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  • 1.
    Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Khang, Minsoo
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Dellal, David
    MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Silverstein, David
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Gao, Yuan
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Vegge, Andreas
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hubalek, Frantisek
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Water, Jorrit J.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Friderichsen, Anders V.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Fels, Johannes
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kirk, Rikke Kaae
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cleveland, Cody
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Landh, Tomas
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Buckley, Stephen T.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol, Global Drug Discovery & Device R&D, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Media Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    An ingestible self-orienting system for oral delivery of macromolecules2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 363, no 6427, p. 611-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomacromolecules have transformed our capacity to effectively treat diseases; however, their rapid degradation and poor absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract generally limit their administration to parenteral routes. An oral biologic delivery system must aid in both localization and permeation to achieve systemic drug uptake. Inspired by the leopard tortoise's ability to passively reorient, we developed an ingestible self-orienting millimeter-scale applicator (SOMA) that autonomously positions itself to engage with GI tissue. It then deploys milliposts fabricated from active pharmaceutical ingredients directly through the gastric mucosa while avoiding perforation. We conducted in vivo studies in rats and swine that support the applicator's safety and, using insulin as a model drug, demonstrated that the SOMA delivers active pharmaceutical ingredient plasma levels comparable to those achieved with subcutaneous millipost administration.

  • 2.
    Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Soares, Vance
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Minahan, Daniel
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tian, Ryan Yu
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Lu, Xiaoya
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Dellal, David
    MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Gao, Yuan
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kim, Soyoung
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Wainer, Jacob
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Yoshitake, Tadayuki
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Fujimoto, James
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Elect Res Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Fels, Johannes
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Global Drug Discovery, Global Res Technol, Malov, Denmark.;Novo Nordisk, Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Media Lab, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    A luminal unfolding microneedle injector for oral delivery of macromolecules2019In: Nature Medicine, ISSN 1078-8956, E-ISSN 1546-170X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 1512-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin and other injectable biologic drugs have transformed the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes(1,2), yet patients and healthcare providers often prefer to use and prescribe less effective orally dosed medications(3-5). Compared with subcutaneously administered drugs, oral formulations create less patient discomfort(4), show greater chemical stability at high temperatures(6), and do not generate biohazardous needle waste(7). An oral dosage form for biologic medications is ideal; however, macromolecule drugs are not readily absorbed into the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract(8). We developed an ingestible capsule, termed the luminal unfolding microneedle injector, which allows for the oral delivery of biologic drugs by rapidly propelling dissolvable drug-loaded microneedles into intestinal tissue using a set of unfolding arms. During ex vivo human and in vivo swine studies, the device consistently delivered the microneedles to the tissue without causing complete thickness perforations. Using insulin as a model drug, we showed that, when actuated, the luminal unfolding microneedle injector provided a faster pharmacokinetic uptake profile and a systemic uptake > 10% of that of a subcutaneous injection over a 4-h sampling period. With the ability to load a multitude of microneedle formulations, the device can serve as a platform to orally deliver therapeutic doses of macromolecule drugs.

  • 3.
    Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Stanford Univ, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Dellal, David
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Yale Univ, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06510 USA..
    Kong, Yong Lin
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Univ Utah, Dept Mech Engn, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Zhou, Jianlin
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Cornell Univ, Phillips Hall,106 Hoy Rd, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA..
    Gao, Yuan
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Wainer, Jacob
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Fractyl Labs Inc, 17 Hartwell Ave, Lexington, MA 02421 USA..
    McManus, Rebecca
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol & Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Water, Jorrit J.
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol & Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Jensen, Brian
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol & Device R&D, Malov, Denmark..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ingestible transiently anchoring electronics for microstimulation and conductive signaling2020In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 6, no 35, article id eaaz0127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ingestible electronic devices enable noninvasive evaluation and diagnosis of pathologies in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but generally cannot therapeutically interact with the tissue wall. Here, we report the development of an orally administered electrical stimulation device characterized in ex vivo human tissue and in in vivo swine models, which transiently anchored itself to the stomach by autonomously inserting electrically conductive, hooked probes. The probes provided stimulation to the tissue via timed electrical pulses that could be used as a treatment for gastric motility disorders. To demonstrate interaction with stomach muscle tissue, we used the electrical stimulation to induce acute muscular contractions. Pulses conductively signaled the probes' successful anchoring and detachment events to a parenterally placed device. The ability to anchor into and electrically interact with targeted GI tissues controlled by the enteric nervous system introduces opportunities to treat a multitude of associated pathologies.

  • 4. Abramson, Alex
    et al.
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Vegge, Andreas
    Jensen, Brian
    Poulsen, Mette
    Mouridsen, Brian
    Jespersen, Mikkel Oliver
    Kirk, Rikke Kaae
    Windum, Jesper
    Hubálek, František
    Water, Jorrit J.
    Fels, Johannes
    Gunnarsson, Stefán B.
    Bohr, Adam
    Straarup, Ellen Marie
    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld
    Lu, Xiaoya
    Wainer, Jacob
    Collins, Joy
    Tamang, Siddartha
    Ishida, Keiko
    Hayward, Alison
    Herskind, Peter
    Buckley, Stephen T.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. MIT, Dept Chem Engn, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; MIT, David H Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Langer, Robert
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Traverso, Giovanni
    Oral delivery of systemic monoclonal antibodies, peptides and small molecules using gastric auto-injectors2021In: Nature Biotechnology, ISSN 1087-0156, E-ISSN 1546-1696, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral administration provides a simple and non-invasive approach for drug delivery. However, due to poor absorption and swift enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, a wide range of molecules must be parenterally injected to attain required doses and pharmacokinetics. Here we present an orally dosed liquid auto-injector capable of delivering up to 4-mg doses of a bioavailable drug with the rapid pharmacokinetics of an injection, reaching an absolute bioavailability of up to 80% and a maximum plasma drug concentration within 30 min after dosing. This approach improves dosing efficiencies and pharmacokinetics an order of magnitude over our previously designed injector capsules and up to two orders of magnitude over clinically available and preclinical chemical permeation enhancement technologies. We administered the capsules to swine for delivery of clinically relevant doses of four commonly injected medications, including adalimumab, a GLP-1 analog, recombinant human insulin and epinephrine. These multi-day dosing experiments and oral administration in awake animal models support the translational potential of the system. 

  • 5.
    Ali, Muhsin
    et al.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Leganes 28911, Spain..
    Rivera, Alejandro
    Yebes Observ, Inst Geog Nacl, Direcc Gen, Yebes, Spain..
    Enrique Garcia-Munoz, Luis
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Leganes 28911, Spain..
    Gallego, Daniel
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Leganes 28911, Spain..
    Lyubchenko, Dmitry
    Inst High Pressure Phys, CENTERA Labs, Warsaw, Poland..
    Xenidis, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Carpintero, Guillermo
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Leganes 28911, Spain..
    Dielectric Rod Waveguide-based Radio-Frequency interconnect operating from 55 GHz to 340 GHz2022In: 2022 47Th International Conference On Infrared, Millimeter And Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THZ 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel concept for high-frequency interconnects based on dielectric rod waveguide structures, which show a broadband operating frequency range. The low cut-off frequency is set at 50 GHz by design, while the upper limit extends beyond 340 GHz. An experimental demonstration is presented to validate the concept. The presented RF interconnect approach covers several rectangular waveguide bands with potential to be extended to terahertz range.

