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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    How does travel satisfaction sum up?: Decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how satisfaction with individual trip legs aggregates to the overall travel experience for different types of trips will enable the identification of the trip legs that are most impactful. For this purpose we analyze data on retrospective evaluations of entire multi-modal trip experiences and satisfaction with individual trip legs. We formulate and describe alternative aggregation rules and underpin them in theory and previous empirical findings. The results of a series of regression models show that for a large number of multi-modal trip configurations normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules. This indicates that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience, especially for trips legs involving waiting and/or transferring time. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yielded the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction. No evidence for a disproportional effect of the last or most exceptional part of the trip was found. This research contributes to the literature on combining multi-episodic experiences and provides novel empirical evidence in the transport domain. 

  • 2.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Investigating the nature of Public Transport service attributes2018In: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 3.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Westin, Jonas
    Regionala Systemanalyser2017Report (Other academic)
  • 4. Alhasan, Ilyas
    et al.
    Matthews, Brian
    Towner, Jeremy
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Evaluation of intercounty integrated ticketing scheme, the case of Movingo in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Transport Sci, Teknikringen 10, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Reimal, Triin
    Ramboll AB, Krukmakargatan 21, S-10462 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn (vol 44, pg 1083, 2017)2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1601-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Chee, Pei Nen
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Wong, Yiik Diew
    Investigating the willingness of use autonomous bus as a last-mile travel mode: First evidence from public trial in Kista, Stockholm2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Dharmowijoyo, Dimas B. E.
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    On complexity and variability of individuals' discretionary activities2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 177-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a hierarchical structured equation model and a multi-dimensional 3-week household time-use and activity diary conducted in Bandung Metropolitan Area, Indonesia, this study investigated the interaction among individuals' non-instrumental variables, time space (such as their day-to-day time duration of activity participation, socio-demographics and built environment), and health factors on individuals' day-to-day discretionary activities. The results show that individuals' subjective characteristics and day-to-day time-space components significantly influence decision making processes to participate in certain activities, particularly grocery shopping. Integration between subjective factors and day-to-day time duration of activity participation also reveals how an individual categorises a particular behaviour as routine, planned or impulsive. For example, grocery shopping is a planned behaviour with real consequences (e.g. starving). Appearing as a strong commitment and intention enables individuals to allocate time to engage in this activity. Thus, given the individual's time-space constraints, there may be a regular trade-off between frequency and duration. On the other hand, out-of-home social-recreational activity is a less urgent/impulsive activity and depends far more on an individual's day-to-day time-space constraints than his/her subjective characteristics. If the situation on the given day is not feasible for him/her to undertake the out-of-home social recreational activity, he/she is more likely to re-schedule the activity. The study results also show that land use configuration and perceived accessibilities influence individuals' discretionary activity participation.

  • 8.
    F. Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    VTI.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 9.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Trips2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous urban growth, environmental issues, competition for limited space, longer commuting distances as well as the need to promote equity and equality in society are the primary reasons that make the improvement of public transport (PT) services a key policy area in many countries across the globe. Travel satisfaction measures the perceived quality of the PT service and it is an important aspect that operators and PT authorities need to consider when improving the service offered.Desk research identified a number of important issues that previous studies had neglected. These knowledge gaps include the investigation of: (a) the evolution over time of the determinants (service attributes) of travel satisfaction, (b) the main determinants of travel satisfaction for different traveler segments and travel modes; (c) the most relevant part of door-to-door trips for different types of trip configurations; (d) the impact on the travel experience of weather, accessibility and proximity measures and built-environment characteristics of the first mile of the trip; (e) the [non]linear and [a]symmetric nature of the relationship between PT service attributes and overall travel satisfaction for different travelers and travel modes.The five papers included in this doctoral thesis present an array of approaches and methodologies aiming at increasing overall travel satisfaction with PT services while covering the knowledge gaps that previous research failed to address.Paper I, investigates the determinants of PT satisfaction and their evolution over time (2001-2013). The results show that: a) customer interface and operation, and at a lesser extent trip duration are the quality of service attributes that need to be prioritized; b) while satisfaction, in general, remains rather constant, relative importance fluctuates year after year. However, the QoSAs remain in the same quadrant of the priority map and thus the determinants of travel satisfaction stay invariable.Paper II, reduces the diversity of needs and priorities of Swedish travelers to 5 distinctive multi-modal travelers’ segments. Considering the importance attached to service attributes, these travelers’ segments exhibit geographical disparities and in between-groups overall similarity. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences can be observed. Service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent PT user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while one of the groups - rural motorist commuters - is markedly dissatisfied with the service operation attributes.Paper III, first aims to understand how travelers combine trip legs’ satisfactions into an overall evaluation of their trip, and then to investigate the relative importance of satisfaction with access, main and egress segments for the entire door-to-door travel experience. A number of both normative and heuristic satisfaction aggregation rules are tested for different types of trip configurations. The results show that normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules, indicating that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yield the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction, especially when applying a penalty for each waiting time of 3 or 4 times in- vehicle or walking time.Paper IV, investigates the impact that built-environment, accessibility and weather characteristics from the access stage of the trip have on the overall travel experience. This is done in two geographical contexts (urban and peri-urban and rural) and with models regarding the last and the overall trips. The results indicate that perceptual and non-perceptual built-environment variables have a rather weak effect in the overall satisfaction. Safety feelings around PT stations/stops have an effect on the overall travel experience while safety feelings related to travelers’ neighborhood of residence have none. Accessibility results indicate that living in an area that is well-connected to all other areas, and in particular to the attractive ones, has a positive impact on the overall travel experience. Most of the tested weather conditions at the time of the start of the trip exert an impact on travel satisfaction.Based on the three-factor theory, Paper V classifies quality of service attributes regarding their influence (positive, negative or both) on overall travel satisfaction. The analysis is done for different traveler segments and travel modes and presented in the form of a series of three-level cubes. For a general travel, attributes that can mainly bring dissatisfaction when they are not well-provided are, staff and assistance and ticket accessibility (basic factor). These are followed by attributes that can provide both satisfaction and dissatisfaction in a similar way and depending on their performance level (performance factor). Performance attributes are related to operational aspects (trip duration and operation) and safety perceptions while traveling. Quality of service attributes that can mainly bring satisfaction when they are well provided are network and on-board conditions (exciting factor). Important differences are found in the attribute factor classification between travel modes and segments which indicates that a “one size fits all” approach is not recommendable to adopt.This set of papers can help authorities to better evaluate and cater for travelers’ needs by supporting the allocation of resources and prioritizing policy measures in the most impactful part of the door-to-door trip and to the most important factors.

