla parkeringstal. Vissa kommuner har tydliga riktlinjer på vilka åtgärder som ger ett visst procentuellt avdrag medan andra kommuner lämnar det öppet för byggherren att utforma vilka åtgärder denne önskar göra utan förutbestämt avdrag.

    Området Fullriggaren i Malmö var ett av de första områdena som tillämpade flexibla parkeringstal. Området har varit bebott i cirka fem år och har inte utvärderats grundligt. Kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer utfördes med personer som bor i området Fullriggaren och det visade sig att de boende har influerats av mobilitetstjänsterna till en viss del men att deras resmönster också kan spåras till andra faktorer. Cykelinfrastrukturen, normer, attityder och närhet till service tros påverka respondenternas val av färdmedel.

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    Låga parkeringstal
  • 18.
    Biørn-Hansen, Aksel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Exploring the Use of a Carbon Footprint Calculator Challenging Everyday Habits2022In: Nordic Human-Computer Interaction Conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon calculators have been put forth as a tool to motivate sustainable behaviour change in people. However, the approach of “just” presenting numbers to communicate climate footprints has not been found to be an effective strategy. In this paper, we investigate the use of an application that combines carbon footprint calculations with gamelike features in order to address the gap between awareness and behaviour. Our results are based on an interview study and show that while respondents appreciate the idea, there are several problem areas which have implications for the design of carbon calculators, including issues with targeting the “right users”, the use of gamification and the absence of a social context. Furthermore, the results point towards general barriers and opportunities for design when the aim is to design for sustainable behaviour change. This includes a need to be adaptive to the transitioning process towards a low carbon lifestyle.  

     

  • 19.
    Biørn-Hansen, Aksel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Romero, Mario
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Robért, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Exploring the Problem Space of CO2 Emission Reductions from Academic Flying2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 21, p. 12206-12206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 emissions from aviation have been predicted to increase over the coming decades. Within the academic world, flying is often perceived to be a necessary prerequisite to being a successful researcher. Many Swedish universities have ambitious climate goals, but are simultaneously among the top emitters in the public sector. Reaching stated climate goals could feasibly be met through a combination of measures, including decreased flying. One way to address the challenge is to support behavioural interventions with the help of interactive visualizations of CO2 emissions from flying. Those few examples that exist in the research literature are generally directed towards management and are less applicable to universities, given the large autonomy researchers enjoy and their discretionary control of research project funds. This paper uses a design-oriented research approach to present an analysis of the problem space at the intersection of interactive visualizations using air travel data to reduce CO2 emissions from business air travel at our own university, KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Through a number of design experiments, evaluations and investigations, we have unearthed needs, challenges and opportunities for the creation of visualization tools to support more sustainable travel practices at universities and in other knowledge-intensive organisations.

  • 20.
    Björklund, Tove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Marko Tisch, Marta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Mistra Sustainable Consumption årsrapport 20192019Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 21.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Activity-based offices: Synergies and trade-offs between energy efficiency and employees' work environment2019In: Eceee Summer Study Proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 2019, p. 1499-1504Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in office buildings is significant. At the same time, more than half of the Swedish office buildings were erected before 1970, which means that extensive refurbishments and new establishments are expected. Requirements on efficiency in terms of costs, space and energy use are then usually high. To achieve both energy efficient buildings and stimulating workplaces, there is a trend towards the implementation of activity-based offices. The activity-based workplace is structured to fit the employees' work tasks and may give an impression of stimulating employees' creativity. However, studies show that the work environment does not suit everyone. Instead, mainly managers and employees who frequently interact with others are supported by activity-based working. Practical examples indicate that the efficiency of buildings may affect the employees´ wellbeing and work environment negatively - i.e. aspects linked to social sustainability. Nevertheless, knowledge on synergies and trade-offs between environmental and social sustainability goals is limited regarding the workplace in energy efficient buildings. It has for instance been shown previously that studies on green buildings mainly focus on environmental sustainability aspects, while the social dimension is basically lacking. This includes aspects of physical and psychological well-being. Still, understanding the interaction between different sustainability dimensions is crucial for implementing sustainability work in practice. The study presented in this paper is part of an ongoing Swedish research project exploring the consequences of energy efficient office buildings on the employees' work environment based on case studies and literature. This paper presents a literature review of scientific papers on the topic and describes the outline of the case studies to be executed during spring 2019. It is concluded that scientific literature focusing on both energy efficiency and work environment at the activity-based workplace is scarce. Still, to ensure that environmental benefits are not realized at the expense of the employees' well-being, it is highly important to further explore potential synergies and trade-offs between social and environmental sustainability factors. 