  • 6.
    Ali, Muhsin
    et al.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Ave Univ 30, Madrid 28911, Spain..
    Tebart, Jonas
    Univ Duisburg Essen, ZHO Optoelect, Lotharstr 55, D-47057 Duisburg, Germany..
    Rivera-Lavado, Alejandro
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Ave Univ 30, Madrid 28911, Spain.;Direcc Gen Inst Geog Nacl, Yebes Observ, Yebes, Spain..
    Lioubtchenko, Dmitri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Inst High Pressure Phys, CENTERA Labs, Warsaw, Poland..
    Enrique Garcia-Munoz, Luis
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Ave Univ 30, Madrid 28911, Spain..
    Stoehr, Andreas
    Univ Duisburg Essen, ZHO Optoelect, Lotharstr 55, D-47057 Duisburg, Germany..
    Carpintero, Guillermo
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Ave Univ 30, Madrid 28911, Spain..
    Terahertz Band Data Communications using Dielectric Rod Waveguide2022In: 2022 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2022 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, article id W1H.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A terahertz data link is presented using dielectric rod waveguide (DRW) at 300 GHz and complex modulations for speeds up to 120 Gbps. Performance comparison with WR-3 rectangular waveguide validates the low-dispersion behaviour of DRW.

  • 7.
    Al-Saadi, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A; Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 64, Stockholm, Sweden; MedTechLabs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waldén, Mathias
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A.
    Sandell, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A; MedTechLabs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sohlmér, Jesper
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Solnavagen 9, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Solnavägen 9.
    Grankvist, Rikard
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A.
    Friberger, Ida
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Center for Hematology and Regenerative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsten, Mattias
    Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Center for Hematology and Regenerative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Cell Therapy and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska Comprehensive Cancer Center, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chien, Kenneth
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Solnavagen 9, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Solnavägen 9.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A; Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 64, Stockholm, Sweden; MedTechLabs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Witman, Nevin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A.
    Holmin, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavagen 18A, 171 65 Stockholm, Sweden, Tomtebodavägen 18A; Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 64, Stockholm, Sweden; MedTechLabs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Endovascular transplantation of mRNA-enhanced mesenchymal stromal cells results in superior therapeutic protein expression in swine heart2024In: Molecular therapy. Methods & clinical development, ISSN 2399-6951, E-ISSN 2329-0501, Vol. 32, no 2, article id 101225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure has a poor prognosis and no curative treatment exists. Clinical trials are investigating gene- and cell-based therapies to improve cardiac function. The safe and efficient delivery of these therapies to solid organs is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility of using an endovascular intramyocardial delivery approach to safely administer mRNA drug products and perform cell transplantation procedures in swine. Using a trans-vessel wall (TW) device, we delivered chemically modified mRNAs (modRNA) and mRNA-enhanced mesenchymal stromal cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) directly to the heart. We monitored and mapped the cellular distribution, protein expression, and safety tolerability of such an approach. The delivery of modRNA-enhanced cells via the TW device with different flow rates and cell concentrations marginally affect cell viability and protein expression in situ. Implanted cells were found within the myocardium for at least 3 days following administration, without the use of immunomodulation and minimal impact on tissue integrity. Finally, we could increase the protein expression of VEGF-A over 500-fold in the heart using a cell-mediated modRNA delivery system compared with modRNA delivered in saline solution. Ultimately, this method paves the way for future research to pioneer new treatments for cardiac disease.

  • 8.
    An, Sining
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pettersson, Victor
    Veoneer Sweden AB.
    Karimi, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Simon He, Zhongxia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Zirath, Herbert
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Automotive In-Cabin Object Detection and Passenger Monitoring with Sub-THz Radar System2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an H-band radar system is built, and measurement of in-cabin object detection and passenger monitoring is demonstrated to better understand the in-cabin propagation environment at sub-THz frequencies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Anoshkin, Ilya V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Lioubtchenko, Dmitri V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Freeze-Dried Carbon Nanotube Aerogels for High-Frequency Absorber Applications2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 10, no 23, p. 19806-19811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel technique for millimeter wave absorber material embedded in a metal waveguide is proposed. The absorber material is a highly porous carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel prepared by a freeze-drying technique. CNT aerogel structures are shown to be good absorbers with a low reflection coefficient, less than -12 dB at 95 GHz. The reflection coefficient of the novel absorber is 3-4 times lower than that of commercial absorbers with identical geometry. Samples prepared by freeze-drying at -25 degrees C demonstrate resonance behavior, while those prepared at liquid nitrogen temperature (-196 degrees C) exhibit a significant decrease in reflection coefficient, with no resonant behavior. CNT absorbers of identical volume based on wet-phase drying preparation show significantly worse performance than the CNT aerogel absorbers prepared by freeze-drying. Treatment of the freeze-dried CNT aerogel with n- and p-dopants (monoethanolamine and iodine vapors, respectively) shows remarkable improvement in the performance of the waveguide embedded absorbers, reducing the reflection coefficient by 2 dB across the band.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Arvidsson, M.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dahl, M. -L
    Beck, O.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rosenborg, S.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordin, K.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate in plasma, exhaled breath, oral fluid and dried blood spots after a single oral dose of ritalin 20 mg2019In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 75, p. S89-S90Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Asadollahi, Ali
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. KTH.
    A Study of Surface Treatments and Voids Formation in Low Temperature Wafer BondingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Waveguide Gratings in Thin-Film Lithium Niobate on Insulator2017In: 2017 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS EUROPE & EUROPEAN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE (CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Baghchehsaraei, Zargham
    et al.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dudorov, Sergey
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Aberg, Jan
    MEMS 30 µm-thick W-band Waveguide Switch2012In: 2012 42ND EUROPEAN MICROWAVE CONFERENCE (EUMC), IEEE , 2012, p. 1055-1058Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents for the first time a novel concept of a MEMS waveguide switch based on a reconfigurable surface, whose working principle is to short-circuit or to allow for free propagation of the electrical field lines of the TE10 mode of a WR-12 rectangular waveguide. This transmissive surface is only 30 µm thick and consists of up to 1260 reconfiguring cantilevers in the waveguide cross-section, which are moved simultaneously by integrated MEMS comb-drive actuators. For the first fabrication run, the yield of these reconfigurable elements on the chips was 80-86%, which still was good enough for resulting in a measured insertion loss in the open state of better than 1dB and an isolation of better than 20dB for the best designs, very wideband from 62 to 75GHz. For 100% fabrication yield, HFSS simulations predict that an insertion loss in the open state of better than 0.1dB and an isolation of better than 30dB in the closed state are possible for designs with 800 and more contact points for this novel waveguide switch concept.

  • 14. Banis, G. E.
    et al.
    Winkler, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2201 J.M. Patterson Hall, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Barton, P.
    Chocron, S. E.
    Kim, E.
    Kelly, D. L.
    Payne, G. F.
    Ben-Yoav, H.
    Ghodssi, R.
    The binding effect of proteins on medications and its impact on electrochemical sensing: Antipsychotic clozapine as a case study2017In: Pharmaceuticals, E-ISSN 1424-8247, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clozapine (CLZ), a dibenzodiazepine, is demonstrated as the optimal antipsychotic for patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Like many other drugs, understanding the concentration of CLZ in a patient’s blood is critical for managing the patients’ symptoms, side effects, and overall treatment efficacy. To that end, various electrochemical techniques have been adapted due to their capabilities in concentration-dependent sensing. An open question associated with electrochemical CLZ monitoring is whether drug–protein complexes (i.e., CLZ bound to native blood proteins, such as serum albumin (SA) or alpha-1 acid-glycoprotein (AAG)) contribute to electrochemical redox signals. Here, we investigate CLZ-sensing performance using fundamental electrochemical methods with respect to the impact of protein binding. Specifically, we test the activity of bound and free fractions of a mixture of CLZ and either bovine SA or human AAG. Results suggest that bound complexes do not significantly contribute to the electrochemical signal for mixtures of CLZ with AAG or SA. Moreover, the fraction of CLZ bound to protein is relatively constant at 31% (AAG) and 73% (SA) in isolation with varying concentrations of CLZ. Thus, electrochemical sensing can enable direct monitoring of only the unbound CLZ, previously only accessible via equilibrium dialysis. The methods utilized in this work offer potential as a blueprint in developing electrochemical sensors for application to other redox-active medications with high protein binding more generally. This demonstrates that electrochemical sensing can be a new tool in accessing information not easily available previously, useful toward optimizing treatment regimens. 

