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  • 1. Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Diaz-Olivazrez, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    Teriö, Heikki
    Mediavilla Martinez, Cesar
    Aso, Santiago
    Tiemann, Christian
    Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

  • 2.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seoane, Fernando
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Halsovagen 7, S-14157 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Swedish Sch Text, Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Biomed Engn, S-17176 Solna, Sweden..
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17165 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Sci Pk,Allegatan 1, S-50190 Boras, Sweden..
    Wearable Sensors Enabling Personalized Occupational Healthcare2018In: INTELLIGENT ENVIRONMENTS 2018 / [ed] Chatzigiannakis, I Tobe, Y Novais, P Amft, O, IOS PRESS , 2018, p. 371-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents needs and potentials for wearable sensors in occupational healthcare. In addition, it presents ongoing European and Swedish projects for developing personalized, and pervasive wearable systems for assessing risks of developing musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases at work. Occupational healthcare should benefit in preventing diseases and disorders by providing the right feedback at the right time to the right person. Collected data from workers can provide evidence supporting the ergonomic and industrial tasks of redesigning the working environment to reduce the risks.

  • 3. Babapour, Maral
    et al.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Policies in Activity-based Flexible Offices: ‘I am sloppy with clean-desking. We don’t really know the rules.’2018In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations. The cases with extensive user involvement in their planning process had explicit unambiguous rules. A better compliance with rules occurred when (i) the employees were well-prepared and had a unified understanding regarding how and why to follow the rules, (ii) the rules were explicitly communicated and were regarded as easy to follow, and (iii) following the rules facilitated work and improved work conditions.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arman, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 558-565Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

  • 5.
    Dahlqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Nordander, Catarina
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Occupat & Environm Med, SE-22185 Lund, Sweden..
    Self-recordings of upper arm elevation during cleaning - comparison between analyses using a simplified reference posture and a standard reference posture2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To reduce ergonomic risk factors in terms of awkward and constrained postures and high velocities, it is important to perform adequate risk assessments. Technical methods provide objective measures of physical workload. These methods have so far mainly been used by researchers. However, if written instructions how to apply the sensors and how to adopt the reference posture are provided, together with triaxial accelerometers, it may be possible for employees to record their own physical workload. The exposure in terms of e.g. upper arm elevations could then easily be assessed for all workers in a workplace. The main aims of this study were: 1) to compare analyses for self-recording of upper arm elevation during work using a simplified reference posture versus using a standard reference posture, and 2) to compare the two reference postures.MethodsTwenty-eight cleaners attached an accelerometer to their dominant upper arm and adopted a simplified reference according to a written instruction. They were thereafter instructed by a researcher to adopt a standard reference. Upper arm elevations were recorded for 2 or 3 days. Each recording was analysed twice; relative to the simplified reference posture and relative to the standard reference posture. The group means of the differences in recorded upper arm elevations between simplified and standard reference analyses were assessed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Furthermore, we calculated the group mean of the differences between the simplified reference posture and the standard reference posture.ResultsFor arm elevation during work (50(th) percentile), the group mean of the differences between the two analyses was 0.2 degrees (range-7 - 10 degrees). The group mean of the differences between the two references was 9 degrees (range 1-21 degrees). The subjects were able to follow the instructions in the protocol and performed self-recording of upper arm elevation and velocity.ConclusionsThe small difference between the two analyses indicates that recordings performed by employees themselves are comparable, on a group level, with those performed by researchers. Self-recordings in combination with action levels would provide employers with a method for risk assessment as a solid basis for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 6. Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Andréasson, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Jutengren, G.
    Hermansson, J.
    How can support resources support sustainable leadership in healthcare?2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Hlth & Occupat Studies, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, results in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25cm and 50cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between the contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personality trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 8.
    Ekersund, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Buller på en återvinningscentral: Ljudnivåer, arbetstagarnas upplevelser samt risk för ototoxiska ämnen och vibrationer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An occupational group exposed to noise are workers at recycling centres. Research has shown that exposure to noise can lead to hearing loss and affect work performance. Research has also shown that ototoxic substances or vibration in combination with noise can enhance the hearing loss effect. There are few studies that have examined the work environment at recycling centres.

    Aim: The aim with this study was to examine the workers exposure to noise at one of Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB:s recycling centres. The aim was also to examine the workers subjective responses to noise. Finally, the aim was to examine if ototoxic substances and vibration in combination with noise can constitute risk factors that may increase the risk of hearing loss.

    Method: To examine the workers exposure to noise, noise measurements were carried out during two representative days. A qualitative interview were carried out to investigate the workers subjective responses to noise and effects on work performance. Two observations were carried out with the purpose to examine factors that can affect the risk from ototoxic substance-  and vibration exposure.

    Results: The results from the noise measurements shows that the daily noise exposure level is 79,7 dB(A). The highest maximum sound pressure level is 113,9 dB(A) and the highest peak sound pressure level is 136,6 dB. The results show that the workers experience annoying noise levels primarily when disposing waste in empty containers and when handling cages for electric waste. The results also show that the risk of ototoxic substance exposure, near occupational exposure limit, is considered to be low. The risk of vibration exposure, over action- and limit values, is considered to be low.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that the measured daily noise exposure level and the maximum sound pressure level are below the Swedish Work Environment Authority´s action- and limit values. The highest measured peak sound pressure level exceeds the Swedish Work Environment Authority´s action value. A number of suggested actions has been compiled based on the result, to decrease noise exposure. Noise reduction in containers (in particular the fractions metal, wood and furniture with composite materials) as well as installation of noise absorbers in the cold store for electric waste is recommended. The conclusion is also that the risk of exposure to ototoxic substances and vibration in combination with noise is considered to be low. To reduce the risk of ototoxic substance exposure it´s recommended that the required protective equipment is used when handling hazardous waste. It´s recommended not to break electric waste to reduce the risk of lead and mercury exposure.       

  • 9.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Helix Competence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Application of the HTO Concept for a Powered Pallet Truck2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 482-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truck drivers suffer work injuries to a higher extent than most other occupations. The HTO concept and the interaction framework were applied in a pre-study leading to a redesign of a new powered pallet truck. The old truck was evaluated using a literature study, interviews, observations, injury statistics and benchmarking, as part of the HTO analysis. The analyses showed that the driver often stood on the rear part of the platform with the heels outside the platform, making them vulnerable to injury. The injury statistics also showed that drivers of powered pallet trucks had more heel injuries than drivers of other truck types. There were two reasons for this. The steering arm was slightly too long, and the vibration damping was better the further back the drivers stood on the platform. This study led to redesign of the steering arm and platform suspension in the new truck generation. The combination of the HTO concept and the interaction framework supported the analysis in identifying relationships that otherwise would not have been obvious.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Observation Methods in the Context of Interactive Research2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 824, p. 1845-1849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interactive research approach was applied in an evaluation of a potential organizational change for mail carriers. Interviews and observations were performed. The results showed that specialization of mail carriers into either mail sorting or mail delivery would lead to more monotonous jobs. Observations showed that sorting mail in a new district takes substantially more time than in a well-known district. An interactive research approach creates a participative collaboration between employers, union representatives and researchers within a project. This influences the choice, planning and execution of methods, of which observation is one. Through the interactive discussions, the planning of how, who, when and where to perform the observations can be improved. This contributes to creating better opportunities to obtain valid results. The use of video recordings enables joint analysis, which contributes to higher acceptance of outcomes and results. The overall conclusion is that the combination of an interactive approach and observation methods is a way to improve both methodological validity and higher validity of the results in addition to higher acceptance of the results and subsequent decisions.