  • 22.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Oreskovic, N.
    Linder, N.
    Svensdotter, M.
    Schewenius, M.
    Emmelin, A.
    Tuvendal, M.
    Lokala initiativ - En outnyttjad potential i Stockholmsregionens arbete för hållbar utveckling2017In: YMER, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 137, p. 189-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Schalk, Meike
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Futurist Feminist Political Ecology: Rewriting Stockholm’s Vision 20302017In: Feminist Futures of Spatial Practice: Materialisms, Activisms, Dialogues, Pedagogies, Projections / [ed] Meike Schalk, Thérèse Kristiansson, Ramia Mazé, Baunach DE: AADR / Spurbuchverlag , 2017, p. 301-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Omställning pågår, om än inte så högljutt2018In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, article id 15 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A passage to carsharing: The case of implementing a municipal carsharing schemeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carsharing is a transportation mode that has existed for a long time but that has been rapidly growing the last decades, mainly due to the ongoing digitisation of society. Carsharing has qualities that places it within the intersection of sustainable mobility and the sharing economy. Carsharing is therefore often proposed in policies and planning documents as a measure to facilitate sustainable mobility. But what does the transition from theoretical solution to actual implemented service, accessible to users actually look like?

    This paper presents the findings of qualitative study that describes and analyses the case of Täby, a Swedish municipality in the Stockholm region, that decided to address its set sustainability targets and business travel practices by procuring a carsharing service and installing an in-house bicycle pool for officials. The study, that draws findings from document studies and semi-structured interviews, applies an actor-network theory inspired approach. The analysis of the process, show how the involved actors, both human and non-human, together drove the process forward, and eventually led to the implementation of a carsharing scheme for the officials.

    The paper concludes that carsharing as a program of action, was translated from an in-house carsharing open to citizens, to a procured service for the officials, and that the move to new premises acted as obligatory passage point for this process. The paper also concludes that during the process, the program of action was associated with policy documents such as the environmental goals and the Climate and Energy Strategy who served in a legitimising way and thus helped to fend of anti-programs such as cost efficiency, which otherwise was a prevalent managerial and operational strategy. 

  • 26.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    What is a sustainable everyday life?: Exploring and assessing the sustainability of everyday travel, sharing and ICT.2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where the general trend is unsustainable consumption patterns, can sustainable everyday life be enabled? This thesis sought to expand the knowledge base for policies and measures for sustainability, based on the assumption that consumption can be viewed as the outcome of practices in which people engage in their day-to-day life. The thesis addressed the overall aim by examining the following questions: How can information and communication technology (ICT) practices contribute to sustainable everyday practices? How can sharing practices, ICT-based and other, contribute to sustainable everyday practices? and How can travel practices, ICT-based and other, contribute to sustainable everyday practices?

    Empirical and conceptual studies revealed that ICT has become a fundamental and integral part of everyday practices and that digitalisation is a tangible material companion with implications for sustainability. ICT changes practices in ways that can be both positive and negative from a sustainability perspective. These second-order effects need to be addressed early when developing ICT solutions/services.

    ICT has also contributed to development of the sharing economy, by making sharing easier and scalable. However, although some sharing practices can contribute to overall sustainability, others could display a high potential and risk, simultaneously. It is therefore important to identify and mitigate negative effects and exploit the full potential of sustainable sharing activities from a policy perspective.