  • 15.
    Banovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Neurovascular Cells2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organs-on-a-chip devices are perfused cell culture systems aimed at creating the minimal functional unit of an organ - suchas the neurovascular unit (NVU) of the brain. NVU-on-a-chip platforms can provide an effective framework for studyingcentral nervous system physiology, disease etiology and provide a mean for drug development.In this work, we investigated the possibility of developing NVU-on-a-chip devices, with real-time sensing capabilitiesof glucose - intended for monitoring the metabolic activity of neurovascular cells. This was done by evaluating theperformance and applicability of in-house ultra-miniaturized glucose sensor technology and commercial DropSence (DS)electrodes, as well as studying astrocytoma characteristics.Firstly the performance of the amperometric microsensors was assessed - demonstrating a sufficient linear detectionrange (6, 2±0, 7 mM) for monitoring normal glucose levels of the brain (0, 5−1, 5 mM) and a high sensitivity (0, 09±0, 02mA/mM/mm2) . Limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0, 04 mM for the 3_2 model microsensor to up to to 0, 14±0, 05mM for the DS electrodes. Limit of detectable change (LO4S), obtained from deviations between repeated measurements,was found to be approximately 0, 6 mM for all the sensors - close to the normal glucose concentrations of the brain. Limitof detectable change (LO4N), obtained from signal-noise within single measurements, was smallest for the biggest DSelectrodes (0, 04 mM).Secondly the compatibility of sensor materials (substrate and functional membranes) with astrocytoma cells was tested.Cell viability and growth, in conjunction with test materials, were assessed and compared to that of glass and/or cellculturetreated polystyrene (plastic). The materials tested were: Nafion; polyurethane (PU); Glucose Oxidase/bovineserum albumin/glutaraldehyde (GOx/GA); and silicon substrate with SiO2 surface. Cell viability and growth provedalmost as good on nafion membrane as on plastic and glass, while the enzyme containing layer proved to be toxic - mostlikely due to the protein-reactive crosslinker glutaraldehyde. PU-membrane showed significantly lower performance thanglass but demonstrated the best ability to encapsulate the toxic effect of the innermost enzyme layer. In contrast, nafioncoverage resulted in a lack of cells adjacent to the membrane - suggesting partial permeability to the harmful compoundsof the innermost layer. The SiO2surface of the silicon substrate, demonstrated significantly lower performance than plasticin terms of cell viability and growth.Thirdly glucose uptake rates of astrocytoma cell were determined. Depending on glucose availability in the the test wellsthe cells demonstrated a wide range of uptake rates: between 6, 5 · 10

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  • 16. Bartlett, C.
    et al.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Kamrath, F.
    Hoft, M.
    Highly Selective Broadband mm-Wave Diplexer Design2022In: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, ISSN 1531-1309, E-ISSN 1558-1764, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents a novel broadband diplexer design that is capable of achieving highly stringent rejection characteristics through the use of singlets whose interconnecting irises are formulated as resonant slot irises. The combination of these two resonant-cavity types allows for a unique filtering solution with increased filter order, wide available bandwidth, low geometric complexity, and simple milling requirements, which can be suitably applied to millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave applications. A prototype is fabricated for operation in the -band (75–110 GHz) in order to cover a 10% fractional bandwidth in each passband. Measurement of the prototype denotes highly accurate results and exemplifies the use of all resonator and coupling elements in order to support ten poles and four transmission zeros in an elegant diplexer solution.

  • 17.
    Bartlett, Chad
    et al.
    Univ Kiel, Dept Elect & Informat Engn, D-24118 Kiel, Germany..
    Mehrabi Gohari, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hoft, Michael
    Univ Kiel, Dept Elect & Informat Engn, D-24118 Kiel, Germany..
    Compact Triangular-Cavity Singlet-Based Filters in Stackable Multi-Layer Technologies2022In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, E-ISSN 2156-3446, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 540-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, triangular-cavity bandpass filters are investigated in stackable multilayer technologies in order to achieve highly compact designs with reduced fabrication complexity. The triangular-shaped cavities are first introduced in the form of singlets and then expanded on as a novel method for achieving a quasi-triplet filter response, where the filter's input and output irises are utilized as resonating means for two additional passband poles. Exploitation of this advanced singlet scheme exemplifies innovative use of resonant irises for achieving highly compact filters that can be manufactured with simple multilayer fabrication steps for use in future terahertz applications.

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  • 18. Beck, O.
    et al.
    Kenan Modén, N.
    Seferaj, S.
    Lenk, Gabriel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Helander, A.
    Study of measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and application of a volumetric DBS device2018In: Clinica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0009-8981, E-ISSN 1873-3492, Vol. 479, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of phospholipids formed in cell membranes following alcohol consumption. PEth measurement in whole blood samples is established as a specific alcohol biomarker with clinical and medico-legal applications. This study further evaluated the usefulness of dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected on filter paper for PEth measurement. Specimens used were surplus volumes of venous whole blood sent for routine LC–MS/MS quantification of PEth 16:0/18:1, the major PEth homolog. DBS samples were prepared by pipetting blood on Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and onto a volumetric DBS device (Capitainer). The imprecision (CV) of the DBS sample amount based on area and weight measurements of spot punches were 23–28%. Investigation of the relationship between blood hematocrit and PEth concentration yielded a linear, positive correlation, and at around 1.0–1.5 μmol/L PEth 16:0/18:1, the PEth concentration increased by ~ 0.1 μmol/L for every 5% increase in hematocrit. There was a close agreement between the PEth concentrations obtained with whole blood samples and the corresponding results using Whatman 903 (PEthDBS = 1.026 PEthWB + 0.013) and volumetric device (PEthDBS = 1.045 PEthWB + 0.016) DBS samples. The CV of PEth quantification in DBS samples at concentrations ≥ 0.05 μmol/L were ≤ 15%. The present results further confirmed the usefulness of DBS samples for PEth measurement.