  • 10.
    Freddo, Maurizio
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Free rides on public transport: Test traveller project as a soft policy measure for changing travel behaviour. Empirical findings from the Swedish context.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines a Mobility Management measure called “test traveller project”, which aims at increasing the public transport modal share by offering free public transport tickets to those who often use their car for their daily commuting and trips. The existing literature consists of a rather limited number of cases and their scope is usually limited because only some of the main elements that influence one’s travel behaviour are considered in each study. Furthermore, literature is not unanimous in concluding that this measure can reduce car use. This work studies more than 50 cases in Sweden, and by employing the Theory of Planned Behaviour the effects of test traveller projects have been examined in an empirical case in the Swedish municipality of Botkyrka, located in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The findings underline that a test traveller project, despite its limitations, may be a valid and relatively simple tool available to public bodies and public transport companies for enticing a segment of car drivers to switch to public transport where it is a valid alternative. In fact, according to the literature, the major results achievable are around 20% of new public transport users among test travellers, whereas in Sweden 20% has been achieved by the first upper quartile of the projects. In particular, the effectiveness of a test traveller project is greater when combined or conducted in parallel with other measures such as improvements in the public transport offer and/or changes in the transport system aiming at disadvantaging car use. The case study of Botkyrka has confirmed that attitudes are the major influencing factor when making the transport mode choice. Further, it has confirmed that environmental concerns and the time passed from one’s residential relocation also play an important role. Habits seem to be less important, thus adhering to that literature whose authors argue that an external event (such as moving home) makes people reflect upon and rethink their travel habits. The case study in Botkyrka has empirically demonstrated how the project participants correct their beliefs and perceptions about public transport, sometimes in a positive way and sometimes in a negative way. An interesting finding is the existence of a new category of people living in the suburbs. Literature indicates that, in the same suburban context, individuals with suburban land use preferences tend to use the car more that individuals with urban land use preferences. In the case study of Botkyrka clearly emerged as a majority among the test traveller project participants a category of individuals who have a suburban land use preference but at the same time would like to use public transportation instead of their car and have high environmental concerns.

  • 11.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Andersson, Josef
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Lokalisering av järnvägsstationer – effekter för samhällsplanering, resande och tillgänglighet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    14 ny- eller ombyggda stationer för i första hand fjärrtrafik och långväga regionaltrafik med sedan 1990 kraftigt förbättrat tågutbud har valts ut i studien: Från söder till norr Malmö Hyllie, Triangeln och Malmö C, Laholm, Flemingsberg, Södertälje syd, Läggesta, Strängnäs, Eskilstuna C, Bålsta, Uppsala C, Söderhamn, Umeå Ö och Umeå C. Analysen omfattar tre huvuddelar: Dels 1) en analys av avresande tågresenärers resvanor och värderingar, dels 2) en morfologisk studie över samhällsstrukturens förändringar 1993–2013 och kommunernas översiktsplaner, och för stationerna i Mälardalen dels 3) en modellanalys av förändringar i trafik och tillgänglighet vid alternativ lokalisering.

    Sammanfattningsvis tyder studien på att valet av lokalisering av nya stationer får effekter för samhället när det gäller samhällsstruktur, resenärernas nöjdhet, resvanor och färdmedelsval och tillgänglighet till arbetsplatser och service, vilket påverkar järnvägssystemets attraktivitet och därmed reseefterfrågan. Centralt eller urbant lokaliserade stationer framstår därmed som mer attraktiva och bättre ur systemsynpunkt än perifert lokaliserade stationer.

    Anledningen till att perifera stationer tillkommer är dock att man vill minska anläggningskostnaderna eller intrång i redan bebyggd miljö jämfört med en urban lokalisering. När detta blir aktuellt är det viktigt med bra anslutande kollektivtrafik och andra stödjande strategier för bland annat exploatering. Föreliggande studie tillför dock argument att värdera de positiva effekterna av en urbant lokaliserad station högre än idag.

    Vi har identifierat möjligheter att vidareutveckla metoderna för att utvärdera effekterna av stationslokalisering inom fler områden. Det går också införa analyserna i lokaliseringsutredningar för att förbättra beslutsunderlaget i framtida val av stationslokalisering.