  • 11.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, M.
    Smart work clothes give better health - Through improved work technique, work organization and production technology2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 820, p. 515-519Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) constitute a major health problem for employees, and the economic consequences are substantial for the individuals, companies and the society. The ageing population creates a need for jobs to be sustainable so that employees can stay healthy and work longer. Prevention of MSD risks therefore needs to become more efficient, and more effective tools are thus needed for risk management. The use of smart work clothes is a way to automate data collection instead of manual observation. The aim of this paper is to describe a new smart work clothes system that is under development, and to discuss future opportunities using new and smart technology for prevention of work injuries. The system consists of a garment with textile sensors woven into the fabric for sensing heart rate and breathing. Tight and elastic first layer work wear is the basis for these sensors, and there are also pockets for inertial measurement units in order to measure movements and postures. The measurement data are sent wireless to a tablet or a mobile telephone for analysis. Several employees can be followed for a representative time period in order to assess a particular job and its workplace. Secondly, the system may be used for individuals to practice their work technique. The system also gives relevant information to a coach who can give feedback to the employees of how to improve their work technique. Thirdly, the data analysis may also give information to production engineers and managers regarding the risks. The information will support decisions on the type of actions needed, the body parts that are critical and the emergency of taking action.

  • 12.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Carl, Lind
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Factors influencing ergonomists' use of observation-based risk-assessment tools2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several observation-based risk-assessment tools have been developed in recent decades. Studies reporting their use often focus only on the user, the ergonomist. The influence of context and the attributes of the tools may also affect the use but are factors that are seldom considered. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the process of risk-assessment assignments and to identify factors influencing the use of research-based observation-based risk-assessment tools among Swedish ergonomists, with a background as reg. physiotherapists, employed in Occupational Health Services (OHS). METHODS: A web-based questionnaire (n = 70) was combined with semi-structured interviews (n = 12). RESULTS: There was limited use of several observation-based risk-assessment tools. Furthermore, the results showed that ergonomics risk-assessment assignments are most commonly initiated reactively and that interventions were seldom evaluated. Factors that influence use are related both to the ergonomist and to the attributes of the tools as well as to contextual factors assigned to authorities, and internal organisations both within occupational health service companies and client companies. CONCLUSION: There was a lack of systematic approaches in ergonomics risks assessment and low use and knowledge of risk-assessment tools. This indicates that there is a need to support OHS companies in implementing systematic tools in their practice.

  • 13.
    Elvnäs, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Carter, Ned
    SALAR.
    How to Use OBM Successfully With Leaders in the Context of Work Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming behavior science into applications that can be useful to real leaders is challenging. There are difficulities in identifying and recording leadership behaviors in field settings, and in describing and measuring changes in dynamic real-life situations . This seminar will present experiences of using OBM and Komaki´s taxonomy of operant leadership (OSTI) in a broader context of work analysis, a context that OBM needs and one that leaders can understand. This is accomplished without abandoning the strategies and tactics of behavioral science that are the hallmarks of OBM. Examples from an eight-year project including 3000 video observations of more than 500 leaders from multiple settings in several different branches of business, in combination with data from time allocation studies for leaders, will be presented. The summary of the results will be shown to contribute to the understanding of OBM in a system perspective. The findings have implications for the design of OBM-oriented leadership interventions.

  • 14.
    Fallman, Sara L.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Univ Boras, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, Boras, Sweden..
    Jutengren, Goran
    Univ Boras, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, Boras, Sweden..
    Dellve, Lotta
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Univ Boras, Fac Caring Sci Work Life & Social Welf, Boras, Sweden.;Gothenburg Univ, Dept Sociol & Work Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The impact of restricted decision-making autonomy on health care managers' health and work performance2019In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 706-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate how restricted decision-making autonomy and conflicting demands impact operational managers' work performance and health. Background Managers at operational level (first- and second-line managers') in health care organisations are commonly exposed to strain in their work situation with high demands and a challenging work context. Although they play an important role, the knowledge about the causal associations between stressful job demands and their consequences is limited. Methods A prospective design with questionnaire data collected at two points in time, 1 year apart, from a sample of operational managers (N = 162) at five Swedish hospitals was used to conduct a structural equation model analysis with cross-lagged paths. Results Restricted decision-making autonomy was negatively associated with both the managers' health and their managerial work performance over time. Conclusions Health care managers' work performance and health may be sustained by the top management allowing them a higher degree of autonomy in their decision-making. Implications for nursing management This study suggests that nursing leaders should create the circumstances for operational managers' to have higher levels of autonomy in their area of responsibility and the freedom to prioritize their managerial workload.

  • 15.
    Fritz, Minanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Stressprevention & Agil transformation: Prevention av organisatoriska rotorsaker till stress genom införandet av det Agila arbetssättet inom en högteknologisk multinationell svensk koncern2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish Royal School of Technology (KTH) was hired to conduct a pilot study project on stress prevention, "Stress Prevention Project" in a Swedish high-tech global manufacturing company with headquarters in Sweden. The aim was to identify the root causes of stress among employees at the organizational level and to offer a way to prevent the root causes. The initiative to implement the project came from the HR department in the company. The occupational health department had not been able to lower the costs of sickness and rehabilitation. One of nine divisions was included in this evaluation study. The project was carried out during the years of 2012-2014, and three quantitative stress measurements were carried out using the modern working environment form “Modern Work Life” based of knowledge from KTH and designed by Metodicum. The present study has evaluated the root causes of the division's stress. In the division, it was stated that the risk areas that the division had to work with were: resources, demands, control, support but also leadership and reorganization with implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the form of. The aim was to improve the psychosocial occupational health and to make the production work more efficient. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of stress preventive measures in one of the nine divisions (that were included in the overall project) and the effect of implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the organization. Limitations: The evaluation is restricted to one of the nine divisions. Method: The method is a quantitative and qualitative case study, with a narrative approach. The study includes a division with 200 employees of which data was collected from 18 of these employees in two focus groups interviews. Materials have also been collected from interviews with the division's HR director, section leader, head of unit and head of the organization's business health. The evaluation is based on qualitative data, which were obtained through 3 single interviews and 4 focus group interviews and participant observation. Quantitative data were obtained through three different measurements (between 2012-14). The quantitative data were compared and analyzed with the qualitative data in order to understand the results up to the final measurement 3 (2014).