  • 19.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Silicon micromachined waveguide components for terahertz systems2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents silicon micromachined waveguide components for sub-terahertz and terahertz (THz) systems fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Historically the main driving force for the development of THz systems has been space-based scientific instruments for astrophysics, planetary and Earth science missions. Recent advances in active and passive components for the THz frequency range increased its usage in areas such as imaging, security, communications and biological instrumentation. Traditionally the primary technology for components and interconnections approaching THz frequencies has been hollow metal waveguides fabricated by computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling. Systems using this technology are bulky and hand-assembled, getting more expensive and complicated with an increasing complexity of the system. In recent years silicon micromachining has emerged as a viable alternative for THz components and integrated systems promising more compact integrated systems.The thesis reports on a new low-loss silicon micromachined waveguide technology using silion-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. Several low-loss waveguide components in the frequency range of 220–330 GHz have been fabricated and characterized, such as hybrid couplers, splitters and matched loads. Furthermore, an investigation of fabrication accuracy and repeatability for high-Q filters in the sub-THz frequency range using the same waveguide technology is presented.For on-wafer waveguide characterization a novel CPW probe to micromachined waveguide transition concept is introduced. The transition is co-fabricated together with the devices under test in the same waveguide technology using SOI technology. It consists of a CPW probing interface and a pin protruding into the waveguide cavity acting as an E-field probe to excite the dominant mode of the rectangular waveguide. Designed and characterized for the frequency range of 220–330 GHz, the transition was successfully used for on-wafer characterization of the waveguide components previously presented. The scalability of the concept to higher frequencies is shown by presenting a modified transition capable of device characterization up to 500 GHz.The integration of monolithic micromachined integrated circuits (MMICs) with silicon micromachined waveguides is investigated, with a focus on scalability to higher frequencies and their compatibility with industrial assembly tools. A new integration concept for THz systems is presented and a back-to-back transition structure for the integration of SiGe MMICs with silicon micromachined waveguides at D-band frequencies (110–170 GHz) has been characterized. Furthermore, a co-designed transition from InP MMIC to silicon micromachined rectangular waveguide is presented, consisting of a compact microstrip to waveguide transition and a vertical waveguide to in-plane waveguide bend in the silicon micromachined waveguide technology. The concept has been fabricated and characterized in a back-to-back configuration for the frequency range of 220–330 GHz.

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  • 20.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    A CPW Probe to Rectangular Waveguide Transition for On-wafer Micromachined Waveguide CharacterizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new transition from coplanar waveguide probe to micromachined rectangular waveguide for on-wafer device characterization is presented in this article. The transition is fabricated in the same double H-plane split silicon micromachined waveguide technology as the devices under test, requiring no additional post-processing or assembly steps. We outline the design and fabrication process of the transition for the frequency band of 220 – 330 GHz. A coplanar waveguide structure acts as the probing interface, with an E-field probe protruding in the waveguide cavity exciting the fundamental waveguide mode. Guard structures around the E-field probe increase the aspect ratio during deep reactive ion etching and secure its geometry. A full equivalent circuit model is provided by analyzing its working principle. RF characterization of fabricated devices is performed for both single-ended and back-to-back configurations. Measured S-parameters of the single-ended transition are obtained by applying a two-tiered calibration and are analyzed using the equivalent circuit model. The insertion loss of the single-ended transition lies between 0.3 dB and 1.5 dB over the whole band, with the return loss in excess of 8 dB. In addition to previously reported characterization of a range of devices under test the viability of the transition for on-wafer device calibration is demonstrated by characterizing a straight waveguide line, achieving an insertion loss per unit length of 0.02 – 0.08 dB/mm in the frequency band of 220 – 330 GHz.

  • 21.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    A CPW Probe to Rectangular Waveguide Transition for On-Wafer Micromachined Waveguide Characterization2024In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, E-ISSN 2156-3446, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new transition from coplanar waveguide probe to micromachined rectangular waveguide for on-wafer device characterization is presented in this article. The transition is fabricated in the same double H-plane split silicon micromachined waveguide technology as the devices under test, requiring no additional post-processing or assembly steps. We outline the design and fabrication process of the transition for the frequency band of 220–330 GHz. A coplanar waveguide structure acts as the probing interface, with an E-field probe protruding in the waveguide cavity exciting the fundamental waveguide mode. Guard structures around the E-field probe increase the aspect ratio during deep reactive ion etching and secure its geometry. A full equivalent circuit model is provided by analyzing its working principle. RF characterization of fabricated devices is performed for both single-ended and back-to-back configurations. Measured S-parameters of the single-ended transition are obtained by applying a two-tiered calibration and are analyzed using the equivalent circuit model. The insertion loss of the single-ended transition lies between 0.3 dB and 1.5 dB over the whole band, with the return loss in excess of 8 dB. In addition to previously reported characterization of a range of devices under test the viability of the transition for on-wafer device calibration is demonstrated by characterizing a straight waveguide line, achieving an insertion loss per unit length of 0.02–0.08 dB/mm in the frequency band of 220–330 GHz.

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  • 22.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    On-wafer Micromachined Waveguide Characterization with CPW Probe to Rectangular Waveguide Transition up to 500 GHzManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on coplanar waveguide to micromachined waveguide transitions for on-wafer device characterization. The transitions are designed in a silicon micromachined waveguide technology using silicon on insulator wafers together with the devices under test. A previous design at 220–330 GHz with in-band radiation characteristic is modified to eliminate the radiation and allow it to be scaled to higher frequencies. Simulation results for 220–330 GHz and 330–500 GHz are obtained, and the transition has an insertion loss of better than 0.5 and 1.2 dB, respectively. The transition is fabricated and characterized at 220–330 GHz, with an insertion loss of better than 0.7 dB and a return loss in excess of 10 dB over the whole band.

  • 23.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-Loss Silicon Micromachined Waveguides Above 100 GHz Utilising Multiple H-plane Splits2018In: Proceedings of the 48th European Microwave Conference, Madrid, October 1-3, 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 1041-1044, article id 8541605Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For sub-millimeter and millimeter wave applications rectangular waveguides are an ideal transmission medium. Compared to conventional, metal-milled rectangular waveguides, silicon micromachined waveguides offer a number of advantages. In this paper we present a low-loss silicon micromachined waveguide technology based on a double H-plane split for the frequency bands of 110 – 170 GHz and 220 – 330 GHz. For the upper band a reduced height waveguide is presented, which achieves a loss per unit length of 0.02 – 0.10 dB/mm. This technology has been further adapted to implement a full height waveguide for the lower frequency band of 110 – 170 GHz. The full height waveguide takes advantage of the benefits of the double H-plane split technique to overcome the challenges of fabricating micromachined waveguides at lower frequencies. With measured insertion loss of 0.007 – 0.013 dB/mm, averaging 0.009 dB/mm over the whole band, this technology offers the lowest insertion loss of any D-band waveguide to date. The unloaded Q factor of the D-band waveguide technology is estimated to be in excess of 1600, while a value of 750 has been measured for the reduced height upper band waveguide.

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  • 24.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Micromachined Waveguides with Integrated Silicon Absorbers and Attenuators at 220–325 GHz2018In: IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IEEE conference proceedings, 2018 / [ed] IEEE, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports for the first time on micromachined waveguides with integrated micromachined silicon absorbers. In contrast to epoxy-based microwave absorbers, micromachined lossy silicon absorbers are fully compatible with high temperature fabrication and assembly processes for micromachined waveguides. Furthermore, micromachining enables the fabrication of exact, near ideal taper tips for the silicon absorbers, whereas the tip of epoxy-based absorbers cannot be shaped accurately and reproducibly for small waveguides. Silicon of different conductivity is a very well understood and characterized dielectric material, in contrast to conventional absorber materials which are not specified above 60 GHz. Micromachined silicon waveguides with integrated absorbers and attenuators were designed, fabricated and characterized in the frequency band of 220 – 325 GHz. The return and insertion loss for various taper-geometry variations of double-tip tapered absorbers and attenuators was studied. The average return loss for the best investigated device is 19 dB over the whole band. The insertion loss of the two-port attenuators is 16 – 33 dB for different designs and shows an excellent agreement to the simulated results. The best measured devices of the one-port absorbers exhibit an average and worst-case return loss of 22 dB and 14 dB, respectively, over the whole band. The return loss is not characterized by a good simulation-measurement match, which is most likely attributed to placement tolerances of the absorbers in the waveguide cavities affecting the return but not the insertion loss.