  • 12.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Frejinger, Emma
    Univ Montreal, Dept Comp Sci & Operat Res, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    An empirical study on aggregation of alternatives and its influence on prediction in car type choice models2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 563-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing and predicting car type choices are important for policy analysis. Car type choice models are often based on aggregate alternatives. This is due to the fact that analysts typically do not observe choices at the detailed level that they are made. In this paper, we use registry data of all new car purchases in Sweden for two years where cars are observed by their brand, model and fuel type. However, the choices are made at a more detailed level. Hence, an aggregate (observed) alternative can correspond to several disaggregate (detailed) alternatives. We present an extensive empirical study analyzing estimation results, in-sample and out-of-sample fit as well as prediction performance of five model specifications. These models use different aggregation methods from the literature. We propose a specification of a two-level nested logit model that captures correlation between aggregate and disaggregate alternatives. The nest specific scale parameters are defined as parameterized exponential functions to keep the number of parameters reasonable. The results show that the in-sample and out-of-sample fit as well as the prediction performance differ. The best model accounts for the heterogeneity over disaggregate alternatives as well as the correlation between both disaggregate and aggregate alternatives. It outperforms the commonly used aggregation method of simply including a size measure.

  • 13.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    A stated adaptation instrument for studying travel patterns after electric vehicle adoption2018In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 32, p. 464-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and evaluates a stated adaptation instrument to investigate the effects of a transition towards electric vehicles on travel behaviour. The respondents were equipped with an “imaginary” electric vehicle with a specific range and were asked whether they wanted to make changes in an activity-travel schedule they had previously registered. It has been found that electric vehicle use may increase car use, and that activities are likely to be cancelled in case of problems with range limitations. In this paper, the validity, reliability and practical implementation of this stated adaptation experiment are discussed.

  • 14.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Understanding processes and travel behaviour changes connected to electric vehicle adoption2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) has the potential to increase the sustainability of the transport system, especially in case of unchanged or decreased car use, eco-driving and charging during hours of low electricity demand in case of an electricity generation mix with a large share of renewable energy sources. However, EVs still use much energy and EV-use does not solve problems regarding accessibility, social equity, traffic safety and has only a limited beneficial effect on liveability (e.g. through decreased noise). The focus of this study is on the process of the transition from conventional vehicle use to electric vehicle use. Economic and socio-psychological theories have been used in order to get more insight into the motivations for people to start using EVs, the process of EV-adoption and travel behaviour, as well as the interaction between car users, the electric vehicle and policy measures. The aim is to better understand the ongoing transition process to EV-use and the potential behavioural implications of this transition. This study is largely based on a two-wave survey that has been deployed among active car drivers in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, Sweden. In total, 294 respondents have participated in the first wave of the study, while 269 respondents have completed all waves. Besides this survey, one paper of this study is based on another two-wave survey that has been deployed among people renting a car on the island of Gotland, Sweden. In total, 158 respondents have participated in the first wave of this study, while 69 respondents have completed all waves. Electric vehicle adoption implies a considerable initial investment and a behavioural change because of range limitations. Therefore, the change towards electric vehicle use could be considered as a process rather than an event. Using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (Paper 1), it has been iv found that certain socio-economical, behavioural and socio-psychological determinants are correlated with being in a more advanced stage-of-change. Knowledge levels and self-efficacy for electric vehicle use are increasing from stage to stage. The level of response efficacy increases from stage to stage for the non-EV users, but is slightly lower for the group of EV-users that might have a more realistic view of the range and energy use of EVs. There is no direct effect between environmental awareness and stage-of-change, but there is an indirect effect through goal intention to decrease one’s CO2-emissions. In this study (Paper 2), it has also been found that the respondents using EVs make more trips on average and that they also use the car for a larger share of their total distance travelled. The differences in the number of trips and modal share of the car are statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic variables, which might imply a rebound effect. The risk for a rebound effect is also explainable because of the fact that the marginal cost of EV-use is considerably lower than the marginal cost of conventional car use. Another potential reason for increased car use is the extremely good image that the EV has. It has been found that the EV is perceived to be more environmentally friendly than conventional cars, which was expected, but also more environmentally friendly than public transport modes. Policy makers in many countries provide incentives to make EVs more attractive. Using a stated choice experiment (Paper 3), the effects of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption has been investigated in this study. Both purchase-based benefits and use-based benefits have a significant positive effect on EV-adoption. Purchase-based benefits intervene with the high investment costs of EVs, while use-based benefits intervene with the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Use-benefits, incentives that are given to EV-users in some countries, such as free parking or access to bus lanes, further decreases the marginal cost of EV-use, increasing the risk for rebound effects. On the other hand, the study shows v that use-based benefits do have a large effect on EV-adoption. Including the stage-of-change of the respondents, EV-adoption rates increase in the stated choice experiment for people in more advanced stages-of-change. However, the price-sensitivity decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. Also people with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs. Seen from a policy perspective, it might be more efficient to provide use-benefits rather than purchase based benefits. However, there is a risk for a rebound effect because of the decrease of the already low marginal costs of EV-use. Because current electric vehicle users are a small part of the population, future EV-use has also been investigated using stated adaptation methods. Two stated adaptation experiments have been carried out: one concentrating on travel patterns and one on charging patterns. The first stated adaptation experiment (Paper 4/5) was carried out among all respondents, taking the initial travel patterns registered in a one-day travel diary as a starting point. The respondents got scenarios with a kilometre budget that was based on the travel distances during the one-day travel diary day. In case of shortage of range or perceived range limitations, different behavioural alterations have been selected, among trip cancellation, destination change and change of travel mode towards alternative travel modes were most frequently selected. Non-mandatory activities were more likely to be cancelled, as well as trips for which the public transport alternative is rather unattractive in terms of travel time and number of transfers. In case of abundant range and an electricity cost that is five times lower than the fuel cost per kilometre, a non-negligible number of additional trips has been reported, predominantly leisure trips and shopping trips. Besides, for a number of trips, a modal shift “towards the car” has been registered for a non-negligible number of trips, the majority of them being trips to work or school which are often carried out during rush vi hour. So, the existence of a rebound effect under the condition of abundant range has been confirmed. Charging behaviour has a significant effect on the sustainability of EV-use. The timing of charging events can increase peaks in electricity demand or fill the valleys of electricity demand. In this study (Paper 6), it has been investigated when people prefer to start a four-hour charging event and how temporal price differentiation influences these preferences. Based on this study, it has been found that the afternoon rush hour is by far the most preferred charging time if the price for charging events is fixed throughout the day. However, temporal price differentiation significantly affects preferred charging time. Both the existence and degree of temporal price differentiation matters: different behavioural responses were observed using two different price differentiation schemes: a high level of price differentiation causes the majority of charging events to move to night time. In the final paper of this thesis (Paper 7), it has been investigated whether electric vehicle rental affects the process of electric vehicle adoption as described in Paper 1. Using a before-after study, the long-term effects of renting an EV on the Swedish island of Gotland has been investigated. The results of this study show that EV-rental does not seem to significantly affect the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption. However, there seems to be a selection effect: the EV is more likely to be selected as a rental car if the rental guest is in a more advanced stage-of-change. Besides, the driving patterns of EV rental cars do not differ much from those of ICEV rental cars, which is an indicator of EVs being adequate for EV-rental in Gotland.