    Results: The evaluation of the stress prevention – where the focus was to prevent risk areas including demands, develop resources, control, support and also leadership – showed that introducing and using the Agile working principles had had a significant positive effect on all the risk areas. Additionally, this change in the organization contributed to positive results regarding the efficiency of the production process; a reduction of working hours from 12 months to 2 weeks of action at the same result. The absence due to illness and rehabilitation has been decreasing from 4 % to 0,5-1% right after introducing the Agile methods in the division. However, the results also showed no improvement regarding some other working environment; as conflicts and bullying persisted. This may be due to how the reorganization of the groups was done. It should be clarified that the outcomes may be influenced by the extensive reorganization that took place in connection with the stress prevention project and the introduction of the agile approach.

    Conclusions - The stress prevention could not have been done efficiently due to other on-going reorganizations in the company and the staff has not been able to follow the recommendation for efficient stress-prevention due to lack of support from the headquarter. That created a crisis in the stress prevention-project group. The agile methods seem to have had a significant good result in all risk areas as resources, demands, control, support and also leadership and the absence has decreased from 4 to 0,5 %. Due to the agile methods have the productions process been shorter from 12 months to 2 weeks. 

  • 16.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson, Amanda
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Allied Hlth Profess Funct, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mueller, Mira
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ang, Björn Olov
    Karolinska Inst, Div Physiotherapy, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Huddinge, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Dalarna, Falun, Sweden..
    Non-participation in initial and repeated health risk appraisals - a drop-out analysis based on a health project2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHealth risk assessment (HRAs) are commonly used by occupational health services (OHS) to aid workplaces in keeping their employees healthy, but for unknown reasons, many employees choose not to participate in the HRAs. The aim of the study was to explore whether demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors in employees are associated with non-participation in initial and repeated HRAs.MethodsIn an OHS-based health project, 2022 municipal employees were asked to participate in three repeated HRAs. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used so as to determine associations between non-participating and demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors (e.g. biomarkers).ResultsAmong the employees who were asked to participate in the health project, more than half did not participate in any HRA and among those who did, more than one third did not participate in repeated HRAs. Young age, male sex and being employed in the Technical department or Health and Social Care department in comparison with being employed in the department for Childcare and Education were factors significantly associated with non-participation in the initial HRA. These factors, together with being on sick leave and having unhealthy dietary habits, were factors associated with non-participation in repeated HRAs.ConclusionsAmong the non-participators in initial HRAs and in repeated HRAs younger men and those already related to ill-health were overrepresented. This implicates that health care providers to a higher extent should focus on those most needed and that employers should be more engaged in results of repeated HRA's. Future studies should focus on modifiable variables that could make the HRAs more attractive and inclusive.

  • 17.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Department of Industrial Design, Industrial Management and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Magnusson, P.
    Lyckström, M.
    Wijk, K.
    Application of a sense of coherence-based leadership for productivity and health at Scania2019In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 179-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore if sense of coherence (SOC) theory can be used in human factors ergonomics (HFE) practice as a leadership approach to decrease the rate of sick leave and rehabilitation cases and increase work attendance among assembly personnel without impeding productivity. Via three studies carried out at the Swedish truck manufacturer Scania, we investigated the company’s key performance indicators and documented meetings with managers during the intervention. The results show that SOC can be used in HFE practice and that productivity, quality and attendance at work increased, while rehabilitation cases decreased. Our conclusion is that a health promotion approach among managers is essential in a lean organisation that aims to reduce waste in the company and optimise human capability and thereby productivity. SOC theory can support the creation of workplaces that are high performing and healthy, starting with concerns for the people creating the output.

  • 18.
    Hallén, Katarina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Trafikverkets implementering och utveckling av BIM - projekteringsprocessen utifrån ett sociotekniskt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration, which is the contractor of this study, has, after the first years of delivering BIM surveys, experienced that their expectations for the delivery of BIMsurveys have not been met. The purpose of this study is to investigate what factors may cause the contractor and consultants to fail to reach a consensus on the process and how to synchronise the consultant's process with the contractor so that the quality of the deliveries becomes moresatisfactory based on the contractor's requirements.

    The purpose of the study is to analyse, from a sociotechnical perspective, and identify the factorsrequired to obtain an effective BIM survey process.

    The questions are what expectations and experiences the Swedish Transport Administration hasas a contractor of deliveries of BIM surveys relating to communication, technology and processes, as well as what expectations and experiences the consultants have from the implementation of the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements for the BIM surveys relating to communication, technology and processes.

    Interviews have been conducted with informants both from the Swedish Transport Administration and from different consultancy companies.

    The result shows that the process is still very immature. The technology exists but the knowledge of what BIM is and understanding of the benefit of the process is insufficient. The study concludes by suggesting how the future implementation work should look from a sociotechnical perspective.

  • 19.
    Håkansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lean Transformation of Industrial Work: Understanding What Supports Socially Sustainable Working Conditions During Lean Manufacturing2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of to what extent lean manufacturing transforms industrial work, including psychosocial and physical working conditions, and, to understand how socially sustainable working conditions can be supported in a lean organization.

    Four studies with different methodological approaches are included. The first study is a literature overview of the associations between lean and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. The second study documented physical workload and pain among operators, through direct measurements and painratings, in a process industry with extensive usage of lean practices. In addition, two 3-year case studies were carried out in a medium-sized, Swedish manufacturing family company. The studies focused on the influence of lean on work characteristics, psychosocial working conditions, and what leadership practices contributed to supporting the socially sustainable working conditions respectively.

    The literature overview on lean and physical workload showed that the literature in the area was limited, of varying quality, and that none of the included studies had directly measured the physical workload. Further, it suggested that lean tended to have better outcomes for employees in the Nordic countries and in those cases where the lean initiative was combined with an ergonomic or work environment intervention. The measurements of physical workload in the process industry showed that the exposures were low across the study period. Ratings of neck and upper extremity pain were relatively high across the years, but did not increase significantly.