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  • 25.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    TeraSi AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedin, Jan
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Robert
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vassilev, Vessen
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zirath, Herbert
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integrating InP MMICs and Silicon Micromachined Waveguides for Sub-THz Systems2023In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 1800-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel co-designed transition from InP monolithic microwave integrated circuits to silicon micromachined waveguides is presented. The transition couples a microstrip line to a substrate waveguide sitting on top of a vertical waveguide. The silicon part of the transition consists of a top and a bottom chip, fabricated in a very low-loss silicon micromachined waveguide technology using silicon on insulator wafers. The transition has been designed, fabricated and characterized for 220 GHz to 330 GHz in a back-to-back configuration. Measured insertion loss is 3 dB to 6 dB at 250 GHz to 300 GHz , and return loss is in excess of 5 dB.

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  • 26.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Svedin, Jan
    FOI.
    Robert, Malmqvist
    FOI.
    Vassilev, Vessen
    Chalmers University.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ziraht, Herbert
    Chalmers University.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Integrating InP MMICs and Silicon Micromachined Waveguides for sub-THz SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel co-designed transition from InP monolithic microwave integrated circuits to silicon micromachined waveguides is presented. The transition couples a microstrip line to a substrate waveguide sitting on top of a vertical waveguide. The silicon part of the transition consists of a top and a bottom chip, fabricated in a very low-loss silicon micromachined waveguide technology using silicon on insulator wafers. The transition has been designed, fabricated and characterized for 220–330 GHz in a back-to-back configuration. Measured insertion loss is 3–6 dB at 250–300 GHz, and return loss is in excess of 5 dB.

  • 27.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dubois, Valentin J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Quellmalz, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Device with a waveguide supported on a substrate and method for its fabrication2020Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT A device (1) and a method for fabricating such a device is described. The device (1) comprises a device layer (4), a substrate (2) defining a substrate plane (3). A device layer plane (5) is defined on the side of the device layer (4) facing the substrate (2). The device also comprises a waveguide (7) for guiding an electromagnetic wave. The waveguide (7) is supported on the substrate (2) via a support structure (6) extending from the substrate (2) to the device layer (4). The ratio of the largest distance (D1), perpendicular to the substrate plane (3), between a free surface of the waveguide (7) facing the substrate and any solid material to the height (h) of the waveguide (7) is more than 6, i.e. D1/h \textgreater 6. The ratio of the distance (D2), perpendicular to the substrate plane (3), between the device layer plane (5) and the substrate plane (3) to the height (h) of the waveguide (7) is more than 6, i.e. D2/h \textgreater 6.

  • 28.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dubois, Valentin J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Schröder, Stephan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Adhesive Wafer Bonding for Heterogeneous System Integration2018In: ECS Meeting Abstracts / [ed] The Electrochemical Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Bogaerts, W.
    et al.
    Takabayashi, A. Y.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zand, I.
    Jo, Gaehun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sattari, H.
    Verheyen, P.
    Jezzini, M. A.
    Antony, C.
    Talli, G.
    Saei, M.
    Kumar, S.
    Arce, C. L.
    Porcel, M. G.
    Quack, N.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Khan, U.
    Programmable photonic circuits using silicon photonic MEMS2021In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, The Optical Society , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a silicon photonics technology extended with low-power MEMS scalable to large circuits. This enables us to make photonic waveguide meshes that can be reconfigured using electronics and software.

  • 30. Bogaerts, W.
    et al.
    Van Iseghem, L.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sattari, H.
    Takabayashi, A. Y.
    Chen, X.
    Deng, H.
    Verheyen, P.
    Ribeiro, A.
    Khan, U.
    Quack, N.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-Power Electro-Optic Actuators for Large-Scale Programmable Photonic Circuits2021In: 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2021 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic integrated circuits are becoming increasingly more complex, especially with the emergence of programmable photonic circuits. These require many tunable photonic elements, such as electro-optic phase shifters and tunable couplers. We will discuss our progress in compact, low-power silicon photonics actuators based on heaters, liquid crystal and MEMS that can be scaled up to large circuits. 

  • 31. Bogaerts, W.
    et al.
    van Iseghem, L.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sattari, H.
    Takabayashi, A. Y.
    Chen, X.
    Deng, H.
    Verheyen, P.
    Ribeiro, A.
    Khan, U.
    Quack, N.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power electro-optic actuators for large-scale programmable photonic circuits2021In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, The Optical Society , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic integrated circuits are becoming increasingly more complex, especially with the emergence of programmable photonic circuits. These require many tunable photonic elements, such as electro-optic phase shifters and tunable couplers. We will discuss our progress in compact, low-power silicon photonics actuators based on heaters, liquid crystal and MEMS that can be scaled up to large circuits.

  • 32.
    Bogaerts, Wim
    et al.
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Nagarjun, K. P.
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Van Iseghem, Lukas
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Chen, Xiangfeng
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Deng, Hong
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Zand, Iman
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Zhang, Yu
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Liu, Yichen
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Takabayashi, Alain Yuji
    'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, SWITZERLAND].
    Sattari, Hamed
    'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, SWITZERLAND].
    Quack, Niels
    'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, SWITZERLAND].
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jo, Gaehun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mallik, Arun Kumar
    Tyndall National Institute, Cork, IRELAND.
    Jezzini, Moises
    Tyndall National Institute, Cork, IRELAND.
    Antony, Cleitus
    Tyndall National Institute, Cork, IRELAND.
    Talli, Giuseppe
    Tyndall National Institute, Cork, IRELAND.
    Verheyen, Peter
    IMEC vzw, 3DSIP department, Leuven, BELGIUM.
    Beeckman, Jeroen
    Ghent University, Department of Electronics and Information Systems (ELIS), Gent, BELGIUM.
    Khan, Umar
    Ghent University - IMEC, Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126, 9052 Gent, BELGIUM, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 126.
    Scaling programmable silicon photonics circuits2023In: Silicon Photonics XVIII, SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng , 2023, article id 1242601Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give an overview the progress of our work in silicon photonic programmable circuits, covering the techn stack from the photonic chip over the driver electronics, packaging technologies all the way to the sof layers. On the photonic side, we show our recent results in large-scale silicon photonic circuits with diff tuning technologies, including heaters, MEMS and liquid crystals, and their respective electronic driving sch We look into the scaling potential of these different technologies as the number of tunable elements in a ci increases. Finally, we elaborate on the software routines for routing and filter synthesis to enable the pho programmer.

  • 33. Bogaerts, Wim
    et al.
    Sattari, Hamed
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Takabayashi, Alain
    Zand, Iman
    Wang, Xiaojing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ribeiro, Antonio
    Jezzini, Moises
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Talli, Giuseppe
    Lerma Arce, Cristina
    Kumar, Saurav
    Garcia, Marco
    Verheyen, Peter
    Abasahl, Banafsheh
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Quack, Niels
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    O'Brien, Peter
    Khan, Umar
    MORPHIC: Programmable Photonic Circuits enabled by Silicon Photonic MEMS2020In: Proceedings Volume 11285 SPIE OPTO - 1-6 February 2020 Silicon Photonics XV, SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng , 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European project MORPHIC we develop a platform for programmable silicon photonic circuits enabled by waveguide-integrated micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS can add compact, and low-power phase shifters and couplers to an established silicon photonics platform with high-speed modulators and detectors. This MEMS technology is used for a new class of programmable photonic circuits, that can be reconfigured using electronics and software, consisting of large interconnected meshes of phase shifters and couplers. MORPHIC is also developing the packaging and driver electronics interfacing schemes for such large circuits, creating a supply chain for rapid prototyping new photonic chip concepts. These will be demonstrated in different applications, such as switching, beamforming and microwave photonics.