    Everyday travel is the outcome of people’s social practices. Travel practices are therefore ultimately interlocked with other practices and spatially and temporally structured. It can thus be quite difficult for city dwellers, although not impossible, to fit in new ways of carrying out everyday city travel rather than existing travel practices. New travel practices should be viewed as complementary if there are no other enabling factors at play, such as convenience, pricing, policies and/or infrastructural changes. If some form of policy and/or infrastructural change is introduced, it is possible to change travel patterns and ultimately reduce travel. Here too, ICT could enable changes in travel practices, e.g. through mediated meetings or vehicle sharing. However, for sustainable everyday travel to become widespread, urban planning issues are important. Policy documents and environmental targets can be used proactively to legitimise new policies that enable more sustainable travel practices.

    This thesis shows that everyday practices, in a relatively affluent European urban context, contribute greatly to environmental impacts. Hence, how everyday practices are structured, or could be re-structured, is critical for sustainable development. Practices shape, and are shaped, by their socio-material context. This requires an overall, holistic approach, as offered by practice theory and actor-network theory. A holistic approach is crucial from a sustainability policy perspective, as it enables measures that target some, or all, of the different elements (material, meaning, skills) that constitute practice. It may also be crucial for policies addressing temporal and spatial aspects that structure practices, e.g. societal schedules and people’s homes in relation to their workplace. This presents an opportunity that policymakers could further explore and exploit.

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  • 27.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björn, Michael
    Lund School of Economics and Management.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Why share?: An outline of a policy framework for sharing.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The sharing economy has received much attention in recent years, partly because it carries a promise of reducing environmental impacts. This decrease is expected to take place through higher utilization of raw materials and energy when physical products are shared to a greater extent . However, our reading of current literature on sharing suggests that such environmental impacts have rarely been assessed at the societal level, e.g. nationally or along a supply chain. Neither are definitions and classifications of sharing found in literature, in general, particularly helpful for estimating environmental potentials and risks. We argue that there is a need for a framework supporting policy to clarify the importance of policy when it comes to the final effects of sharing.

    The aim of this paper is to outline a policy framework for environmental potentials and risks of the sharing economy. We have here delimited this paper to discuss levels of energy use as an example of environmental impact, but argue that the tentative policy framework presented can be used for any sustainability factor. In the paper we populate the policy framework with a spectrum of sharing initiatives and discuss the possible changes in energy use connected to these initiatives. Furthermore, we also discuss in what areas research on the environmental impacts of sharing initiatives could be specifically important, based on the outcome of populating the policy framework for potentials and risks.

  • 28.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    The Sustainable Playable City: Making Way for the Playful Citizen2020In: Making Smart Cities More Playable: Exploring Playable Cities / [ed] Anton Nijholt, Singapore: Springer Nature , 2020, p. 87-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To play is a legitimate need of urban citizens, and it is therefore important to enable play in cities and to plan for making cities playable. The playable city is not dependent on the digital technologies offered by the smart city. The playable city “happens” when a city offers suitable (playful) affordances and citizens engage in and make use of them. This ultimately implies that also ‘non-smart’ cities can be playable (and may indeed already be so). In this chapter we explore the intersection of playable and sustainable cities. We argue that the playable city can be placed within the realm of what the sustainable city should be and should aim for. The issue of whether this is achieved by applying digital technologies thus becomes decentred, even though digital technologies at the same time could open up for new and exciting possibilities. Key is to ensure that the playable city is a sustainable city and we should therefore aim for designing and building sustainable playable cities.