  • 15.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Solkompaniet.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    A stated adaptation instrument for studying travel patterns after electric vehicle adoptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5, bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    How would you change your travel patterns if you used an electric vehicle? A stated adaptation approach2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 13, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The real environmental benefits of a transition towards EVs highly depend on the future EV-users’ activity-travel patterns adapted to their new vehicle’s capacity. Despite its importance, the impact of this adaptation is largely unknown. In this study, a stated adaptation experiment has been conducted to investigate changes of travel patterns as a result of range limitations or the opposite, abundant range. The basis for this experiment is a one-day travel diary among active drivers in Greater Stockholm. The main findings of this study are the following: (1) Drivers facing range limitations are more likely to make use of alternative means of transport (mainly public transport) if the travel time difference between car and public transport is low and if not many transfers are needed for the public transport trip. (2) In case of (perceived) range limitations, shopping trips and trips visiting friends or relatives are more likely to be cancelled than working trips. (3) The main trip purpose of additional trips in case of sufficient EV range is shopping. (4) A non-negligible number of public transport trips are likely to be replaced by EV. Shortly, the effects of the transition towards electric vehicle use on personal mobility seem to depend on the availability of accessible substitutes. Besides that, a rebound effect has been observed in this study.

  • 18. Lin, X.
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Shao, C.
    Chengxi, Liu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The implication of road toll discount for mode choice: Intercity travel during the chinese spring festival holiday2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 2700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intercity travel congestion during the main national holidays takes place every year at different places around the world. Charge reduction measurements on existing toll roads have been implemented to promote an efficient use of the expressways and to reduce congestion on the public transit networks. However, some of these policies have had negative effects. A more comprehensive understanding of the determinants of holiday intercity travel patterns is critical for better policymaking. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of the road toll discount policy on mode choice behavior for intercity travel. A mixed logit model is developed to model the mode choices of intercity travelers, which is estimated based on survey data about intercity journeys from Beijing during the 2017 Chinese Spring Festival holiday. The policy impact is further discussed by elasticity and scenario simulations. The results indicate that the expressway toll discount does increase the car use and decrease the public transit usage. Given the decreased toll on expressways, the demand tends to shift from car to public transit, in an order of coach, high-speed rail, conventional rail, and airplane. When it comes to its effect on socio-demographic groups, men and lower-income travelers are identified to be more likely to change mode in response to variation of road toll. Finally, policy effectiveness is found to vary for travelers in different travel distance groups. Conclusions provide useful insights on road pricing management.

  • 19.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Learning about the unobservable: The role of attitudes, measurement errors, norms and perceptions in user behaviour.2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unobservable factors are important to understand user behaviour. Moreover, they contain information to help design services that willsolve today’s challenges. Yet, we have barely scratched the surface ofthe underlying mechanisms ruling user behaviour. For decades, userbehaviour analysis has focused on the capabilities of observable variables,as well as assumptions of regular preferences and rational behaviourto explain user choices; and amalgamated unobservable factorsinto ”black-box” variables. As a response, the field of behaviouraleconomics has produced an array of so-called choice anomalies, wherepeople seem not to be fully rational. Furthermore, as a consequence of the ”digital revolution”, nowwe harvest data on an unprecedented scale -both in quantity andresolution- that is nurturing the golden age of analytics. This explosionof analytics contributes to reveal fascinating patterns of humanbehaviour and shows that when users face difficult choices, predictionsbased only on observable variables result in wider gaps between observedand predicted behaviour, than predictions including observableand unobservable factors. Impacts of the ”digital revolution” are not limited to data and analyticsbut they have filtered through the whole tissue of society. Forinstance, telecommunications allow users to telework, and telework allowsusers to change their travel patterns, which in turn contributes toincrease the overall system complexity. In addition to the new worlddynamics facilitated by Information and Communications Technology,megatrends such as hyper-urbanization or increase demand of personalisedtransport services are imposing pressures on transport networksat a furious pace, which also contributes to increase the complexity ofthe choices needed in order to navigate the networks efficiently. In an effort to alleviate these pressures, new mobility services suchas electric and autonomous vehicles; bicycle and car sharing schemes;mobility as a service; vacuum rail systems or even flying cars are evolving. Each of these services entails a different set of observable variableslike travel time and cost, but also a completely different set of unobservableones such as expectations, normative beliefs or perceptionsthat will impact user behaviour. Hence, a good understanding of theimpact of underlying, unobservable, factors -especially when servicesare radically different from what users know and have experienced inthe past- will help us to predict user behaviour in uncharted scenarios. Unobservable factors are elusive by nature, hence to incorporatethem into our models is an arduous task. Furthermore, there is evidence showing that the importance of these factors might differ across time and space, as user preferences, perceptions, normative beliefs, etc.are influenced by local conditions and cultures. As a consequence, we have witnessed a surge of interest in behavioural economics over the past two decades, due to its ability to increase the explanatory and predictive power of models based on economic theory by adding a more psychologically plausible foundation. This thesis contributes to the existing body of literature in TransportScience in the areas of user perceptions, measurement errors, and the influence of attitudes and social norms in the adoption of new mobility solutions. The work builds on the behavioural economics theoretical framework, underpinned by economic theory, discrete choice analysis -rational behaviour and random utility maximization-, as well as social and cognitive psychology. Methodological contributions include a framework to systematically test differences in user preferences for a set of public transport modes, relating to observed and unobserved attributes; and a framework to assess the magnitude of unobservable measurement errors in the input variables of large-scale travel demand models. On an empirical dimension, findings support the existence of a ”rail factor”, the impact of modelling assumptions on parameter estimates of hybrid choice models, the presence of larger measurement errors in the cost variables than in the time variables, -which in turn translates into diluted parameters that under-estimate the response to pricing interventions-, and that the model with the best fit does not guarantee better parameter estimates. Therefore, I expect this thesis to be of interest not only to modellers, but also to decision makers; and that its findings will contribute to the design of the mobility solutions that users need and desire, but also that will benefit society as a whole.