  • 34.
    Bogaerts, Wim
    et al.
    Ghent University - IMEC, Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Belgium.
    Takabayashi, Alain Yuji
    Ećole Polytechnique Fedeŕale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jo, Gaehun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Mallik, Arun Kumar
    Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork, T12 R5CP, Ireland.
    Antony, Cleituis
    Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork, T12 R5CP, Ireland.
    Zand, Iman
    Ghent University - IMEC, Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Belgium.
    Jonuzi, Tigers
    VLC Photonics S.L., UPV, Ed. 9B, D2, Camino de vera sn, Valencia, 46022, Spain.
    Chen, Xiangfeng
    Ghent University - IMEC, Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Belgium.
    Sattari, Hamed
    Ećole Polytechnique Fedeŕale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Lee, Junsu
    Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork, T12 R5CP, Ireland.
    Jezzini, Moises A.
    Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork, T12 R5CP, Ireland.
    Talli, Giuseppe
    Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork, T12 R5CP, Ireland.
    Arce, Cristina Lerma
    Commscope Connectivity Belgium, Diestsesteenweg 692, Kessel LO, 3010, Belgium.
    Kumar, Saurav
    Commscope Connectivity Belgium, Diestsesteenweg 692, Kessel LO, 3010, Belgium.
    Verheyen, Peter
    Imec vzw, 3DSIP Department, Si Photonics Group, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven, 3001, Belgium.
    Quack, Niels
    Ećole Polytechnique Fedeŕale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Khan, Umar
    Ghent University - IMEC, Photonics Research Group, Department of Information Technology, Belgium.
    Programmable Photonic Circuits powered by Silicon Photonic MEMS Technology2022In: Photonic Networks and Devices, Networks 2022, Optica Publishing Group (formerly OSA) , 2022, article id NeM2C.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmable photonic chips allow flexible reconfiguration of on-chip optical connections, controlled through electronics and software. We will present the recent progress of such complex photonic circuits powered by silicon photonic MEMS actuators.

  • 35.
    Bogaerts, Wim
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Informat Technol, Photon Res Grp, IMEC, Technologiepk Zwijnaarde, Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Ghent, Ctr Nano & Biophoton, Ghent, Belgium..
    Takabayashi, Alain Yuji
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jo, Gaehun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Zand, Iman
    Univ Ghent, Dept Informat Technol, Photon Res Grp, IMEC, Technologiepk Zwijnaarde, Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Ghent, Ctr Nano & Biophoton, Ghent, Belgium..
    Verheyen, Peter
    Imec Vzw, 3DSIP Dept, Si Photon Grp, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Jezzini, Moises
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Sattari, Hamed
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Talli, Giuseppe
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Antony, Cleitus
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Saei, Mehrdad
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Arce, Cristina Lerma
    Commscope Connect Belgium, Diestsesteenweg 692, B-3010 Kessel, LO, Belgium..
    Lee, Jun Su
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Mallik, Arun Kumar
    Tyndall Natl Inst, Lee Maltings Complex Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP, Ireland..
    Kumar, Saurav
    Commscope Connect Belgium, Diestsesteenweg 692, B-3010 Kessel, LO, Belgium..
    Garcia, Marco
    VLC Photon SL, UPV, Ed 9B,D2,Camino Vera Sn, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Jonuzi, Tigers
    VLC Photon SL, UPV, Ed 9B,D2,Camino Vera Sn, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Quack, Niels
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Khan, Umar
    Univ Ghent, Dept Informat Technol, Photon Res Grp, IMEC, Technologiepk Zwijnaarde, Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Ghent, Ctr Nano & Biophoton, Ghent, Belgium..
    Programmable silicon photonic circuits powered by MEMS2022In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Sailing He, Laurent Vivien, SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng , 2022, Vol. 12005, article id 1200509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present our work to extend silicon photonics with MEMS actuators to enable low-power, large scale programmable photonic circuits. For this, we start from the existing iSiPP50G silicon photonics platform of IMEC, where we add free-standing movable waveguides using a few post-processing steps. This allows us to implement phase shifters and tunable couplers using electrostatically actuated MEMS, while at the same time maintaining all the original functionality of the silicon photonics platform. The MEMS devices are protected using a wafer-level sealing approach and interfaced with custom multi-channel driver and readout electronics.

  • 36.
    Bryantseva, T. A.
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino 141120, Moscow Oblast, Russia..
    Lyubchenko, V. E.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino 141120, Moscow Oblast, Russia..
    Lyubchenko, Dmitri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Markov, I. A.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino 141120, Moscow Oblast, Russia..
    Ten, Yu. A.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Radioengn & Elect, Fryazino Branch, Fryazino 141120, Moscow Oblast, Russia..
    Peculiarities of the Formation and Growth of Thin Gold Films on the Surface of Gallium Arsenide during Thermal Evaporation in Vacuum2023In: Journal of communications technology & electronics, ISSN 1064-2269, E-ISSN 1555-6557, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 566-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the morphology and structure of the GaAs surface during the deposition of an Au film by thermal evaporation in vacuum have been studied. It has been found that the deposition of an Au film with the participation of a flow of particles and light from a heated evaporator causes the appearance of photo effects in the near-surface GaAs layers, including light diffraction on surface acoustic waves, the growth of whiskers, and electron emission, which leads to the formation of microcracks on the GaAs surface and the growth of GaAs crystallites. It is shown that the structure and composition of the film boundaries of Au and GaAs surfaces depend on the electron concentration in gallium arsenide, which ultimately determines the properties of the electrophysical parameters of the Au-GaAs contacts.

  • 37.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holzreuter, Muriel Alexandra
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Defined neuronal-astrocytic interactions enabled with a 3D printed platformManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Enrico, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Holzreuter, Muriel Alexandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Reid, Michael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Probabilistic cell seeding and non-autofluorescent 3D-printed structures as scalable approach for multi-level co-culture modeling2023In: Materials Today Bio, ISSN 2590-0064, Vol. 21, p. 100706-100706, article id 100706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To model complex biological tissue in vitro, a specific layout for the position and numbers of each cell type isnecessary. Establishing such a layout requires manual cell placement in three dimensions (3D) with micrometricprecision, which is complicated and time-consuming. Moreover, 3D printed materials used in compartmentalizedmicrofluidic models are opaque or autofluorescent, hindering parallel optical readout and forcing serial charac-terization methods, such as patch-clamp probing. To address these limitations, we introduce a multi-level co-culture model realized using a parallel cell seeding strategy of human neurons and astrocytes on 3D structuresprinted with a commercially available non-autofluorescent resin at micrometer resolution. Using a two-stepstrategy based on probabilistic cell seeding, we demonstrate a human neuronal monoculture that forms net-works on the 3D printed structure and can establish cell-projection contacts with an astrocytic-neuronal co-cultureseeded on the glass substrate. The transparent and non-autofluorescent printed platform allows fluorescence-based immunocytochemistry and calcium imaging. This approach provides facile multi-level compartmentaliza-tion of different cell types and routes for pre-designed cell projection contacts, instrumental in studying complextissue, such as the human brain.