  • 29.
    Cardoso, Ricardo
    et al.
    Yale-NUS College, National University of Singapore, 16 College Avenue West, 138527, Singapore, 16 College Avenue West.
    Chen, Jia Ching
    University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Global Studies, Social Sciences & Media Studies Building, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-7065, USA.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    BLOCOS URBANISM: Capitalism and Modularity in the Making of Contemporary Luanda2023In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 809-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we portray and unpack the fabric of urban expansion in contemporary Luanda. In doing so, we examine interdependencies and complementarities between the organization of oil extraction off the coast of Angola, the emergence of particular modalities of modernist city planning for the expansion of its capital city, and the proliferation of cement blocks in the making of new urban forms throughout its burgeoning peripheries. By showing how urban development has unfolded through the interconnected realization of multiple kinds of systematizing blocks—namely oil blocks, city blocks and cement blocks—we analyse key material components in the production of new markets and urban spaces in the Angolan capital. By tracing forms of capitalism and modularity in the making of contemporary Luanda, we develop the concept of blocos urbanism to draw attention to modes of standardization and the production of legibility in contemporary processes of urbanization. Through this study, we aim to contribute to the conceptual apparatus for deciphering our global urban condition.

  • 30.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Baraka, Noha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Benders, Renée
    Berglund, Mårten
    Dunér, Fredrik
    Kok, Rixt
    Losada, Raul Lopez I
    Analysis of the environmental impacts of 218 consumption items: Greenhouse gas emissions, land use and water use per SEK and kg2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Dunér, Fredrik
    40% mindre växthusgasutsläpp från konsumtionen här och nu: Beräkningar givet förändrad konsumtion av mat, semestrande och inredning2020Report (Other academic)
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  • 32.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Learning in Stem. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Dags för en nationell strategi för växtbaserade mejeriprodukter2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om vi konsumenter slutar att dricka komjölk och äta ost gjord av råvaror från djurriket och i stället utnyttjar alternativen från växter så medför det mycket stora vinster för miljön. Därför behöver Sverige en ny nationell strategi som påskyndar en omställning till växtbaserade alternativ till mejeriprodukter.

  • 33.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    Ecoloop, Ringvägen 100, 118 60 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Differences in Environmental Impact between Plant-Based Alternatives to Dairy and Dairy Products: A Systematic Literature Review2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research suggests a more plant-based diet, including a switch to plant-based alternatives to dairy, is needed for lowering human-induced climate change as well as land and water use. With the help of a systematic literature review, we analyzed data from 21 peer-reviewed articles about the differences in emissions and resources used between various plant-based alternatives to dairy and dairy products. Emissions included were greenhouse gases, acidifying, eutrophicating, and ozone-depleting substances, and resource use included water, energy, and land. The results are presented as the quotients of the ratios of plant-based alternatives to dairy and dairy products. The comparison shows that the plant-based dairy alternatives have lower, or much lower, impacts in almost all cases, with two exceptions: water use for almond drinks (several studies) and emissions of ozone-depleting substances for margarine (one study). There is a lack of data concerning impacts other than greenhouse gas emissions for plant-based cheese alternatives; and in general, emissions of greenhouse gases are more highly covered than other impacts. In the quest for a swift transition to a low carbon economy, however, there is already enough evidence to proceed with a dietary change involving switching dairy products to plant-based alternatives.

  • 34.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Wester, Misse
    LTH, Div Risk Management & Societal Safety, Lund, Sweden..
    Snickare, Lotta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderberg, Inga-Lill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Climate change mitigation efforts among transportation and manufacturing companies: The current state of efforts in Sweden according to available documentation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 196, p. 588-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, transportation and manufacturing emit large amount of greenhouse gases that needs to be lowered for reaching agreed upon slim ate goals. In this context evidence of mitigation activities among eighty-five companies and their forty-five parent companies in these two polluting sectors were traced focusing on a country that has committed itself to leading the implementation of ambitious climate mitigation goals worldwide. Documentation from the companies in the transportation and manufacturing sectors was scrutinized (yearly reports, homepages and sustainability reports, if available) for evidence of any mitigation efforts, including emissions reporting and reduction goals. The study's results found that two thirds of the companies seemed to have done nothing to mitigate climate change, while efforts in the remaining companies were modest at best; mitigation activities among the forty-five parent companies were only slightly more ambitious. The implications of these depressing findings are discussed in the light of possible caveats and the possibilities of new policy measures such as gender quotas in company boards. The conclusion is that the study's results most likely reflect reality in the studied sectors and that novel approaches and more sector oriented research is needed in the quest for a carbon-neutral society..