  • 20.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Misspecified Hybrid Choice Models: An empirical study of parameter bias and model selection.2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model misspecification is likely to occur when working with real datasets. However, previous studies showing the advantages of hybrid choice models to account for measurement errors have mostly used models where structural and measurement equations match the functions employed in the data generating process, especially when parameter estimate biases were discussed.

     

    The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of parameter bias in misspecified hybrid choice models, assess if different modelling assumptions required to make the hybrid choice models operative impact the parameter estimates of the choice model, and evaluate the prediction accuracy of misspecified hybrid choice models in comparison with a simpler, also misspecified, multinomial logit. For these tasks, a mode choice model is estimated on 100 synthetic datasets. The synthetic datasets were designed to mimic the conditions present in real datasets; hence the postulated structural and measurement equations of the hybrid choice models are less flexible than the functions used for the data generating process.

     

    Results show that hybrid choice models, even if misspecified, manage to recover better parameter estimates than a multinomial logit. However, hybrid choice models are not unbeatable, as results indicate that misspecified hybrid choice models will still yield biased parameter estimates. Moreover, results suggest that all models, the multinomial logit and the hybrid choice models, successfully isolate the source of model bias, preventing its propagation to other parameter estimates. Furthermore, results indicate that parameter estimates from hybrid choice models are robust to modelling assumptions. Finally, results show that a simple multinomial logit provides higher out-of-sample prediction accuracy than the hybrid choice models, highlighting that better parameter estimates, do not always translate into better model predictions.

  • 21.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Parameter bias in misspecified HCM: An empirical study.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model misspecification is likely to occur when working with real datasets. However, previous studies showing the advantages of the hybrid choice models have mostly used models where structural and measurement equations match the functions employed in the data generating process, especially when parameter biases were discussed.

     

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of parameter bias in misspecified hybrid choice models. For this task, a mode choice model is estimated on synthetic data with efforts focus on mimicking the conditions present in real datasets, where the postulated structural and measurement equations are less flexible than the functions used for the data generating process.

     

    Results show that hybrid choice models, even if misspecified, manage to recover better parameter estimates than a multinomial logit. However, hybrid choice models are not unbeatable, as results indicate that misspecified hybrid choice models might still yield biased parameter estimates. Moreover, results suggest that hybrid choice models successfully isolate the source of model bias, preventing its propagation to other parameter estimates. Results also show that parameter estimates from hybrid choice models are sensible to modelling assumptions, and that parameter estimates of the utility function are robust, given that errors are modelled.

  • 22.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Parameter bias in misspecified Hybrid Choice Models: An empirical study.2018In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2018, p. 99-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model misspecification is likely to occur when working with real datasets. However, previous studies showing the advantages of hybrid choice models have mostly used models where structural and measurement equations match the functions employed in the data generating process, especially when parameter biases were discussed. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of parameter bias in misspecified hybrid choice models, and assess if different modelling assumptions impact the parameter estimates of the choice model. For this task, a mode choice model is estimated on synthetic data with efforts focus on mimicking the conditions present in real datasets, where the postulated structural and measurement equations are less flexible than the functions used to generate the data. Results show that hybrid choice models, even if misspecified, manage to recover better parameter estimates than a multinomial logit. However, hybrid choice models are not unbeatable, as results also indicate that misspecified hybrid choice models might still yield biased parameter estimates. Moreover, results suggest that hybrid choice models successfully isolate the source of model bias, preventing its propagation to other parameter estimates. Results also show that parameter estimates from hybrid choice models are sensible to modelling assumptions, and that parameter estimates of the utility function are robust given that errors are modelled.

  • 23.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    VTI.
    Daly, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Estimating Values of Time on National travel survey data2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Value of Travel Time (VTT) is fundamental in transport economics. Since 1984 (MVA et al., 1984) best practice for VTT estimation has been to use Stated Choice (SC) data. However, there is now plenty of evidence of reference dependence and gain-loss asymmetry in SC data, implying that such data do not reveal long-term stable preferences. This is a serious problem since the value of time is often applied in welfare analyses, where long-term stability of the preferences is a key assumption. A potential reason for the strong reference dependence found in SC data is the emphasis on a short-term reference point often used in SC data to reduce hypothetical bias. In the long-run there is no stable reference point. Also, the use of Stated Choice data always raises the issue of the credibility of hypothetical responses.