    The results from the manufacturing company showed that employees could sustain important work resources including favorable psychosocial working conditions: Good social support, low stress levels, and a good self-rated health were sustained while role conflicts decreased, and justice and respect increased significantly. There was a trend toward gradually increased work content through job enlargment with increased elements of more qualified tasks, and more employees were cross-trained. The work standardization, however, meant that some work processes were simplified and that employees’ influence over the daily work seemed to have decreased, while there were still opportunities for them to influence what would be included in the work assignment, and employee influence through improvement practices increased. Both case studies indicated that the participatory leadership approach in combination with a value-creating leadership that focus on health and employee development, contributed to making the lean initiative socially sustainable. In conclusion, lean can affect work characteristics and employees’ working conditions in different ways depending on how, and in what type of work, it is implemented. Previous studies on lean in industry have mostly shown that lean tends to increase workload and reduce control over daily work. This thesis, however, provides examples showing that it is possible to have low levels of physical exposures in a lean process industry and that it is possible to sustain important psychosocial work resources.

    The work practices seemed to be shaped in an interplay between organizational context, type of job, managerial practices, lean practices employed, and employees’ involvement. Knowledge abouthow work is shaped is important for those who want to proactively contribute to a work design that supports the development of resourceful jobs. Findings in this thesis point to the need to actively monitor and care how lean affects working conditions in order to support resourceful jobs.

    This thesis shows that it is possible to make lean initiatives in manufacturing companies more socially sustainable. Overall, findings from this thesis indicate that important and interdependent components that can contribute to socially sustainable lean initiatives involve having a conscious focus on work environment management and health, in combination with a value-creating leadership that actively support important work resources and involves employees in a conscious manner.

  • 20.
    Håkansson, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden..
    Continuous lean development in industrial process work: Implications for physical workload and pain in the neck and upper extremitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Joacim, Levander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Säkerhet, risker och stress: en deskriptiv fallstudie av ramppersonalens arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study had the standpoint in the terms that refers to ground handlers on a Swedish airport. The risks involved in loading and unloading the goods. The issue grew as the knowledge increased about the Human, Technology and Organisation (HTO). The part of the background content elements and concepts touching stress, concept of safety, safety at the airports. The aim of this study was to describe if the safety, risks eventually influences ground handlers by stress linked to loading and unloading of aircrafts. To picture the association between them, HTO and demand-control-support perspective where used. The study didn´t cover goals of interventions. The study design in use where the descriptive case study. Methods in use where individual interviewing, focus group interviewing, participant observation with so called full involvement on the ramp. Selection of participant where based on staff on duty. Member of the leadership did de selection guided by the scheduled interviews. The study comprehended the importance of working schedule, organisation issues, deliberately assumption of risk and a high risk of accident. Support from nearest and highest leadership was high. There were indications about the importance of social support and sense of security in the team. Most concerned newly employed. The importance of the type of aircraft, problems connected with narrow bodied aircrafts. Keep on the work to change this type of aircraft, above all else on nightly goods aircrafts will radically improve the ergonomics and safety. Next scientific work suggested to look at the connection between the equipment used by load, unloading and stress. When the type of aircrafts has been changed look at the impact on stress, risks and safety. Also suggested scientific work to look at the organisation of work in and between the team. How the organisation works out practically on the ramp, between ground handlers and custom service and between ground handlers and the leadership. Next scientific work could also look closer to the hypothetical causal model described in this work. Aimed to enhance and develop the systematic work environment management (SAM).

  • 22.
    Jutengren, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden .
    Jaldestad, Ellen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    The potential importance of social capital and job crafting for work engagement and work satisfaction among health care employees2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Recent research in health care has sought to find out how employee health and engagement can best be promoted. There is longitudinal evidence that social capital play an important role for employers’ work engagement. In fact, social capital is an important interpersonal resource that predicts not only work engagement, but also job satisfaction. Besides social capital, the research literature indicates that job crafting have a potential role in the promotion of work engagement and job satisfaction. There is, however, limited knowledge about the mechanisms with which social capital within work groups is conceptually linked to individual job crafting, job satisfaction and work engagement.

    Aim

    The aim was to examine the intermutual influences of work-group social capital, individuals’ job crafting, work engagement, and job satisfaction.

    Material and methods

    The sample included 240 employees, recruited from 22 health care workplaces in Sweden, who filled in a questionnaire at two points in time (i.e. T1 and T2), 6-8 months apart. Data were analyzed in two steps. First, a longitudinal panel design that tested for effects of T1 work-group social capital on T2 job crafting, work engagement, and job satisfaction respectively were analyzed with a structural regression model that controlled for both temporal and concurrent relations. Second, mediational effects of job crafting were tested following a four-step procedure.

    Results

    The results confirmed that social capital within work groups was predictive of job satisfaction and work engagement in terms of vigor, dedication, and attention. Adding to previous research, the results also showed that social capital was predictive of both cognitive and relational job crafting.

    Relational job crafting had a relatively large mediating effect between social capital and work engagement, whereas the association from social capital to work satisfaction was mediated by cognitive and relational job crafting.

    Conclusions

    Both relational and cognitive job crafting was enhanced by a strong social capital within the work group. As these kinds of crafting also mediated work engagement and work satisfaction, the result show that health care organizations should prioritize aiming to enhance a positive social capital and enable crafting behavior within relational and cognitive crafting.

  • 23.
    Kasyanov, Dmitrij
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Ergonomi.
    Mikhaltchouk, Inga
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Smarta kläder, användbarhet och påverkan på arbetsbeteende – användartestning av en prototyp2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart clothes are a group of technical aids that consist of clothing that has integrated/built-in sensors that measure body postures and movements and display information about possible physical overload. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prototype 1 of a smart workwear system by investigating its user experience and usability, as well as the impact of the prototype on the test subjects' work behavior. A combined study design was chosen. The experimental study was supplemented with questionnaire and interview. Twelve test subjects split in three equal groups participated in the study: one control group and two experimental groups. Through technical measurements, kinematic data was collected: angular velocity of the wrist and thumb pressure; right and left arm's angle; angular velocity for the right and left arm as well as the torso angle during forward and backward bending. Changes in work behavior were found. However, large differences in the individual results within each group were observed, with no obvious pattern of changes in work behavior between groups. The collected data did not support the hypothesis that work behavior changes can be associated with the impact of the prototype.

     The result of analysis of the interviews and questionnaires about user experience and usability showed that the prototype was considered user-friendly and useful in general. Test subjects requested changes in the prototype’s construction regarding the prototype’s material and size, type of feedback and location of sensors.

     Some shortcomings are observed in the test design, data collection and also in how the tests were conducted. Their impact on the validity and reliability of the study is discussed; accordingly, recommendations addressing the detected shortcomings are given regarding the future testing of the next prototype.

  • 24.
    Kässi, Jonna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Undersökning av det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet hos företag som arbetar med AFS 2001:1: Hur ser behovet av IT-stöd ut?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today are pressed and need to prioritize their primary work tasks which often means that work environment management is hard to maintain or can be seen as an unmotivated cost. To save money and avoid disturbing the daily operations representatives are sometimes chosen to be the link between the end-user and the system developer during the development of a new system. That means that important knowledge and needs aren’t included in the development phase. Poorly designed computer systems can lead to it not being used or the fact that the work environment management becomes suffering. During the development of a computer system it’s important to consider the usability. A system that is built focused on the end-user seems to have a higher level of acceptance at companies.