  • 35.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Rädda maten - Åtgärder för svinnminskande beteendeförändringar hos konsument2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from a literature review of different studies and scientific evaluations of behaviour interventions aim- ing to decrease avoidable food waste, that are directed private consumers. In this report food waste refers to foods that could have been eaten if was handled differently, but that was thrown away. The food waste may appear both in people’s homes and when they eat in restaurants. Studies included in our overview contain various types of strategies: E.g. education and infor- mation regarding the importance of decreasing food waste; apps and other tools for people to keep track of their food in order to avoid buying food they don’t need; apps to share spare food. Restaurants have tested strategies of providing guests with smaller plates. Private individuals can also be encouraged to contribute to reducing food waste in other areas of the food chain, for example by encouraging purchasing of food that is approaching the best- before date. Mostly, the evaluations of the behaviour interventions have only been carried out using smaller groups of people. Longitudinal studies of their effects are mostly missing. Nevertheless, the studies of interventions where evaluations exist, indi- cate a significant effect regarding the decrease of food waste as well as raising households’ awareness and encouraging their re- flection. On the other hand, many initiatives and strategies formed to decrease food waste are not evaluated at all. Consider- ing environmental, social and economic consequences of food waste, this is problematic. We, thus, suggest that effects of ongoing initiatives, such as selling not-consumed food from restaurants at a lower price should be evaluated in the short span as well as in longitudinal studies. We also suggest that interventions which have been successful in other countries should be tested in Sweden. This includes various tools for keeping track of contents in the fridge as well as tools for sharing left-overs. There is also a need for further understanding how individuals and societal structures may consociate for lowering food waste and a need for evaluating results from food waste intervention campaigns with larger groups of households than what was done so far. 

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    Rädda maten
  • 36. Coroama, Vlad C.
    et al.
    Bergmark, Pernilla
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Malmodin, Jens
    A Methodology for Assessing the Environmental Effects Induced by ICT Services: Part I: Single Services2020In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, p. 36-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly seen as key enablers for climate change mitigation measures. They can make existing products and activities more efficient or substitute them altogether. Consequently, different initiatives have started to estimate the environmental effects of ICT services. Such assessments, however, lack scientific rigor and often rely on crude assumptions and methods, leading to inaccurate or even misleading results. The few methodological attempts that exist do not address several crucial aspects, and are thus insufficient to foster good assessment practice. Starting from such a high-level standard from the European Telecommunication Standardisation Institute (ETSI) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), this article identifies the shortcomings of existing methodologies and proposes solutions. It addresses several aspects for the assessment of single ICT services: the goal and scope definition (analyzing differences between ICT substitution and optimization, the time perspective of the assessment, the challenge of a hypothetical baseline for the situation without the ICT solution, and the differences between modelling and case studies) as well as the often-ignored influence of rebound effects and the difficult extrapolation from case studies to larger populations.

  • 37.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University .
    Ek, Richard
    Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University .
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Lund University .
    Zapata, Patrik
    School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg .
    Zapata-Campos,, María-José
    Management and Organisation, Department of Business Administration, School of Economics, Business and Law, University of Gothenburg.
    Waste prevention is about effective production and thoughtful consumption – not about waste: SEVEN LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH PROJECT FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT TO WASTE PREVENTION2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 38.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Ek, Richard
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Svingstedt, Anette
    Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Zapata, Patrik
    Förvaltningshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Zapata-Campos, María-José
    Management och Organisation, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Avfallsförebyggande handlar om effektiv produktion och genomtänkt konsumtion –inte om avfall.: sju lärdomar från forskningsprojektet från avfallshantering till avfallsförebyggande2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 39.
    Corvellec, Hervé
    et al.
    Lund University .
    Stowell, Alison
    Lancaster University .
    Johansson, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Critiques of the circular economy2021In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a reasoned account of the critiques addressed to the circular econ-omy and circular business models. These critiques claim that the circular economy hasdiffused limits, unclear theoretical grounds, and that its implementation faces struc-tural obstacles. Circular economy is based on an ideological agenda dominated by tech-nical and economic accounts, which brings uncertain contributions to sustainabilityand depoliticizes sustainable growth. Bringing together these critiques demonstratesthat the circular economy is far from being as promising as its advocates claim it to be.Circularity emerges instead as a theoretically, practically, and ideologically question-able notion. The paper concludes by proposing critical issues that need to be addressedif the circular economy and its business models are to open routes for more sustainableeconomic development.