    An alternative to SC data is to use revealed preference (RP) data and a mode choice model to estimate the VTT. Observed behaviour has adapted to the (more stable) travel conditions and should thus be ruled by more long-term preferences. Many countries collect NTS (national travel survey) data and spend considerable resources on making them representative, which is an argument for using them for VTT estimation. However, a key problem in the use of NTS data for VTT estimation is measurement errors in the travel time and travel cost variables. Time and cost in NTS data is either self-reported or derived from a network assignment model.

    In this paper we estimate the distribution of the VTT whilst controlling for errors in the self-reported and model computed time and cost variables.

  • 24.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Börjesson, Maria
    VTI.
    Daly, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Quantifying errors in travel time and cost by latent variables in transport demand models2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel time and travel cost are key variables for explaining travel behaviour and deriving the value of time. However, a general problem in transport modelling is that these variables are subject to measurement errors in transport network models. In this paper we show how to assess the magnitude of the measurement errors in travel time and travel cost by latent variables, in a large-scale travel demand model. The case study for Stockholm commuters shows that assuming multiplicative measurement errors for travel time and cost result in a better fit than additive ones, and that parameter estimates of the choice model are impacted by some of the key modelling assumptions. Moreover, our results suggest that measurement errors in our dataset are larger for the travel cost than for the travel time, and that measurement errors are larger in self-reported travel time than software-calculated travel time for car-driver and car-passenger, and of similar magnitude for public transport. Among self-reported travel times, car-passenger has the largest errors, followed by car-driver and public transport, and for the software-calculated times, public transport exhibits larger errors than car.  These errors, if not corrected, lead to biases in measures derived from the models, such as elasticities and values of travel time.

  • 25.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. Grupo de Ferrocarriles y Transportes , Universidad de A Coruña, España.
    Orro Arcay, Alfonso
    Grupo de Ferrocarriles y Transportes , Universidad de A Coruña, España.
    Coeficientes aleatorios con distribución triangular asimétrica en modelos logit mixto.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    User attitudes towards a Mobility as a Service solution: Understanding differences between latent modality styles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Palmberg, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Enabling Technologies to Serve the Ageing Urban Society Better (ENTRUST)2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The life span of the inhabitants of Sweden is increasing and with this comes age related cognitive diseases such as those related to dementia. Our society is not prepared to accommodate for the needs of the people who are affected by this.

    The diseases related to dementia often affect the person’s ability to localize themselves and to remember previous and upcoming events. A common issue that occurs is a state called “elopement”.

  • 28.
    Palmberg, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Developing and trialling an implicit interaction platform to monitor and aiding dementia travellers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Age related cognitive diseases are becoming a growing problem in Sweden. With the fast ageing population and lowered mortality rate comes the spread of cognitive diseases related to dementia. In order to accommodate this growing target group in transport and the built environment, it is important to understand the mobility and travel behaviour of patients suffering from these diseases. One subset of this target group is travellers suffering from age induced illnesses related with dementia, which most often have fluctuating symptoms that are affecting the cognitive skills of the traveller. This makes it hard to use standardized forms and survey-based information that would require the traveller to actively respond retroactively, either in oral or written form, since the traveller might have forgotten or mixed up their past experiences, among other things, it becomes very hard to gain confidence in the results as it might be hard to tell in which condition the patient is during the collection.

    We propose an automated collection of biometric data such as heart rate in combination with position. Since the validity of the information collected in this manner is directly related to the quality of the sensors used it means that the precision and accuracy of the results could be virtually endlessly improved by upgrading the hardware and optimizing the software. To take a first step towards a solution like this we have started developing a smart watch application which is utilizing PPG technology to collect heart rate and combine it with positions collected through GPS technology.

    Early testing has shown the possibility to correlate the heart rate of a traveller to their specific location. The implications of this must be validated through data labelling as we wish to utilize machine learning algorithms to analyse the data collected.

  • 29.
    Palmberg, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Uncovering Effects of Spatial and Transportation Elements on Travellers Using Biometric Data2019In: TOWARDS HUMAN SCALE CITIES - OPEN AND HAPPY / [ed] Tuuli Toivonen, Karst Geurs, Elias Willberg, Helsinki: Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel surveys has been used for decades to observe the patterns, locations, and choices, which travellers chose and do during the given observed period. This information can be utilized as background for informed planning decisions. Despite the progress in the travel survey technologies, the applications mostly focus on more traditional travel parameters. With programmable smart watches now, we can also collect real time data that is not solely pertaining to position and travel mode choices, but also to users’ biometric data. Such an application would open another level of possibilities in dynamically integrating land use and transport planning with public health research.

    Utilising a smart watch platform, we are aiming to develop a tool that will collect biometric data, in combination with spatial context, such as position, spatial features and objects in the built environment, and by utilizing machine learning algorithms, try to detect how travellers are affected by their choice of transport mode, the built environment in general as well as how the public transport is operated.

    Early testing reveals the possibility to find correlations between heart rate and position, which in turn could reveal the effect of spatial and transportation elements on the traveller. By targeting widely available hardware, the scalability for this tool is virtually endless, making it possible to collect large amounts of data and utilizing machine learning algorithms to analyse it.