     

    The purpose of this essay was to identify the needs of computer aid for the systematic work environment management at companies that have previously worked with AFS 2001:1 (Swedish law for systematic work environment management).  The method for this essay mainly consisted of literature studies and interviews with managers and co-workers (alternatively safety representative). Collected data from managers and co-workers were compared and the differences between the companies were analyzed.

     

    Results show that there wasn’t any difference between the data collected from the managers and the co-workers in the same company. This means that participants from the same company had the same view on their work environment management. When the companies were compared to each other there were differences related to the level of knowledge and the ability to pass the knowledge along.

     

    A common factor that was lacking for all companies was that the final step in the systematic work environment management which is control. All companies were good at addressing occupational safety deficiencies that were of the acute nature. Acute cases are something that is detected directly, for example, injuries due to tripping. While long-term deficiencies are seen as major processes with longer implementation periods, such as mapping of declining productivity due to workplace shortcomings.

     

    Conclusion of the results showed that there is a need for a management system with IT support that is user-adapted. It should provide support rather than burden the employer with a load of documentation and administration. Before the design phase of a management system, the purpose and goal are key elements to define with the developer in order to create a user-friendly system.

     

    Something that permeated the results of the survey was that all participants didn’t do any kind of follow-up. Therefore, in future development projects, it is important to take into account that part of the systematic work environment management to ensure that it is not forgotten. This step is an important part of systematic work environment management and goal fulfillment as well as development. Better follow up leads to better decisions.

  • 25.
    Larsen, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Återanvändning av kemiska riskbedömningar: Förutsättningar, fördelar och svårigheter.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical risks in the work environment occur in several industries, and need to be prevented to protect workers from ill-health, illness and accidents. By performing risk assessments and taking appropriate measures, it is possible to reach the goal to reduce or even eliminate chemical risks. However, performing chemical risk assessments is often a quite difficult and complex issue with several different aspects to consider, requiring both time and knowledge. As a way to simplify and streamline the process of chemical risk assessment, Skanska, a company within the construction industry, wants to investigate whether it is possible to reuse chemical risk assessments. The purpose of this thesis was thus to investigate the possibility of reusing already performed chemical risk assessments in situations where the chemical products will be used again. The investigation has focused on the advantages, obstacles or difficulties and prerequisites for reuse. European and Swedish regulations and scientific literature have been reviewed and data have been collected from interviews with managers, safety representatives and employees at three workplaces at Skanska and from performed risk assessments of some selected products. Thereafter, the results have been compared with Swedish regulations, in order to draw conclusions about the possibility of reusing chemical risk assessments.

    The conclusion is that it should be possible to reuse chemical risk assessments, provided that the templates or checklists used as a support meet the requirements for chemical risk assessments. This needs to be ensured through appropriate routines by personnel with the right expertise about chemical risks in the work environment. It must also be ensured that some factors, as way of working, the work environment and measures taken, need to be similar for the workplace first performing the risk assessment, and the workplace that will reuse the same risk assessment, or at least that these factors can become similar after measures taken. Some risks or obstacles of reusing chemical risk assessments have been identified. One of the most prominent risks is that chemical hazards will be missed and thereby also the measures that need to be taken. This may be due to lack of knowledge and commitment or possibly cheating or carelessness. In situations where more hazardous chemical products are being used, it may be more difficult to reuse risk assessments. Some benefits of reusing risk assessments may be less time required for chemical risk assessments, more efficient management and increased support and learning about chemical hazards by learning from each other and previous risk assessments. Possibly, reuse can also contribute to more risk assessments being carried out, thereby ensuring the safety and health of professional workers.

  • 26.
    Laya, Andrés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Network-centric business models for health, social care and wellbeing solutions in the internet of things2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multiple case study we analyze solutions based on connected devices in the context of health, social care and wellbeing. Based on the consideration that a solution is a combination of services and products, we build on the notion that business models can be studied at a firm-level and also at a network-level. The network-level analysis is used to motivate the reasons why solutions emerging at the intersection of the healthcare and the ICT industries benefit from collaboration among different actors. We conclude that the firm- and the network-level development of business models provide alignment in the business network and are useful to establish the relation that technological component have with overall solutions. Our findings suggest that some component bring novelty in the final offer without affecting the ongoing operation, while other component aim at improving the internal working processes, with minimal effects on the final offer to end users. We discuss the benefits of a network-level perspective for each case.

  • 27.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Development and evaluation of RAMP I – a practitioner’s tool for screening of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in manual handling2019In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), Vol. 25, no 2, p. 165-180, article id 10.1080/10803548.2017.1364458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder riskfactors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research-based studies combinedwith expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consistsof dichotomous assessment items grouped into seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of theassessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1 h of training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I beingusable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, being usable as a decision base,having clear results and that the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a usable toolfor practitioners.

  • 28.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.(User Centred Product Design) .
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.(User Centred Product Design) .
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.(User Centred Product Design).
    Diaz Olivares, Jose Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Prevention of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Using Smart Workwear – The Smart Workwear Consortium2019In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing: International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design: Future Trends and Applications: Human Systems Engineering and Design / [ed] Ahram T., Karwowski W., Taiar R, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, p. 477-483Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse work-related physical exposures such as repetitive movements and awkward postures have negative health effects and lead to large financial costs. To address these problems, a multi-disciplinary consortium was formed with the aim of developing an ambulatory system for recording and analyzing risks for musculoskeletal disorders utilizing textile integrated sensors as part of the regular workwear. This paper presents the consortium, the Smart Workwear System, and a case study illustrating its potential to decrease adverse biomechanical exposure by promoting improved work technique.

  • 29.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Prevention of work-related ill-health2018In: 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents strategies targeting prevention of work-related ill-health, and how the use of smart workwear (wearables) can facilitate these strategies

  • 30.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hanson, Lars
    School of Engineering Science, University of Skövde; Global Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet; Faculty of Textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Reducing postural load in order picking through a smart workwear system using real-time vibrotactile feedbackManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrotactile feedback training may be one possible method for interventions that target at learning better work technique and improving postures in manual handling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of real-time vibrotactile feedback using a smart workwear system for work postures intervention in industrial order picking. Fifteen workers at an industrial manufacturing plant performed order-picking tasks, in which the vibrotactile feedback was used for postural training at work. The trunk and upper arm postures were recorded by the system. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted about the users’ experience of the system. The results showed reduced time in adverse postures for the trunk and upper arms when the workers received feedback, and for trunk postures also after feedback withdrawal. The workers perceived the system as usable, comfortable and supportive for learning.