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  • 40. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Neij, Lena
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Engström, Gustav
    Berg, Lars
    Turesson, Anders
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med samhällsekonomiska analyser.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 41.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Klocker Larsen, Rasmus
    Andre, Karin
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Retracing the footsteps: how do footprint indicators support learning about sustainable consumption among Swedish policymakers?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption-based or environmental footprint indicators give a sense of society’s progress towards sustainable consumption. Studies of the role that sustainability indicators play in policy making report that they contribute to learning and conceptual thinking. This literature provides insights into the types of learning outcome that indicators contribute to, such as instrumental, policy-oriented, governmental, political, or societal learning. But few studies have looked specifically at consumption-based indicators or at the learning process itself, of how indicator use supports different actors in changing their ideas, perceptions, and practices – and potentially affects wider social and organizational structures to prompt the desired move to sustainable consumption.

    To address this, we draw on the theory of expansive learning to investigate the potential for learning about sustainable consumption by Swedish public officials using consumption-based indicators. Data were collected in a series of interviews, focus groups and workshops. The results suggest that consumption-based indicators do help officials to learn about the concept of sustainable consumption and encourage them to push forward the sustainable consumption agenda. This is not, however, so much due to indicators per se, but rather to the creativity and agency of committed government officials. To enhance learning and change in practices further, public officials must be supported by the necessary institutions and authority to promote sustainable consumption.

  • 42.
    Diep, Loan
    et al.
    New Sch, Urban Syst Lab, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Mulligan, Joe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KDI Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oloo, Martha Akinyi
    KDI Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Guthmann, Loe
    KDI Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Raido, Mussa
    Ctr Community Initiat, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ndezi, Tim
    Ctr Community Initiat, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Co-building trust in urban nature: Learning from participatory design and construction of Nature-Based Solutions in informal settlements in East Africa2022In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 4, article id 927723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the amount of research on NBS is growing rapidly, there is a lack of evidence on community experiences of NBS design and implementation, particularly from low-income and informal settlements of African cities. This article adds new empirical evidence in this space through grounded analysis of NBS "niche" projects co-developed by intermediary organizations and communities in five sites across three settlements in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. Findings are organized around four established NBS knowledge gaps: (1) NBS-society relations; (2) Design; (3) Implementation; (4) Effectiveness. We find that across the five studied sites, residents' perceptions and valuation of urban nature has changed through processes of co-design and co-implementation, enabling community ownership of projects, and hence playing a crucial role in NBS effectiveness over time. The integration of gray components into green infrastructure to create hybrid systems has proven necessary to meet physical constraints and communities' urgent needs such as flood mitigation. However, maintenance responsibilities and cost burdens are persisting issues that highlight the complex reality of NBS development in informal settlements. The cases highlight key considerations for actors involved in NBS development to support the replication, scaling up and institutionalization of NBS. These include the need to: (i) develop forms of engagement that align with co-production values; (ii) capture communities' own valuation of and motivations with NBS development for integration into design; (iii) elaborate technical guidance for hybrid green-gray infrastructure systems that can be constructed with communities; and (iv) help define and establish structures for maintenance responsibilities (especially governmental vs. civil society) that will enhance the environmental stewardship of public spaces.