  • 30.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    MEILI: Multiple Day Travel Behaviour Data Collection, Automation and Analysis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers' pursuit for the better understanding of the dynamics of travel and travel behaviour led to a constant advance in data collection methods. One such data collection method, the travel diary, is a common proxy for travel behaviour and its use has a long history in the transportation research community. These diaries summarize information about when, where, why and how people travel by collecting information about trips, and their destination and purpose, and triplegs, and their travel mode. Whereas collecting travel diaries for short periods of time of one day was commonplace due to the high cost of conducting travel surveys, visionary researchers have tried to better understand whether travel and travel behaviour is stable or if, and how, it changes over time by collecting multiple day travel diaries from the same users. While the initial results of these researchers were promising, the high cost of travel surveys and the fill in burden of the survey participants limited the research contribution to the scientific community. Before identifying travel diary collection methods that can be used for long periods of time, an interesting phenomenon started to occur: a steady decrease in the response rate to travel diaries. This meant that the pursuit of understanding the evolution of travel behaviour over time stayed in the scientific community and did not evolve to be used by policy makers and industrial partners.

    However, with the development of technologies that can collect trajectory data that describe how people travel, researchers have investigated ways to complement and replace the traditional travel diary collection methods. While the initial efforts were only partially successful because scientists had to convince people to carry devices that they were not used to, the wide adoption of smartphones opened up the possibility of wide-scale trajectory-based travel diary collection and, potentially, for long periods of time. This thesis contributes among the same direction by proposing MEILI, a travel diary collection system, and describes the trajectory collection outlet (Paper I) and the system architecture (Paper II). Furthermore, the process of transforming a trajectory into travel diaries by using machine learning is thoroughly documented (Papers III and IV), together with a robust and objective methodology for comparing different travel diary collection system (Papers V and VI). MEILI is presented in the context of current state of the art (Paper VIII) and the researchers' common interest (Paper IX), and has been used in various case studies for collecting travel diaries (Papers I, V, VI, VII). Finally, since MEILI has been successfully used for collecting travel diaries for a period of one week, a new method for understanding the stability and variability of travel patterns over time has been proposed (Paper X).

  • 31.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Longest common subsequences: Identifying the stability of individuals’ travel patternsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong consensus in the travel behaviour research community that the one day travel diary collection is insufficient to understand the finer aspects of behaviour that transcend attributes such as average trip length, duration, travel modes, etc. While a large body research was done on exploring the spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal travel behavioural patterns, the sequential aspect of behaviour is seldom studied. The consensus of the few papers that have studied travel behaviour variability from a sequential perspective has been to use edit distance and compute the costs of transforming one day of travel activities into another. While useful, this approach generates difficult to understand metrics since it does not directly extract (sub)sequences but computes penalties. This paper provides an alternative for investigating the sequential aspect of travel behaviour that makes use of longest common subsequences to extract the activities that are common to multiple days and / or users. The proposed methodology provides indexes for measuring the inter- and intra-personal stability of a given user base and its usefulness is proved in a case study on travel diaries collected from 51 users for a period of 7 days.

  • 32.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    A series of three case studies on the semi-automation of activity travel diary generation using smarpthones2017In: Proceedings of TRB 2017 Annual Meeting, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing need of acquiring data that is useful for travel behaviour analysis led scientists topursue new ways of obtaining travel diaries from large groups of people. The most promising al-ternative to traditional (declarative) travel diary collection methods are those that rely on collectingtrajectories from individuals and then extract travel diary semantics from the trajectories. However,most studies report on routines specific to the post-processing of data, and seldom focus on datacollection. Even the few studies that deal explicitly with data collection describe the final state ofthe collection system, but do not go at the lengths that are required to describe the decision thatwere taken to bring the system to its current state. This leads to a considerable amount of work thatis needed for designing collection systems that are often undocumented, which impedes the reuseof the aforementioned systems. In light of the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a series of three case studies behind the continuous development of MEILI, a travel diary collection,annotation and automation system, in an effort to: 1) illustrate the utility of the developed systemto collect travel diaries, 2) identify how MEILI and other semi-automatic travel diaries collectionsystems can be improved, and 3) propose MEILI as an open source system that has the potentialof being improved into a widely available semi-automated travel diary collection system.

  • 33.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Future directions of research for automatic travel diary collection2018In: Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Transport Survey Methods, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of useful information that can be extracted from travel diaries is matched by the difficulty of obtaining travel diariesin a modern era where the response rate to traditional travel diary collection methods has seen a decrease in most countries.Prompted by this, a body of research has been dedicated to study how travel diaries can be collected via new methods, namelylocation enabled devices such as smartphones, that have a higher penetration rate (in terms of device ownerships and userattachment) and are both easier and cheaper to manage compared to traditional data collection method, e.g. paper-and-pencil,phone, or web-based questionnaires. This paper offers an overview of the current state of travel diary collection, a potentialfuture state and a practical checklist for travel diary collection case studies. A thorough discussion on different pros and cons oftravel diary collection methods and efforts needed for the convergence of methods to collect travel diaries for all demographicsare provided. The practical checklist to aid researchers to organise case studies is based on the authors’ experience and it is meantto raise awareness of difficulties that can be encountered while collecting travel surveys with automated and semi-automatedsystems, and how to overcome them.

  • 34.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Workshop synthesis: New developments in travel diary collection systems based on smartphones and GPS receivers2018In: Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Transport Survey Methods, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop examined the state of the art of existing travel diary collection systems that make use of GPS data in relationshipto the needs of the practitioners that collect and analyze travel diaries. While the new data collection methods are a promisingalternative that can collect both data on previously ignored demographic segments as well as short trips that are usually forgottenby respondents, they do not solve all the issues the traditional methods are prone to, and also introduce new issues on their own.The workshop participants have identified, discussed and summarized the most pressing concerns regarding the use of new traveldiary collection systems based on smartphones and GPS receivers.