  • 31.
    Lu, Ke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Abtahi, F.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Rödby, K.
    Seoane, F.
    Wearable cardiorespiratory monitoring system for unobtrusive free-living energy expenditure tracking2019In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer, 2019, no 1, p. 433-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we want to introduce combined heart rate and respiration monitoring for more accurate energy expenditure tracking on free-living subjects. We have developed a wearable cardiorespiratory monitoring system with unobtrusive heart rate measurement and ventilation estimation function for this purpose. The system is based on a garment with integrated textile electrodes for one-lead electrocardiogram and impedance pneumography measurements. A pilot experiment has been performed to prove the concept and to evaluate the characteristics of heart rate and ventilation estimated by our system in relation to energy expenditure. In the experiment, ventilation shows a better linearity in relation to the energy expenditure at the low intensity region than heart rate. Based on these characteristics, a model combining heart rate and ventilation for energy expenditure estimation is proposed which shows a significantly lower estimation error than the heart rate only model.

  • 32.
    Lu, Ke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seoane, F.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, K.
    Fusion of heart rate, respiration and motion measurements from a wearable sensor system to enhance energy expenditure estimation2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 3092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method that integrates heart rate, respiration, and motion information obtained from a wearable sensor system to estimate energy expenditure. The system measures electrocardiography, impedance pneumography, and acceleration from upper and lower limbs. A multilayer perceptron neural network model was developed, evaluated, and compared to two existing methods, with data from 11 subjects (mean age, 27 years, range, 21–65 years) who performed a 3-h protocol including submaximal tests, simulated work tasks, and periods of rest. Oxygen uptake was measured with an indirect calorimeter as a reference, with a time resolution of 15 s. When compared to the reference, the new model showed a lower mean absolute error (MAE = 1.65 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.92) than the two existing methods, i.e., the flex-HR method (MAE = 2.83 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.75), which uses only heart rate, and arm-leg HR+M method (MAE = 2.12 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.86), which uses heart rate and motion information. As indicated, this new model may, in combination with a wearable system, be useful in occupational and general health applications. 

  • 33. Mahdavian, N.
    et al.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Karolinska Institutet.
    Diaz Olivares, Jose Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Pascual, Aitor
    Högberg, D.
    Brolin, E.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Hanson, L.
    Effect of giving feedback on postural working techniques2018In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, p. 247-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working postures and movements affect work efficiency and musculoskeletal health. To reduce the biomechanical exposure in physically demanding settings, working techniques may be improved by giving instant ergonomic feedback to the operator. This study investigates if feedback can be used to decrease adverse postures and movements in assembly work. A prototype solution of a smart textile workwear was used on a trainee assembly line. Posture and movement signals of 24 trainee operators were sampled via the workwear, transferred to a tablet for analyses and used to provide feedback suggesting improvements of work technique. Two modes of feedback were tested. Every participant’s work technique was measured before and after receiving the feedback and the results were compared. For upper arm elevation angle ≥60°, behaviour change is indicated, supporting a positive work technique change, and indicated a future usefulness of technical automatic feedback for operators.

  • 34.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Movin, Staffan
    Market Technol Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    On the role and potential of IoT in different industries Analysis of actor cooperation and challenges for introduction of new technology2017In: 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS / [ed] Falch, M, IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study how IoT technology can be introduced and used in different sectors; industrial IoT, smart energy, smart homes, smart cities, health care and social care, sports and well-being. The research has given increased insights into opportunities and obstacles for the introduction of IoT in different sectors. The main obstacles are considered to be i) specific IoT solutions often tend to be a small part of the overall solution, ii) lack of knowledge about which overall services the IoT solution may be part of, iii) Fragmentation and insufficient scalability, iv) Distrust and hesitation among actors to share data and platforms and finally, v) fear of changing the own business model. The analysis of our cases indicates that most of the challenges occur due to the fact that the solutions initially have been developed using a single firm business model. In order to survive or grow a networked business model is needed.

  • 35. Mattsson, Janet
    et al.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Technology in Health Care.
    Björling, Gunilla
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Interprofessional Learning for Enhanced Patient Safety: Biomedical Engineering Students and Nursing Students in Joint Learning Activities.2019In: Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice and Education, ISSN 1916-7342, E-ISSN 1916-7342, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the last decade, research has highlighted the importance of interprofessional approaches to education and practice. Collaboration between medical practice and engineering has been identified as particularly relevant to developing accountable models for sustainable healthcare and overcoming increased specialization leading to professional barriers. This study aims to analyze insights and understanding expressed by nursing students and biomedical engineering students following a joint learning activity regarding a medical device used in the hospital setting.

    Method: A qualitative approach deriving from a phenomenological view examined an interprofessional learning activity where the focus was on active integration and knowledge exchange.

    Conclusion: The activity was expressed as a positive opportunity for getting insights into perspectives from other professional groups as well as insights into the importance of a system perspective in patient safety. The learning and insights listed in the evaluations included ideas about how the two professional groups could collaborate in the future.

  • 36.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Occupational Health Services Professionals; skills, needs and experiences shared in a learning network: Co-operative inquiry performed in the manufacturing sector2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work environment conditions can influence individuals, organisations as well as society, and economic consequences can be extensive. The employer is responsible for the work environment,but must engage Occupational Health Services (OHS) or similar if the own competenceis not sufficient. Consequently, the professional skills of OHS providers is an important topic, as the services delivered are aimed at contributing to a good work environment. However, research in this area was scant and there was a call for illumination of what professional skills are needed within OHS. There was also a need to find arenas for knowledge development and sharing within and between occupational safety and health (OS&H) professionals and researchers.

    One aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding about professional skills when it comes to OS&H engineers and ergonomists working within the manufacturing sector. A second aim was to gain experiences of using co-operative inquiry in a learning network for OS&H professionals in order to develop professional skills. The thesis is based on three papers, all with a qualitative research approach. The co-operative inquiry method was used to run a learning network for the research. This network consisted of ten OS&H professionals (engineers and ergonomists) employed at in-house as well as external providers of OHS for manufacturing companies, and two researchers. Everyone in the network acted as co-researchers in accordance with the intention of co-operative inquiry. The dialogues at the meetings were analysed with thematic analysis, using six socio-technical elements as themes.

    The results showed that the OS&H engineers and ergonomists in the network wanted to work more preventively in the future. To achieve this, they expressed needs for both theoretically based arguments and communication skills to convince clients about the benefits with this approach. Research based knowledge, practical experience and good examples were shared and reflected on with the purpose of integrating the new knowledge into daily practice. The dialogues at the meetings dealt mainly with topics at an organisation level rather than details and individual level. The dialogues focused on e.g. co-operation in teams within the OHS firms and with different stakeholders at the client companies, integration of OS&H management into existing processes, participation from early stages in design and change processes, the use of risk assessment tools and, finally, communication skills.