  • 43.
    Drummond, John Amin
    et al.
    Department of Geography, King's College London, Strand Campus, London, WCB2 4BG, UK, Strand Campus.
    Malamud, Bruce D.
    Department of Geography, King's College London, Strand Campus, London, WCB2 4BG, UK, Strand Campus.
    Mulligan, Joe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Kounkuey Design Initiative, Stockholm, Sweden; Nairobi, Kenya.
    Bukachi, Vera
    Kounkuey Design Initiative, Stockholm, Sweden; Nairobi, Kenya.
    Talib, Manshur
    Kounkuey Design Initiative, Stockholm, Sweden; Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandera, Amos
    Kounkuey Design Initiative, Stockholm, Sweden; Nairobi, Kenya.
    Pelling, Mark
    Department of Geography, King's College London, Strand Campus, London, WCB2 4BG, UK, Strand Campus.
    Taylor, Faith E.
    Department of Geography, King's College London, Strand Campus, London, WCB2 4BG, UK, Strand Campus.
    COVID-19 Interventions in an informal settlement: A spatial analysis of accessibility in Kibera, Kenya2023In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 113, article id 103704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a methodology to explore pedestrian accessibility in informal settlements. This methodology is applied to pandemic intervention sites in Nairobi's Kibera area for 3.5 months (14 April to 31 July 2020) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Freely available transportation network data and open-source GIS software are utilised. Isochrones, areas of equal travel time, are calculated to assess pedestrian accessibility (walk times) from 30,231 Kibera structures to 138 COVID-19 stationary intervention sites. These sites aid in virus control, resource distribution, and COVID-related medical support. Travel times are determined considering different terrain slopes. Unequal access to intervention sites is observed due to indirect routes. Shortest walks (up to 21.5 min) are to handwashing and food distribution points, while longer walks (up to 61.5 min) are to interventions with fewer sites or localised clustering, such as baby product distribution. This simple accessibility analysis helps identify service gaps during crises, aiding planning authorities and communities. Our methodology offers insight into travel patterns in slums and has wider applicability to assess the relationships between transport infrastructure provision and resilience in informal settlements.

  • 44.
    Eckersten, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Strategier för integrering av miljöfunktioner i transportplaneringen: med fokus på Åtgärdsvalstudier2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Eggestrand, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Andra ordningens miljöeffekter2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of Swedish consumption is far too great and there is an urgent need to bring about sustainable consumption. The research programme Mistra Sustainable Consumption aims to contribute towards this end and has therefore identified ways to consume in the areas of food, home furnishing and vacationing which could be more sustainable than the ways that are common today. In this study, we have examined a selection of these potentially more sustainable niche consumption practices regarding their second order environmental effects. In addition to direct effects, i.e. the environmental impact arising from production, use and waste management, there are also environmental effects of the second order (secondary effects such as rebound effects) that can occur when a practice affects how people spend their money, their time or how they use space. However, although their impact can be significant, these second order environmental effects are commonly overlooked. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the types of second order environmental effects that could arise if potentially sustainable niche consumption practices were scaled up and became mainstream. Nine consumption practices (reduce unhealthy consumption; switch animal based products to plant based products; cultivate by yourself or together; purchase directly from producers; train vacation; share/exchange homes; staycation; exchange furniture between individuals; live simply) were analysed by interviewing representatives from households who engage in the practices in question. This report presents the qualitative results from the study and describes the practices. Quantifications of the environmental impact from the second order effects will be presented in another publication. Based on the information from the interviews, assumptions were made to identify risks/opportunities for environmental effects in relation to direct and indirect economic rebound; induction; time rebound; learning about production and consumption; scale effects; and space rebound. In addition, it was noted whether the interviewees also engaged in other niche consumption practices. The result indicates that the various practices can lead to money, time and space being used in a different way than what is common today, and that household members can learn about production and consumption. Depending on whether the practices require or free up money or time, and whether they require any special equipment or change the way the household members use their homes and their surroundings, they can lead to both positive rebound effects (i.e. increased environmental impact) and negative rebound effects (i.e. reduced environmental impact). These insights can help to strengthen the work towards sustainable consumption as they indicate phenomena that should be counteracted or reinforced, for example by means of policy instruments. Nevertheless, the results presented in the report should be interpreted with caution, especially considering that the study has not taken into account socio-economic factors in combination with the fact that practices by their nature are context dependent and nested. The study's design also makes it impossible to say anything about environmental effects at the community level if the practices were scaled up and became mainstream. Still, the study contributes to increasing the knowledge of the practices by indicating risks and opportunities for the second order environmental effects and thus supplements the collection of potentially more sustainable consumption practices previously conducted within the research program.