  • 35.
    Prelipcean, Adrian Corneliu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Mat & Syst Sustainabil, Chikusa Ku, Furo Cho, Nagoya, Aichi 4648603, Japan..
    Workshop Synthesis: New developments in travel diary collection systems based on smartphones and GPS receivers2018In: TRANSPORT SURVEY METHODS IN THE ERA OF BIG DATA: FACING THE CHALLENGES / [ed] Bonnel, P Munizaga, M Morency, C Trepanier, M, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018, p. 119-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop examined the state of the art of existing travel diary collection systems that make use of GPS data in relation to the needs of the practitioners that collect and analyze travel diaries. While the new data collection methods are a promising alternative that can collect both data on previously ignored demographic segments as well as short trips that are usually forgotten by respondents, they do not solve all the issues the traditional methods are prone to, and also introduce new issues of their own. The workshop participants have identified, discussed and summarized the most pressing concerns regarding the use of new travel diary collection systems based on smartphones and GPS receivers.

  • 36.
    Shi, Chengxiang
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Identifying patterns of pedestrian accidents of different severity levels in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the leading countries in traffic safety, but pedestrians are vulnerable compared to other road users. “Vision zero” mission, which means no fatal or serious injury in road traffic system, has been the target of Sweden since 1997. As a result, more efforts should be put to reduce pedestrian accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on reducing the number of pedestrian accidents of different severity levels in Sweden. First, this study found patterns on Swedish pedestrian accidents involving fatal, serious and moderate injuries by using same variables, then compared identified patterns corresponding to different severity levels. Then, additional patterns of pedestrian accidents involving fatal and serious injuries were assessed by adding additional variables in the clustering analysis. Finally, Swedish-oriented preventive measures were recommended based on the hypotheses on each identified patterns in a systematic way, which gave reference to policy makers in Sweden on the most urgent problems in pedestrian safety.

    Self-organizing map (SOM) with batch mode was applied in this study for clustering analysis, which has advantages on identifying patterns on pedestrian accidents compared to other methods, including classical linear algorithms and other unsupervised clustering algorithms (hierarchal clustering, k-means clustering and SOM with incremental mode). In addition, a specific set of assessment criteria for clustering solutions was proposed in terms of quality, stability and interpretability. According to the results of clustering solutions, falling was the main reason for serious injuries while collision with vehicles was the main reason for fatal injuries. Middle-aged and old people tended to hurt limbs when falling while children and young males tended to hurt heads. Old people might be vulnerable during daily life or within friendly traffic environment. Potential risk included outdoor activities, careless people during winter and weekend or summer night parties. Lastly, preventive measure could be combined across accidents of different severity levels, since patterns for fatal injuries were partly the same as those for non-fatal-injuries.

  • 37.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Chengxi, Liu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, Teknikringen 10, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, VTI, Teknikringen 10, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The changes of activity-travel participation across gender, life-cycle, and generations in Sweden over 30years2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 793-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilised the Swedish national travel survey covering a period of over 30years. We investigated the long-term trends in activity-travel patterns of individuals in different life-cycle stages and generations using cohort analysis and a path model. The main findings are summarised as follows. The women, including mothers, in younger generations have become more active in out-of-home non-work activities and their trip chaining has become more complex, compared to their male counterparts. While men are still driving more than women, the gap is decreasing in the younger generations. The gender difference among teenagers in terms of out-of-home time use diminishes in younger generations. Teenagers of younger generations spend more of their leisure time inside their homes, possibly due to the rise of online activities and gaming and more time-consuming school trips, the latter attributed to changes in school choice policy. Older adults travel more, possibly due to better paratransit transport service, supported by better health services.

  • 38.
    Termida, Nursitihazlin Ahmad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Univ Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Fac Civil & Environm Engn, Smart Driving Res Ctr, Batu Pahat 86400, Johor, Malaysia.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Chengxi, Liu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Understanding seasonal variation in individual's activity participation and trip generation by using four consecutive two-week travel diary2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 12, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the interactions between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice in different seasons by jointly modeling the work and/or study, routine and leisure activity-travel engagements of 67 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. A longitudinal panel two-week travel diary data collected in four consecutive waves over a span of seven months period that covers all four different seasons; autumn, winter, spring and summer, were analysed by using simultaneous Tobit models. The model was applied to explore the interactions among each activity-travel indicator, and individuals' unique characteristics and endogeneity in activity-travel engagements between different seasons were also considered in the model system. The results of models reveal clear trade-offs between mandatory activities (work and/or study) and non-mandatory activities (routine and leisure), regardless of any seasons, although the magnitudes vary between seasons. There is also a positive mutual endogeneity relationship between number of trips and activity duration within the same activity type. The trade-offs between work and/or study trips towards routine and leisure trips are larger in winter and spring respectively, than in other seasons. It is also found that mode effects on travel time for conducting mandatory activity are much larger in spring than in other seasons. However, the effects of public transport and slow modes on travel time for leisure activities are much larger in summer than in other seasons.

  • 39.
    Zhang, Wen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Termida, Nursitihazlin Ahmad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    What construct one's familiar area?: A quantitative and longitudinal study2019In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 322-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of understanding of how certain characteristics of the urban environment influence an individual's spatial cognition and familiarity with surrounding areas, and, subsequently, their travel behaviours and how these change over time. This paper aims to address this research gap in exploring the dynamics of individuals' spatial cognitions by observing the changes of respondents' familiar areas over time, and investigating the possible determinants that constitute respondents' familiar areas. Panel data, containing two-week travel diaries and maps of familiar areas, were collected in four different waves over a seven-month period for 55 individuals in Stockholm, Sweden. The reported familiar areas for each individual were digitised into quantifiable variable form and further analysed by applying dynamic binary probit and linear regression models. The results show that, while familiar area is largely influenced by one's previous knowledge of the area, it is also continuously corrected by events in between. Different land use characteristics have different impacts on different social groups' travel patterns, thus contributing to the variability in the size of one's familiar areas.

1 - 39 of 39
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