    The co-operative inquiry method was suitable, as the network functioned as an arena for reflective learning.

  • 37.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kollegor eller konkurrenter? : Samverkan i nätverk mellan arbetsmiljöingenjörer, ergonomer samt forskare2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Occupational safety and health professionals’ skills – A call for system understanding?: Experiences from a co-operative inquiry within the manufacturing sector2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, p. 279-287Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sector specific skills in occupational safety and health (OS&H) are crucial for being able to contribute to good work environment and decrease today's high levels of sick absences. Large manufacturing companies are due to tradition good at OS&H and can serve as an interesting context for investigating the knowledge level in the area today, and needs for the future. For this purpose a case study was performed in this sector as a co-operative inquiry, including 10 OS&H professionals (engineers and ergonomists) employed at in-house and external occupational health services (OHS). Professional experiences, good examples from practice and current research were shared jointly within the inquiry. The results show needs to work more preventively than today comprehending aspects as system understanding, integrated work teams, participation, a clear role in change projects plus skills in risk assessments. Skills in how to conduct well-functioning dialogues with stakeholders were also on the agenda.

  • 39.
    Palm, Kristina
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Solna, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Prod Dev, Sch Ind Engn & Management, Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Understanding salutogenic approaches to managing intensive work: Experiences from three Swedish companies2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 627-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the risks involved in work intensification; i.e. the risk of human resources being consumed, incurring higher risks of emotional ill health such as burnout among employees. At the same time, there are some indications that individual employees are being left to themselves to manage work tasks in intensive work environments. OBJECTIVE: This article explores how strongly engaged people master intensive work through coping and job crafting in a salutogenic way. METHODS: The article is based on 34 in depth interviews of persons in various professions within research and development departments in three Swedish companies. RESULTS: The interviews indicated that employees generally experienced work as almost constantly intense. We identified two strategies for mastering intensive work; i.e. an active strategy and a cognitive strategy, involving elements of both coping and job crafting. The specific elements of these strategies determine whether salutogenic processes are present. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that it is the specific elements of the coping and job-crafting strategies that determine whether or not salutogenic processes occur, and that organisational support is an important supplement to the individual processes for mastering intensive work.

  • 40.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Activity-based Flexible Office work environments: Design and implementation processes and outcomes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, there has been a reported increase in organizations relocating to Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) worldwide. The idea of A-FOs is to offer work conditions suitable for the workforce’s tasks and individual preferences. Benefits of the A-FO include employee autonomy, privacy and inter- and intra-team communication. However, there are reports within Swedish media on reduced performance, increased dissatisfaction, injustice, and workplace avoidance amongst employees occupying A-FOs. Added to which empirical research supporting A-FOs claimed benefits are scarce with inconsistent results.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to explore and investigate perceptions of workspace, work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance in A-FOs (aim of Studies I-V). Additionally, the sub-aims are to explore and investigate associations with underlying factors such as design and implementation process factors including methods suggestions (aims of Studies II, IV & VI), physical workspace factors (aim of Study III), desk-sharing and speech policies (aim of Study IV), and organizational preconditions (aim of Study V).  This thesis aims at integrating the contributions of each paper and making the whole greater than the sum of its parts.

    Method: A problem centered, pragmatic approach guided the methodological choices. Two in-depth longitudinal case (n=66 & 46) and two cross-sectional (n=202 & 105) studies were conducted at five single floor A-FOs. A mixed method approach was adopted comprising of six questionnaires, 105 individual interviews, documentation of plan layouts, photographs, planning documents and observations. A third cross-sectional study with 7 additional cases was conducted on 473-715 questionnaire responses.

    Results & discussion: The results showed that work environment satisfaction and perceived performance can increase after relocation to A-FOs. Reported contributing design and implementation process factors included meaningful objectives for the employees, allocation of time and financial resources, having an organizational focus, employee empowerment, and a methodological approach. A methods framework divided into A-FO design stages is presented that can facilitate the design process of A-FOs. Reported contributing workspace design factors included ample desk-sharing ratios and workspace diversity. Desk-sharing and speech rules were identified: when to remove belongings, allowance to occupy the same workstation in open-plan and enclosed areas on consecutive days, and allocations of areas where speaking on the phone, and verbal interaction with colleagues and interruptions are allowed or forbidden. Organizational preconditions, such as innovative work tasks and an open-plan office type prior to relocation were associated with preference for the A-FO.

    Conclusion: Design and implementation factors, workspace factors, application of rules and organizational preconditions are possible predictors of work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance. A-FOs can be perceived as noisy workplaces that create extra work, decrease interaction as well as increase uncertainty on how to act within the office. However, A-FOs can also be preferred above other office types and be perceived with high work environment satisfaction and perceived performance. This thesis has stressed the importance of a holistic sociotechnical perspective during A-FO implementations, and the importance of employee involvement and empowerment, workspace diversity and desk-sharing policies.

  • 41.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Relocation to an activity-based flexible office: Design processes and outcomes2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 73, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations relocate to activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) and the results are mixed. This study aims at identifying factors in the design and implementation process that contribute to perceived performance and environmental satisfaction with A-FOs.

    A company with 50 employees was studied using interviews, questionnaires and documentation before and after relocation. The results showed that process factors such as objectives, financial and time resources, employee participation and empowerment, and methodological approach contributed to the outcomes. Perceived performance and employee satisfaction with the physical environment increased significantly after the relocation. Employee empowerment, highlighted by the employees, correlated with the performance and satisfaction parameters.

    A conceptual model is proposed relating process factors, internal and external organizational context, and physical office setting to work condition consequences and overall outcomes such as employee performance and satisfaction.

  • 42.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Plan layout, space ratios and interior design in activity-based flexible officesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are implemented worldwide and comprise open-plan areas and additional enclosed back-up spaces. A-FOs vary in number of acoustic settings, individual enclosed back-up rooms, workstation arrangement and amount of space per workstation and employee. Comparative studies of A-FOs are scarce and do not specify or describe details about architectural features, perceptions of these features and related working conditions. This study compares four A-FO cases’ workspaces (i.e. plan layouts), acoustic settings, space ratios and interior designs, as well as employee perceptions of these settings and perceived performance and workspace satisfaction. Evaluation of four plan layouts, on-site observations and Kruskal-Wallis pairwise comparisons on 202 questionnaire responses showed that employees in offices with (1) most ample ratios (e.g. 0.9 workstations/employee), (2) variations in acoustic environments (from strictly quiet to interactive areas), (3) lowest number of workstations in a row, and (4) corridors separated from workstations, were significantly more satisfied with the space configuration parameters, acoustics, mental working conditions and privacy, as well as work environment satisfaction and perceived performance. The office environment can explain variations in workspace satisfaction and perceived performance in A-FOs.