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  • 46.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Ömsesidiga beroende mellan hållbarhetsdimensionerna: Del I En kunskapsöversikt.2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Skånberg, Kristian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Så hänger jämställdhet och jämlikhet ihop med miljömålen: En analys av ömsesidiga beroenden mellan olika Hållbarhetsmål2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 48.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Skånberg, Kristian
    Ömsesidiga beroenden mellan olika hållbarhetsperspektiv: Del II: Möjligheter att genom kunskaper om synergier och trade-offs mellan olika globala hållbarhetsmål förbättra förutsättningarna att nå Agenda 2030 i sin helhet- RAPPORT 69032019Report (Other academic)
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  • 49.
    Ekvall, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Chalmers.
    Nässén, Jonas
    Chalmers.
    Klimatsmart semestrande: Tekniska lösningar, förändrat beteende och politiska styrmedel2022Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Siri, Jose
    Andersson, Erik
    Anderson, Pippin
    Bai, Xuemei
    Das, Pranab Kishore
    Gatere, Tatu
    Gonzalez, Andrew
    Goodness, Julie
    Handel, Steven N.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Kavonic, Jessica
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Maddox, David
    Maher, Raymond
    Mbow, Cheikh
    McPhearson, Timon
    Mulligan, Joe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. Kounkuey Design Initiative, Los Angeles, USA.
    Nordenson, Guy
    Spires, Meggan
    Stenkula, Ulrika
    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
    Vogel, Coleen
    Urban tinkering2018In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1549-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives. Moreover, it would contribute to more flexible, effective policies for urban management and the use of urban space. Four decades ago, in a seminal paper in Science, the French evolutionary biologist and philosopher Francois Jacob noted that evolution differs significantly in its characteristic modes of action from processes that are designed and engineered de novo (Jacob in Science 196(4295):1161–1166, 1977). He labeled the evolutionary process “tinkering”, recognizing its foundation in the modification and molding of existing traits and forms, with occasional dramatic shifts in function in the context of changing conditions. This contrasts greatly with conventional engineering and design approaches that apply tailor-made materials and tools to achieve well-defined functions that are specified a priori. We here propose that urban tinkering is the application of evolutionary thinking to urban design, engineering, ecological restoration, management and governance. We define urban tinkering as:

    A mode of operation, encompassing policy, planning and management processes, that seeks to transform the use of existing and design of new urban systems in ways that diversify their functions, anticipate new uses and enhance adaptability, to better meet the social, economic and ecological needs of cities under conditions of deep uncertainty about the future.

    This approach has the potential to substantially complement and augment conventional urban development, replacing predictability, linearity and monofunctional design with anticipation of uncertainty and non-linearity and design for multiple, potentially shifting functions. Urban tinkering can function by promoting a diversity of small-scale urban experiments that, in aggregate, lead to large-scale often playful innovative solutions to the problems of sustainable development. Moreover, the tinkering approach is naturally suited to exploring multi-functional uses and approaches (e.g., bricolage) for new and existing urban structures and policies through collaborative engagement and analysis. It is thus well worth exploring as a means of delivering co-benefits for environment and human health and wellbeing. Indeed, urban tinkering has close ties to systems approaches, which often are recognized as critical to sustainable development. We believe this concept can help forge much-closer, much-needed ties among engineers, architects, evolutionary ecologists, health specialists, and numerous other urban stakeholders in developing innovative, widely beneficial solutions for society and contribute to successful implementation of SDG11 and the New Urban Agenda.

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