  • 39.
    Buchmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stoop, Pepijn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roekevisch, Kim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jain, Saumey
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Kroon, Renee
    Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Müller, Christian
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zeglio, Erica
    AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden/ Wallenberg Initiative Materials Science for Sustainability, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. AIMES – Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden/ Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In situ functionalization of polar polythiophene based organic electrochemical transistor to interface in vitro modelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester
    et al.
    MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kim, Soyoung
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Soares, Vance
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tian, Ryan Yu
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Stern, Sarah R.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Minahan, Daniel
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Yona, Raissa
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Lu, Xiaoya
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Zakaria, Fauziah R.
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Univ Maryland, Fischell Dept Bioengn, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Collins, Joy
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Wainer, Jacob
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Fractyl Labs Inc, 17 Hartwell Ave, Lexington, MA 02421 USA..
    Wong, Jessica
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    McManus, Rebecca
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Tamang, Siddartha
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    McDonnell, Shane
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Ishida, Keiko
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Hayward, Alison
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;MIT, Div Comparat Med, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Liu, Xiewen
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Univ Oxford, Dept Mat, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH, England..
    Hubalek, Frantisek
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol Global Drug Discovery & Device, Malov, Denmark..
    Fels, Johannes
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol Global Drug Discovery & Device, Malov, Denmark..
    Vegge, Andreas
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol Global Drug Discovery & Device, Malov, Denmark..
    Frederiksen, Morten Revsgaard
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol Global Drug Discovery & Device, Malov, Denmark..
    Rahbek, Ulrik
    Novo Nordisk AS, Global Res Technol Global Drug Discovery & Device, Malov, Denmark..
    Yoshitake, Tadayuki
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Res Lab Elect, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Fujimoto, James
    MIT, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Res Lab Elect, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Langer, Robert
    MIT, Inst Med Engn & Sci, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Traverso, Giovanni
    MIT, Dept Chem Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;MIT, Koch Inst Integrat Canc Res, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Gastroenterol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    A microneedle platform for buccal macromolecule delivery2021In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 7, no 4, article id eabe2620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative means for drug delivery are needed to facilitate drug adherence and administration. Microneedles (MNs) have been previously investigated transdermally for drug delivery. To date, drug loading into MNs has been limited by drug solubility in the polymeric blend. We designed a highly drug-loaded MN patch to deliver macromolecules and applied it to the buccal area, which allows for faster delivery than the skin. We successfully delivered 1-mg payloads of human insulin and human growth hormone to the buccal cavity of swine within 30 s. In addition, we conducted a trial in 100 healthy volunteers to assess potential discomfort associated with MNs when applied in the oral cavity, identifying the hard palate as the preferred application site. We envisage that MN patches applied on buccal surfaces could increase medication adherence and facilitate the painless delivery of biologics and other drugs to many, especially for the pediatric and elderly populations.

  • 41.
    Campion, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Exploiting the Terahertz Spectrum with Silicon Micromachining: Waveguide Components, Systems and Metrology2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The terahertz spectrum (300 GHz - 3 THz) represents the final frontier for modern electronic and optical systems, wherein few low-cost, volume-manufacturable solutions exist. THz frequencies are of great scientific and commercial interest, with applications as diverse as radio astronomy, sensing and imaging and wireless communications. Current THz technology is restricted by its expense, form-factor and performance limitations. Future exploitation of this spectrum requires the development of new technologies which support its use in high-volume applications. Any such technology must offer excellent mechanical and electrical performance and be compatible with industrial grade tools and processes. In response to this, this thesis presents the development of silicon micromachined waveguide components and systems for THz and sub-THz frequencies. Silicon micromachining offers a unique combination of small feature sizes and low surface roughness and manufacturing tolerances in a scalable process.

    At the core of this work lies a new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide technology which minimises surface roughness to provide low insertion loss. Waveguide filters and diplexers between 100–500 GHz are implemented using this technology, each with state-of-the-art performance. A new platform for waveguide systems is developed to enable fully micromachined systems to be realised. In contrast to previous solutions, this platform integrates of all DC, intermediate and radio frequency signals in a single medium. Two unique non-galvanic transitions provide interfaces to active components and metallic waveguides. Semi-automated industrial tools perform system assembly with high accuracy and are used to implement complete transceivers for wireless communication at 110–170 GHz. Commercial-grade silicon germanium integrated circuits are used for all active components. This represents the first step in the adoption of this new technology in an industrial scenario.

    Large-scale use of the THz spectrum necessitates a shift from discrete components to complete integrated systems, in a similar matter to that seen in digital electronics and will require accurate, high-throughput characterisation and verification infrastructures. To support this, two transitions from co-planar waveguide probes to rectangular waveguide are proposed to allow for device characterisation in an on-wafer environment from 220–500 GHz. The accuracy and precision of the SOI micromachining process, coupled with the mechanical properties of silicon, make it highly suited to the creation of precision metrology standards. By harnessing these properties, a new class of micromachined waveguide calibration standards is developed, the peformance of which exceeds current solutions. Traceability of the standards is documented through detailed mechanical, electrical and statistcal analysis of fabricated samples.

    This work presented in thesis enables the development of THz components and systems, and methods to test them, in an established, high-volume technology, enabling their use in a wide range of applications.

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  • 42.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Krivovitca, Aleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-Loss Hollow and Silicon-Core Micromachined Waveguide Technologies Above 100 GHz2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Glubokov, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gomez-Torrent, Adrian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Krivovitca, Aleksandr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Bolander, Lars
    Ericsson Research.
    Li, Yinggang
    Ericsson Research.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    An Ultra Low-Loss Silicon-Micromachined Waveguide Filter for D-Band Telecommunication Applications2018In: 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, IEEE, 2018, p. 583-586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A very low-loss micromachined waveguide bandpassfilter for use in D-band (110–170GHz) telecommunication applicationsis presented. The 134–146GHz filter is implemented in a silicon micromachined technology which utilises a double H-plane split, resulting in significantly lower insertion loss than conventional micromachined waveguide devices. Custom split-blocks are designed and implemented to interface with the micromachined component. Compact micromachined E-plane bends connect the split-blocks and DUT. The measured insertion loss per unit length of the waveguide technology (0.008–0.016 dB/mm) is the lowest reported to date for any micromachined waveguide at D-band. The fabricated 6-pole filter, with a bandwidth of 11.8 GHz (8.4%), has a minimum insertion loss of 0.41 dB, averaging 0.5 dB across its 1 dB bandwidth, making it the lowest-loss D-band filter reported to date in any technology. Its return loss is better than 20 dB across 85% of the same bandwidth. The unloaded quality factor of a single cavity resonator implemented in this technology is estimated to be 1600.

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  • 44.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hassona, A.
    He, Z. S.
    Beuerle, Bernhard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gomez-Torrent, Adrian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Vecchiattini, S.
    Lindman, R.
    Dahl, T. S.
    Li, Y.
    Zirath, H.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Toward Industrial Exploitation of THz Frequencies: Integration of SiGe MMICs in Silicon-Micromachined Waveguide Systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, E-ISSN 2156-3446, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 624-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new integration concept for terahertz (THz) systems is presented in this article, wherein patterned silicon-on-insulator wafers form all DC, IF, and RF networks in a homogeneous medium, in contrast to existing solutions. Using this concept, silicon-micromachined waveguides are combined with silicon germanium (SiGe) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for the first time. All features of the integration platform lie in the waveguide’s H-plane. Heterogeneous integration of SiGe chips is achieved using a novel in-line H-plane transition. As an initial step toward complete systems, we outline the design, fabrication, and assembly of back-to-back transition structures, for use at D-band frequencies (110ï¿œ170 GHz). Special focus is given to the industrial compatibility of all components, fabrication, and assembly processes, with an eye on the future commercialization of THz systems. Prototype devices are assembled via two distinct processes, one of which utilizes semiautomated die-bonding tools. Positional and orientation tolerances for each process are quantified. An accuracy of $\pm \text3.5\; μ \textm$, $\pm \text1.5 °$ is achieved. Measured $S$-parameters for each device are presented. The insertion loss of a single-ended transition, largely due to MMIC substrate losses, is 4.2ï¿œ5.5 dB, with a bandwidth of 25 GHz (135ï¿œ160 GHz). Return loss is in excess of 5 dB. Measurements confirm the excellent repeatability of the fabrication and assembly processes and, thus, their suitability for use in high-volume applications. The proposed integration concept is highly scalable, permitting its usage far into the THz frequency spectrum. This article represents the first stage in the shift to highly compact, low-cost, volume-manufacturable THz waveguide systems.