  • 43.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    A proposed methods framework and a pilot intervention for workplace design2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 824, p. 356-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workspace design process offers opportunities for significant improvements of work environments at low costs. However, work environment experts and Occupational Health Services (OHS) personnel are not seen as natural partners, inhibiting their chances of getting experience. This paper reports results from a national pilot intervention project comprised of a methods framework and a course. The aim of the intervention was to teach these professionals reliable, cost-effective and feasible methods for conducting workplace design projects. The intervention also aimed to increase employee participation in workplace design processes and thereby achieve better impact in these cases. Methods were taught to 56 work environment experts, also creating incentives for them to practice this knowledge. These experts were given incentives to contact and offer their client organizations services for planning new work environments. In the long term, the competence within the field of workplace design on a national level hopefully will be improved.

  • 44.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University.
    Öhrn, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Babapour, Maral
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Predictors of Preference for the Activity-based Flexible Office2018In: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, CHU-Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Redha Taiar, Switzerland, 2018, p. 547-552Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are implemented with vary- ing degree of success. Employees relocate from cell or open-plan offices, from different organizational backgrounds, varying design and implementation pro- cesses, and have different types of work tasks. This study aims at investigating whether preference for the A-FO correlate with these preconditions. The results from Chi-square tests and Spearman’s non-parametric correlation of post- relocation questionnaires distributed to 11 A-FO sites, showed that a high pref- erence for the A-FO correlated strongest with an A-FO preference prior to relo- cation, being a former open-plan office occupier and with frequent performance of innovation. Low preference for the A-FO correlated with frequent perfor- mance of concentration demanding tasks. Working with tasks with high confi- dentiality did not predict the preference ratings.

  • 45.
    Rose, Linda Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Safety and Health, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    RAMP – A comprehensive MSD risk management tool2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 820, p. 537-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development, dissemination and preliminary effects of the use of a new musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk management tool for manual handling, RAMP (Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively). RAMP is research based and developed in close collaboration between researchers and practitioners with a participative iterative methodology. A broad strategy is used for the dissemination, including the use of professional networks, conferences, a specially developed homepage, and Massive Open Online Courses which also provide training on the tool use. The tool has been spread widely to about 45 countries since the release 2017. E.g. Scania CV uses RAMP as its global standard method for managing MSD risks at logistics and machining departments. Among the preliminary effects results show that at one department risk reduction measures had been taken for more than 2/3 of the work stations with assessments signalling elevated risk levels after 1.5 years. Further studies on RAMP are discussed. It is concluded that the development and the dissemination of RAMP can be seen as successful. Preliminary reports on the tool use effects indicate that the RAMP tool supports the MSD risk management process in the work to reduce MDS risks at workplaces.

  • 46.
    Rose, Linda Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Österman, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Developing an International Master’s Programme in Ergonomics at a Technical University in Sweden2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 429-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the rationale for, and the development process of, a new international master’s programme in Ergonomics, here framed as ‘Technology, Work and Health’, at KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The masters’ programme is designed for two years of full-time studies (120 credits). A challenge during this development process, has been to decide not only what to include in the programme, but also what to exclude. The systems-oriented discipline of ergonomics now covers all aspects of human work. Thus, two tracks of specialization are offered: Work Environment Engineering (WEE) and Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The programme is given for the first time in the autumn 2018. After the first year it is necessary to evaluate the programme from student and teacher perspectives, to capture effects and improvement possibilities. Naturally, this evaluation includes the usual course evaluations that are done during and after each course. But also, from a recruiting perspective, when we now how many students, from where, and of which background that eventually were awarded a MSc degree. Finally, a programme review with an emphasis on outcomes is essential to establish that the programme meets academic standards, professional discipline expectations among employers of the graduates, and student expectations and satisfaction. The results from this review will provide the incentive for necessary major and minor changes to maintain an up-to-date and high-quality curriculum in a discipline that continues to evolve.

  • 47.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Royal Inst Technol, Div Ergon, CBH Sch, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer, Hfikan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Akerstedt, Torbiorn
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today's society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18-30 years) and 94 older (60-72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 48.
    Skepp, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Bäckström, Tove
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    "Arbetsskador i svenska sjöfarten åren 2014-2016"2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete handlar om anmälda arbetsskador inom den svenska sjöfarten under åren 2014-2016. 

  • 49.
    Strohmayer, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Ljusterdal, Ellen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Occupational health and safety engineers' support of clients' OHS management systems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish law demands a systematic work environment management system (SWEM) and establishes the employer as responsible for this. In 2016, 44 % of Swedish Work Environment Authorities’ submissions regarded lack of SWEM. The law defines occupational health and safety services (OHSS) as an objective part with expert knowledge within the fields of work environment and rehabilitation.

    Aim of the study: The purpose of this study is to investigate how OHS engineers employed in OHSSs assist customer enterprises in the work of developing and maintaining OHS management systems. The study further aims to identify resources, factors of success, necessary skills and other factors that facilitate this work.

    Method: Six semi-structured interviews were conducted with OHS engineers employed in one of the top five largest OHSS companies in Sweden.

    Result and analyses: Respondents were found to apply similar methods in supporting clients’ OHSM although working in different regional branches and no nationwide training program exists. In working with OHSM support the OHS engineers mainly used self-produced, flexible tools along with external checklists and templates. Dialogue, an active involvement of the client in developing the OHSMS, internal motivation of the company and experience and competence of the OHS engineer was described as the most essential factors of success.

    Conclusions: Our study shows that the OHS engineers interviewed to a large extent work with OHSM support in a way that is consistent with what is found in other studies to be a successful way of collaborating with client companies. Areas of improvement for the OHSS company include deepening relations with clients, contracts better supporting collaboration and procedures for spotting client’s OHSM shortcomings earlier.There is a challenge to find a balance between giving OHS engineers freedom in choosing how they work, providing clients flexible solutions and assuring that certain standards of service are met.We identify the need of a mentorship program for OHS engineers within the OHSS company that would include tutoring both in OHS interventions and the consultant role.Finally, OHS engineers may need to develop their skills in OHS related business economy and how to integrate OHS interventions with the business strategies of the client companies.

  • 50.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund, Sweden;Nord Trondelag Hosp Trust, Levanger Hosp, Levanger, Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Hägqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Managers’ learning process during a health-promoting leadership intervention2019In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 119, no 5/6, p. 350-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly demanding psychosocial working conditions in Swedish public sector workplaces call for implementation of workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. There is a need to increase first-line public sector managers’ capacities for health-promoting leadership. The purpose of this paper is to investigate first-line managers’ experiences of participating in an intervention aimed at strengthening health-promoting leadership. More precisely, the aim is to study what obstacles and prerequisites the intervention have for their learning processes to become health-promoting managers.

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