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  • 45.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Silicon Micromachined Waveguide Calibration Standards for Terahertz MetrologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present silicon micromachined waveguide calibration standards for use with terahertz vector network analysers. We show how a single silicon-on-insulator wafer with correctly chosen device and handle layer thicknesses can be used to implement a wide range of calibration standards without the need for assembly of multiple components. The design of thestandards is reviewed from mechanical, electrical and end-userperspectives. By solid mechanics analysis we outline the potential to scale the presented design to at least 2.6 THz. In addition, a review of typical waveguide materials is performed to assess their compatibility with our design. It is found that silicon is by far the most promising material for the realisation of calibration standards. A total of eight types of standard are realised. The RF performance of 15 prototypes is characterised between 325 –500 GHz. Despite some fabrication anomalies all prototype standards show good agreement with theoretical models. Measured S-parameters of the standards are utilised to implement both one-and two-port calibrations, including the highly accurate multiline through-reflect-line algorithm. These are benchmarked against calibrations performed using conventional metallic standards,with favourable results. This work enables the creation of low-cost, highly-repeatable and traceable waveguide calibration standards for terahertz frequencies, surpassing the limits of current metrology techniques.

  • 46.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Silicon Micromachined Waveguide Calibration Standards for Terahertz Metrology2021In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 3927-3942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents precision silicon micromachined waveguide calibration standards for use with terahertz vector network analyzers. This enables the creation of precise, highly repeatable, and traceable terahertz waveguide standards, surpassing the limits of current metrology techniques. A single silicon-on-insulator wafer with the appropriate device and handle layer thicknesses is used to implement a wide range of calibration and verification standards. The design of the standards is discussed from mechanical, electrical, and end-user perspectives. Silicon is shown to be the most promising material for the realization of precision metrology standards. We outline the potential to scale the presented design to at least 2.6 THz. Eight types of WM-570 standard, totaling 15 prototypes, are fabricated and characterized between 325 and 500 GHz. Despite some fabrication anomalies, all devices offer excellent performance. The best micromachined standards offer a return loss in excess of 40 dB, an insertion loss of below 0.1 dB, and a phase error of less than 1 degrees. The standards are utilized in both one- and two-port calibrations, including the multiline through-reflect-line algorithm. These are benchmarked against calibrations performed using conventional metallic standards, with a high degree of agreement observed between error-corrected measurements of a range of test devices.

  • 47.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Traceability of Silicon Micromachined Waveguide Calibration Standards from 325 - 500 GHzManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports initial progress towards establishing metrological traceability of a new class of silicon micromachined waveguide calibration standards for use in terahertz metrology. The accuracy and precision of our micromachined standards exceeds that of current state-of-the-art calibration standards, making them highly promising for use in precision terahertz waveguide measurement and calibration. Establishing traceability requires that the cross-sectional dimensions of a waveguide standard, and the uncertainty in its electrical performance, be accurately quantified. To achieve this, dimensional characterisation of a micromachined standard is performed using white-light interferometry. The waveguide aperture is accurate to within 0.1 μm and 1.7 μm along its width and height. A detailed Monte Carlo analysis is performed to investigate the uncertainty and error levels caused by a total of 9 different sources of uncertainty. These include all fabrication related uncertainties, as well as those arising from misalignment of waveguides in experimental scenarios. The effect of each of these tolerances is investigated both independently and cumulatively, allowing their importance to be determined. Bounds on the simulated magnitude and phase uncertainties of the calibration standards, along with expected values, are derived. These are then compared to experimental uncertainty calculated from the measurementof 15 prototype calibration standards of 3 different lengths. An average uncertainty as low as 0.0009 is observed in the magnitude of reflective and transmissive measurements, with average transmissive phase uncertainty of 1.25◦ .

  • 48.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Repeatability of Silicon Micromachined Waveguide Components Connected to Metallic Waveguide Flanges at 220 - 330 GHzManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the repeatability of silicon micromachined waveguide components which are connected to metallic waveguide flanges and the impact of misalignment on it. Quantifying the repeatability of such components is essential to enable their use in high-volume applications, where randomd evice performance variations must be avoided. Misalignment is a significant contributor to experimental uncertainty andlimits the achievable return loss between a pair of waveguides. Misalignment is not the only factor which affects repeatability - variations in clamping pressure and mechanical wear to the various components also have an influence. These effects are not well understood as they are difficult to quantify, model or simulate. Here, we apply the elliptical alignment holes concept to greatly reduced the potential misalignment between siliconmicromachined chips and metallic flanges without the need to oversize the chip’s alignment holes. We design and fabricaten umerous samples which allow varying levels of misalignment and characterise them in a 2-port measurement setup from 220 –330 GHz. Mechanical wear of the micromachined components is examined and compared to the experimental results. The elliptical alignment hole concept is found to reduce experimentaluncertainty in |S11 | and |S21 | by up to a factor of 1.7 and 1.25, respectively, without reducing the probability of the chip fitting on the metallic flange.

  • 49.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Shah, Umer
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Silicon-Micromachined Waveguide Calibration Shims for Terahertz Frequencies2019In: Proceedings 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method of realising precision waveguide shims for use in THz Through-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibrations, based on silicon-micromachining, is introduced. The proposed calibration shims combine a thin λ/4 silicon layer, co-fabricated with a thicker layer which provides mechanical support. This design overcomes the limitations of CNC milling for the creation of calibration shims, facilitating use of standard TRL calibration at currently challenging frequencies. The novel shim fits inside the inner recess of a standard waveguide flange and is compatible with conventional flange alignment pins. Five micromachined shims were fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator process for operation in the WM-570 waveguide band (325–500GHz). The fabricated shims show excellent performance across the entire band, with return loss in excess of 25dB, insertion loss below 0.2 dB and high uniformity between samples. Verification reveals that the micromachined shims have an electrical length within 2% of the expected value. Comparative measurements of a DUT calibrated with the proposed shim and a previously un-used conventional metallic shim show that the novel concept offers equivalent, if not better, performance. The mechanical design of the micromachined shim and the rigid nature of silicon ensure that it will not suffer from performance degradation with repeated use, as is problematic with thin metallic shims. This work enables the creation of low-cost, highly-repeatable, traceable calibration shims with micrometer feature-sizes and high product uniformity, surpassing the limits of current techniques.

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  • 50.
    Campion, James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Xenidis, Nikolaos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ivanov, Roman
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Oberhammer, Joachim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Hussainova, Irina
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Lioubtchenko, Dmitri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems. CENTERA Laboratories, Institute of High-Pressure Physics, PAS, Warsaw, Poland.
    Ultra-wideband waveguide embedded graphene-based THz absorber2021In: The 11th International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics, META 2021, META Conference , 2021, p. 926-927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel type of absorber material integrated in a standard metal waveguide is developed for the ultra-wide frequency range of 67-500 GHz. The absorber is based on graphene augmented inorganic nanofibers which are deposited inside a metallic waveguide cassette, allowing them to be utilised in standard waveguide systems. The material’s microstructures result in a low level of reflectance (< -15 dB) and good absorbance (> 20 dB) from 110-500 GHz due to the porosity of the sample and attenuation caused by graphene, making them highly suited for wideband terahertz applications.

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